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By SHAILENDRA YADAV (0705420096) Electrical Engineering (Final Year)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am extremely thankful & indebted to the numerous UPPTCL Engin
eers, who provided vital information about the functioning of their respective d
epartments thus helping me to gain an overall idea about the working of organiza
tion. I am highly thankful for the support & guidance of each of them.
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r. P.K. Mishra (A.E.-T&C) for giving me his valuable time and helping me to gras
p the various concepts of switchyard equipments and their control instruments an
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Contents What is an Electrical Substation?

Energy growth in UP
Grid map of UP
Introduction: about substation
Overview of substation
Single line digram of substation
Brief description :
•Power transformer
•Circuit breaker
•Lightning arrestor
•Current transformer
•Capacitor voltage transformer
•Wave trap
•Protective relays
•Shunt reactor for bus voltage
•Capacitor bank
•Clearance at glance
• Power line communication & SCADA system •Other definitions Appendix References
What is an Electrical Substation “Electric Power is generated in Power Stations
and transmitted to various cities and towns. During transmissions, there are pow
er (energy) loss and the whole subject of Transmission and Distribution...
An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, t
ransmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed from high to lo
w or the reverse using transformers. Electric power may flow through several sub
stations between generating plant and consumer, and may be changed in voltage in
several steps. The wordsu b sta ti on comes from the days before the distributi
on system became a grid. The first substations were connected to only one power
station where the generator was housed, and were subsidiaries of that power stat
Elements of a substation Substations generally have switching, protection and co
ntrol equipment and one or more transformers. In a large substation, circuit bre
akers are used to interrupt anyshort- circuits or overload currents that may occ
ur on the network. Smaller distribution stations may userecl ose
circuit breakersor fuses for protection of distribution circuits. Substations do
not usually have generators, although a power plant may have a substation nearb
y. Other devices such aspow er factor correction capacitorsan d voltage regulato
rs may also be located at a substation. Substations may be on the surface in fen
ced enclosures, underground, or located in special- purpose buildings. High-rise
buildings may have several indoor substations. Indoor substations are usually f
ound in urban areas to reduce the noise from the transformers, for reasons of ap
pearance, or to protect switchgear from extreme climate or pollution conditions.
Where a substation has a metallic fence, it must be properlygrounded (UK: earthe
d) to protect people from high voltages that may occur during a fault in the net
work. Earth faults at a substation can cause a ground potential rise. Currents f
lowing in the Earth's surface during a fault can cause metal objects to have a s
ignificantly different voltage than the ground under a person's feet; this
touch potential presents a hazard of electrocution.
Transmission substation: A transmission substation connects two or more transm
ission lines. The simplest case is where all transmission lines have the same vo
ltage. In such cases, the substation contains high-voltage switches that allow l
ines to be connected or isolated for fault clearance or maintenance. A transmiss
ion station may havetra n sfo rme rs to convert between two transmission voltage
s,vol ta g e
control devices such as capacitors, reactors or static VAr compensator and equip
ment such as phase shifting transformers to control power flow between two adjac
ent power systems. Transmission substations can range from simple to complex. A
small "switching station" may be little more than abus plus some circuit breaker
s. The largest transmission substations can cover a large area (several acres/he
ctares) with multiple voltage levels, many circuit breakers and a large amount o
f protection and control equipment (voltage and current
transformers, relaysan d SCADAsyste ms). Distribution substation: A distribution
substation in Scarborough, Ontario, Canada disguised as a house, complete with
a driveway, front walk and a mown lawn and shrubs in the front yard. A warning n
otice can be clearly seen on the "front door".
A distribution substation transfers power from the transmission system to the di
stribution system of an area. It is uneconomical to directly connect electricity
consumers to the high-voltage main transmission network, unless they use large
amounts of power, so the distribution station reduces voltage to a value suitabl
e for local distribution.
The input for a distribution substation is typically at least two transmission o
r sub transmission lines. Input voltage may be, for example, 115 kV, or whatever
is common in the area. The output is a number of feeders. Distribution voltages
are typically medium voltage, between 2.4 and 33 kV depending on the size of th
e area served and the practices of the local utility.
Energy growth in UP:
Grid map of UP:
Introduction: about substation
400 kv Unnao substation is one important substation of UPGCL & UPPTCL. It is on
e of the largest power grids in the state of UP and the north India. It is situa
ted at Dahi Chowki 6.64 km far from unnao railway station. The construction of t
his substation completed during 1994-98 by CGL(Crompten Grives Limted) .The area
of this substation is about 300 acre.
The whole substation is divided in four parts: 1. 132kv switchyard 2.400/220kv s
witchyard 3.765kv switchyard For 400kv &220kv switchyard a common control room i
s used and for 132kv switchyard A separate control room used. Crompton Greaves L
imited (CG), an Indian Multinational with manufacturing bases in 8 countries, ha
ve signed the contract on 5th March’2010 with Uttar Pradesh Power Transmission Cor
poration Ltd for construction of 765/400 kV Substation at Unnao, in Uttar Prades
h. The value of contract is Rs 302 Corers .
A 765/400 kV substation is the highest grade system voltage for transmission in
India. UPPTCL is first state utility to enter into 765 kV arena. The scope of th
e project includes Design, Engineering, Manufacture, Supply, Erection, Testing a
nd Commissioning of 8 Bays of 765 kV & 2 Bays of 400kV, along with 7 Nos. of 333
MVA (Single Phase) 765/400 kV Power Transformers and 7 Nos. of 110 MVAR (Single
Phase) 765 kV Shunt Reactor & 4 Nos. 63 MVAR (Single Phase) 765 kV Reactors. Th
e project is expected to be commissioned in July 2011.
The project is of strategic importance for entry into market of 765 kV Substatio
ns globally and widens up the horizon for the entire product range of CGL. Overv
iew of substation
As we said earlier the whole substation is divided in three parts:132kv site ,4
00/220kv site and 765 kv site 765 kv sit is on under construction. The civil wor
k is completing byL& T Company. Other part of project Design, Engineering, Manuf
acture, Supply, Erection, Testing and Commissioning of Bays will complete byC GL
In 400/220kv switchyard following outdoor instrument used:
1. One 400kv transfer bus control bus coupler
2. Two 100MVA 220/132kv autotransformer
3. Two 315MVA 400/220kv autotransformer
4. Five 50MVAR shunt reactor
5. Two 63MVAR bus reactor
6. 15 lighting tower
7. SF6 circuit breaker
8. Capacitor voltage transformer(CVT)
9. Current transformer(CT) In switchyard one room for mulsi fire system and one
for generator system is also present. In 400kv switchyard following lines are pr
esent for incoming and outgoing power:
i) Unnao to Lucknow
ii) Unnao to Bareily-1
iii) Unnao to Bareily-2
iv) Unnao to Agara
v) Unnao to Panki kanpur
vi) Unnao to Anpara
vii) Unnao to PGCIL-1
Unnao to PGCIL-2 ix) One bus bar for 400/220kv 315MVA ICT-1 & ICT-2 line. The bu
ses of 400kv switchyard charged by Unnao - Anpara line. This line is the India’s f
irst line which is made for 765KV transmission. But till today it is charged by
400kv. In futureit work on 765 kv .
