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4 Basic properties of combustible and ignitable material

An adequate and functional knowledge of the following is required in order to understand and carry out
the hazardous area classification:
 The electrical equipment involved in process
 The production process
 Safety procedures related to process
 Properties of ignitable and combustible (flammable) materials.
The electrical equipment … An attempt has been made to familiarize and update you with working
knowledge of the electrical equipments commonly used in daily life and principles of electricity in Chapter
2 of this book.
The production processes … are so many and varied. They are domain-specific and hence
out of the purview of this course.
The safety procedures … are again a full course by themselves and reference shall be made wherever
they touch our domain of discussions.
Thus, it leaves us with the task of understanding the properties of hazardous (flammable, ignitable,
combustible or explosive) materials. This chapter is devoted to this study.
A flammable material is defined in IEC 79-0 as follows:
A gas, vapour, liquid or solid that can react continuously with atmospheric oxygen
and may therefore sustain fire or explosion when such reaction is initiated by a
suitable spark, flame or hot surface.
Thus the hazardous materials of concern are,
 Gas
 Vapor/mist
 Dust/flakes or fibers.
Each of the above is having distinct properties and nature. These behave differently under similar
circumstances. Thus, their nature needs to be understood so that the classification done is accurate.

3.4.1 Flammable gases

Gas is generally found in the form of vapors at ambient temperatures and pressures. To liquefy them at
ambient conditions not only does pressure needs to be changed but also
they need to be cooled. Hence they do not generally occur in the form of liquid and, if they
are, they will rapidly vaporize once released. If sufficient ventilation is present then their
effect will be minimal once their release is stopped.
The features as described hereunder influence the approach to be adopted in respect of
electrical installation with which they come in contact:
 Relative density with respect to air. This determines how the gas will
disperse when no other influence is present.
 MIE of the gas/air mixture.
 Minimum experimental safe gap defines the burning characteristics of the
ideal gas/air mixture (which may differ from the most easily ignitable
mixture) insofar as its ability to burn through small gaps is concerned.
 Ignition temperature is the minimum temperature at which the ideal
gas/air mixture will ignite.
The release velocity of gas also plays a significant role in determining the area. As a low
velocity release of gas in poorly ventilated building or space may give rise to inefficient
mixing with air and thus gas/air mixture will vary from place to place giving rise to large and
unpredictable hazardous areas; whereas gas released at high velocity will disperse quickly
and form a more predictable zone of influence.

3.4.2 Flammable vapor

Generally, flammable vapors are similar in nature to gases. The difference being that they
can be liquefied by pressure alone and thus are more easily liquefied. The flammable
vapors are present over the flammable liquid (partial pressure in liquids) at temperatures
well below the boiling point of the liquid. As and when this vapor pressure exceeds the
lower explosive limit (LEL), an explosive atmosphere can exist although only the liquid is
released. At times, this explosive atmosphere can exist for quite sometime even after the
release of liquid stops.

3.4.3 Flammable mists

A mist is formed by release of flammable liquids at high pressure such that very fine
particles (droplets) of liquids are produced. The mist has a significant existence time, and
the particles will remain in suspension in air for a longer period. They are to be treated in
similar manner as gas and vapors for the purpose of area classification.

3.4.4 Flammable liquids

It is well known that liquid does not burn and hence this word is misnomer. Generally,
flammable liquid implies that a liquid, which at ambient temperature and pressure or
temperature and pressure at which it is handled or stored, has a vapor pressure sufficient
to liberate enough vapor to form an explosive atmosphere.

3.4.5 Combustible dusts

The dust which can be easily ignited when mixed with air is termed combustible dust. In
layer form also it is ignited easily. This is distinct from explosives and should not be
confused with it. The behavior of dust is distinctly different from gas or vapors, as when
released it is in a cloud form and then gradually settles down on surfaces in layer form.
The parameters used to identify combustible dust are,
 Cloud ignition energy: The minimum energy which is required in the
form of an arc or spark to ignite a gas cloud.
 Cloud ignition temperature: The minimum temperature at which an
ideal mixture of dust in suspension with air will ignite. This can depend on
particle size.
 Layer ignition temperature: The minimum temperature at which a
layer of the dust of specific thickness will ignite and burn.
 Particle size: The size of particle from which a dust is formed and
which has an effect on its ignition capability.

Classification of hazardous areas

This standard is based on the concept, which is accepted internationally, of dealing with the risk of fire
and explosion by area classification. This concept recognizes the differing degrees of probability with
which concentrations of flammable gas or vapour may arise in installations in terms of both the
frequency of occurrence and the probable duration of existence on each occasion.
 Zone 0
To know whether the specified area is zone 0 or not, we must answer the following questions:
 Is an ignitable atmospheric concentration of gas or vapor likely to exist continuously in the location?
 Is an ignitable atmospheric concentration of gas or vapor likely to occur in the location frequently
(greater than approximately 10% of the time) because of maintenance, repairs, or leakage?

Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is continuously present, or present for long periods over 1000 hours.
This classification usually includes locations inside vented tanks or vessels containing volatile flammable liquids;
between the inner and outer roof sections of a floating roof tank containing volatile flammable liquids; inside open
vessels, tanks and pits containing volatile flammable liquids; the interior of an exhaust duct that is used to vent ignitable
concentrations of gases or vapors; and inside inadequately ventilated enclosures containing normally venting
instruments utilizing or analyzing flammable fluids and venting to the inside of the enclosures.
 Zone 1
To know whether the specified area is zone 1 or not, we must answer the following questions:
 Is an ignitable atmospheric concentration of gas or vapor likely to exist in the location under normal
operating conditions?
 Is an ignitable atmospheric concentration of gas or vapor likely to occur in the location frequently
because of maintenance, repairs, or leakage?
 Would a failure of process, storage, transfer or similar equipment likely cause an electrical system
failure that would create an ignition source (e.g., electrical arcing) simultaneously with the release of
ignitable concentrations of gas or vapor?
 Is flammable liquid or gas handled, processed or stored in an inadequately ventilated location?
 For flammable liquids with heavier-than-air vapors, is ventilation inadequate to ventilate all areas
(particularly floor areas) where flammable vapors might collect?
 For lighter-than-air gases, are roof or wall openings inadequately arranged to ventilate all areas
(particularly ceiling areas) where gases might collect?

Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation. 10 – 1000 hours
This classification usually includes locations where volatile flammable liquids or liquefied flammable gases are
transferred from one container to another; inade- quately ventilated pump rooms for flammable gas or for vola- tile
flammable liquids; the interiors of refrigerators and freezers in which volatile flammable materials are stored in the
open, lightly stoppered, or easily ruptured containers; and other locations where ignitible concentrations of flammable
vapors or gases are likely to occur in the course of normal operation, but not classified Zone 0.

 Zone 2
To know whether the specified area is zone 2 or not, we must answer the following questions:
 In a system containing flammable liquids or gases in an adequately ventilated location, can the liquid
or gas escape from potential sources (such as atmospheric relief valves, or pump seals) as a result of an
abnormal condition?
 Is the location adjacent to a Zone 1 location without separation by vapor-tight walls or barriers?
 If positive mechanical ventilation is provided, could failure or abnormal operation of the ventilating
equipment permit ignitable concentrations of gas or vapor to enter or accumulate in the location?

Zone in which an explosive atmosphere is not likely to occur in normal operation, and if it occurs it will exist only for a
short time. 0 – 10 hour

The Zone 2 classification usually includes locations where volatile flammable liquids or flammable gases or vapors are
used, but that would become hazardous only in case of an accident or of some unusual operating condition.

 Note: In NEC zone 0, 1 is class I div 1 and for zone 2 its class I div 2 . As for the classes are class I for
flammable gas and liquid, class II for combustible dust and class III for flammable fiber.

