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Refining

Objectives of refining

Strength development Ability of bonding

Structure adjustment Formation


2 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2932 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Length distribution Optical properties

Development of special Ability of electrical


properties insulation, greaseproof
3 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2945 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Refining

… and today
in earlier times …
Effects of refining in fiber structure

Shortening

External
fibrillation
4 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0797 Ed 02 | Fiber Systems

Internal
fibrillation
ss e
in
Contribution to understanding the refining er c e h
Year process F ib ro ac
P M
1994 Meltzer Modified edge load
Lumiainen Specific surface load
1990

Parameters considered
Kerekes C-Factor/Frequ. and intens. of fiber treatment
1986 Joris Variation and velocity of crossing points
1981 Stevens
1978 Kline
1977 Leider & Nissan Frequency and intensity of fiber treatment
1969 Danforth Frequency and intensity of fiber treatment
5 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0386 Ed 02 | Fiber Systems

1966 Brecht & Siewert Specific edge load/specific energy


1964 Van Stiphout Probability of fiber treatment
1958 Wultsch & Flucher Refining intensity: Effective load per edge length
1927 Milne
1922 Smith Fibrage theory
1907 Pfarr
1906 Kirchner
1887 Jagenberg Edge length per second, beating surface/pressure
Parameters influencing refining

Fillings bar rounding


bar surface
– Material wear resistance
– Cutting angle
length
– Bar design width
– Groove design height
Cutting
Machine edge length Specific edge
– Speed per second
6 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2057 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

load
– Refiner load
– Direction of rotation
System
– Number of refiners Specific
– Consistency energy
– Flow rate
– Arrangement of refiners
– Temperature
– pH-value
Definition of cutting edge length

The cutting edge length CEL is the product of

n • the number of rotor bars zR


CEL = zR . zS . l . • the number of stator bars zS
60
• the length of the bars l and
• the rotating speed n
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or with a given set of fillings, the product of

• a fillings constant CLF and


CEL = CLF . n • the rotating speed n
Parameters of the evaluation of refining

Net refining power [kW]


Specific edge load [J/m] =
Cutting edge length [km/s]

Net refining power [kW]


8 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2059 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Specific energy [kWh/t] =


Throughput [t/h]

Preconditions: Design of fillings


System parameters
Parameters influencing modified edge load

• Fillings
- material
- bar height
- bar angle Modified
- bar and groove width edge length
per second Ls,γbg Modified edge load
- number of bars
9 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0403 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

(MEL)
- bar length

• Machine
- speed
- motor load
- direction of rotation
Influence of bar angle on number of
intersection points
10° bar angle 30° bar angle

α L

α
10 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0389 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

C = L • tanα C = L • tanα
C = L • tanα represents the bar crossing efficiency
Ls –> Ls,γ Ls,γ = Ls,Stator • tanαS + Ls,Rotor • tanαR
Ls,γ = Ls• 2 • tanα for identical design of rotor and stator
Pnet 1 1
SEL –> SELγ SELγ = —–– LS • –––––– = SEL ––––––
2 • tanα 2• tanα
Influence of bar and groove width on refining

b b

g b = Bar width g
g = Groove width
11 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0396 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

b considers refining work of bar surface and probability


–––
b+g of a fiber being treated
bs bR
Ls,γ –> Ls,γbg Ls,γ = bg Ls,stator • tanαS b––– + L • tanα –––
s+gs
s,Rotor R b +g
R R
b
Ls,γ = Ls • 2 • tanα b+g ––– for identical design of rotor and stator

1 b+g
Modified Edge Load MEL MEL = SEL • –––––––
2 • tanα • –––
b
Criteria for modified edge load

• Modified edge load MEL


- takes into consideration the influence of bar width, groove width
and bar angle on the refining process
- is a useful tool for predicting the technological results of refining
as a function of freeness
- is a concise key for controlling the refining process
12 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0408 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

- can be easily applied since all required parameters are known


to the papermaker
• Existing knowledge based on specific edge load SEL can be fully
incorporated using same units
• Optimization of fillings design gains new basis
• Fillings market becomes much clearer
Definition of bar angle

