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Frederick Taylor and Scientific Management

Understanding Taylorism and Early Management Theory

Historical Perspective

One of the earliest of these theorists was Frederick Winslow Taylor. He started the Scientific
Management movement, and he and his associates were the first people to study the work process
scientifically. They studied how work was performed, and they looked at how this affected worker
productivity. Taylor's philosophy focused on the belief that making people work as hard as they could
was not as efficient as optimizing the way the work was done.

In 1909, Taylor published "The Principles of Scientific Management." In this, he proposed that by
optimizing and simplifying jobs, productivity would increase. He also advanced the idea that workers
and managers needed to cooperate with one another. This was very different from the way work was
typically done in businesses beforehand. A factory manager at that time had very little contact with the
workers, and he left them on their own to produce the necessary product. There was no
standardization, and a worker's main motivation was often continued employment, so there was no
incentive to work as quickly or as efficiently as possible.

Taylor believed that all workers were motivated by money, so he promoted the idea of "a fair day's pay
for a fair day's work." In other words, if a worker didn't achieve enough in a day, he didn't deserve to be
paid as much as another worker who was highly productive.

With a background in mechanical engineering, Taylor was very interested in efficiency. While advancing
his career at a U.S. steel manufacturer, he designed workplace experiments to determine optimal
performance levels. In one, he experimented with shovel design until he had a design that would allow
workers to shovel for several hours straight. With bricklayers, he experimented with the various motions
required and developed an efficient way to lay bricks. And he applied the scientific method to study the
optimal way to do any type of workplace task. As such, he found that by calculating the time needed for
the various elements of a task, he could develop the "best" way to complete that task.

These "time and motion" studies also led Taylor to conclude that certain people could work more
efficiently than others. These were the people whom managers should seek to hire where possible.
Therefore, selecting the right people for the job was another important part of workplace efficiency.
Taking what he learned from these workplace experiments, Taylor developed four principles of scientific
management. These principles are also known simply as "Taylorism".

Four Principles of Scientific Management

Taylor's four principles are as follows:

Replace working by "rule of thumb," or simple habit and common sense, and instead use the scientific
method to study work and determine the most efficient way to perform specific tasks.

Rather than simply assign workers to just any job, match workers to their jobs based on capability and
motivation, and train them to work at maximum efficiency.
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Monitor worker performance, and provide instructions and supervision to ensure that they're using the
most efficient ways of working.

Allocate the work between managers and workers so that the managers spend their time planning and
training, allowing the workers to perform their tasks efficiently.

Critiques of Taylorism

Taylor's Scientific Management Theory promotes the idea that there is "one right way" to do something.
As such, it is at odds with current approaches such as MBO (Management By Objectives), Continuous
Improvement initiatives, BPR (Business Process Reengineering), and other tools like them. These
promote individual responsibility, and seek to push decision making through all levels of the

The idea here is that workers are given as much autonomy as practically possible, so that they can use
the most appropriate approaches for the situation at hand. (Reflect here on your own experience – are
you happier and more motivated when you're following tightly controlled procedures, or when you're
working using your own judgment?) What's more, front line workers need to show this sort of flexibility
in a rapidly-changing environment. Rigid, rules-driven organizations really struggle to adapt in these

Teamwork is another area where pure Taylorism is in opposition to current practice. Essentially,
Taylorism breaks tasks down into tiny steps, and focuses on how each person can do his or her specific
series of steps best. Modern methodologies prefer to examine work systems more holistically in order
to evaluate efficiency and maximize productivity. The extreme specialization that Taylorism promotes is
contrary to modern ideals of how to provide a motivating and satisfying workplace.

Where Taylorism separates manual from mental work, modern productivity enhancement practices
seek to incorporate worker's ideas, experience and knowledge into best practice. Scientific management
in its pure form focuses too much on the mechanics, and fails to value the people side of work, whereby
motivation and workplace satisfaction are key elements in an efficient and productive organization.