See clause 6.5.3 & 6.5.3 in API 505

whether or not it is safe to install the unprotected fired vessel or flare tip at the location ??

d Flameproof A method of protection where the enclosure for electrical apparatus will withstand an
enclosure internal explosion of the flammable gas or vapour (for which it is designed) that may
enter it, without suffering damage and without communicating the internal
flammation to the explosive atmosphere for which it is designed, through any joints
or structural openings in the enclosure.

i Intrinsically-safe Intrinsically-safe A protection technique based upon the restriction of electrical

apparatus or energy within apparatus and in the interconnecting wiring, exposed to a potentially
system explosive atmosphere, to a level below that which can cause ignition by either
sparking or heating effects. Because of the method by which intrinsic safety is
achieved it is necessary that not only the electrical apparatus exposed to the
potentially explosive atmosphere, but also other (associated) electrical apparatus with
which it is interconnected, is suitably constructed.
e Increased safety A method of protection by which additional measures are applied to an electrical
apparatus to give increased security against the possibility of excessive temperatures
and of the occurrence of arcs and sparks during the service life of the apparatus. It
applies only to an electrical apparatus, no parts of which produce sparks or arcs or
exceed the limiting temperature* in normal service.

n Type of protection A type of protection applied to an electrical apparatus such that, in normal operation,
N it is not capable of igniting a surrounding explosive atmosphere, and a fault capable
of causing ignition is not Iikely to occur.
p Pressurization, A method of protection using the pressure of a protective gas to prevent the ingress
continuous of an explosive atmosphere to a space that may contain a source of ignition and,
dilution and where necessary, using continuous dilution of an atmosphere within a space that
pressurized rooms contains a source of emission of gas, which may form an explosive atmosphere.

s Special protection A concept for those types of electrical apparatus that, by their nature, do not comply
with the constructional or other requirements specified for apparatus with established
types of protection, but that nevertheless can be shown, where necessary by test, to be
suitable for use in hazardous areas in prescribed zones.
o Oil-immersion A method of protection where electrical apparatus is made safe by oil-immersion in
the sense that an explosive atmosphere above the oil or outside the enclosure will not
be ignited.
q Powder/sand A method of protection where the enclosure of electrical apparatus is filled with a
filling mass of granular material such that, if an arc occurs, the arc will not be liable to ignite
the outer flammable atmosphere.
m Encapsulation A type of protection in which parts that could ignite an explosive atmosphere by
either sparking or heating are enclosed in a compound in such a way that this
explosive atmosphere cannot be ignited.

Zone Type of protection

0 ia' intrinsically-safe apparatus or system
's' special protection (specifically certified for use in Zone 0)
1 Any explosion protection suitable for Zone 0 and
'd' flammable enclosure
'ib' intrinsically-safe apparatus or system
'p' pressurization, continuous dilution and pressurized rooms
'e' increased safety
's' special protection

2 Any explosion protection suitable for Zones 0 or 1 and

'N' type of protection N
'o' oil-immersion
'q' sand filling

Protection types
NOTE. Formerly it was common for an individual item of apparatus to employ one type of protection only; increasingly, apparatus
may now employ two or more types of protection. Thus a rotating machine may incorporate a motor carcass in type of protection 'd'
(flameproof enclosure) and a terminal box in type of protection 'e' (increased safety). It has become common usage to refer to
'explosion-protected' apparatus rather than to any one type of protection.

1) EXD
An enclosure in which the parts which can ignite an explosive atmosphere are placed and which can withstand
the pressure developed during an internal explosion of an explosive mixture, and which prevents the
transmission of the explosion to the explosive atmosphere surrounding the enclosure’

flameproof joint (flamepath)

place where the corresponding surfaces of two parts of an enclosure, or the conjunction of
enclosures, come together and which prevents the transmission of an internal explosion to the explosive
atmosphere surrounding the enclosure
gap of flameproof joint (i)
distance between the corresponding surfaces of a flameproof joint when the electrical
apparatus enclosure has been assembled (closed)
NOTE For cylindrical surfaces, forming cylindrical joints, the gap is the difference between the diameters of the
bore and the cylindrical component.

length of flame path “width of flameproof joint” (L)

Shortest path through a flameproof joint from the inside to the outside of an enclosure

Distance (l)
shortest path through a flameproof joint, when the width of the joint L is interrupted by holes intended for
the passage of fasteners for assembling the parts of the flameproof enclosure

continuous operating temperature (COT)

maximum temperature which ensures the stability and integrity of the material for the expected
life of the apparatus, or part, in its intended application

total internal volume of the enclosure. However, for enclosures in which the contents are
essential in service, the volume to be considered is the remaining free volume

NOTE For luminaires, the volume is determined without lamps fitted

Flanged joint Spigot joint Screwed joint cylindrical (shaft gland) joint labyrinth joint for shafts

joints will be used at junction joints are used for cover joints, cable gland and
machined surface on the cover
box covers and motor conduit entries. An adequate flamepath length
makes face-to-face contact with
enshields. is normally achieved with a thread engagement
the corresponding surface on
the base to give a Vo lu m e
gap dimension normally less ≤ 10 0 c m 3 > 10 0 c m 3
than that specified in the tables
Thre a d Thre a d
of gap dimensions when the Enga ge m e nt
Axia l Le ngth
Enga ge m e nt
Axia l Le ngth

cover is properly bolted down.

> 5 F ull > 5 F ull
junction boxes > 5m m > 8 mm
Thre a ds Thre a ds

Minimum width of joint and maximum gap for enclosures of Groups I, IIA and IIB

Maximum gap
Minimum mm (i)
width of For a volume For a volume For a volume For a volume
Type of joint joint L cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3
V  100 100 < V  500 500 < V  2 000 V > 2 000

Flanged, cylindrical 6 0,30 0,30 0,20 – – – – – – – – –

or spigot joints
9,5 0,35 0,30 0,20 0,35 0,30 0,20 – – – – – –
12,5 0,40 0,30 0,20 0,40 0,30 0,20 0,40 0,30 0,20 0,40 0,20 0,15
25 0,50 0,40 0,20 0,50 0,40 0,20 0,50 0,40 0,20 0,50 0,40 0,20

Cylindrical 6 0,30 0,30 0,20 – – – – – – – – –

joints for
shaft glands 9,5 0,35 0,30 0,20 0,35 0,30 0,20 – – – – – –
of rotating Sleeve
12,5 0,40 0,35 0,25 0,40 0,30 0,20 0,40 0,30 0,20 0,40 0,20 –
electrical bearings
machines 25 0,50 0,40 0,30 0,50 0,40 0,25 0,50 0,40 0,25 0,50 0,40 0,20
40 0,60 0,50 0,40 0,60 0,50 0,30 0,60 0,50 0,30 0,60 0,50 0,25

6 0,45 0,45 0,30 – – – – – – – – –

9,5 0,50 0,45 0,35 0,50 0,40 0,25 – – – – – –
element 12,5 0,60 0,50 0,40 0,60 0,45 0,30 0,60 0,45 0,30 0,60 0,30 0,20
25 0,75 0,60 0,45 0,75 0,60 0,40 0,75 0,60 0,40 0,75 0,60 0,30
40 0,80 0,75 0,60 0,80 0,75 0,45 0,80 0,75 0,45 0,80 0,75 0,40

NOTE Constructional values rounded according to ISO 31-0 should be taken when determining the maximum gap.

Minimum width of joint and maximum gap for Group IIC enclosures

Maximum gap
Minimum mm (i)
width of
Type of joint joint L For a volume For a volume For a volume For a volume
cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3
mm V  100 100 <V  500 500 <V  2 000 V >2 000
6 0,10 – – –
Flanged jointsa 9,5 0,10 0,10 – –
15,8 0,10 0,10 0,04 –
25 0,10 0,10 0,04 0,04

Spigot c ≥ 6 mm 12,5 0,15 0,15 0,15 –

(Figure d ≥ 0,5 L 25 0,18b 0,18b 0,18b 0,18b
2a) L=c+d 40 0,20c 0,20c 0,20c 0,20c
f  1 mm

6 0,10 – – –
Cylindrical joints 9,5 0,10 0,10 – –
Spigot joints 12,5 0,15 0,15 0,15 –
(Figure 2b) 25 0,15 0,15 0,15 0,15
40 0,20 0,20 0,20 0,20

6 0,15 – – –
Cylindrical joints for 9,5 0,15 0,15 – –
shaft glands of
rotating electrical 12,5 0,25 0,25 0,25 –
machines with rolling
element bearings 25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25
40 0,30 0,30 0,30 0,30
Flanged joints are permitted for explosive mixtures of acetylene and air only in accordance with 5.2.7.
Maximum gap of cylindrical part increased to 0,20 mm if f < 0,5 mm.
Maximum gap of cylindrical part increased to 0,25 mm if f < 0,5 mm.

NOTE The constructional values rounded according to ISO 31-0 should be taken when determining the maximum gap.

 The enclosure must, therefore, be strong enough to contain this explosion pressure, and the gaps at the
joints and threads of cable entries must be long and narrow to cool the flames/hot gases before they
reach and cause ignition of a flammable atmosphere which may exist out with the enclosure.
 Typical materials used for the construction of flameproof apparatus include cast iron, aluminum alloys,
and where corrosion resistance is required, gun metal bronze, phosphor bronze and stainless steel may
be used. Plastic materials are also used but the free internal volume must not exceed 10cm3.

