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Peran Perawat Kesehatan Kerja/

Occupational Health Nursing

Ns. Henny Permatasari, Mkep. Sp. Kom

tanggal upload : 28 April 2009


Peran dan Fungsi Perawat
Kesehatan Kerja:
 Pada beberapa dekade sebelumnya peran dan fungsi perawat

kesehatan kerja hanya terfokus pada penanganan kasus


kegawatdaruratan dan penyakit akut yang dialami oleh
pekerja di tempat kerja maka, saat ini peran dan fungsi
perawat komunitas menjadi lebih luas dan kompleks (Nies &
Swansons, 2002).
Peran Perawat Kesehatan Kerja:

 (Nies & Swansons, 2002). Lusk (1990, dalam Stanhope &

Lancaster, 2004) mengidentifikasi 8 peran perawat kesehatan


kerja.
 Delapan peran tersebut adalah: (1) Pemberi pelayanan kesehatan

(care provider); (2) Penemu kasus (case finder); (3) Pendidik


kesehatan (health educator); (4) Perawat pendidik (nurse educator);
(5) Pemberi layanan konseling (counselor); (6) Manajemen kasus
(case manager); (7) Konsultan, serta (8) Peneliti (researcher).
Fungsi Perawat Kesehatan Kerja
 (1) Melakukan supervisi terhadap kesehatan pekerja; (2)

Melakukan surveilens terhadap lingkungan kerja; (3)


Mencegah terjadinya kecelakaan kerja; (4) Mencegah
terjadinya penyakit akibat kerja (5) Penatalaksanaan penyakit
baik yang berhubungan maupun yang tidak berhubungan
dengan pekerjaan, kecelakaan di tempat kerja, serta
pelayanan kesehatan dasar;
Fungsi Perawat Kesehatan Kerja
 (6) Mengatur dan mengkoordinasikan upaya pertolongan

pertama di tempat kerja; (7) Melakukan promosi kesehatan


dan pencegahan penyakit di tempat kerja; (8) Melakukan
konseling untuk pekerja; (9) Melakukan upaya rehabilitasi
untuk pekerja yang kembali bekerja setelah mengalami
kecelakaan atau dirawat di rumah sakit;
Fungsi Perawat Kesehatan Kerja
 (10) Melakukan pencatatan dan pelaporan kesehatan kerja;

(11) Melakukan penatalaksanaan terhadap manajemen


pelayanan kesehatan kerja termasuk menetapkan
perencanaan, pengembangan kebijakan, pendanaan, staffing
dan ; (12) melakukan tugas admininstrasi di unit kesehatan
atau klinik kesehatan yang tersedia serta; (13) melakukan
riset keperawatan kesehatan kerja (AAOHN, 1994)
Skill dan Kompetensi
Perawat Kesehatan Kerja / OHN
1. Managements and Administrations
 Managing Budgets
 Hiring staff and management of staff performance
 Fostering profesional development plans
 Bussiness planning through knowledge of internal
and external resources
 Providing comprehensive on-site services and
programs
 Knowing needs of business and employes
 Writing reports
 Performing audits and quality assurance
 Handling worker’s compensation and disability
 Performing cost –benefit and cost effectiveness analyses
 Allocating approriate staff resources
 Being a leader in health- related issues
 Negotiating
 Facilitating work accommodations and return to work
 Coordinating medical response activities and site disaster
planning
2. Direct Care
 Applying the nursing process
 Delivering first aid and primary care according to
treatment protocols
 Conducting a physical assessment
 History taking
 Medical testing
 Being knowledgeable about immunization protocols
 Responding to medical emergencies
 Being knowledgeable about trends in health-related
issues
3. Health and Environmental Relationships
 Having knowledge of plant operations, manufacturing
process, and job tasks
 Identifying potential and existing work place exposures
 Influencing approriate and targeted recommendations for
control of hazards in the work place
 Having knowledge of toxicologic, epidemiologic, and
ergonomic principles
 Understanding approriate engineering controls,
administration, and personal protective equipment spesific to
preventing exposures to health hazards ini the work place
 Understanding roles and collaboration with other cross-
functional groups as intergarl part of core multidiciplinary
team
4. Legal and Ethical Responsibilities
 Knowledge of AAOHN Professionals Standards of Practice
and code of Ethics
 Knowledge of state nursing practice acts and ability to
practice occupational health nursing within state guidelines
 Knowledge of federal regulations pertaining to occupational
health
 Knowledge of the American with disabilities Act associated
guidelines and affirmative action and Equal Employment
Opportunity Legislation
 Knowledge of all aspects of medical record-keeping practises
in compliance with nursing practice, state, law, and standard
of practice
5. Consultation