From 220kv switchyard two lines for Lucknow and two lines for Panki Kanpur comes
out. In whole switchyard following main equipment are used:
i) One 400kv transfer bus control bus coupler. ii)Two 100MVA 220/132 KV auto tr
ansformer manufactured from BHEL. iii)Two 315 MVA 400/220 KV auto transformer ma
nufactured from BHEL. iv) Five 50 MVAR shunt reactor manufactured from BHEL.
v) Two 63 MVAR bus reactor manufactured from HITACTI.
vi) Circuit breaker from CGL.
vii) Isolators from S&S.
Current transformer from WS and CGL. ix) CVT x) Wave trap xi) Lighting arrester
xii)Surge capacitor
Single line diagram of unnao substation
Brief Description
Of all
Outdoor Equipment
Power transformer: Various types of transformers have been provided at 220& 400
KV Substation from UPPTCL.
Capacity and voltage ratio wise 100 MVA , 315MVA & 160 MVA and 220/132/11 kV. 40
0/220 kV,
These transformers are of TELK, BHEL, GEC, NGEF, C & G, Hitachi and Bharat Bijle
e make and
have most of the features common except few accessories which may be different.
In this

substation all transformers made by BHEL. These transformers have following mai
n components: 1. MAIN CORE & WINDING. 2. BUSHING :- (a)220 kV High voltage bushi
ngs: Condenser type bushings with insulating body and central conducting tube-
backelised with paper wound capacitor have been provided. Innermost of the
capacitor layer is electrically connected to the tube and outermost to the mount
flange on insulating body. The central tube insulating body and mounting flange
oil filled assembled. High dielectric Strength oil is filled between central tub
e and
insulating body. Oil level indicators are provided on the bushing.
(b) 132 kV Medium voltage bushing: These bushing are also of condenser type and
are of similar construction as in the case of 220 kV bushing in 200 MVA transfor
mers. In 40 & 20 MVA transformers 132 kV bushings are also of oil filled type in
which oil is
filled up when the transformer tank is topped up. Necessary air vent screws are
provided on top of the bushings for release of trapped air at the top of oil fit
(c) 66 kV. 33 kV. & 11 kV. Bushings: These are oil filled bushing and simpler in
construction. 3.TAP CHANGER: The transformers have been provided with on load t
ap changer, which consists of diverter switch installed in an oil compartment se
parated from transformer oil and the tap selector mounted below it. The tap chan
ger is attached to the transformer cover by means of tap
changer head, which also serves for connecting the driving shaft and the oil co
nservator. 4.PROTECTIVE RELAYS: Generally there are two protective buchholz rela
ys, one for main transformer tank and other
for tap changer.
In 40MVA GEC transformers oil surge relay has also been provided in tap changer.
5.PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE: 40 MVA GEC make transformers have been provided with pr
essure relief valve which operates in case of sudden pressure formation in side
the transformer. 6.COOLING SYSTEM : 100 MVA transformers have been provided with
cooling bank installed on separate
structures. These cooling banks have provided with to groups of fans and 2 nos.
These fans and pumps automatically operate, depending upon the settings of windi
temperature Indicator.
7.TERTIARY BUSING: 100 MVA transformers have been provided with tertiary bushing
connected with 11 kv capacitor and lighting arrestor t absorb switching surges.
ELECTRICAL PROTECTION : The following electrical protection have been provided
on the transformers :- (i) Differential Protection
(ii) Restricted Earth Fault
(iii) Winding temp high

(iv) Oil temp high

(v) Pressure relief valve
(vi) Oil surge relay
(vii) Over current relay
(viii) Local Breaker Back up protection
(ix) Surge arrestors on HV, MV & LV sides.
The main Tank - The transformer is transported on trailor to substation site and
as far as possible directly unloaded on the plinth. Transformer tanks up to 25
MVA capacity are generally oil filled, and those of higher capacity are transpor
ted with N2 gas filled in them +ve pressure of N2 is maintained in transformer t
ank to avoid the ingress of moisture. This pressure should be maintained during
storage; if necessary by filling N2 Bushings - generally transported in wooden c
ases in horizontal position and should be stored in that position. There being m
ore of Fragile material, care should be taken while handling them. Rediators – The
se should be stored with ends duly blanked with gaskets and end plates to avoid
in gross of moisture, dust, and any foreign materials inside. The care should be
taken to protect the fins of radiators while unloading and storage to avoid fur
ther oil leakages. The radiators should be stored on raised ground keeping the f
ins intact. Oil Piping. The Oil piping should also be blanked at the ends with g
asket and blanking plates to avoid in gross of moisture, dust, and foreign
All other accessories like temperature meters, oil flow indicators, PRVs, buchho
ltz relay; oil surge relays; gasket ‘ O ‘ rings etc. should be properly packed and s
tored indoor in store shed. Oil is received in sealed oil barrels . The oil barr
els should be stored in horizontal position with the lids on either side in hori
zontal position to maintain oil pressure on them from inside and subsequently av
oiding moisture and water ingress into oil. The transformers are received on sit
e with loose accessories hence the materials should be checked as per bills of m
The transformers that are used in Unnao substation have following specification:
Specification of 100 MVA 220/132/11 KV 3-Φ auto transformer: Types of cooling ONA
N ONA O A Rating of H.V. & I.V.(MVA) 60 80 100 Rating of L.V. (MVA) 18 24 30 L
ine current H.V.(Amps) 157.4 209.9 262.4
Line current I.V. (Amps) 262.4 349.9 437.4 Line current L.V. (Amps) 944.8 1259.
7 1574.6 No load voltage H.V. 220KV No load voltage I.V. 132KV No load voltage L
.V. 11KV Temp. Rise winding ˚C 55 55 60 [ Above ambient of 50 ˚C ] Temp. rise oil ˚C 5
0 [ Above ambient of 50 ˚C ] Phase 3 requency 50Hz Connection symbol YNa0d11 Insu
lation level: H. V. - LI950 AC395-AC38 L. V. - LI170 AC70 I. V. - LI550-AC230-AC
38 Core & winding (Kg.) 54000 Weight of oil (Kg.) 39410 Total weight (Kg.) 12799
5 Oil quantity (liters) 45300 Transport weight (Kg. ) 69000 Untanking weight (Kg
.) 54000 Specification of 315 MVA 400/220 KV 3- Φ auto transformer: Types of cooli
ng ONAN ONA O A Rating of H.V. & I.V.(MVA) 189 252 315 Rating of L.V. (MVA) 10
5 105 105 Line current H.V.(Amps) 272.76 363.68 454.6 Line current I.V. (Amps) 4
95.96 661.28 826.6
Line current L.V. (Amps) 837.0 1857.0 1837.0 No load voltage H.V. 400KV No load
voltage I.V. 220KV No load voltage L.V. 33KV Temp. Rise winding ˚C 55 55 60 [ Abo
ve ambient of 50 ˚C ] Temp. rise oil ˚C 50 [ Above ambient of 50 ˚C ] Phase 3 requenc
y 50Hz Connection symbol YNa0d11 Insulation level: H. V. - LI950 AC395-AC38 L. V
. - LI170 AC70 I. V. - LI550-AC230-AC38 Oil quantity (liters) : 84550 liter Impe
dance volt 315 MVA Base H.V. position 9/L.V. 71.81% H.V. position 9/I.V. 11.47%
I.V./L.V. 67.92% Vector group: 1U N 2U 3U
3V 2W1W 2V 1V 3W Isolators: In electrical engineering, a disconnecter or isola
tor switch is used to make sure that an electrical circuit can be completely de-
energized for service or maintenance. Such switches are often found in electrica
l distribution and industrial applications where machinery must have its source
of driving power removed for adjustment or repair. High-voltage isolation switch
es are used in electrical substations to allow isolation of apparatus such as ci
rcuit breakers and transformers, and transmission lines, for maintenance.