Solid obstacles
When installing apparatus, care shall be exercised to prevent the flameproof flange joint approaching
nearer than the distance specified in the next table to any solid obstacle which is not part of the
apparatus, such as steelwork, walls, weatherguards, mounting brackets, pipes or other electrical
apparatus, unless the apparatus has been tested at a smaller distance of separation.
The effect is most noticeable for Group IIC enclosures with decreasing sever it for Groups II B and II
Table 3 – Minimum distance of obstruction from the flameproof flange joints
related to the gas/vapour subgroup of the hazardous area

Gas/vapour subgroup Minimum distance "mm"

IIA 10
IIB 30
IIC 40

Glands entering the enclosure

Only threaded entries are permitted for all cable glands or conduits entering flameproof
enclosures – clearance entries are not permitted.

Unused Cable or Conduit Entries

It is important that unused cable/conduit entries in flameproof enclosures are closed using appropriate
stoppers, as specified in the standards, or those supplied by the manufacturer. These must be
‘component certified’ metal stoppers – plastic stoppers are unacceptable – which are fully engaged
by 5 full threads. The construction standard specifies suitable types, examples of which are illustrated

aluminium conductors
Until further information is available, the use of aluminium conductors in Ex “d” flameproof
enclosures should be avoided in those cases where a fault leading to potentially severe arcing
involving the conductors may occur in the vicinity of a plain flanged joint. Adequate protection may
be afforded by conductor and terminal insulation that prevents the occurrence of faults or by using
enclosures with spigot or threaded joints.


results of an ignition, in a compartment or subdivision of an enclosure, of a gas mixture pre -

compressed, for example, due to a primary ignition in another compartment or subdivision .
If a flammable mixture is compressed prior to ignition, the resulting explosion will be considerably higher
than if the same mixture was ignited at normal atmospheric pressure.

An explosion at one side of an obstacle pre-compresses the flammable mixture at the other side,
resulting in a secondary explosion that can reach an explosion pressure around three times that of the
first or normal explosion pressure.

Manufacturers, guided by relevant construction standards, must ensure that, in any cross- section within
an enclosure, there is adequate free space (typically 20 – 25% of the total cross-section) around any
potential obstruction, which may be a large component or a number of components. This will ensure
that pressure piling is kept under control.

In rotating electrical machines, sections with appreciable free volume normally exist at each end within
the main frame of the machine. These sections are linked by the airgap between the stator and rotor
cores as diagram below, an explosion in section ‘1’ must be prevented from migrating to, and causing
ignition of the flammable mixture in section ‘2’ which will have been pressurised by the initial explosion.
The airgap, therefore, also acts as a flamepath.


GASKETS OR ‘O’ RINGS: gaskets to prevent the ingress of water and/or dust.
The gaskets etc. must be an integral part of the original design, they cannot be added at a later date
to an enclosure manufactured without gaskets.

 In general, the use of Ex ‘d’ flameproof equipment without the use of gaskets or seals will only provide
protection up to IP54

It has been established that the ability of enclosures to withstand the maximum explosion pressure is not
impaired if the gaps are reduced or sealed by suitable methods. It is therefore permissible to seal a joint,
e.g. for weather protection.

From IEC 60079-14

Protection of flameproof joints

Flameproof joints shall be protected against corrosion. The gaps shall be protected against ingress of
water. The use of gaskets is only permissible when specified in the apparatus documentation. Joints shall
not be treated with substances which harden in use.
NOTE 1 A suitable protection method for joints consists of the application of non-setting grease or anti-corrosive agents. Silicone based
greases are often suitable for this purpose but care needs to be taken concerning use with gas detectors. It cannot be too strongly emphasized
that extreme care should be exercised in the selection and application of these substances to ensure the retention of the non-setting
characteristics and to allow subsequent separation of the joint surfaces.

NOTE 2 Non-hardening grease-bearing textile tape may also be employed outside of a straight flanged joint but only where the apparatus
is used in conjunction with gases allocated to group IIA. The tape should be restricted to one layer surrounding all parts of the flange joint
with a short overlap. New tape should be applied whenever existing tape is disturbed.

NOTE 3 Non-hardening grease-bearing textile tape may be applied to straight flanged joints of group IIB enclosures but should not be
applied to group IIC (or IIB + H2) enclosures used in conjunction with gases allocated to group IIC. When tape is applied to a group IIB
enclosure, the gap between the joint surfaces should not exceed 0,1 mm, irrespective of the flange width.

NOTE 4 Flanged faces should not be painted before assembly. Painting of the enclosure after complete assembly is permitted.


This standard specifies the limitations of use for non- hardening grease bearing textile tape (typically
Denso tape) as detailed below and non- setting grease or compounds Silicone based greases are
often suitable for this purpose.

The use of non-setting grease on the machined surfaces of flamepaths has two advantages since,
in addition to providing an additional level of ingress protection, it also inhibits the formation of rust
on these surfaces.

NOTE. The use of silicone based compounds for the sealing of gas detector heads and associated fittings is
not recommended because of the poisoning effect of silicones on most detector elements. The manufacturer
of the gas detector units should be consulted for advice on suitable sealing compounds.

For Flameproof equipment, the limitations for the use of non-hardening tape as specified in BS
EN60079-14 are as follows:

a. Non-hardening tape maybe applied around the flamepaths of apparatus with

flanged joints allocated to group IIA applying one layer only with a short overlap.

b. For group IIB apparatus, one layer with a short overlap may be applied around the
flamepaths of apparatus with flanged joints, but only if the gap is less than 0.1mm
regardless of the joint width.

Note: The Code of Practise BS 5345: Part 3 (withdrawn but a relevant source of information
for older installations) recommended that expert advice be sought when considering
the use of non-hardening tape on group IIB or IIC equipment installed in locations
containing group IIB gases or vapours.

c. Non-hardening tape must not be used on equipment marked IIC (or IIB +
H2) installed in locations containing group IIC gases or vapours.

d. The machined surfaces of flanged joints must not be painted prior to assembly.
However, an enclosure may be painted after assembly. as surface coating can
reduce the effectiveness of the flamepath and add an electrostatic risk due to
Do Not exceed grease on fixing cover bolts of flanged joints

Direct and indirect entry

For indirect entry of the site wiring into flameproof enclosures, the apparatus will generally have been certified with
flameproof bushings through the wall of the enclosure and the parts of the bushings outside the flameproof enclosure
will be protected. Normally the exposed part of the bushings will be within a terminal box which will either be
another flameproof enclosure or will be protected by type of protection 'e'.

Thermoplastic, thermosetting or elastomeric cables

having extruded bedding and which are substantially compact and circular may enter a flameproof enclosure by any of the
following methods:
 cable termination box with cable entry devices certified as part of the apparatus when tested with a sample of the particular
type of cable;
 plugs, complete with suitable cable gland, which engage with sockets which are certified as part of the apparatus;
 certified flameproof cable glands;
 other certified means which maintain the integrity of the flameproof enclosure.

Electrical Protection
Flameproof enclosures are tested for their ability to withstand internal gas explosions only, they are
not capable of withstanding the energy which may be released as a result of an internal short-circuit.
In order to avoid invalidation of the certification, it is important that properly rated/calibrated electrical
protection, e.g. fuses and/or circuit breakers, are utilised.

Modification of Flameproof Enclosures

Flameproof enclosures are normally supplied complete with all internal components fitted and
certified as a single entity by a recognised test authority. The testing procedure will take into
consideration the free internal volume after all the components have been fitted, the temperature
rise (determined by the maximum power dissipation), creepage and clearance distances, and the
rise in pressure as a result of an internal explosion using a gas/air mixture in its most explosive
The certification, therefore, “seals” the design of the apparatus so that any unauthorised
modifications will effectively invalidate the approval/certification. Modifications will modify the
original test results recorded by the test/certification authority and, consequently, the following
points should be observed.

a. Replacement components should always be exactly the same as the original

specified components in order to avoid infringement of the certification. For example,
a component larger or smaller than the original will affect the internal geometry of
the enclosure. Pressure piling is a possibility if a larger component is fitted, and
increased volume will result if a smaller component is fitted.
b. Adding components is also forbidden because of the possibility of increased
explosion pressure as a result of pressure piling.
c. The removal of components should also be avoided since an increase in the free
internal volume will result. The original test results, prior to certification, would be
compromised as a result of a modification such as this.
d. Drilling and tapping of cable gland/conduit entries should only be carried out
by the manufacturer of the enclosure, or his approved agent. The threads of the
entries are required to be compatible with those of cable glands or conduit in terms
of type of thread, thread pitch and clearance tolerance since flamepaths exist at
these points.
e. Correct alignment of the threaded entry is also important since the flamepath
length at one side will be reduced if the cable gland or conduit is not fitted
perpendicular to the face of the enclosure.
f. Gaskets can only be replaced; they must not be added retrospectively if not included as
part of the original design.
g. The use of unauthorised sealants should also be avoided when it is required to maintain or
improve the IP rating.