β α
13 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0388 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Segment angle: Θ
Sector angle: β
Bar angle: α
Cutting angle:
γ = αS + αR or
γ = 2 x α for αS = αR
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Typical fillings design


Refiner fillings and their application

Hardwood pulps and


Furnish Softwood pulps
secondary fibers

Type of treatment low intensity standard low intensity standard

Spec. edge load SEL [J/m] <1 <1.5 (1.7) (1.5) 2 – 2.5 3-4
15 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2024 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Cutting edge length


[km/s] very high high average low
CEL

Bar width [mm] 2 2-3 3 3-5

Groove width [mm] (2) - 3 3-4 4-5 4-5

Cutting angle [°] 40 - 60 20 - 60 40 - 60 4 - 20


Refining of bleached softwood kraft pulp

Cutting angle
Specific
Shortening (16) Fibrillation (60)
edge load
3.0 J/m 3.0 J/m
1.5 J/m 1.5 J/m
70
SR value [SR]

Breaking length [m]


8000
60
7000
16 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0804 Ed 02 | Fiber Systems

50
6000
40
5000
30
4000
20
3000

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 10 20 30 40 50 60


Specific energy [kWh/t] SR value [SR]
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Fillings variation
Distribution of absorbed power

[kW]
Total refining power
unrefined

Power available for refining Net refining power


18 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0597 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

refined
No-load power with stock
No-load power with water

No-load power in air

Time
No-load power as a function of flow rate

100
No-load power [kW]

Fillings : 3/4-72-60
Speed : 1000 rpm
Bar height : 5 mm
80

Bleached softwood kraft


60 pulp (4 % consistency):
19 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0362 Ed 02 | Fiber Systems

fillings unloaded
Water:
40
fillings 1 mm gap
fillings unloaded
0
400 800 1200 1600 2000
Flow rate [l/min]
No-load power as a function of speed and
mean cutting angle
200
No-load power [kW]

Bar width : 5 mm
Flow rate : 1000 l/min
150 Direction of
rotation : anti-clockwise
100
Cutting angle:
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20
50 60

0
0 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500
Speed [rpm]

0 10 15 20 25 30
Circumferential speed [m/s]
No-load power as a function of direction of
rotation
200
No-load power [kW]

Cutting angle : 60
Flow rate : 1000 l/min
150

100
Direction of rotation:
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clockwise
50 anti-clockwise

0
0 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500
Speed [rpm]

0 10 15 20 25 30
Circumferential speed [m/s]
No-load power as a function of bar height

100
No-load power [kW]

Fillings : 3/4-72-60
Speed : 1000 1/min
Flow rate : 1000 l/min
80

Bleached softwood kraft


60 pulp (4 % consistency):
22 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0369 Ed 02 | Fiber Systems

fillings unloaded
Water:
40
fillings 1 mm gap
fillings unloaded
0
0 3 4 5 6 7 8
Bar height [mm]
Parameters influencing no-load power

Flow rate 10 %

Cutting angle 20 %

Bar height 50 %
23 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2070 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Direction of rotation 60 %
n
Speed approx. ( –– )2.7
nn
Location of refining process in system

PIC FFIC

HIC HIC HIC

PI PIS PIS PIS PIS PIS PIS


24 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2080 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

LIC
QIC

Chest High Deflaker Refiner Chest


density
cleaner
Refiner application parameters

Production Furnish Freeness drop Kind of refining

Spec. energy Spec. edge load Cutting angle


25 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2081 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Net refining
power

Cutting
edge length

Number Fillings type


of refiners Refiner size
Refiner operation without automatic control

Production
rate
26 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2066 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Refiner load

Technological
result
Time
Refiner specific energy control

Stock Net spec.


