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LOCATION BASED SPATIAL QUERY

PROCESSING IN WIRELESS
BROADCAST ENVIRONMENTS
What is spatial data?
• Geospatial data or geographic information.

• Identifies the geographic location of features and


boundaries on Earth(oceans, rivers, hospitals,
restaurants etc).

• Usually stored as coordinates and topology.

• Spatial data is often accessed, manipulated or analyzed


through Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
What are spatial queries?
• A spatial query is a special type of database query
supported by geodatabases.

• It’s a query which selects features based on their


location or geographic relationship to others.

• Spatial query processing is the process of selecting


features based on location or spatial relationship.

• For example, “Send me the status of a particular route”.


What are location based spatial queries?

• Location-based spatial queries (LBSQs) refer to spatial


queries whose answers rely on the location of the inquirer.

• They represent a set of spatial queries that retrieve


information based on mobile users’ current locations.

• Efficient processing of LBSQs is of critical importance with the


ever-increasing deployment and use of mobile technologies.

• For example, "Find the top-three nearest hospitals of some


location x”.
Approaches of mobile data access for spatial
query processing

• ON DEMAND DATA ACCESS MODEL

• WIRELESS BROADCAST MODEL

• P2P DATA SHARING MODEL


ON DEMAND DATA ACCESS MODEL
(Traditional centralized server
model)
• It’s a simple client-server model.

• In the simplest approach, a user establishes a point-to-point


communication with the server so that his queries can be answered
on demand.

• Here server queues up the query requests issued by the clients and
processes them accordingly. The results of query processing are
returned to the mobile user through the same point-to-point link.
ON DEMAND DATA ACCESS MODEL

c1 Queue
c2
c3
c4

Point to point link

Client
Disadvantages of ON DEMAND DATA ACCESS MODEL

• First, it may not scale to very large user populations.

• Second, to communicate with the server, a client must


most likely use a fee-based cellular-type network to
achieve a reasonable operating range.

• Third, users must reveal their current location and send


it to the server, which may be undesirable for privacy
reasons.

• Fourth, it is subjected to single point failure of server


which disrupts the entire system.
WIRELESS BROADCAST MODEL

• In the Wireless broadcast model, the server repeatedly


broadcasts all the information in wireless channels, and
the clients are responsable for filtering the information.
An example of such a system is the Microsoft DirectBand
Network.

• To facilitate information retrieval on wireless broadcast


channels, the server usually transmits an index structure,
along with data objects. A well-known broadcast index
structure is the (1, m) indexing allocation method.
The general access protocol for retrieving data on a
wireless broadcast channel involves three main steps

• The initial probe

• Index search

• Data retrieval
Advantages of WIRELESS BROADCAST MODEL

• Its a more advanced solution.

• It can support an almost-unlimited number of mobile hosts


(MHs) over a large geographical area with a single
transmitter.

• With the broadcast model, MHs do not submit queries,


Instead, they tune in to the broadcast channel for information
that they desire. Hence, the user’s location is not revealed
and his privacy is retained.

• The main advantage of the broadcast model over the on-


demand model is that it is a scalable approach.
Limitations of WIRELESS BROADCAST MODEL

1. The broadcast model has large latency, as clients have to


wait for the information that they need in a broadcasting
cycle. Furthermore if a client misses the packets that it
needs, it has to wait for the next broadcast cycle.

2. Nearly all the existing spatial access methods are designed


for databases with random access disks. These existing
techniques cannot be used effectively in a wireless
broadcast environment, where only sequential data access
is supported.

3. Since there is significant delay in answering the spatial


queries, the answers provided become invalid especially in
case of mobile nodes.
4. Queries can only be fulfilled after all the required on-air
data arrives.
• The main limitation of preceding on air KNN query lies in its
sequential data access: the access latency becomes longer
as the number of data items increases. If we can provide
(approximate) answers to spatial queries before the arrival of
related data packets, we will overcome the limitation of the
broadcast model.

•The fundamental idea behind our methodology is to


leverage the cached results from prior spatial queries at
reachable MHs for answering future queries at the local host.
This is known as P2P cooperative caching with result
sharing.

•A novel component in our methodology is a verification


algorithm that verifies whether a data item from neighboring
peers is part of the solution set to a spatial query.
P2P cooperative caching with result sharing.

Communication
range of q

1NN candidate
O
3
O2 1NN
q candidate

O
4
P2|
P1

P1| P
o1 2
System environment

Peer-to-Peer
Wireless Channel
Broadcast
Channel Mobile
Host
Spatial
Database

Data
station

Mobile host
transmission range
MINIMUM BOUNDED RECTANGLE

A rectangle, oriented to the x and y axes, which


bounds a geographic feature or a geographic data set. It is
specified by two coordinates: xmin,ymin and xmax,ymax.
(xmax ,ymax )
MBR

p
(xmin, ymin )
• Any MH ‘p’ exclusively belongs to an immediatly enclosing
MBR at any instant of time.

POINT OF INTEREST
A POI, is a specific point location that someone may
find useful or interesting. Ex:Hospital,resturant etc.
VERIFIED REGION

Since memory space is scarce in mobile devices,


we assume that each MH p caches a set of POIs in an
MBR related to its current location.