Is there any special recommendations for the type of cable which will be used with EXd enclosures ???

How can we assure the bolt size is the same as the test was originally conducted and can we replace the bolts
if they get rusty ???
Are there special precautions for motor rewinding??

Plugs and sockets

couplers fixed together by means of special fasteners conforming to 11.1 and which bear a label with
the warning

Type testing
If an enclosure is designed to take different types of apparatus and components, with the detailed
mounting arrangements declared by the manufacturer, the enclosure may be tested empty, provided
that this is the most severe condition for explosion pressure development.
Joints of removable parts of flameproof enclosures shall be tested in the worst-case assembly

1. Determination of explosion pressure (reference pressure)

The absolute pressure of the test mixture (P), in bar, shall be calculated by the following
formula, using Ta, min in °C:

P = [293 / (Ta,min + 273)] bar

Each test consists of igniting an explosive mixture inside the enclosure and measuring the
pressure developed by the explosion.

The mixture shall be ignited by one or more ignition sources. However, when the
enclosure contains a device which produces sparks capable of igniting the
explosive mixture, this device may be used to produce the explosion
The pressure developed during the explosion shall be determined and recorded during
each test. The locations of the ignition sources as well as those of the pressure
recording devices are left to the discretion of the testing station to find the combination
which produces the highest pressure. When detachable gaskets are provided by the
manufacturer, these shall be fitted to the enclosure under test.

The number of tests to be made and the explosive mixture to be used, in volumetric
ratio with air and at atmospheric pressure, are as follows

– electrical apparatus of Group I: three tests with (9,8  0,5) % methane;

– electrical apparatus of Group IIA: three tests with (4,6 ± 0,3) % propane;
– electrical apparatus of Group IIB: three tests with (8 ± 0,5) % ethylene;
– electrical apparatus of Group IIC: three tests with (14 ± 1) % acetylene and three
tests with (31 ± 1) % hydrogen.

 Rotating electrical machines shall be tested at rest and, when the testing station
considers it necessary, when running. When they are tested running, they may be
driven either by their own source of power or by an auxiliary motor. The speed
shall be between 90 % and 100 % of the rated speed of the machine.
 In cases where pressure-piling may occur during the test of flameproof enclosures,
the tests shall be made at least five times with each gas as above for the applicable
gas group. For Group IIB, they shall afterwards be repeated at least five times with
a mixture of (24 ± 1) % hydrogen/methane (85/15).
NOTE There is presumption of pressure-piling when
– either the pressure values obtained during a series of tests, deviate from one to another by a factor
of 1,5, or
– the pressure rise time is less than 5 ms.

Double marking can be applied for a specific gas and for the next lowest group to the
group of this gas (for example, IIB + H2), if the enclosure has been submitted not
only to the tests for the specific gas, but also to those necessary for the lower group.
Apparatus according to IEC 60079-1 will be marked with apparatus group IIA, IIB, IIB + H2 or IIC. 
Apparatus marked ‘IIB + H2’ should be installed as IIC apparatus.

2. Overpressure test
This test shall be made using either of the following methods, which are considered as
Overpressure test – First method (static)

The relative pressure applied shall be

– 1,5 times the reference pressure, with a minimum of 3,5 bar, or

– 4 times the reference pressure for enclosures not subject to routine overpressure
testing, or
– at the following pressures, when reference pressure determination has been

Volume (cm3) Group Pressure

≤10 I, IIA, IIB, IIC 10
>10 I 10
>10 IIA, IIB 15
>10 IIC 20

The period of application of the pressure shall be at least 10 s but shall not

exceed 60 s. The test is made once.

The overpressure test shall be considered satisfactory if the test result is in compliance with
and if there is no leakage through the walls of the enclosure.

3. Test for non-transmission of an internal ignition

The enclosure is placed in a test chamber. The same explosive mixture is introduced into
the enclosure and the test chamber, at atmospheric pressure.

The flamepath lengths (engagement) of threaded joints of the test specimen(s) shall be

The test od Ex d is performed while the gland is in the

When have we use sealing compound for the gland of Ex d ??

Glanding Ex d

Cable glands for use with flameproof enclosures may be selected by following the procedure recommended in BS
EN60079-14 as detailed below.

The method of entry must be in compliance with one of the following:

(a) A cable entry device, which meets the requirements of IEC 60079-1, certified as part of the flameproof
enclosure when tested with a section of the cable intended to be used.
(b) A flameproof cable entry device in which a sealing ring is an integral part of the construction and used
with cables manufactured from thermoplastic, thermosetting or elastomeric materials. The cable must be
compact and circular, have extruded bedding and have non-hygroscopic fillers in the case of a filled cable.
(c) Mineral insulated cable and a suitable flameproof cable entry device.
(d) Flameproof stopping box or sealing chamber, which are either specified in the apparatus certification
document or have component approval, having cable entry devices suitable for the cables intended for
use. The compound or seals in these devices are required to provide sealing around the individual cable
cores. The stopping box or sealing chamber must be fitted to the apparatus at the cable entry.
(e) Flameproof entry devices, typically barrier glands, with compound filled seals or similar arrangements
which seal around the individual cores of the cable;

Flameproof stopping box or sealing chamber (with conduit for sealing pouring)

How to determine the appropriate distance between the enclosure and the stopping box?

2) EX e
A method of protection by which additional measures are applied to electrical apparatus to give increased security against
the possibility of excessive temperatures and of the occurrence of arcs and sparks on the internal or the external parts of
the apparatus during the service life. It applies only to electrical apparatus rated not more than 11KV, no parts of which
produce sparks or arcs or exceed the limiting temperature in normal service.

Increased safety is a technique that may be applied only to electrical apparatus that does not contain normally arcing or
sparking devices, or hot surfaces that might cause ignition. Measures are applied to reduce the possibility of failure, and
hence arcing or sparking of the normally non-sparking parts. These measures include:
a. the use of insulation materials with a high degree of integrity;
b. the temperature de-rating of insulation materials;
c. enhanced creepage and clearance distances;
d. particular attention to terminal design;
e. Enclosures containing bare live parts will have a degree of protection of at least IP54, whereas enclosures
containing insulated parts only will have a degree of protection of at least IP44. Rotating electrical machinery
(except for terminal boxes and bare conducting parts) installed in clean environments and regularly supervised by
trained personnel needs to be protected by an enclosure with a degree of protection of only IP20. The restriction
of application will be marked on the machine;
f. impact test requirements for the enclosure tested to 4 or 7 joules impact, If we drop it amd it doesn’t damage it
meet 7 J requirements;
g. In applications where there is a likelihood of solvent or corrosive agencies entering the enclosure in quantities that
could cause deterioration of the insulation, consideration should be given to the use of a higher degree of protection
than that recommended above.
h. in some cases (e.g. motors) the control of maximum temperatures;
i. in the case of motors, requirements for air gaps 'and running clearances (e.g. on fans).

In addition, measures are applied to ensure that no surface (internal or external) exceeds the maximum temperature
associated with the temperature class of the apparatus.

The apparatus does not contain normally arcing or sparking parts. If arcing or sparking parts are essential to the operation
of the apparatus, safety is assured by the use of a suitable type of protection for those parts, e.g. type of protection 'd' :
flameproof enclosure.
Examples of apparatus that may be protected by multi types of protection are as follows.
a. A switch that is an approved flameproof component is provided with increased safety terminals and mounted within
an increased safety enclosure EX de .
b. A flameproof motor that is provided with an increased safety terminal box EX de.

The shortest distance through air between two conducting parts.
Clearances between bare conductive parts at different potentials shall be as given in table-1 IEC 60079-7
with a minimum value for external connections of 3 mm.
Creepage distance.
The shortest distance between two conducting parts along the surface of the insulating parts.

The leakage current which passes across the contaminated surface of an insulator between live
terminals, or live terminals and earth.

Comparative Tracking Index:

The numerical value of maximum voltage, in volts at which an insulation material withstands

limiting temperature.
The maximum permissible temperature for apparatus or parts of apparatus. It is determined by:
a) the danger of ignition of the explosive gas-air mixture;
b) the thermal stability of the materials used. The lower temperature is the one to be taken into consideration and is
the critical limiting temperature.

Difference between limiting Temp. and T class and if there are similar why there is two separate definition ?