Key Points

The Principles of Taylor's Scientific Management Theory became widely practiced, and the resulting
cooperation between workers and managers eventually developed into the teamwork we enjoy today.
While Taylorism in a pure sense isn't practiced much today, scientific management did provide many
significant contributions to the advancement of management practice. It introduced systematic
selection and training procedures, it provided a way to study workplace efficiency, and it encouraged
the idea of systematic organizational design.
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Frank and Lillian Gilbreth valued efficiency by identifying and replicating one best way to
complete a task.

Husband and wife Frank and Lillian Gilbreth believed in regulation and consistency in the workplace.
Rather than encouraging a company of many working parts, they valued efficiency above all else. The
couple believed that there is one best way to get any job done, and the specific process should, when
identified, be replicated through the manufacturing process, eliminating individual steps and producing
the most efficient results.

Frank stated, "The greatest misunderstandings occur as to the aims of scientific management. Its
fundamental aim is the elimination of waste, the attainment of worthwhile desired results with the least
necessary amount of time and effort."

The couple placed high value on efficiency when managing an organization. Their management theory
outlined three main points:

1. Reduce the number of motions in a task.

Frank and Lillian coined the term "therbligs," or elemental motions required for tasks in the workplace.
They used these 18 units to analyze how tasks were completed – searching for an object with eyes or
hands, grasping an object with hands, assembling and disassembling two parts, etc. From there, they'd
figure out which motions were necessary, then eliminate any unnecessary motions to increase

2. Focus on the incremental study of motions and time.

As engineers, Frank and Lillian closely studied motion and time to calculate the most efficient way to
complete a given task. Taking the scientific approach, they measured time and motion to 1/2000 of a
second to understand what works best. Their insight was unlike that of most other theorists, as they
channeled physical science rather than psychology.

3. Increase efficiency to increase profit and worker satisfaction.

Your main goal as a leader should be increasing efficiency in each individual employee, and in the
organization as a whole. Not only will this method save time, it will also afford you a higher profit and
happier workers.

Henry Gantt
Gantt charts, and their modern equivalent, program evaluation and review technique (PERT) charts are
graphic management tools

Gantt charts, and their modern equivalent, program evaluation and review technique (PERT) charts are
graphic management tools, providing visual methods of scheduling both time and resources for work
projects. Henry Gantt management theory incorporates the record of the work that has been done,
balanced with the work that still needs to be completed.

According to Gantt theory, a Gantt chart is a bar chart showing the progression of time through the
phases of a project. The charts can be simple or complex, depending on the needs of the project
manager and the team. As you are deciding on how to manage a project, consider the following:
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1. The management theory of Henry Gantt dictates the use of both resources and time when evaluating
projects. Considering this, how many people will be needed to complete the project?

2. Henry Gantt scientific management is a theory that incorporates benchmarks in a project as a way to
complete the project efficiently. What are the milestones and their deadlines in your project?

3. How much time is needed to meet each of the milestone deadlines?

Henri Fayol
Fayol's 14 Principles of Management

1. Division of Work – When employees are specialized, output can increase because they become
increasingly skilled and efficient.
2. Authority – Managers must have the authority to give orders, but they must also keep in mind that
with authority comes responsibility.
3. Discipline – Discipline must be upheld in organizations, but methods for doing so can vary.
4. Unity of Command – Employees should have only one direct supervisor.
5. Unity of Direction – Teams with the same objective should be working under the direction of one
manager, using one plan. This will ensure that action is properly coordinated.
6. Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest – The interests of one employee should
not be allowed to become more important than those of the group. This includes managers.
7. Remuneration – Employee satisfaction depends on fair remuneration for everyone. This includes
financial and non-financial compensation.
8. Centralization – This principle refers to how close employees are to the decision-making process. It
is important to aim for an appropriate balance.
9. Scalar Chain – Employees should be aware of where they stand in the organization's hierarchy, or
chain of command.
10. Order – The workplace facilities must be clean, tidy and safe for employees. Everything should have
its place.
11. Equity – Managers should be fair to staff at all times, both maintaining discipline as necessary and
acting with kindness where appropriate.
12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel – Managers should strive to minimize employee turnover. Personnel
planning should be a priority.
13. Initiative – Employees should be given the necessary level of freedom to create and carry out plans.
14. Esprit de Corps – Organizations should strive to promote team spirit and unity.
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Max Weber
Bureaucratic theory

At the end of the 19th century, it was German sociologist Max Weber who was the first to use and
describe the term bureaucracy. This is also known as the bureaucratic theory of management,
bureaucratic management theory or the Max Weber theory. He believed bureaucracy was the most
efficient way to set up an organisation, administration and organizations. Max Weber believed it was a
better than traditional structures. In a bureaucracy, everyone is treated equal and the division of labour
is clearly described for each employee.