In the substation following type isolators are used for the protection: Horizon
tal break center rotating double break isolator: This type of construction has t
hree insulator stacks per pole. The two one each side is fixed and one at the ce
nter is rotating type. The central insulator stack can swing about its vertical
axis through about 900C. The fixed contacts are provided on the top of each of t
he insulator stacks on the side. The contact bar is fixed horizontally on the ce
ntral insulator stack. In closed position, the contact shaft connects the two fi
xed contacts. While opening, the central stack rotates through 900C, and the con
tact shaft swings horizontally giving a double break.
The isolators are mounted on a galvanized rolled steel frame. The three poles ar
e interlocked by means of steel shaft. A common operating mechanism is provided
for all the three poles. One pole of a triple pole isolator is closed position.
Pantograph isolator: illustrates the construction of a typical pantograph isolat
or. While closing, the linkages of pantograph are brought nearer by rotating the
insulator column. In closed position the upper two arms of the pantograph close
on the overhead station bus bar giving a grip. The current is carried by the up
per bus bar to the lower bus bar through the conducting arms of the pantograph.
While opening, the rotating insulator column is rotated about its axis. Thereby
the pantograph blades
collapse in vertical plane and vertical isolation is obtained between the line
terminal and pantograph upper terminal. Pantograph isolators cover less floor ar
ea. Each pole can be located at a suitable point and the three poles need not be
in one line, can be located in a line at desired angle with the bus axis. Isola
tor with earth switches (ES): The instrument current transformer (CT) steps down
the current of a circuit to a lower value and is used in the same types of equi
pment as a potential transformer. This is done by constructing the secondary coi
l consisting of many turns of wire, around the primary coil, which contains only
a few turns of wire. In this manner, measurements of high values of current can
be obtained. A current transformer should always be short-circuited when not co
nnected to an external load. Because the magnetic circuit of a current transform
er is designed for low magnetizing current when under load, this large increase
in magnetizing current will build up a large flux in the magnetic
Panto g ra p h isolator
circuit and cause the transformer to act as a step-up transformer, inducing an
excessively high voltage in the secondary when under no load. The main use of us
ing the earth switch (E/S) is to ground the extra voltage which may b dangerous
for any of the instrument in the substation. Circuit breaker: A circuit breaker
is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical
circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is
to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately disc
ontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be r
eplaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to re
sume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small de
vices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear desi
gned to
protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city. Once a fault is detected,
contacts within the circuit breaker must open to interrupt the circuit; some me
chanically-stored energy (using something such as springs or compressed air) con
tained within the breaker is used to separate the contacts, although some of the
energy required may be obtained from the fault current itself. Small circuit br
eakers may be manually operated; larger units have solenoids to trip the mechani
sm, and electric motors to restore energy to the springs.
The circuit breaker contacts must carry the load current without excessive heati
ng, and must also withstand the heat of the arc produced when interrupting the c
ircuit. Contacts are made of copper or copper alloys, silver alloys, and other m
aterials. When a current is interrupted, an arc is generated. This arc must be c
ontained, cooled, and extinguished in a controlled way, so that the gap between
the contacts can again withstand the voltage in the circuit. Different circuit b
reakers use vacuum, air, insulating gas or oil as the medium in which the arc fo
rms. Different techniques are used to extinguish the arc including:
• Lengthening of the arc • Intensive cooling (in jet chambers) • Division into partial
arcs • Zero point quenching (Contacts open at the zero current time crossing of t
he AC waveform,
effectively breaking no load current at the time of opening. The zero crossing o
ccures at
twice the line frequency i.e. 100 times per second for 50Hz ac and 120 times per
second for
60Hz ac )
• Connecting capacitors in parallel with contacts in DC circuits inally, once the
fault condition has been cleared, the contacts must again be closed to restore
power to the interrupted circuit. Types of circuit breaker: Many different class
ifications of circuit breakers can be made, based on their features such as volt
age class, construction type, interrupting type, and structural features. Electr
ical power transmission networks are protected and controlled by high-voltage br
eakers. The definition of high voltage varies but in power transmission work is
usually thought to be 72.5 kV or higher, according to a recent definition by the
International Electrotechnical Commission(IEC).
High-voltage breakers are nearly always solenoid-operated, with current sensing
protective relays operated through current transformers. In substations the pro
tection relay scheme can be complex, protecting equipment and busses from variou
s types of overload or ground/earth fault.
High-voltage breakers are broadly classified by the medium used to extinguish th
e arc. • Bulk oil • Minimum oil • Air blast • Vacuum • S 6 In unnao substation only S 6 ci
rcuit breaker is used. The breaker uses S 6 (Sulpher Hexa fluoride) gas for arc
extinction purpose. This gas has excellent current interrupting and insulating p
roperties, chemically, it is one of the most stable compound in the pure state a
nd under normal condition it is physically inert, non-flammable, non toxic and o
dorless and there is no danger te personnel and fire hazard. It's density is abo
ut. 5 times that of air insulating strength is about 2-3 times that of air and e
xceeds that of oil at 3 Kg/Cm pressure.
S 6 breaker called as maintenance free breaker, has simple construction with few
moving parts: The fission products created during breaking and not fully recomb
ined are, either precipitated as metallic fluoride or absorbed by a static filte
r which also absorbs the residual moisture.
Since no gas is exhausted from the breaker and very little compressed air is req
uired for operation, noise during the operation is also very Jess. Since S 6 gas
is inert and stable at normal temperature, contacts do not settler from oxidiza
tion or other chemical reactions, whereas in air or oil type breakers oxidation
of contacts would cause high temperature rise. S 6 gas circuit breakers, designe
d to conform to the same standards as air or oil breakers, but in operation it i
s possible to get better service even at higher fault levels.
Sulphur hexafluoride gas is prepared by burning coarsely crushed roll sulphur in
the fluorine gas, in a steel box, provided with staggered horizontal shelves, e
ach bearing about 4 kg of sulphur. The steel box is made gas tight. The gas thus
obtained contains other fluorides such as S2 10, S 4 and must be purified furth
er S 6 gas generally supplier by chemical firms. The cost of gas is low if
manufactured in large scale.