Conductor terminations
 The conductors are to be connected directly to terminals they should be clamped without reducing their cross
section in such a manner that they are secured from loosening or twisting, and so that the contact pressure is
maintained permanently. Alternatively, they may be connected indirectly by means of cable lugs or closed spade
terminations that incorporate mechanical means for securing the conductor.
 Care should be taken to ensure that loose strands from stranded conductors are avoided in the installation of
conductors in order that the specified creepage and clearance distances are maintained.
 Certain terminals such as slot types may permit the entry of more than one conductor. Where more than one
conductor is connected to the same terminal, care should be taken to ensure that each conductor is adequately
clamped. Unless permitted by the certification documents, two conductors of different cross sections should not
be connected into one terminal unless they are first secured within a single compression-type ferrule.
 To avoid the risk of short circuits between adjacent conductors in terminal blocks the insulation of each conductor
should be maintained up to the metal of the terminal. Connections within electrical apparatus and forming an
integral part of that apparatus shall not be subject to undue mechanical stress. Only the following means for the
connection of conductors are permitted:
Screwed fasteners with means of locking, crimping, soldering “provided that the conductors are not supported
by the soldered connection alone”, brazing& welding
 shall also be suitable for the effective connection of conductors at least two ISO wire-sizes smaller.
NOTE 1 Attention is drawn to the use of aluminium wire because of the difficulties associated with controlling critical
creepage and clearance distances with the application of anti-oxidant materials. The connection of aluminium wire to
external terminals may be accomplished by the use of suitable bi-metallic ferrule connections providing a copper
connection to the terminal

single compression-type ferrule terminal closed spade terminal

The terminals are de-rated so that the maximum current for Increased Safety applications is nearly
half that for standard industrial applications as illustrated in the following table for enclosures. This
de-rating, along with other considerations, ensures that internal and external surface temperatures
are kept within prescribed limits. The table below also shows the maximum conductor size for each
terminal type.

Terminal Increased Safety Maximum Industrial Maximum

Conductor Size
Type Current (amps) Current (amps)
SAK 2.5 2.5 15 27
SAK 4 4 21 36
SAK 6 6 26 47
SAK 10 10 37 65
SAK 16 16 47 87
SAK 35 35 75 145
SAK 70 70 114 220

Estimation of Terminal Population

The number of terminals which can be installed in a given size of enclosure is limited. Several
methods have been developed by manufacturers for this purpose. These are:

Enclosure Factor:
in which the terminal content is assessed by dividing the ‘enclosure factor’ by the certified current
rating of a given terminal.

Load Limit:
Similar to ‘enclosure factor’

Kelvin Rating:
Normally used for high current applications and apparatus manufactured to BS 4683 Part 4 and
BS 5501 Part 6. In this method, enclosures and terminals are assigned a temperature rating.
Enclosures will normally be limited to a temperature rise of 40K for a T6 temperature rating, but
the temperature for the terminals will be dependent on their type, rated current, size of associated
conductor, and the size of enclosure in which they are installed. This involves the use of tables
which are provided by the manufacturer. Once the terminal ‘K’ rating has been established, it is
divided into the ‘K’ rating for the enclosure to give the number of terminals of one type which may
be installed.

Max Dissipated Power:

This is a method which will replace the current ‘load limit’ method and applies to apparatus
manufactured to BS 5501 Part 6 and BS EN50019. In this method, enclosures are assigned a ‘watts
dissipation’ rating, but the rating of the terminals is determined by use of a unique table (provided by
the manufacturer) for the enclosure. This table provides the ‘watts dissipation’ of the terminal through
consideration of conductor size and load current. The terminal content is determined by dividing the
‘watts dissipation’ value for the terminal into that for the enclosure.

Another method used by manufacturer’s is to specify the maximum current per pole and also the
maximum current per mm2.

Luminaires will generally be marked with the normal temperature classification (T class). In some cases, however, in
addition to the temperature classification, the luminaire will be marked with the name of a gas or vapour that has an
ignition temperature below the maximum for the temperature class. This is because measurements have established that
the lowest temperatures at which ignition will occur inside luminaires are considerably higher than the ignition
temperatures of gas and vapours measured in accordance with standard. Thus the temperature inside a luminaire need not
comply with the limiting temperature if the maximum surface temperature of the light source is at least 50 °C below the
lowest temperature at which ignition has been shown by test to take place inside the fitting under conditions most likely to
cause ignition of those gases and vapours for which the fitting is intended to be used.

Temperature relaxation

Restrictions on using elastomeric cable gland

Wiring systems
 The wiring systems for increased safety apparatus should be either cables drawn into metallic (steel) conduit or
one of the types of cable described below as being suitable for use in Zone 1.
 The temperature of increased safety apparatus will not normally exceed 70 °C at the cable entry point, and 80 °C
at the branching point of the cores (with a reference ambient temperature of 40 °C). Higher temperatures are
permissible provided that conductors are used that are suitably insulated for the operating temperature. In these
cases the method or type of wiring or cabling to be used will be specified and marked on the apparatus, or the
marking will refer to the certification or approval documents
 It is necessary to seal between the conduit and the enclosure (e.g. by means of a sealing washer or thread sealant)
and between the conductors and the conduit {e.g. by means of a sealing device).
 The connection of cables to increased safety apparatus must be effected by means of glands appropriate to the type
of cable used and that incorporate a suitable sealing component to maintain degree of protection IP54 of the
terminal enclosure. To meet this requirement it is necessary to provide a seal between the gland and the enclosure.
Metal screwed glands are recommended for cable entries.
 Plastics screwed glands may also be used, provided these are component approved. In some cases, plastics glands
are integral with, or sealed to, the enclosure.
 Unused cable entries should be closed with plugs that maintain degree of protection IP54 of the enclosure and
require the use of a tool for insertion and removal.

Restrictions on drilling inside Ex e enclosures

Test Criteria - Comparative Tracking Index (CTI)

The Comparative Tracking Index (CTI) test criteria are given in the table below. Four grades of materials ‘a’, ‘b’,
‘c’ and ‘d’ are considered, the highest quality material being ‘a’ which is subjected to the greatest number of
drops of electrolyte falling between the test electrodes, and the highest voltage applied across the electrodes
from the variable voltage source. Each material must withstand the specified number of drops of the electrolyte
at the specified voltage for it to be acceptable.

Thus, the combination of high quality materials and good design, which incorporates specified creepage and
clearance distances, ensures that Increased Safety terminals have a greater resistance to tracking to prevent
arcing or sparking.

Grade of Material C.T.I. Test Voltage Number of Drops

a - 600 > 100
b 500 500 > 50
c 380 380 > 50
d 175 175 > 50

Material Group and how can we evaluate it ???

Increased Safety EEx e / Ex e Motors

These motors are similar in appearance to standard industrial motors and inspection of the certification/rating
plate is usually necessary to identify them. These motors are not designed to withstand an internal explosion
and hence have special design features to prevent arcs, sparks and excessive surface temperatures occurring
both internally and externally. The principal design features are:

1. Special attention to airgap concentricity and clearance of all rotating parts.

2. Impact testing of motor frame.
3. Temperature rise 10 °C lower than normal.
4. T2 or T3 are generally surface temperature limitation.
5. Compliance with tE characteristic.
6. Special terminal block with specific creepage/clearance distances and locking devices on terminals.
7. Minimum ingress protection to IP54.

Under stall (locked rotor) conditions, the rotor surface temperature will normally increase faster than that of the
stator windings, and hence, the T-rating applies to both internal and external surface temperatures.
Under fault conditions, the motor must trip within the tE time specified on the motor data plate.
tE time
‘the time taken to reach the limiting temperature from the temperature reached in normal service when carrying
the starting current IA at maximum ambient temperature.

In the graph shown below ‘OA’ represents the maximum ambient temperature and ‘OB’ the temperature
reached at maximum rated current. If the rotor locks as a result of a fault, the temperature will rise rapidly
towards ‘C’ as shown in part 2 of the graph, which is less than the T rating of the motor. The time taken to reach
‘C’ from ‘B’ is known as the tE time, and during fault conditions the motor protective device must trip the motor
before this time is elapsed.

Increased safety motors are intended for continuous duty only, i.e. they are unsuitable for applications which
require frequent stopping and starting and/or long run-up times.