Bureaucracy definition: what is bureaucracy?

Bureaucracy definition: “Bureaucracy is an organisational structure that is characterised by many rules,

standardised processes, procedures and requirements, number of desks, meticulous division of labour
and responsibility, clear hierarchies and professional, almost impersonal interactions between

According to the bureaucratic theory of Max Weber, such a structure was indispensable in large
organizations in structurally performing all tasks by a great number of employees. In addition, in a
bureaucracy, selection and promotion only occur on the basis of technical qualifications.

Legal responsibility

According to the bureaucratic theory of Max Weber, three types of power can be found in organizations;
traditional power, charismatic power and legal power. He refers in his bureaucratic theory to the latter
as a bureaucracy. All aspects of a democracy are organised on the basis of rules and laws, making the
principle of established jurisdiction prevail.

The following three elements support bureaucratic management:

1. All regular activities within a bureaucracy can be regarded as official duties;

2. Management has the authority to impose rules;
3. Rules can easily be respected on the basis of established methods.

Max Weber’s bureaucratic management principles

According to the bureaucratic theory of Max Weber, bureaucracy is the basis for the systematic
formation of any organisation and is designed to ensure efficiency and economic effectiveness. It is an
ideal model for management and its administration to bring an organisation’s power structure into
focus. With these observations, he lays down the basic principles of bureaucracy and emphasises the
division of labour, hierarchy, rules and impersonal relationship.

Below is a more detailed explanation of the 6 bureaucratic management principles:

1. Task specialisation

Tasks are divided into simple, routine categories on the basis of competencies and functional
specialisations. Every employee is responsible for what he/she does best and knows exactly what is
expected of him/her. By dividing work on the basis of specialisation, the organisation directly benefits.
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Each department has specific powers. As a result, there is a delineation of tasks and managers can
approach their employees more easily when they do not stick to their tasks. Every employee knows
exactly what is expected of him/ her and what his/ her powers are within the organisation. Every
employee has a specific place within the organisation and is expected to solely focus on his/ her area of
expertise. Going beyond your responsibilities and taking on tasks of colleagues is not permitted within a

2. Hierarchical authority

Managers are organised into hierarchical layers, where each layer of management is responsible for its
staff and overall performance. In a bureaucracy, there are many hierarchical positions. This is essentially
the trademark and foundation of a bureaucracy. Hierarchy is a system in which different positions are
related in order of precedence and in which the highest rung on the ladder has the greatest power. The
bottom layers are always subject to supervision and control of higher layers. This hierarchy reflects lines
of communication and the degree of delegation and clearly lays out how powers and responsibilities are

3. Formal selection

All employees are selected on the basis of technical skills and competences, which have been acquired
through training, education and experience. One of the basic principles is that employees are paid for
their services and that level of their salary is dependent on their position. Their contract terms are
determined by organisational rules and requirements and the employee has no ownership interest in
the company.

4. Rules and requirements

Formal rules and requirements are required to ensure uniformity, so that employees know exactly what
is expected of them. In this sense, the rules and requirements can be considered predictable. All
administrative processes are defined in the official rules. By enforcing strict rules, the organisation can
more easily achieve uniformity and all employee efforts can be better coordinated. The rules and
requirements are more or less stable and always formalised in so-called official reports. Should new
rules and requirements be introduced, then senior management or directors are responsible for this.