During the arcing period S 6 gas is blown axially along the arc. The gas remove
s the heat from the arc by axial convection and radial dissipation. As a result,
the arc diameter reduces during the decreasing mode of the current wave. The di
ameter becomes small during the current zero and the arc is extinguished. Due to
its electro negativity, and low arc time constant, the S 6 gas regains its diel
ectric strength rapidly after the current zero, the rate of rise of dielectric s
trength is very high and the time constant is very small.
ig: S 6 circuit breaker.
Gas circuit breaker: high voltage side
Type 220-S M-20B
Voltage rating: 220kv
Rated lightening impulse withstand voltage: 1050 kVp

Lightning arrester: High Voltage Power System experiences overvoltages that ari
se due to natural lightning or the inevitable switching operations. Under these
overvoltage conditions, the insulation of the power system equipment are subject
ed to electrical stress which may lead to catastrophic failure.
Broadly, three types of overvoltages occur in power systems: (i) temporary over-
voltages,(ii) switching overvoltages and(iii) lightning overvoltages. The durati
on of these overvoltages vary in the ranges of microseconds to sec depending upo
n the type and nature of overvoltages. Hence, the power system calls for overvol
tage protective devices to ensure the reliability.
Conventionally, the overvoltage protection is obtained by the use of lightning /
surge arresters . Under normal operating voltages, the impedance of lightning a
rrester, placed in parallel to the equipment to be protected, is very high and a
llow the equipment to perform its respective function. Whenever the overvoltage
appears across the terminals, the impedance of the arrester collapses in such a
way that the power system equipment would not experience the overvoltage.
As soon as the overvoltage disappears, the arrester recovers its impedance back.
Thus the arrester protects the equipment from overvoltages. The technology of l
ightning arresters has undergone major transitions during this century. In the e
arly part of the century, spark gaps were used to suppress these overvoltages. T
he silicon carbide gapped arresters replaced the spark gaps in 1930 and reigned
supreme till 1970. During the mid 1970s, zinc oxide (ZnO) gapless arresters, pos
sessing superior protection characteristics, replaced the silicon carbide gapped
arresters. Usage of ZnO arresters have increased the reliability of power syste
ms many fold.
Current transformer: Current Transformers (CT’s) are instrument transformers that
are used to supply a reduced value of current to meters, protective relays, and
other instruments. CT’s provide isolation from the high voltage primary, permit g
rounding of the secondary for safety, and step-down the magnitude of the measure
d current to a value that can be safely handled by the instruments. TECHNICAL SP
anufacture, test, & supply of LT Current transformers of class 0.5 accuracy. 1.2
The CTs shall be suitable for metering purpose. 2.0 TYPE: 2.1 The CTs shall be
of ring type or window type (bar type or bus-bar type CT’s shall not be accepted).
2.2 The secondary leads shall be terminated with Tinned Cooper rose contact ter
minals with arrangements for sealing purposes.
2.3 Polarity (both for primary and second leads) shall be marked.
2.4 The CTs shall be varnished, fiberglass tape insulated or cast resin, air-coo
led type. Only super
enameled electrolytic grade copper wires shall be used. 2.5 The CTs shall confor
m to IS 2705:Part-I & II/IEC:185 with latest amendments. 3.0 TECHNICAL DETAILS:
3.1 Technical details shall be as given below: 1. Class of Accuracy 0.5 2. Rated
Burden 5.00 VA 3. Power Frequency Withstand Voltage 3KV 4. Highest System Volta
ge 433 V 5. Nominal System Voltage 400 V 6. Frequency 50 Hz 7. Supply System 3 P
h. Solidly grounded Neutral System
3.2 Transformation ratio shall be specified from the following standard ratings
as per requirement : Ratio 50/5 150/5 300/5 400/5 1000/5 (Secondary with 1 A ma
y be specified by the utility incase the same is desired.) 3.3 Bore diameter of
the CT shall not be less than 40 mm. Ring type CTs shall have suitable clamp to
fix the CT to panel Board, wherever required. 3.4 The limits of current error an
d phase angle displacement as per IS:2705 at several defined percentage of rated
current are: Accuracy Class % Ratio error at % of rated current Phase displacem
ent in minutes at % of rated current 5 20 100 120 5 20 100 120 0.5 1.5 0.75 0.5
0.5 90 45 30 30 Note : Current error and phase displacement at rated frequency i
s required to be as above when the secondary burden from 25% to 100% of the rate
d burden i.e. 50 V A. 3.5 Rated extended primary current shall be 120% of rated
primary Current in accordance with IS:2705 Pt-II.
3.6 Rated ISF (Instrument Security Factor) shall be declared by the manufacturer
& marked on the
3.7 CT’s shall be made with good engineering practices. Core winding shall evenly
spread stress &
avoid stress concentration at any one point. Cast resin CT’s sha;; be processed by
hot curing method under controlled vacuum conditions. 3.8The base shall be of h
ot dip galvanized steel. 4.0 TESTS: 4.1. TYPE TESTS: 4.1.1 Copies of all type te
sts as per IS.2705 Part-I and II including short time current & temperature rise
tests in NABL accredited laboratory shall be submitted and got approved before
commencement of supply.
4.2.1 The supplier shall conduct all the routine tests such as Ratio test, phas
e angle error test for 0.5 accuracy class as per IS 2705 Part I & II. 4.3 Commis
sioning test : 4.3.1 In accordance with IS:2705, Power frequency test on primary
winding shall be carried out after erection on site on sample basis. 5.0 Markin
g: 5.1 The CTs shall have marking and nameplate as per IS 2705 in addition to cl
ass of insulation & ISF. The markings shall be indellible. The nameplate shall b
e securely fixed to the body of the CT. 6.0 PACKING: 6.1 Each CT shall be secure
ly packed so as to withstand rough handling during transit and storage. 7.0 QUAL
ITY ASSURANCE PLAN: 7.1 The requirements of clause 29.0 of Section – I of main spe
cification for Energy Meters shall apply. Wave trap Current transformer Current
transformer rating table for all cores:
Ratio Burd en VA Knee
Class Sec. resistan ce Ω Purpose 1CT 1N 500/1 - 300 40AT Vk/2 PS 5 REF 1CT 1U1 1CT
1V1 1CT
1W1 500/1 - 300 40AT Vk/2 PS 5 REF 1CT 2U1
1CT 2V1
500/1 - 300 40AT Vk/2 PS 5 REF 1CT 3U1 1CT 3V1 1CT3W1
2000/1 - 600 30AT Vk/2 PS 5 Differenti al 2CT 3U1
2CT 3V1
2000/1 - 300 40AT Vk/2 PS 5 Spare 3CT 3U1
3CT 3V1
2000/1 30VA - - 1.0 5 Metering WCT 1U2 198/3.0 -2.5 1.7VA - - 5 - WTT+RT D Capac
itor voltage transformer:
In high and extra high voltage transmission systems, capacitor voltage transfor
mers (CVTs) are used to provide potential outputs to metering instruments and pr
otective relays. In addition, when equipped with carrier accessories, CVTs can b
e used for power line carrier (PLC) coupling.
A capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) is a transformer used in power systems to
step-down extra high voltage signals and provide low voltage signals either for
measurement or to operate a protective relay. In its most basic form the device
consists of three parts: two capacitors across which the voltage signal is split
, an inductive element used to tune the device to the supply frequency and a tra
nsformer used to isolate and further step-down the voltage for the instrumentati
on or protective relay. The device has at least four terminals, a high-voltage t
erminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a ground terminal and at leas
t one set of secondary terminals for connection to the instrumentation or protec
tive relay. CVTs are typically single-phase devices used for measuring voltages
in excess of one hundred kilovolts where the use of voltage transformers would b
e uneconomical. In practice the first capacitor, C1, is often replaced by a stac
k of capacitors connected in series. This results in a large voltage drop across
the stack of capacitors that replaced the first capacitor and a comparatively s
mall voltage drop across the second capacitor, C2, and hence the secondary termi
INSULATING SYSTEMS: The external insulation is provided by the porcelain housing
and coordinated with the capacitor stack, consisting of virtually identical ele
ments so that the axial voltage distribution from the line terminal to ground is
essentially uniform. The capacitor elements have a mixed dielectric material co
nsisting of alternating layers of polypropylene film and Kraft paper. The Kraft
paper layers serve as a wicking agent to ensure homogenous synthetic oil impregn
ation. The electromagnetic unit (EMU) is housed in an oil-filled tank at the bas
e of the capacitor stack. Mineral oil is employed as the insulating medium inste
ad of air because of its superior insulating and heat transfer properties. The u
se of an oil-filled base tank removes the need for space heaters in the secondar
y terminal box as this area is warmed by heat transfer from the insulating oil.
This results in a more reliable and cost effective design.
INSULATING OIL: We use insulating oils with excellent dielectric strength, aging
, and gas absorbing properties. The synthetic oil used for the capacitor units p
ossesses superior gas absorption properties resulting in exceptionally low parti
al discharge with high inception/extinction voltage ratings. The oil used for
the EMU is premium naphthenic mineral oil. The oil is filtered, vacuum dried a
nd degassed within house processing. It contains no PCB. CAPACITOR STACK: The ca
pacitor stack is a voltage divider which provides a reduced voltage at the inter
mediate voltage bushing for a given voltage applied at the primary terminal. The
capacitor stack is a multi- capacitor-unit assembly. Each unit is housed in an
individual insulator. A cast aluminum
cover is on top of the upper capacitor assembly and is fitted with an aluminum t
erminal. An adapter for mounting a line trap on top of the CVT can be provided w
ith an optional (and removable) HV terminal.
The capacitor units are mechanically coupled together by means of stainless stee
l hardware passing through the corrosion resistant cast aluminum housing. The me
chanical connection also establishes the electrical connection between capacitor
units. This facilitates field assembly of the CVT
. 1 - Primary terminal
2 - Cast aluminum bellow housing
3 - Stainless steel expansion
4 - Compression spring
5 - Insulated voltage connection
6 - Capacitor elements
7 - Insulator (porcelain or
8 - Voltage divider tap connection
9 - Cast-epoxy bushing
10 - HF terminal connection
11 - Ferro-resonance suppression
12 - Secondary terminals
13 - Oil level sight-glass
14 - Aluminum terminal box
15 - Intermediate transformer
16 - Oil/air block
17 - Oil sampling device
18 - Compensating reactor
19 - Aluminum cover plate
1 - Primary terminal
2 - Cast aluminum bellow housing
3 - Stainless steel expansion
4 - Compression spring
5 - Insulated voltage connection
6 - Capacitor elements
7 - Insulator (porcelain or
8 - Voltage divider tap connection
9 - Cast-epoxy bushing
10 - HF terminal connection
11 - Ferro-resonance suppression
12 - Secondary terminals
13 - Oil level sight-glass
14 - Aluminum terminal box
15 - Intermediate transformer
16 - Oil/air block
17 - Oil sampling device
18 - Compensating reactor
19 - Aluminum cover plate

PRINCIPLE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Wave trap: 1. High Voltage terminal

2. Compensation reactor
3. Intermediate voltage transformer
4. Ground terminal
5. Ferro-resonance suppression
device 6. Damping resistor
7. Carrier (HF) terminal (optional)
8. Overvoltage protective device
9. Secondary terminals
10. Link, to be opened for test
The main coil winding are encapsulated by winding continuous filament fiberglas
s That has been impregnated with a specially selected epoxy resin harden system.
The epoxy resin fiberglass composite is then curved according to a programmed t
emperature Schedule.
2. Tuning pack: Tuning pack is connected in parallel with the main coil to provi
de a high impedance to the desired carrier frequency. 3. Lighting arresters: The
line traps are protected by a lighting arrestors against high voltage surges ca
used by atmospheric effects or switching operations. Protective relays: Protecti
ve relaying is one of the several features of power system design.
Every part of the power system is protected. The protective relaying is used to
give an alarm or to cause prompt removal of any element of power system from se
rvice when hat element behave abnormally.
The relays are compact and self contained devices which can sense abnormal condi
tions. Whenever abnormal condition occur , the relays contacts get closed. This
in turn closes the trip circuit of a circuit breaker.
For switchyard protections following type relays are used:
1. Overcurrent relay
2. Earth fault relay
3. REF relay
4. Differential relay
5. Directional relay
6. Over flux relay
7. Buchoolz relay
8. IDMT relay
RES E/ F +O/ L Restricted earth fault protection relay:
Bus 1 y The REF protection method is a type of "unit protection" applied to tra
nsformers or generators and is more sensitive than the method known as different
ial protection. An REF relay works by measuring the actual current flowing to ea
rth from the frame of the unit. If that current exceeds a certain preset maximum
value of milliamps (mA) then the relay will trip to cut off the power supply to
the unit.
Differential protection can also be used to protect the windings of a transforme
r by comparing the
current in the power supply s neutral wire with the current in the phase wire. I
f the currents are
equal then the differential protection relay will not operate. If there is a cur
rent imbalance then the
differential protection relay operates.
REF protection is applied on transformers in order to detect ground faults on a
given winding more
sensitively than differential protection.
Directional relay: Directional relays have protection zones that include all of
the power system situated in only one direction from the relay location. (This i
s in contrast to magnitude relays which are not directional, i.e., they trip bas
ed simply on the magnitude of the relay.
Consider the one-line diagram in Fig. 1. Fig. 1 If the relays R1 and R2 in Fig.
1 are directional relays, then -R1 “looks” to the left but not to the right, and -R2
“looks” to the right but not to the left. In order to understand how the directiona
l relay works, first, consider that R2 measures the phasors V2 and I23. Now defi
ne the following parameters associated with Fig. 1: •L23: length of circuit 2-3. •x:
distance from R2 to a fault on circuit 2-3.