Overload Protection
In order to meet the requirements, inverse-time delay overload protective devices shall be such that not only is the
motor current monitored, but the stalled motor will also be disconnected within the time tE stated on the marking plate.
As the voltage dips during a direct on-line start, the starting current decreases and the run-up time increases.
Although these effects may tend to cancel out for small voltage dips, for voltages less than 85 % of UN during start-
up, the motor manufacturer should declare the associated limitations on start-up.
Motors may be limited by the manufacture to a fixed number of start attempts from a running temperature condition. NOTE
3 Protection relay
The protection relay must have the following specifications
a) monitor the current in each phase;
b) provide close overload protection to the fully loaded condition of the motor;
c) have an allowance for tolerance, drift and the thermal condition of the motor; The tolerance of
the tripping time should be within ±20 %.
Inverse-time delay overload protection relays may be acceptable for machines of duty type S1 which have easy
and infrequent starts. Where the starting duty is arduous or starting is required frequently, the protection
device should be selected so that it ensures limiting temperatures are not exceeded under the declared
operational parameters of
the machine. Where the starting time exceeds 1,7t E, an inverse-time relay would be expected to trip the
machine during start-up.

Winding temperature sensors

In order to meet the requirements, winding temperature sensors associated with protective devices shall be
adequate for the thermal protection of the machine even when the machine is stalled. The use of embedded
temperature sensors to control the limiting temperature of the machine is only permitted if such use is specified
in the machine documentation. The type of built-in temperature sensors and associated protective device will
be identified on the machine.
Marking requirements.
1. rated voltage and rated current or rated power;
NOTE For apparatus at other than unity power factor, both values should be marked.
2. such additional information as may be required for the correct operation of apparatus, e.g. rated voltage and current;
starting current ratio IA/IN , and time tE; thermal current limit lth• dynamic current limit ldyn; maximum lamp rating,
dimensions and type of lamp (for luminaires);
3. for general purpose connection or junction boxes, the rating expressed as either the rated maximum dissipated power,
or the set of values comprising for each terminal size, the permissible number and size of conductor and the
maximum current;
4. restrictions in use, e.g. for use in clean rooms only;
5. special protection devices if necessary, for example, for direct temperature control of severe starting conditions.
6. Duplicate marking may also be fixed inside the enclosure of the apparatus, particularly where the marking is
normally located on a removable cover plate which could be interchanged with a similar component from an
apparatus that might have dissimilar characteristics, or which may be used under alternative installation conditions,
e.g. alternative load ratings.
7. In the case of plastics enclosures, in some cases a warning label may be attached to the apparatus to the effect that
certain solvents may attack the plastics material.
8. Apparatus protected by a type of protection other than 'e' (for example 'd') but having a terminal box with type of
protection 'e' would have the case marked in accordance with type of protection 'd' standard and the terminal box
marked in accordance with type of protection 'e' standard.

3) EX p

The technique of preventing the ingress of the external atmosphere, which may be explosive, to enclosures
by maintaining a protective gas therein at a pressure above that of the external atmosphere. Components
which are a source of ignition, i.e. they produce arcs/sparks or hot surfaces, are permitted within the
enclosure and, clearly, safety is dependent on the maintenance of the safe gas. The safe gas is the medium
which ‘segregates’ the flammable gas from the source of ignition, and its continued presence will be
confirmed by an approved/certified ‘fail- safe’ control/monitoring system. A slight over-pressure is usually
adequate to maintain safe operation.

continuous dilution,
The technique of preventing the formation of an explosive gas/air mixture in an enclosure by the supply of
a protective gas at such a rate that the concentration of the gas/air mixture is always kept below the lower
explosive limit.

The passing of a quantity of protective gas through the pressurized enclosures and ducts, before the application
of voltage to the electrical apparatus, so that any explosive atmosphere in the pressurized enclosure is reduced
to a concentration significantly below the lower explosive limit. The standards specify that the minimum quantity
of the safe gas required to achieve adequate purging is equivalent to 5 times the internal volume of the enclosure
and associated ducting. The purge duration will be controlled by a timer in association with a flow-rate sensor in
the control circuit. If loss of pressure occurs during operation, the control system must automatically purge the
enclosure again.

pressurization by circulation of protective gas.

A method of maintaining an over-pressure within a pressurized enclosure with continuous flow of the protective
gas through the enclosure after purging.

 Pressurization is intended to exclude the external atmosphere from an enclosure so that the exposure of apparatus within
that enclosure to a flammable atmosphere is prevented.
 Continuous dilution is intended to maintain the atmosphere inside an enclosure at a concentration below the lower
explosive limit of the flammable atmosphere that may be emitted into that enclosure.
 Both pressurization and continuous dilution, either separately or together, permit electrical apparatus to be installed in
hazardous areas when the use of other types of protection is impracticable or undesirable, e.g. large rotating machines
which may be uneconomic if made to type of protection 'd' or 'e', and also where the cooling requirement for a machine
necessitates the introduction of cooling gas from an external source, the designer may conveniently use that cooling gas
as a protective gas as a pressurized machine would be significantly lighter than a flameproof machine of the same rating.

The European and IEC standards require a minimum level of ingress protection for pressurized enclosures to
IP 4X but, not all enclosures are suitable for pressurization. An enclosure may have ingress protection to IP54
but, it’s lid seal, for example, is designed to prevent entry of contaminants and not to maintain an over-
pressure within the enclosure. Enclosures must, therefore, be appropriately designed, i.e. be strong enough
to withstand impact tests and the internal over-pressure with regard to the strength of the walls, and have
effective and correctly orientated door seals. The enclosure and its associated ducts must be capable of
withstanding, in normal operation, an over-pressure equivalent to 1.5 times the maximum working over-
pressure declared by the manufacturer. Alternatively, the enclosure must be capable of withstanding the
maximum over-pressure obtained when all outlet ducts are closed. In either instance the minimum
overpressure will be 2 mBar (200 Pa).

The entry of the inlet duct must be positioned in a non-hazardous location (except where cylinders provide the protective gas)
and this location must be periodically reviewed in case plant modifications have altered its classification. The exhaust duct,
ideally, should have its outlet situated in a non-hazardous location in which there are no sources of ignition, but may be located
in a hazardous location if a spark/particle arrestor is fitted. The table below offers guidance in this respect.

Ducts should be located in non-hazardous areas as far as possible. Where inlet or outlet ducts pass through hazardous areas,
they are required to be free of leakage if there is a possibility that the pressure of the protective gas is below the minimum
requirement specified in the standards or that specified by the manufacturer.

It is essential that both the inlet and outlet ducts are arranged in such a way that they cannot be obstructed causing restriction
of the flow of the protective gas. The ducts should also have adequate mechanical strength, be located where accidental
damage is unlikely and have adequate protection against corrosion.

In cases where the density of the hazardous gas differs from that of the protective gas, advantage should be taken
of the displacement effect to secure efficient purging.

Where the protective gas is heavier than the hazardous Where the protective gas is lighter than the hazardous gas,
gas, the protective gas inlet should be at the bottom of the the protective gas inlets at the top of the
pressurized enclosure and the purging outlets at the top. pressurized enclosure and the purging outlets at the bottom.

Zone in which exhaust duct is Type of apparatus within enclosure

located A B
Zone 2 Required Not required
Zone 1 Required * Required *
A: apparatus which may produce ignition-capable sparks or particles in normal operation.

B: apparatus which does not produce ignition-capable sparks or particles in normal operation.

* A device to prevent rapid entry of a flammable gas into the enclosure upon loss of pressure should be
fitted if the surface temperature of apparatus within the enclosure is likely to be a source of ignition.
Variations of Pressurisation

Several variations of pressurised systems are available. These are:

a. Static pressurisation.
b. Pressurisation with continuous flow;
c. Pressurisation with leakage compensation;
d. Pressurisation with continuous dilution;

 Where conduit is used to provide mechanical protection for wiring to a system, it may be used also to supply the
protective gas but in such cases it should be ensured that cable seals, particularly those made with compound, do not
affect the flow of protective gas.
 Where air is used as the protective gas, the source should be located in a non-hazardous area and usually in such a
position as to reduce the risk of contamination. Consideration should be given to the effect of nearby structures on air
movement and of changes in the prevailing wind direction and velocity. The location of the air intake should be reviewed
periodically, particularly after plant alterations.
 The temperature of the protective gas should not normally exceed 40 °C at the inlet of the enclosure. {In special
circumstances a higher temperature may be permitted or a lower temperature may be required, in which case the
temperature should be marked on the pressurized enclosure.)

Types of pressurisation

three types of pressurisation (px, py and pz), their selection being dependent on the zone of use, the likelihood of an internal
release of gas, and the presence/absence of an internal source of ignition. Type px establishes non-hazardous conditions within an
enclosure when the enclosure is located in Zone 1, or Group 1 for mining applications. Type py establishes a Zone 2 classification
within the enclosure when the enclosure is located in Zone 1. Type pz establishes a non- hazardous classification within the
enclosure when the enclosure is located in Zone 2.
The minimum over-pressure specified in the latest standard BS EN60079-2 is 1.5 mBar or 50 Pa for types px and py, and 0.25 mBar
or 25 Pa for type pz. Previous standards specified 0.5 mBar or 50 Pa. The safe gas used to provide the over-pressure will normally
be air but an inert gas such as nitrogen may also be used in certain instances.