5. Impersonal

Regulations and clear requirements create distant and impersonal relationships between employees,
with the additional advantage of preventing nepotism or involvement from outsiders or politics. These
impersonal relationship are a prominent feature of bureaucracies. Interpersonal relationships are solely
characterised by a system of public law and rules and requirements. Official views are free from any
personal involvement, emotions and feelings. Decisions are solely made on the basis of rational factors,
rather than personal factors.

6. Career orientation

Employees are selected on the basis of their expertise. This helps in the deployment of the right people
in the right positions and thereby optimally utilising human capital. In a bureaucracy, it is possible to
build a career on the basis of experience and expertise. As a result, it offers lifetime employment. The
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right division of labour also allows employees to specialise themselves further, so that they may become
experts in their own field and significantly improve their performance.


Generally speaking, the term bureaucracy has a negative connotation and is often linked to government
agencies and large organisations. Nevertheless, the great benefit of a bureacracy is that large
organisations with many hierarchical layers can become structured and work effectively. It is precisely
the established rules and procedures that allows for high efficiency and consistent execution of work by
all employees.

All this makes it easier for management to maintain control and make adjustments when necessary.
Bureaucracy is especially inevitable in organisations where legislation plays an important role in
delivering a consistent output.


Bureaucracy is characterised by a large amount of red tape, paperwork, many desks, certain office
culture and slow communication due to its many hierarchical layers. This is the system’s biggest
disadvantage. It is also unfortunate that employees remain fairly distanced from each other and the
organisation, making them less loyal.

Bureaucracy is also extremely dependent on regulatory and policy compliance. This restricts employees
to come up with innovative ideas, making them feel like just a number instead of an individual. Later
research (the human relations theory) demonstrated that employees appreciate attention and want to
have a voice in decision making.


Because employees have no opportunity to voice their opinion or influence decision making, a
bureaucracy may demotivate employees in the long run.

Moreover, over the course of time, employees may start to get annoyed at the various rules and
requirements, with the risk that they may start boycotting and/ or abusing these rules and standing up
to the established order. It is therefore very important that bureaucratic organisations properly inform
employees well in advance about their approach to work and requires them to accept this. Only
employees who agree to this approach are suitable to work within a bureaucratic management

Elton Mayo
Subject Matter of Elton Mayo’s Human Relations Approach:

According to Human Relations Approach, management is the Study of behaviour of peo-ple at work.
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This approach had its origin in a series of experiments conducted by Professor Elton Mayo and his
associates at the Harvard School of Business at the Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works, near

These studies brought out for the first time the important relationships between social factors and
productivity. Before it, productivity of the employees was considered to be a function only of physical
conditions of work and money wages paid to them. For the first time it was realised that productivity
depended largely upon the satisfaction of the employees in work situations.

Following the Howthrone Experiments, a great deal of work has been carried on by behavioural
scientists belonging to a variety of disciplines including Psychology, Sociology, Philosophy and
Anthropology in studying the behaviour of people at work.

Those who sub-scribe to the Human Relations School of Thought are of the view that the effectiveness
of any organisation depends on the quality of relationships among the people working in the

So, according to them, the managers must concern themselves with an analysis of organisational
behaviour, that is, interaction of people with the organisation. The basic as-sumption of this school still
remains that the goals of the organisation are achieved through and with the people.

Apart from the study of formal organisation and techniques used by such organisations, this school
studies the psychological processes in the organisations, informal organisations, conflict, change,
motivation and relationships, and the various techniques of achieving organisational development by
improving the relationships among the various groups of people constituting the organisation and its
internal environment.

Thus, it may be said that this school concentrates on people and their behaviour within the formal and
informal organi-sations.

Features of Elton Mayo’s Human Relations Approach:

The main features of the Human Relations Approach to management are the following:

(a) Since management is getting things done through and with people, a manager must have a basic
understanding of human behaviour in all respects—particularly in the context of work groups and

(b) The managers must study the inter-personal relations among the people at work.

(c) Larger production and higher motivation can be achieved only through good human relation.

(d) The study of management must draw the concepts and principles of various behav-ioural sciences
like Psychology and Sociology.