•λx=x/L23: the fraction of the circuit ength between the re ay R2 and the fau t at
point x.
•I23: the current in circuit 2-3 resu ting from the fau t x on circuit 2-3 (a phas
•V2: the bus 2 vo tage (a phasor).
•Z23: tota  series impedance of circuit 2-3.
If a fau t occurs on circuit 2-3, at point x, then the fraction of tota  circuit
ength is λx. If the circuit has uniform impedance per unit ength, then the impe
dance between the re ay R2 and the fau t point is λxZ23, and with the bus 2 vo tag
e being V2, the current f owing into circuit 2-3 from bus 2 is:
23 2 23 Z V I x λ = (1) But reca  that for transmission ines, it is genera y th
e case that R<<X, and therefore 23 23 jX Z = (2) In that case, eq. (1) becomes:
23 2 23 jX V I x λ = (3) Recognizing that 1/j=-90°, eq. (3) becomes: ° − = 90 23 2 23 X
V I x λ (4) Therefore I23  ag s V2 by 90°. Now if the fau t occurs on circuit 1 2, a
t point y in Fig. 1, we can repeat the same ana ysis as eqs. (1) (4), except for
point y, where we use λy=y/L12, The resu t wi  be ° − = 90 21 2 21 X V I y λ (5) But R
2 measures I23, not I21. Reference to Fig. 1 resu ts in the conc usion that ° = ° − − =
= 90 90 21 2 21 2 21 23 X V XV I I y y λ λ (6) Therefore, in this case, I23 eads V2
by 90°. From this simp e ana ysis, we can estab ish a ogic for the directiona  re
ay R1. Define θ23 as the angle of the phasor I23, i.e., 23 23 23 θ =I I (7) Then if
we •trip when current exceeds pickup & θ23=-90°and •block if θ23=+90°, the relay will be d
rectional. In reality, of course, the circuits do have resistance, and so e. (3
), for a fault at point x, should be
° − < < ° − = = = 80 90 , 23 23 23 2 23 2 23 2 23 θ θ λ λ λ Z V Z V jX V I x x x (8) And
for a fau t at point y, shou d be: ° < < ° = − = 100 90 , 23 23 21 2 21 2 23 θ θ λ λ Z V
I y y (9) The current p ane representing the associated re ay ogic is in Fig. 2
: Fig. 2 The tripping ogic can be stated for R2 as
180<θ23<0, and |I23|>Ip Trip
0<θ23<180, or |I23|<Ip Block
where Ip is the pickup.
Buchholz relay: In the field of electric power distribution and transmission, a
Buchholz relay, also called agas relay or a sudden pressure relay, is a safety d
evice mounted on some oil-filled power transformers and reactors, equipped with
an external overhead oil reservoir called aconservator. The Buchholz Relay is us
ed as a protective device sensitive to the effects of dielectric failure inside
the equipment.
The relay has two different detection modes. On a slow accumulation of gas, due
perhaps to slight overload, gas produced by decomposition of insulating oil accu
mulates in the top of the relay and forces the oil level down. A float switch in
the relay is used to initiate an alarm signal that also serves to detect slow o
il leaks.
If an arc forms, gas accumulation is rapid, and oil flows rapidly into the cons
ervator. This flow of oil operates a switch attached to a vane located in the pa
th of the moving oil. This switch normally will operate a circuit breaker to iso
late the apparatus before the fault causes additional damage. Buchholz relays ha
ve a test port to allow the accumulated gas to be withdrawn for testing.
IDMT relay: The IDMT relay work on the induction principle, where an aluminum or
copper disc rotates
between the poles of electromagnet and damping magnet. The fluxes induce eddy cu
rrent in the
disc which interact and produce rotational torque. The disc rotates to a point w
here it operates a
pair of contact that breaks the circuit and removes the fault condition. Shunt r
eactor for bus voltage: In EHV substations, it is a common practice to use break
er switched bus reactors to maintain the bus voltage within permissible limits u
nder varying load conditions. With the development of Controlled Shunt Reactor (
CSR) which is a thyristor controlled high impedance transformer, a stable bus vo
ltage can be maintained by providing variable reactive power based on the bus vo
ltage deviations due to the load variations. The high impedance transformer whic
h is also known as reactor transformer (RT) can be made to any size without any
limitation unlike gapped core
shunt reactors. As a single CSR of large capacity can be realized with suitable
control mechanism, this approach proves to be technically superior and economic
al compared to the existing practice of breaker switched bus reactors.
A CSR with a detailed control system is modeled along with a typical EHV system
in PSCAD/EMTDC environment. The study includes the effectiveness of filters intr
oduced in the tertiary of the reactor transformer in controlling the harmonics g
enerated during partial conduction of thyristors. The transient and steady state
performance of the CSR system for varying system conditions is studied and the
same is compared with the conventional practice. The paper presents and discusse
s the results of the study.
Keywords: High impedance transformer, shunt reactor, reactive power, compensatio
n, EHV systems, voltage control, thyristors. Shunt reactors which are meant to b
e used for controlling the bus voltage of sub station are known as bus reactors.
These are always connected through a circuit breaker and switched on or off, ba
sed on the voltage variations. In large switching substations, it is not uncommo
n to find multiple bus reactors when the total reactor capacity required is larg
e. Due to limited standard ratings of gapped core shunt reactors, it is necessar
y to provide in multiples of standard ratings along with associated bay equipmen
t and space for accommodating the same. The CSR mentioned above is based on a hi
gh impedance transformer known as Reactor Transformer (RT) with a provision to c
ontrol from the secondary side through thyristor valves. As RT of any large capa
city can be realized as a single three phase unit or three single phase units, i
t is possible to provide variable reactive power support by controlling the firi
ng angle of the thyristor valves. This continuously variable CSR as bus reactor
offers following advantages.
1. Continuously variable reactive power based on the voltage variation.
2. Fast Response to dynamic conditions like load throw off
3. Reduced losses with optimized reactive power support.
4. Better economy in terms of substation space and auxiliary equipment.

Figure: shunt reactor Shunt capacitor bank: Shunt capacitor banks are used to i
mprove the quality of the electrical supply and the efficient
operation of the power system. Studies show that a flat voltage profile on the
system can significantly reduce line losses. Shunt capacitor banks are relativel
y inexpensive and can be easily installed anywhere on the network. Shunt capacit
or banks (SCB) are mainly installed to provide capacitive reactive compensation/
Power factor correction. The use of SCBs has increased because they are relative
ly inexpensive,
easy and quick to install and can be deployed virtually anywhere in the network.
Its installation
has other beneficial effects on the system such as: improvement of the voltage a
t the load, better
voltage regulation (if they were adequately designed), reduction of losses and r
eduction or
postponement of investments in transmission.
The main disadvantage of SCB is that its reactive power output is proportional t
o the square of
the voltage and consequently when the voltage is low and the system need them mo
st, they are
the least efficient.