Design criteria Type px Type py Type pz

Safety device to detect loss of
Pressure sensor Pressure sensor Indicator or pressure sensor
minimum overpressure
Timing device, pressure
Safety device(s) to verify purge
sensor, and flow sensor at Time and flow marked Time and flow marked
Safety device for a door or cover that
Warning Warning No requirement
requires a tool to open
Safety device for a door or cover that
(no internal hot parts) (no internal hot parts) Warning
does not require a tool to open
Safety device for hot internal parts Alarm and stop flow of Not applicable for protection type Alarm (normal release not
when there is a containment system flammable substance since internal hot parts not permitted)

Refer to tables in all EX manuals pages “123,124”

Internal release
When flammable gas or vapour is released within apparatus, the duration of the release and the hazard produced may be greater
than that produced by the same release in the open air unless special precautions are taken. All types of internal release of
flammable material are grouped into four categories.
1. Normal release

None No release of flammable gas or vapour.

A release of flammable gas or vapour which is

Limited limited to a value which can be diluted to well
below the lower explosive limit (LEL).

2. Abnormal release

A release of flammable gas or vapour which is

Limited limited to a value which can be diluted to well
below the lower explosive limit (LEL).

A release of flammable gas or vapour which is

Unlimited not limited to a value which can be diluted to well
below the lower explosive limit (LEL).

a. The manufacturers name, type number, serial number..
b. Identification of the method of protection used i.e. the symbol Ex p, followed by the pressurisation category, i.e. px, py, or pz.
c. The temperature class or maximum surface temperature of unprotected surfaces.
d. The maximum acceptable inlet temperature of the protective gas.
e. The protective gas (when a gas other than air is used)
f. The minimum operating pressure and, where applicable, the minimum rate of flow of the protective gas.
g. The free or net internal volume of the pressurized enclosure and the minimum volume of protective gas necessary for purging. the time
delay (if any) following de-energization after which the pressurized enclosure may be opened for maintenance or other purposes and
must display the warning: “Do not open when energised”, as when a pressurised enclosure contains components which have hot surfaces,
or are capable of storing energy, e.g. capacitors, doors/covers should be fitted with a warning notice which states the time delay after
isolation of the electrical supply to the components before opening the doors/ covers.
h. The test station certificate number;
i. The temperature or temperature range of the safe gas at the inlet duct.

4) EX o
‘A type of protection in which the electrical apparatus or parts of the electrical apparatus are immersed in protective liquid in
such a way that an explosive atmosphere, which may be above the liquid or outside the enclosure, cannot be ignited.’
This condition was considered to be undesirable for apparatus intended for use in hazardous locations, which may explain why,
until recently, its use was limited to Zone 2 in the UK. The revised standards, however, have stricter specifications and this type
of protection is now permitted in Zone 1.
The enclosure ingress protection will be IP66.

5) EX q
‘A type of protection in which the parts capable of igniting an explosive atmosphere are fixed in position and completely surrounded
by a filling inert material to prevent the ignition of an external explosive atmosphere.’
6) EX m
‘A type of protection whereby parts that are capable of igniting an explosive atmosphere by either sparking or heating are
enclosed in a compound in such a way that the explosive atmosphere cannot be ignited under operating or installation

With this type of protection, the encapsulant, typically a thermosetting, thermoplastic, epoxy resin or elastomeric material,
establishes a complete barrier between any surrounding flammable gas or vapour and the source of ignition within the

this method of protection is unsuitable where components have exposed moving parts. Very small components which have
enclosed moving parts, e.g. a reed relay, may be protected by encapsulation.

The apparatus is required to remain safe with one internal fault for the level of protection ’mb’ and two faults for the level of
protection ‘ma’. This applies to a short-circuit occurring in any component, failure of any component, or a fault in the printed
circuit boards.

Sealing in Ex d and Ex m as both of them is explosion containment technology

7) EX s
A hand torch is a typical example of apparatus certified under Special Protection. Thorough testing will have established that
the construction is robust enough to withstand a specified impact without causing, for example, a short-circuit of the battery,
and breakage of the bulb, its holder and the glass cover are unlikely.
A further requirement is that opening of the torch, i.e. to replace the battery, is only possible with the aid of a special tool, which
is required to be kept in a non-hazardous area.

Another known example of apparatus certified under Special Protection Ex s is a 6.6 kV poly-phase cage induction pump motor in
which the method of explosion protection is basically dependent on the interior of the motor being completely filled with water. Any
free space within the motor is occupied by water, and hence, the entry of a flammable gas is prevented. Clearly, it is imperative that
the interior of the motor remains completely full of water at all times, and this is ensured by a header tank to compensate for
expansion due to thermo-cycling. The motor, which drives a pump, is intended for use in Zone 1.

8) EX i

Article NEC 504 pages 782-788

Intrinsic Safety is a widely used method of explosion protection. It is used for very low power applications only,
and typical examples are control and instrumentation circuits.

intrinsic safety
A protection technique based upon the restriction of electrical energy within apparatus and of
interconnecting wiring, exposed to a potentially explosive atmosphere, to a level below that
which can cause ignition by either sparking or heating effects. Because of the method by which
intrinsic safety is achieved it is necessary to ensure that not only the electrical apparatus
exposed to the potentially explosive atmosphere but also other electrical apparatus with which
it is interconnected is suitably constructed.

intrinsically safe circuit

circuit in which any spark or any thermal effect produced in the conditions specified in this
standard, which include normal operation and specified fault conditions, is not capable of
causing ignition of a given explosive gas atmosphere by the means of energy limitation.

associated apparatus
electrical apparatus which contains both intrinsically safe circuits and non-intrinsically safe
circuits and is constructed so that the non-intrinsically safe circuits cannot adversely affect the
intrinsically safe circuits
NOTE – Associated apparatus may be either
a) electrical apparatus which has another type of protection listed in IEC 60079-0 for use in the
appropriate explosive gas atmosphere, or
b) electrical apparatus not so protected and which, therefore, shall not be used within an explosive gas atmosphere,
for example a recorder which is not itself in an explosive gas atmosphere, but is connected to a thermocouple
situated within an explosive atmosphere where only the recorder input circuit is intrinsically safe.

minimum igniting current (MIC)

minimum current in resistive or inductive circuits that causes the ignition of the explosive test mixture in the
spark-test apparatus

minimum igniting voltage

minimum voltage of capacitive circuits that causes the ignition of the explosive test mixture in the spark test
apparatus .

maximum r.m.s. a.c. or d.c. voltage ( Um)

maximum voltage that can be applied to the non-intrinsically safe connection facilities of
associated apparatus without invalidating intrinsic safety
NOTE – The value of Um may be different at different sets of connection facilities, and may be different for a.c. and
d.c. voltages.

maximum input voltage (Ui)

maximum voltage (peak a.c. or d.c.) that can be applied to the connection facilities for
intrinsically safe circuits without invalidating intrinsic safety

maximum output voltage (Uo)

maximum output voltage (peak a.c. or d.c.) in an intrinsically safe circuit that can appear under
open circuit conditions at the connection facilities of the apparatus at any applied voltage up to the maximum
voltage, including Um and Ui
NOTE – Where there is more than one applied voltage, the maximum output voltage is that occurring under the most onerous
combination of applied voltages.

maximum input current (Ii)

maximum current (peak a.c. or d.c.) that can be applied to the connection facilities for
intrinsically safe circuits without invalidating intrinsic safety

maximum output current (Io)

maximum current (peak a.c. or d.c.) in an intrinsically safe circuit that can be taken from the
connection facilities of the apparatus
maximum input power (Pi)
maximum input power in an intrinsically safe circuit that can be dissipated within an apparatus when
it is connected to an external source without invalidating intrinsic safety

maximum output power (Po)

maximum electrical power in an intrinsically safe circuit that can be taken from the apparatus

maximum internal capacitance (Ci)

total equivalent internal capacitance of the apparatus which is considered as appearing across the
connection facilities of the apparatus

maximum external capacitance (Co)

maximum capacitance in an intrinsically safe circuit that can be connected to the connection facilities
of the apparatus without invalidating intrinsic safety

maximum internal inductance (Li)

total equivalent internal inductance of the apparatus which is considered as appearing at the
connection facilities of the apparatus

maximum external inductance (Lo)

maximum value of inductance in an intrinsically safe circuit that can be connected to the connection
facilities of the apparatus without invalidating intrinsic safety

maximum internal inductance to resistance ratio (Li/Ri)

maximum value of ratio of inductance (Li) to resistance (Ri) which is considered as appearing at the
external connection facilities of the electrical apparatus

maximum external inductance to resistance ratio (Lo/Ro)

maximum value of ratio of inductance (Lo) to resistance (Ro) of any external circuit that can be connected to
the connection facilities of the electrical apparatus without invalidating intrinsic safety