Flow
consistency energy

Flow Spec. energy No-load


control control power
27 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2067 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Power
control

M M
Refiner operation with specific energy
control

Production
rate
28 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2068 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Refiner load

Technological
result
Time
Influence of spec. energy control on technology with
reduction in throughput to 2/3 of nominal production

10
Deviation [%]

8
6
4
2
0
29 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2069 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

2
4
6
8
10
Spec. SR Average Bulk Breaking Burst Tear
energy value fiber length length
Example for development of admissible spec. edge
load as a function of raw material and SR value

Spec. edge load [J/m]


Bleached / unbleached
3 softwood kraft pulp

2
30 | VPR Chapter 09 No 0803 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

1
Bleached hardwood
kraft pulp

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
SR value [SR]
Influence of specific edge load on SR value
and fiber length
600 400 200 [CSF]

[CSF]
70 2.6
SR value [SR]

Mean fiber length [mm]


60 2.4
50 200 2.2
40 2.0
30 400 1.8
31 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2061 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

20 600 1.6
10 800 1.4
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Net spec. energy [kWh/t] SR value [SR]
Furnish Spec. edge load
Bleached 1.0 J/m
Softwood 2.0 J/m
Kraft pulp 3.5 J/m
Fillings: 60 cutting angle
Influence of specific edge load on strength
properties
600 400 200 [CSF] 600 400 200 [CSF]
11 3500

Tear [mNm/m]
Breaking length [km]

9 3000

2500
7
2000
32 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2062 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

5
1500
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
SR value [SR] SR value [SR]
Furnish Spec. edge load
Bleached 1.0 J/m
Softwood 2.0 J/m
Kraft pulp 3.5 J/m
Fillings: 60 cutting angle
Influence of specific edge load on burst
index
Burst index [kPam2/g]

8 Bleached
softwood kraft
7 pulp

6
33 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2063 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

4
1.0 J/m
3 2.0 J/m
3.0 J/m
2
10 20 30 40 50 60 70
SR value [SR]
Influence of fines on paper properties

Property Effect Property Effect


SR value ++ Air resistance ++
Wet web strength + Specific bond strength
Sheet density + primary fines –
Shrinkage potential + secondary fines +
Tensile strength + Light scattering
34 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2936 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

Stretch + chemical pulp fines (–)


Tensile stiffness + mechanical pulp fines ++
Tear strength – Fiber rising –
Compression strength + Linting –
Folding endurance +
+ means the property is increased – means the property is reduced
Influence of cutting angle on hardwood pulps

1.00 1.00

Fiber length [mm]


Fiber length [mm]

0.95 0.95
0.90 0.90
0.85 0.85
0.80 0.80
0.75 0.75
35 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2940 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

0.70 0.70
0.65 0.65
10 20 30 40 50 60 0 100 200 300 400 500
SR value [SR] Total refining energy [kWh/t]

Cutting angle
Machine: Double disk refiner, 20" Furnish
40° 60°
Bar width: 2 mm
Birch
Specific edge load: 0.6 J/m
Eucalyptus
Influence of bar width and cutting angle on
birch
110 110

Tensile index [Nm/g]


Tensile index [Nm/g]

100 100
90 90
80 80
70 70
60 60
50 50
36 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2941 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

40 40
30 30
20 20
10 20 30 40 50 60 0 100 200 300 400 500
SR value [SR] Total refining energy [kWh/t]

Fillings
Machine: Double disk refiner, 20“
Furnish: Birch 2mm / 40° 2mm / 60° 3mm / 60°
Specific edge load: 0.6J/m
Influence of specific edge load on hardwood
pulps
1.00 1.00

Fiber length [mm]


Fiber length [mm]
0.95 0.95
0.90 0.90
0.85 0.85
0.80 0.80
0.75 0.75
0.70 0.70
0.65 0.65
37 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2943 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

0.60 0.60
0.55 0.55
0.50 0.50
10 20 30 40 50 60 0 100 200 300 400 500
SR value [SR] Total refining energy [kWh/t]
SEL
Machine: Double disk refiner, 20" Furnish
0.6 J/m 1.2 J/m
Bar width: 2 mm
Cutting angle: 40° Birch
Eucalyptus
Influence of specific edge load on softwood
pulps
90 50

SR value [SR]
Tensile index [Nm/g]

80 45
70 40
35
60
30
50
25
40 20
38 | VPR Chapter 09 No 2944 Ed 01 | Fiber Systems

30 15
20 10
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 150 300 450
SR value [SR] Total refining energy [kWh/t]

Machine: Double disk refiner, 20" Specific edge load


Furnish
Bar width: 3mm
1.5J/m 2.5J/m
Groove width: 4mm
Cutting angle: 60° Pine kraft
39 | | Fiber Systems