These experiments are described below:

1. Illumination Experiments:
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From these experiments, it was revealed that productivity could be increased not only by improving the
working environment, but also through in-formal social relations among the members of the working

2. Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment:

In this experiment a small homogeneous working group was consti-tuted. Several new elements were
introduced in the work en-vironment such as—shorter working hours, proper rest peri-ods, improved
physical conditions, friendly supervision, free social interaction among the group members, and so on.

During the period of the experiment, productivity and morale increased. Productivity and morale were
maintained even if the im-provements in the working conditions were withdrawn. The researchers
concluded that socio- psychological factors such as the feelings of being important, recognition,
participation, in-formal work group, non-directive supervision etc. held the key for higher productivity.

3. Mass Interviewing Programme:

A large number of workers were interviewed to know their perceptions and orientation on the working
life. The results again confirmed the importance of informal relation, social and psychological needs and
their impact on the be-haviour of the workers.

4. Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment:

A group of 14 workers was ob-served with regard to their work behaviour. The observation revealed the
informal production norms set by the workers and the existence of informal relations in the group.

The conclusions of the Hawthorne Experiments are pointed out below:

(i) A factory is not only a techno-economic unit but a psycho-social organisation also.

(ii) The workers spontaneously form small informal groups. The norms and values of such groups have
significant influence on the behaviour and performance of the workers.

(iii) Physical conditions of work have some influence on the workers’ morale and pro­ductivity. But their
inter-personal relations, attitude of the supervisors and other social and psychological factors have a far
greater influence.

(iv) Usually, the workers act or re-act not as individuals but as the members of a group.

(v) The workers are not mere economic men motivated by money alone. They respond to the total work
situation including recognition, participation etc.

(vi) The informal leaders play an important role in setting and enforcing group norms.

(vii) The managers must understand and recognise the inter-personal and group rela-tions on the job.

Elton Mayo is known as the ‘Father of Human Relations Movement’. The Hawthorne Experiments
provided a landmark in the evolution of management thought. Many organisations initiated the
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measures to improve relations with the workers. The managers were sup-posed to assume a new role
and to develop new concepts of authority, motivation and leader-ship.

However, the Hawthorne Experiments were criticised for lack of scientific analysis and research. It was
alleged that the researchers had certain pre-conceived perceptions and orientations. The experiments
were too narrow and small to provide generalisation.

The findings of Hawthorne Experiments are, however, accepted even today. Mayo’s work was a turning
point in the development of management thought. His work challenged the basic postulates of the
classical approach. His studies revealed the over-whelming signifi-cance of human and social factors in
industry. He is rightly called the ‘Founder of the Human Relations Approach’ to management.

Kurt Lewin
contributed much to management theory. Such innovative business management concepts as his three
leadership styles (autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire), his organizational change model (based on
the concepts of unfreezing, changing, and refreezing) and his force field analysis method have assured
Kurt Lewin his rightful place among the leading business management theorists.

Not just an insightful management theorist, Kurt Lewin is known for bridging the gap between theory
and practice. His "action research" approach put theory to work in the field in brand new ways, as
demonstrated by his force field analysis model. This model utilizes a diagram to assess the combined
effect of all the driving and restraining forces that influence organizational systems, either moving them
toward or away from change. In using the force field diagram to analyze a potential change, the
management theory of Kurt Lewin teaches that the following factors must be considered:

1. The current and desired situations;

2. The likely evolution of the current situation if no action is taken;

3. The relative strength of the forces driving and the forces resisting change;

4. The validity, importance, strength (on a 1-10 scale) and ease with which each force can be changed;

5. The charting of each force on the diagram;

6. The viability of change and likelihood that progress can occur;

7. The possible effect of decreasing restraining forces and/or increasing driving forces; and

8. Finally, Lewin theory predicts that the understanding that increasing or decreasing driving or
restraining forces can increase, decrease, or even create other forces.
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Jacob Moreno

While in school, Moreno began to develop his own theories for therapeutic practice that were distinctly
different from those of Sigmund Freud’s. Rather than analyzing clients’ pasts, Moreno preferred to focus
on the present and future through the use of interpersonal relations. Moreno’s interest in theater led
him to develop his psychodrama technique. A psychodrama session focuses primarily on one person,
called the protagonist. Techniques such as mirroring the behavior of the protagonist and role reversal
are used to help participants better understand their own behavior and feelings, as well as the behavior
and feelings of others. There are still psychodrama centers across the United States, and the approach
remains relatively popular in group therapy settings.