 Being a resource expert on health issues for employees and


management
 Having broad knowledge of public health and occupational
health principles and practices
 Creating effective professional and tehcnical support
networks both functionally and crossfunctionally
6. Research

 Systimatically collecting, analysing, and interpreting data


from different sources
 Recognizing trends in health outcomes by department, work
area, or work process
 Planning, developing, and conducting surveys
7. Health Education
 Recognizing cultural differences and the realtionship to
health issues
 Using effective communication styles to match diverse
employeee and management audiences
 Making effective presentations
 Planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating health
programs designed to meet the needs of spesific employee
groups or organization
 Applying adult learning theory and principles to health
education programs
8. Counseling
 Identifying employees’ emotional needs, and providing
support and counseling
 Making approriate refferrals and recommendations
 Listening
 Managing psychiatric emergencies
Case Study
 A 23 years-old woman was recently transferred into a job
that requires her to work with chemicals used in
photolithography. She is newly married and mights be
pregnant, but this has not been confirmed. The client is
concerned because the label on one of the pieces of
equipment warns of possible effects on reproduction. Also
she states that she has not felt well since transferring to this
job, and she thinks it is a result of working with chemicals.
There are no restrictions in this work area for pregnant
women
 Based on the case, please identify the roles of:
 Occupational Health Proffesionals (OHP’s),
including: Occupational Health Nursing/ OHN,
doctor/ occupational health physician’s,
Industrial Hygienist’s
 Worker/Employee’s
 Supervisor or Manager
 Discuss with your class mates
Occupational Health Nurse’s Roles and
Responsibilities:
 Determine information by taking medical and occupational
health histories. Perform a physical assessment and discuss
symptoms
 Schedule a pregnancy test. If this is not a service provided by
the OHN, referral must be made to employee’s health care
provider. If the client does not have one, referral must be
made to an appropriate community health resource. Ask the
client to have the care provider document pregnancy test
results.
 Assure the employee that investigation will ensure
immediately, and state who will be involved (eg; industrial
hygienist, doctor)
Cont’d
 Asses the work area request that an individual hygienist asses
the area (eg: leaking equipment, problems with ventilation)
 Request the most current industrial hygiene data appropriate
to the area are collected regarding medical and industrial
hygiene
 Communicate any recommended work restrictions to the
supervisor or personnel department after the client is seen by
the occupational health physician/ doctor
 Review the case in light of existing company policies, and
influence changes as necessary
Industrial Hygienist’s Roles and
Responsibilities:

 Discuss the employee’s concerns with the occupational


health nurse and , as necessary, with the employee
 Provide the most current industrial hygiene data and analysis
for the work area under investigation
 If current data are not available, monitor for industrial
hygiene as soon as possible
 Meet with the OHN and occupational health physician as
necessary for data communication and analysis
Occupational Health Physician’s
(doctor) Roles Responsibilities:

 Review the data with OHN


 View the work area and process
 Discuss the data with industrial hygienist
 Interview and examine the client
 Make recommendations regarding the employee’s health and
safety
Employee’s Roles and Responsibilities:

 Take the pregnancy test, and provide documnetation of


results to the OHN
 Communicate concerns to OHN, and as necessary, to the
industrial hygienist
 Keep appointments with occupational health physician
 Follow the recommendations of the occupational health
physician
Supervisor or Manager’s Roles and
Responsibilities:

 Allow investigation of the work area by the OHN and


industrial hygienist
 Follow the recommendations of the occupational health
physician