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Diffraction of ultrasound at a Fresnel zone plate / LEP

1.5.18
Fresnel’s zone construction
-00

Related topics Plate holder 02062.00 1


Longitudinal waves, Huygens’ principle, Interference, Connecting cord, l = 50 cm, red 07361.01 1
Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, Fresnel’s zone construc- Connecting cord, l = 50 cm, blue 07361.04 1
tion, zone plates.
Tasks
Principle 1. Determine and plot graphs of the intensity of the ultrason-
An ultrasonic plane wave strikes a Fresnel zone plate. The ic behind different Fresnel zone plates as a function of the
ultrasonic intensity is determined as a function of the distance distance behind the plates.
behind the plate, using an ultrasonic detector that can be 2. Carry out the same measurement series without a plate.
moved in the direction of the zone plate axis. 3. Determine the image width at each distance of the trans-
mitter from the zone plate and compare the values
obtained with those theoretically expected.
Equipment
Ultrasonic unit 13900.00 1
Set-up and procedure
Power supply f. ultrasonic unit, 5 VDC, 12 W 13900.99 1
Ultrasonic transmitter on stem 13901.00 1 Set up the experiment as shown in Fig. 1.
Ultrasonic receiver on stem 13902.00 1 Fix the zone plate on the optical bench at the 50 cm mark (it
Fresnel zone plates for ultrasonic, 1 pair 13907.00 1 is to be kept at this position throughout the experiment) and
Digital multimeter 07134.00 1 set the transmitter and the receiver to the same height as the
Optical profile bench, l = 150 cm 08281.00 1 central axis of the zone plate.
Base f. optical profile bench 08284.00 2 Connect the transmitter to the TR1 diode socket of the ultra-
Slide mount f. optic. profile bench, h = 80 mm 08286.00 3 sonic unit and operate it in continuous mode “Con“. Connect
Stand tube 02060.00 3 the receiver to the left BNC socket (prior to the amplifier).

Fig.1: Experimental set-up

PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D-37070 Göttingen 21518-00 1
LEP Diffraction of ultrasound at a Fresnel zone plate /
1.5.18
Fresnel’s zone construction
-00

Connect the signal received to the analog output of the digital Because of the equal areas of the Fresnel zones, each wave
multimeter to have it displayed subsequent to amplification has an n’th zone wave from the neighbouring (n ± 1)-zone with
and rectification. To ensure proportionality between the input a path length difference of l/2. Such waves cancel each other
signal and the analog output signal, avoid operating the ampli- out.
fier in the saturation range. Should such a case occur and the A zone plate stops the destructively interfering wave range
“OVL“ diode light up, reduce either the transmitter amplitude and allows only waves having a phase difference of n · 2p
or the input amplification. through, so that constructive interference is given at point F,
To start with, position the transmitter at the end of the optical and an increase in intensity can be observed. A Fresnel zone
bench so that it is at a distance of approx. 95 cm from the plate acts as a converging lens for a certain wavelength l.
zone plate. To determine the ultrasonic intensity behind the From equation (1), the focal length of it is given by:
zone plate, move the receiver away from it in steps of
1 2
0.5-1.0 cm and measure the receiver voltage U at each step. r2n  n2 l
Repeat this measuring procedure for different distances 4
f (2)
between the zone plate and the transmitter (see Fig. 3). n·l
Subsequently carry out measurements as above but without
the zone plate (comparison measurements, see Fig. 4) and In this experiment, however, the zone plate is not illuminated
then with the negative zone plate. by a plane wave, but by a spherical wave whose source is at
a distance d from the zone plate.
Note: On using the image equation here, analogously to in geomet-
ric optics,
To avoid measurement field interference, the person carrying
out the experiment should not stand too close to the mea-
1 1 1
surement area when taking readings.   (3)
b g f
Theory and Evaluation
which gives for the image width b:
A plane wave of wavelength l falls vertically on a plane S (see
Fig. 2). According to Huygens’ principle, each point on the
g a r2n  n2 ·l b
1 2
plane can be a source of a new spherical wave. A Fresnel zone
plate is situated in the plane S. This plate is divided into ring 4
b (4)
segments which act alternatively as gaps (transmit) or obsta- 1
n · l · g  r2n  n2 · l2
cles (impervious), each of which have not only the same area 4
but also boundary radii which are so designed that marginal
rays on their way to point F have a path length difference of
l/2 . The zone radii (starting with r1 = 3 cm to r10 = 10.3 cm; see
equation 1) are so designed that the zone plates have a focal
point at f = 10 cm for a wavelength of l = 0.88 cm. As the
transmitter transmits at a frequency of f = 40 kHz, it follows in
the present case that the length of the ultrasonic wave is: l =
0.86 cm (c = l · f mit c = 343.4 ms-1 bei T = 20°C).
For the wavelength l = 0.86 cm and the given radii rn of the
zone plates, these have a focal length of f  10.2 cm.
In Fig. 3, the receiver voltage U is plotted as a function of the
distance d behind the zone plate for various distances of the
ultrasonic transmitter from the positive zone plate (object dis-
tances). For a positive zone plate, the central region is
opaque.

Table 1 lists image widths b for different object distances g


that were calculated using equation (4) and determined from
Fig. 3.

Fig. 2: Diagram of Fresnel zone beams Table 1: Calculated and experimentally found image widths.

g / cm b theo. / cm b exp. / cm
95 11.5 13
The following is valid for the radii of the 1st and n’th zone: 50 12.9 16
30 15.6 21
l 2 l2
r21  a f  b  f2  f · l 
2 4
(1) Fig. 3 shows that the zone plate focusses. This finding can be
further illustrated by the comparison measurement (Fig. 4) in
l 2 l2
r2n  a f  n b  f2  n · f · l  n2 which the intensity was measured in the same d range as in
2 4 Fig. 3, but without the zone plate.

2 21518-00 PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D-37070 Göttingen
Diffraction of ultrasound at a Fresnel zone plate / LEP
1.5.18
Fresnel’s zone construction
-00

3a

Fig. 4: Ultrasonic intensity in the d region without zone plate


3b

For large distances g of the transmitter from the zone plate,


the experimentally image widths b are in approximate agree-
ment with the calculated values. When the object distance is
reduced, however, then lens errors come into effect which
lead, for example, to a broadening of the focussing curve.
Fig. 5 shows the focussing action of the negative zone plate,
the central region of which is transparent.

A comparison with Fig. 3a shows that the negative and posi-


tive zone plates with identical radii have the same imaging
effects.

3c

Fig. 3: Ultrasonic intensity as a function of the distance d


behind a positive Fresnel zone plate (plate centre with Fig. 5: Ultrasonic intensity as a function of the distance d
transmission T = 0). Transmitter-zone plate distance = behind a negative Fresnel zone plate (plate centre with
g = object distance: 3a: g = 95 cm; 3b: g = 50 cm; 3c: transmission T = 1). Transmitter-zone plate distance:
g = 30 cm. g = 95 cm.

PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D-37070 Göttingen 21518-00 3
LEP Diffraction of ultrasound at a Fresnel zone plate /
1.5.18
Fresnel’s zone construction
-00

4 21518-00 PHYWE series of publications • Laboratory Experiments • Physics • © PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG • D-37070 Göttingen