During a psychodrama scene, participants act out their emotions by reacting to others. Moreno
emphasized spontaneity and feedback within a psychodrama scene. Moreno believed that spontaneity
and creativity propelled human progress forward; he argued that love and mutuality are key elements of
life in a group and that trust in one's group members play a seminal role in cultural life. Moreno argued
that a community that embraced principles of spontaneity and creativity was possible and a goal worth
working toward.

Moreno coined the terms sociatry and sociometry. He used sociatry to refer to healthy social
relationships, and sociometry to refer to the scientific study of relationships between individuals. Within
the field of sociology, Moreno helped develop social network analysis. SNA is the process of evaluating a
person's role within a group by mapping his or her relationships and networks.r

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Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation

In 1959, Frederick Herzberg, a behavioural scientist proposed a two-factor theory or the motivator-
hygiene theory. According to Herzberg, there are some job factors that result in satisfaction while there
are other job factors that prevent dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, the opposite of “Satisfaction”
is “No satisfaction” and the opposite of “Dissatisfaction” is “No Dissatisfaction”.

Herzberg classified these job factors into two categories-

1. Hygiene factors- Hygiene factors are those job factors which are essential for existence of
motivation at workplace. These do not lead to positive satisfaction for long-term. But if these factors
are absent / if these factors are non-existant at workplace, then they lead to dissatisfaction. In other
words, hygiene factors are those factors which when adequate/reasonable in a job, pacify the
employees and do not make them dissatisfied. These factors are extrinsic to work. Hygiene factors
are also called as dissatisfiers or maintenance factors as they are required to avoid dissatisfaction.
These factors describe the job environment/scenario. The hygiene factors symbolized the
physiological needs which the individuals wanted and expected to be fulfilled. Hygiene factors
A. Pay - The pay or salary structure should be appropriate and reasonable. It must be equal and
competitive to those in the same industry in the same domain.
B. Company Policies and administrative policies - The company policies should not be too rigid.
They should be fair and clear. It should include flexible working hours, dress code, breaks,
vacation, etc.
C. Fringe benefits - The employees should be offered health care plans (mediclaim), benefits for
the family members, employee help programmes, etc.
D. Physical Working conditions - The working conditions should be safe, clean and hygienic. The
work equipments should be updated and well-maintained.
E. Status - The employees’ status within the organization should be familiar and retained.
F. Interpersonal relations - The relationship of the employees with his peers, superiors and
subordinates should be appropriate and acceptable. There should be no conflict or humiliation
element present.
G. Job Security - The organization must provide job security to the employees.

2. Motivational factors- According to Herzberg, the hygiene factors cannot be regarded as motivators.
The motivational factors yield positive satisfaction. These factors are inherent to work. These factors
motivate the employees for a superior performance. These factors are called satisfiers. These are
factors involved in performing the job. Employees find these factors intrinsically rewarding. The
motivators symbolized the psychological needs that were perceived as an additional benefit.
Motivational factors include:

A. Recognition - The employees should be praised and recognized for their accomplishments by the
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B. Sense of achievement - The employees must have a sense of achievement. This depends on the job.
There must be a fruit of some sort in the job.

C. Growth and promotional opportunities - There must be growth and advancement opportunities in an
organization to motivate the employees to perform well.

D. Responsibility - The employees must hold themselves responsible for the work. The managers should
give them ownership of the work. They should minimize control but retain accountability.

E. Meaningfulness of the work - The work itself should be meaningful, interesting and challenging for the
employee to perform and to get motivated.

Understanding Theory X and Theory Y

Theory X and Theory Y were first explained by McGregor in his book, 'The Human Side of Enterprise,'
and they refer to two styles of management – authoritarian (Theory X) and participative (Theory Y).