Figure Clearances At A Glance:
Various clearances required to be maintained as per Indian Electricity Rules an
d Code of practice etc. during construction of a transmission line are given at
appropriate places in various chapters. However, for convenience, the various cl
earances required to be maintained in the construction of a transmission line at
a glance are given in the following table:
TABLE SI. No. Particulars Unit s Clearance required to be maintained for 132 KV
220 KV 400 KV 1. Live Metal Clearance (a) Suspension Towers mm1525(0°- 25° swing) 10
75(25° - 45° swing) 2130 (0° - 20°) 1675 (20° -50") 2600 (V - string) (b) Tension towers m
m 1525 2130 2600 2. Ground Clearance m 6.1 7.0 8.84 3. Mid Span Clearance in 6.1
8.5 9.0 4. Phase to Phase Clearance mm 3900 5130 7000 5. Maximum Shielding Angl
e 30° 30° 30° 20° 6. Power Line
Crossing Clearance
between Lines
m 3.05 (from other lines of 11 KV to 132KV) 4.58 (from other
lines of 11 KV to
220 KV)
6.10 (front other lines of 11-KV to 400KV) 7. Clearance Between lines and Tramwa
y Crossing m 3.05 3.05 3.05 8. Clearance from Railway^ Track m 14.60 15.40 17.90
9. Prescribed Corridor for Forest clearance etc. m 27.60 35.00 52.00 10. Minimu
m Clearances from Trees m 4.0 4.6 5.5 11. Clearance over Rivers from HFL (i) Non
Navigable River m 6.1 7.00 8.84 (ii) Navigable River m To be maintained in rela
tion to tallest mast in consolation with navigation authorities 12. Clearances f
rom Buildings (a) Horizontal m 2.744 3.659 5.489 (b) Vertical m 4.573 5.488 7.31
8 13. Clearance over Telecommunication lines m 2.745 3.050 4.880
Power line communication & SCADA system of UPPTCL: Uttar Pradesh Power Transmis
sion Corporation Ltd. (UPPTCL) has a very large network of high voltage transmis
sion lines in whole UP (about 24,000Km). Transmission lines transfer power from
power houses to substations and from one substation to many other substations or
vice versa. Power is generated at low Voltage (of the order of 3.3KV to 25KV) a
nd is stepped-up to high voltage (765KV, 400KV, 220KV & 132KV) for evacuating po
wer into the grid network through transmission lines.
Transmission of Data Below in Figure 1, main equipment from substation/power hou
se to its subLDC has been shown in a very simple form. Figure 1: Transmission of
Data from substation/Power house to subLDC Current Transformers (CTs) and Poten
tial Transformers (PTs), installed on transmission lines, provide inputs to tran
sducers of SIC (Supervisory Interface & Control) & RTU (Remote Terminal Unit) pa
nel. Circuit breakers & isolators' status are extended up to SIC panel. If for s
uch extension extra potential free contacts are not available in the Control Pan
els, Contact Multiplying Relays (CMRs) are used to provide potential free contac
ts. The output of RTU is connected to the communication equipment, through Modem
. In between substation & subLDC, a communication link has been shown. Telephone
exchanges are connected with the communication equipment. Such communication li
nks can be of any type. UPPTCL has got its own three different type of communica
tion systems, i.e. PLCC (Power Line Carrier Communication), microwave and fibre-
optic. PLCC system is more prevalent in UPPTCL. Modem output at receive side is
connected with the CFE (Communication End Frame). Its output is connected with
data takes over. Each RTU is automatically polled by Server of subLDC to obtain
each data of repeats at least once in 10 sec and is stored in the database of su
bLDC. This data is processed in database formats and is retrieved for different
applications. These formats or graphics are displayed or printed as per requirem
ent. At subLDC, System Control Officers use this data to monitor and analyze pos
ition of the grid.
Below in Figure 2, main equipment from subLDC to SLDC, Lucknow has been shown
in a very simple form. A systematically combined/processed data of all RTUs, in
server of subLDC, is transmitted to SLDC Lucknow. This data in the form of 64Kb/
s signal is sent through multiple paths/channels. Presently four channels are us
ed. For this purpose 'Routers' are used. Routers basically work as modem but is
has multiple paths for LAN, WAN or internet, etc. In UPPTCL, for transmission of
data, from subLDC to SLDC, only wideband communication system (microwave or fib
re-optic links) is being used. In SLDC, data from all other subLDCs is also rece
ived simultaneously and are processed for different purposes and applications. F
rom Inter-Control Centre Communications Protocol (ICCP) Servers of SLDC, complet
e data of all subLDCs is sent to NRLDC, New Delhi through wideband communication
system. This way communication plays a major role in grid management.
Communication for Power System Following are mainly three inter-related areas of
functions in UPPTCL for management of power system:
A) Telecommunication
B) SCADA- Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System.
C) EMS- Energy Management System
A) TELECOMMUNICATION There are three different types of telecommunication system
s in UPPTCL i.e. i. Microwave Communication System, ii. Fibre-optic Communicatio
n System, iii. PLCC-Power Line Carrier Communication.
Voice Frequency (VF) channels of all these systems have been integrated/interco
nnected to make a hybrid communication system. Microwave & Fibre Optic are multi
-channels communication systems and are also called 'Wideband communication syst
em'. PLCC is single channel communication system.
SCADA SYSTEM In SCADA system measured values, i.e. analogue (measured value) dat
a (MW, MVAR, V, Hz Transformer tap position), and Open/Closed status information
, i.e. digital data (Circuit Breakers/Isolators position i.e. on/off status), ar
e transmitted through telecommunication channels to respective sub-LDCs. For thi
s purpose Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) at 400KV, 220KV and few important 132KV s
ub-stations have been installed. System values & status information below 132 KV
have not been picked up for data transmission, except for 33KV Bus isolator pos
ition and LV side of generators. Secondary side of Current Transformers (CT) and
Potential Transformer (PT) are connected with 'Transducers'. The output of tran
sducers is available in dc current form (in the range of 4mA to 20mA). Analogue
to digital converter converts this current into binary pulses. Different inputs
are interleaved in a sequential form and are fed into the CPU of the RTU. The ou
tput of RTU, containing information in the form of digital pulses, is sent to su
bLDC through communication links. Depending upon the type of communication link,
the output of RTU is connected, directly or through Modem, with the communicati
on equipment. At subLDC end, data received from RTU is fed into the data servers
. In general, a SCADA system consists of a database, displays and supporting pro
grammes. In UPPTCL, subLDCs use all major functional areas of SCADA except the '
Supervisory Control/Command' function. The brief overview of major 'functional a
reas' of SCADA system is as below:
1.Communications - Sub-LDC's computer communicates with all RTU stations under i
ts control, through a communication system. RTU polling, message formatting, pol
ynomial checking and message retransmission on failure are the activities of 'Co
mmunications' functional area.
2.Data Processing - After receipt of data through communication system it is pro
cessed. Data process function has three sub-functions i.e. (i) Measurements, (ii
) Counters and (iii) Indications. • 'Measurements' retrieved from a RTU are conver
ted to engineering units and linearised, if necessary. The measurement are then
placed in database and are checked against various limits which if exceeded gene
rate high or low limit alarms.