• Since the POIs located inside the MBR were obtained


from the wireless information
server, we define the area bounded by the MBR as
verified region p.V R with regard to p’s location.
Sharing based nearest neighbor verification

• When an MH q executes SBNN, it first broadcasts a


request to all its single-hop peers for their cached spatial
data.

•Each peer that receives the request returns the verified


region MBR and the cached POIs to q.

•Then, q combines the verified regions of all the replying


peers, each bounded by its MBR, into a merged verified
region MVR . The merging process is carried out by the
MapOverlay algorithm.

•The core of SBNN is the NN verification (NNV) method,


whose objective is to verify whether a POI oi obtained from
peers is a valid (that is, the top-k) NN of the MH q.
Sharing based nearest neighbor verification

• Let P denote the data collected by q from j peers p1,p2…..pj.


Consequently, the merged verified region MVR can be
represented as
MVR=p1.VR U p2.VR U …. U pj.VR.(MAPOVERLAY
algorithm)

• Suppose that the boundary of MVR consists of k edges,


E={e1,e2,…..ek}, and there are l POIs, O={o1,o2…..ol}, inside
the MVR. Let es E be the edge that has the shortest
distance to q. An example is given in fig where k=10, and e1
has the shortest distance to q.
SBNN
At neighboring nodes

1. Let N = { m1,m2,….. ….. mn } be the set of


mobile nodes
2. If a node mi receives a broadcast request from a
query mobile host ‘q’
3. If q.POI = mi.POI
4. mi sends a response message to q consisting of
1. Its spatial data as a set of POIs’ present in its
cache and
2.MBR information.
At ‘q’ : Algorithm: NNV (q, H, k)
• Euclidian distance between two points p1(x1,y1) and
p2(x2,y2) is given by ||p1,p2||= (x2-x1)2+(y2-y1)2
Enhancement to the proposed
solution
PROFILE BASED SBNN
• Need for profile based system is to eliminate irrelevant data
processing.

• If we are able to categorize the spatial data and even the


device users based on some criteria, it would give rise to a
state where ‘q’ receives only those spatial data items that are
tailored its comfort level.

• This thesis give rise to an innovative concept called as


“PROFILE” of a user.
• Hence we put forth a new strategy for addressing the
categorization of users by making the ordinary SBNN
system to be equipped with what is called as “Profile based
filtering”.

• It makes the query mobile host to receive and process


only the relevant data tailored to its profile thus gaining
advantage over ordinary SBNN.
At neighboring nodes,

1. Let N = { m1,m2,….. ….. mn } be the set of mobile


nodes each with a profile from the set PR = {pr1,pr2,pr3}
2. If a node mi with profile prmi receives a broadcast request
from a query mobile host ‘q’ with profile prq
3. If q.POI = mi.POI and prmi = prq
4. mi sends a response message to q consisting of
1. Its spatial data as a set of POIs’ present in its cache
and
2. MBR information.
At ‘q’ : Algorithm: NNV (q, H, k)
Sharing based nearest neighbor verification

• The NNV method uses a heap H to maintain the entries


of verified and unverified POIs discovered so far . Initially,
H is empty. The NNV method inserts POIs to H as it verifies
objects from MHs in the vicinity of q.

• The heap H maintains the POIs in ascending order in


terms of their Euclidean distances to q. Unverified objects
are kept in H only if the number of verified objects is lower
than what was requested by the query.

• If k elements in H are all verified by NNV, the kNN query


is fulfilled. There will be cases when the NNV method
cannot fulfill a kNN query. Hence, a set that contains
unverified elements is returned. If the response time is
critical, a user may agree to accept a kNN data set with
unverified elements, where the objects are not guaranteed
to be the top kNNs, otherwise he has to switch into
Results

PERFORMANCE OF SBNN

Node ID Transmission Cache Capacity No. of Nodes No. of POIs % Increase in


Range No. of nodes &
POIs

150 3 11 33 -

175 3 20 60 81.81
6
195 3 28 84 40

215 3 34 102 21.42


PERFORMANCE OF SBNN

Node ID Transmission Cache Capacity No. of Nodes No. of POIs % Increase in No. of nodes
Range & POIs
150 2 11 22 -

6 150 3 11 33 32

150 4 11 44 43
SBNN vs. PFSBNN

Node ID Transmission Cache Capacity SBNN PFBNN % Decrease in


Range nodes & POIs

No. of Nodes No. of POIs No. of Nodes No. of POIs

6 150 3 16 48 10 30 37.5

27 150 3 13 39 12 36 7.69

15 150 3 15 45 8 24 46.6

31 150 3 13 39 11 33 15.38

34 150 3 16 48 12 36 25

258 150 3 10 30 7 21 30
Graphs

Node id->6
Node id->6
Node id->6
conclusion
• With this novel SBNN algorithm, The
delay in answering the KNN query is
significantly reduced as it doesn’t
need to filter all the information
required to satisfy the query.
Future enhancement
• An efficient caching strategy and
cache replacement strategy for
distributed storage of spatial data
can further more increase the
efficiency of SBNN algorithm.