If you believe that your team members dislike their work and have little motivation, then, according to
McGregor, you'll likely use an authoritarian style of management. This approach is very "hands-on" and
usually involves micromanaging people's work to ensure that it gets done properly. McGregor called this
Theory X.

On the other hand, if you believe that your people take pride in their work and see it as a challenge ,
then you'll more likely adopt a participative management style. Managers who use this approach trust
their people to take ownership of their work and do it effectively by themselves. McGregor called this
Theory Y.

The approach that you take will have a significant impact on your ability to motivate your team
members. So, it's important to understand how your perceptions of what motivates them can shape
your management style.

We'll now take a more in-depth look at the two different theories, and discover how and when they can
be useful in the workplace.

Theory X

Theory X managers tend to take a pessimistic view of their people, and assume that they are naturally
unmotivated and dislike work. As a result, they think that team members need to be prompted,
rewarded or punished constantly to make sure that they complete their tasks.

Work in organizations that are managed like this can be repetitive, and people are often motivated with
a "carrot and stick" approach. Performance appraisals and remuneration are usually based on tangible
results, such as sales figures or product output, and are used to control staff and "keep tabs" on them.

This style of management assumes that workers:

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Dislike their work.

Avoid responsibility and need constant direction.

Have to be controlled, forced and threatened to deliver work.

Need to be supervised at every step.

Have no incentive to work or ambition, and therefore need to be enticed by rewards to achieve goals.

According to McGregor, organizations with a Theory X approach tend to have several tiers of managers
and supervisors to oversee and direct workers. Authority is rarely delegated, and control remains firmly
centralized. Managers are more authoritarian and actively intervene to get things done.

Although Theory X management has largely fallen out of fashion in recent times, big organizations may
find that adopting it is unavoidable due to the sheer number of people that they employ and the tight
deadlines that they have to meet.

Theory Y

Theory Y managers have an optimistic, positive opinion of their people, and they use a decentralized,
participative management style. This encourages a more collaborative , trust-based relationship
between managers and their team members.

People have greater responsibility, and managers encourage them to develop their skills and suggest
improvements. Appraisals are regular but, unlike in Theory X organizations, they are used to encourage
open communication rather than control staff.

Theory Y organizations also give employees frequent opportunities for promotion.

This style of management assumes that workers are:

Happy to work on their own initiative.

More involved in decision making.

Self-motivated to complete their tasks.

Enjoy taking ownership of their work.

Seek and accept responsibility, and need little direction.

View work as fulfilling and challenging.

Solve problems creatively and imaginatively.

Theory Y has become more popular among organizations. This reflects workers' increasing desire for
more meaningful careers that provide them with more than just money.

It's also viewed by McGregor as superior to Theory X, which, he says, reduces workers to "cogs in a
machine," and likely demotivates people in the long term.

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The concept of Theory X and Theory Y was developed by social psychologist Douglas McGregor. It
describes two contrasting sets of assumptions that managers make about their people:

Theory X – people dislike work, have little ambition, and are unwilling to take responsibility. Managers
with this assumption motivate their people using a rigid "carrot and stick" approach, which rewards
good performance and punishes poor performance.

Theory Y – people are self-motivated and enjoy the challenge of work. Managers with this assumption
have a more collaborative relationship with their people, and motivate them by allowing them to work
on their own initiative, giving them responsibility, and empowering them to make decisions.

Though your assumptions about what motivates your people will likely have the biggest impact on
which of these two approaches you take, your choice can also be shaped by several other factors. These
include your organizational structure (tiered or flat), the type of work that your people do (repetitive or
challenging), and their skill level (amateur or experienced).


Structure or process that allows agency to enact its philosophy and conceptual framework to
achieve goal

Nursing is a call to leadership

By its very nature, the professional nurse role is one of leadership. Across the healthcare continuum,
regardless of our role or practice setting, we are looked to as leaders. As nursing students, we are taught
we will lead colleagues from other ancillary groups, oversee care teams and be accountable for patient
care outcomes. Some nurses spend years leading in an informal leadership capacity, while others take
on formal management and leadership roles. However, all management and leadership roles are not the
same, and although the titles often are used interchangeably, they are not synonymous.