• The system has been set-up to collect 'Counters' at regular intervals: typicall
y 5 or 10 minutes. At the end of the hour the units is transferred into appropri
ate hour slot in a 24- hour archive/history.
• 'Indications' are associated with status changes and protection. For those statu
ses that are not classified as 'alarms', logs the change on the appropriate prin
ter and also enter it into a cyclic event list. For those statuses, which are de
fined as an 'alarms' and the indication goes into alarm, an entry is made into t
he appropriate alarm list, as well as in the event list and an audible alarm is
generated in the sub-LDC.
3.Alarm/Event Logging - The alarm and event logging facilities are used by SCADA
data processing system. Alarms are grouped into different categories and are gi
ven different priorities. Quality codes are assigned to the recently received da
ta for any 'limit violation' and 'status changes'. Alarms are acknowledged from
single line diagram (or alarm lists) on display terminal in LDCs.
4.Manual Entry - There is a provision of manual entry of measured values, counte
rs and indications for the important sub-station/powerhouse, which are uncovered
by an RTU or some problem is going on in its RTU, equipment, communication path
, etc. 5.Averaging of Measured Values - As an option, the SCADA system supports
averaging of all analogue measurements. Typically, the averaging of measured val
ues over a period of 15 minutes is stored to provide 24 hours trend. 6.Historica
l Data Recording (HDR) - The HDR, i.e. 'archive', subsystem maintains a history
of selected system parameters over a period of time. These are sampled at a pre-
selected interval and are placed in historical database. At the end of the day,
the data is saved for later analysis and for report generation.
7.Interactive Database Generation - Facilities have been provided in such a way
that an off- line copy of the SCADA database can be modified allowing the additi
on of new RTUs, pickup points and communication channels. 8.Supervisory Control/
Remote Command - This function enables the issue of 'remote control' commands to
the sub-station/powerhouse equipment e.g. circuit breaker trip command. Though,
there is provision of this function in this system, yet it is not used in U.P.
As such, related/associated equipment have not been ordered.
9.Fail-over - A 'Fail-over' subsystem is also provided to secure and maintain a
database of devices and their backups. The state of the device is maintained ind
icating whether it is 'on- line' or 'failed'. There is a 'backup' system, which
maintains database on a backup computer and the system is duplicated.
SLDC Lucknow has a large and active 'Mimic Board' in its Control room. This mim
ic board displays single line diagram of intra State transmission system i.e. gr
id network of 400KV, 220KV and important 132KV sub-stations, transmission lines,
thermal & hydro powerhouses. Outgoing feeders, shown in the mimic board, have '
achieve' (LED display) colored indications, of three different colors, to show t
he range of power flow at any moment i.e. 'Normal', 'Nominal' or 'Maximum' of it
s line capacity. UPPTCL's transmission network is expanding rapidly and thereby
number of RTUs is also increasing. For new substations and lines, displays in ac
tive and passive forms are required to be made in the Mimic diagram. But, Mimic
Board has a limitation that it cannot incorporate/add large volume of displays f
or substations/power houses/transmission lines in 'active' form due to space con
straint and congestion. Due to this Mimic Board is going to be supplemented with
a Video Projection System (VPS) at SLDC, Lucknow in near future. Also in SLDC &
subLDCs, displays of single line diagrams of RTU sub-stations/power house are v
iewed on VDUs of large size (21").

Other definitions and terms: What is OLTC in a transformer: Onload Tap Changer
(OLTC) is used with higher capacity transformers where HT side voltage variation
is frequent and a nearly constant LT is required. OLTC is fitted with the trans
former itself. Multiple tappings from HV windings are brought to the OLTC chambe
r and conacted to fixed contacts. Moving contacts rotates with the help of rotat
ing mechanism having a spindle. This spindle can be rotated manually as well as
electrically with a motor. Motor is connected in such a way that it can rotate i
n both the directions so as to rotate the OLTC contacts in clockwise and anticlo
ck-wise direction. Two push buttons are fitted on the LCP (local control panel)
to rotate the motor and hence the OLTC contacts in clockwise and anti- clockwise
direction. This movement of contacts thus controls the
output LV voltage of the transformer. So rotating of OLTC contacts with spindle
or push buttons in this way is a manuall process. In case this process of rotati
ng the OLTC contacts and hence controlling the LV side voltage is to be done aut
omatically then a RTCC (Remote Tap Changer Controller) is installed with the tra
nsformer HT Panel. The RTCC sends signals to LCP and LCP in turn rotates the mot
or as per the signals received from the the RTCC.
Interposing CT: Transformer differential relays compare the phase and magnitude
of the current entering one winding of the transformer with that leaving via the
other winding(s). Any difference in Phase or magnitude between the measured qua
ntities will cause current to flow through the operate winding of the relay. If
this current exceeds the relay setting, tripping of the Transformer circuit brea
kers will be initiated. To enable a comparison to be made, the differential sche
me should be arranged so that the relay will see rated current when the full loa
d current flows in the protected circuit. In order to achieve this, the line cur
rent transformers must be matched to the normal full load current of the transfo
rmer. Where this is not the case it is necessary to use an auxiliary interposing
current transformer to
Provide amplitude correction. The connection of the line CTs should compensate f
or any phase shift arising across the transformer. Alternatively the necessary p
hase correction may also be provided by the use of an interposing CT.
Local backup protection:
The primary objective of back-up protection is to open all sources of generatio
n to an
fault on the system. To accomplish this objective, an adequate back-up protectiv
system must meet the following functional requirements:
1. It must recognize the existence of all faults which occur within its prescrib
ed zone
of protection.
2. It must detect the failure of the primary protection to clear any fault as pl
3. In clearing the fault from the system, it must
a. Initiate the tripping of the minimum number of circuit breakers. b. Operate f
ast enough (consistent with coordination requirements) to maintain system stabil
ity, prevent excessive equipment damage, and maintain a prescribed degree of ser
vice continuity. Insulators: Table for insulators string: Line voltage Single su
spension Single tension Double suspension Double tension 132 KV 9 10 2*9 2*10 22
0KV 14 16 2*14 2*16 400KV 2*21 2*21 Corona ring: A corona ring, also called anti
-corona ring, is a toroid of (typically) conductive material located in the vici
nity of a terminal of a high voltage device. It is electrically insulated. Stack
s of more spaced rings are often used. The role of the corona ring is to distrib
ute the electric field gradient and lower its maximum values below the corona th
reshold, preventing the corona discharge.
Corona rings are typically installed on very high voltage power line insulators.
Manufacturers suggest a corona ring on the line end of the insulator for above
230 kV and on both ends for above 500 kV. Corona rings prolong lifetime of insul
ator surfaces by suppressing the effects of corona discharge.
Appendix A. Protection diagram .1 B.Protection diagram .2 C.Terminal on tank
cover of transformer References 2
3 .“ Electrical power system” by Ashfaq Hussain
4 .“Switchgear & protection” by U.V.Bakashi
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