 The sum of the maximum effective internal capacitance Ci of each item of intrinsically safe
apparatus and the cable capacitance (cables generally being considered as concentrated
capacitance equal to the maximum capacitance between two adjacent cores) shall not
exceed the maximum value Co marked on the associated apparatus.
 The sum of the maximum effective internal inductance Li of each item of intrinsically safe
apparatus and the cable inductance (cables generally being considered as concentrated
 inductance equal to the maximum inductance between the two cores in the cable having the
maximum separation) shall not exceed the maximum value Lo marked on the associated
 Where the intrinsically safe apparatus contains no effective inductance and the associated
apparatus is marked with an inductance/resistance L/R value, if the L/R value of the cable,
measured between the two cores in the cable having maximum separation, is less than
this figure, it is not necessary to satisfy the Lo requirement.
 The values of permissible input voltage Ui, input current Ii and input power Pi of each
intrinsically safe apparatus shall be greater than or equal to the values Uo, Io and Po
respectively of the associated apparatus.
Cable requirments
1. cross section area

Temperature classification of copper wiring (in a maximum ambient

temperature of 40 °C)

Diameter Cross-sectional area Maximum permissible current for

temperature classification
(see note 4) (see note 4)
T1 to T4 and T5 T6
Group I

0,035 mm² 0,000 962 0,53 0,48 0,43

0,05 0,001 96 1,04 0,93 0,84

0,1 0,007 85 2,1 1,9 1,7

0,2 0,031 4 3,7 3,3 3,0

0,35 0,096 2 6,4 5,6 5,0

1 – The value given for maximum

NOTE0,5 0,196 permissible current,7,7
in amperes, is 6,9
the r.m.s. a.c. or6,7
d.c. value.

NOTE 2 – For stranded conductors, the cross-sectional area is taken as the total area of all strands of
the conductor.

NOTE 3 – The table also applies to flexible flat conductors, such as in ribbon cable, but not to printed
circuit conductors for which see 6.2.3.

NOTE 4 – Diameter and cross-sectional area are the nominal dimensions specified by the wire

NOTE 5 – Where the maximum input power Pi does not exceed 1,3 W the wiring can be awarded a
2. temperature classification of T4 and is acceptable for Group I.
the insulation resistance between screens is not less than 1 MΩ/km when measured at 500 V d.c. and 20 °C after steady
electrification for 1 min at 500 V d.c.

3. cable sheath

To protect the cores of interconnecting cables from the possibility of faults to the cores of other cables and earth faults and to
ensure the preservation of cable parameters (e.g. inductance and capacity) interconnecting cables should have an overall sheath.

Can we use elastomeric cables in IS ? and if yes how can we afoid stray inductance and capacitance?

4. Invasion.
Interconnecting cables containing intrinsically safe circuits may be run in the same ducting or tray as other cables, provided
that either the intrinsically safe cables or other cables are armoured or metal sheathed.
Armouring or metal sheathing is not, however, required in locations where the risk of mechanical damage is slight (e.g. in
ducting in a control room) but in such cases both types of cables should be insulated and sheathed.

5. Multicore cables.
Intrinsically safe circuits should not be run in the same cables as other types of circuit.

6. Conductor terminations.
The method of termination should be such as to avoid reduction of the clearances achieved by the terminal blocks or
connectors associated with the apparatus. To achieve this, insulation of conductors should be continued as close to the point
of connection as possible, care should be taken to ensure that all strands of stranded conductors are terminated (e.g. by the
use of a ferrule) and the length of conductors from which the outer cable sheath has been removed should be kept to a
NOTE – Terminals for connection of external circuits to intrinsically safe apparatus and associated apparatus should be so
arranged that components will not be damaged when making the connections.
Where terminals of intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe circuits are adjacent

a) When separation is accomplished by distance then the clearance between terminals shall be at least
50 mm. Care shall be exercised in the layout of terminals and in the wiring method used so that
contact between circuits is unlikely if a wire becomes dislodged.
b) When separation is accomplished by locating terminals for intrinsically safe and non- intrinsically safe
circuits in separate enclosures or by use of either an insulating partition or an earthed metal partition
between terminals with a common cover, the following applies:
1) Metal insulating barrier used to separate terminals shall extend to within 1,5 mm of the enclosure
walls, or alternatively shall provide a minimum distance of 50 mm between the terminals when
measured in any direction around the partition;
2) metal insulating barrier shall be earthed and shall have sufficient strength and rigidity to ensure that
they are not likely to be damaged during field wiring. Such partitions shall be at least 0,45 mm. In
addition, metal partitions shall have sufficient current-carrying capacity to prevent burn-through or
loss of earth connection under fault conditions;
3) non-metallic insulating partitions shall have sufficient thickness and shall be so supported that
they cannot readily be deformed in a manner that would defeat their purpose. Such partitions shall
be at least 0,9 mm thick

The minimum clearance between the bare conducting parts of external conductors connected to
terminals and earthed metal or other conducting parts shall be 3 mm, unless the possible
interconnection has been taken into account in the safety analysis.

7. Cable Screens
Where the interconnecting cables of IS circuits have overall screens, or groups of conductors with individual
screens, the screens are required to be earthed at one point only, normally at the non-hazardous area end of the
circuit loop. This requirement is to avoid the possibility of the screen carrying a possibly incentive level of
circulating current in the event that there are local differences in earth potential between one end of the circuit and
the other

8. Cable marking
The sheath or core insulation of IS circuit cables may be coloured light blue in order that they may be easily
identified as part of an IS circuit. Hence, to avoid confusion, light blue cables must not be used for other types of

9. Fault Conditions (multi-core cables)

The type of multi-core cable used in IS installations will have an influence on faults, if any, which may be taken
into consideration.

 Type A cable: If the IS circuits are individually screened with a minimum surface area coverage of 60%, no
faults between circuits are taken into consideration.
 Type B cable: If the cable is fixed and protected against mechanical damage and none of its circuits has a
maximum voltage greater than 60V, no faults between circuits are taken into consideration.
 Type C cable: For this cable type, but without the requirements specified for Type A and Type B cables, two
short-circuits between conductors and up to four simultaneous open-circuits of conductors have to be
considered. No faults need be considered if all the circuits in the cable are identical and have a safety factor
of four times that required for categories ‘ia’ or ‘ib’

Separation of conductive parts

Separation of conductive parts between

– intrinsically safe and non-intrinsically safe circuits, or

– different intrinsically safe circuits, or
– a circuit and earthed or isolated metal parts,

shall conform to the following if the type of protection depends on the separation. This may be achieved by any one of the following
a. Adequate separation between IS circuit cables and non-IS circuit cables, or
b. Positioning of the IS circuit cables such as to guard against the risk of mechanical damage, or
c. The use of armoured, metal sheathed, or screened cables for either the IS or non-IS cables.

Protection against polarity reversal

Protection shall be provided within intrinsically safe apparatus to prevent invalidation of the type of protection as a result of reversal
of the polarity of supplies to that apparatus or at connections between cells of a battery where this could occur. For this purpose, a
single diode shall be acceptable

Unused Cable Cores

Where multi-core cables have one or more unused cores, either of the following termination methods may be used to maintain
the integrity of the installation.

a. Connected to separate terminals at both ends so that the cores are insulated from one another and earth, or
b. Connected to the same earth point, if applicable, as used by the IS circuits in the cable, typically a zener barrier earth-bar. The
unused cores at the other end of the cable, however, must be insulated from each other and earth by means of suitable

Table 4 IEC 60079-11 – Clearances, creepage distances and separations

1 1 1 3,3 4,7 9,5 15,6

1 Voltage (peak value) V 10 30 60 90 190 375 550 750
000 300 575 k k k k

Separation distance
3 through casting 0,5 0,7 1,0 1,3 1,7 2,0 2,4 2,7 3,3 4,6 5,3 9,0 12,0 20,0 33,0
compound (mm)

Separation distance
4 through solid insulation 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,7 0,8 1,0 1,2 1,4 1,7 2,3 2,7 4,5 6,0 10,0 16,5

Creepage distance in air

5 1,5 2,0 3,0 4,0 8,0 10,0 15,0 18,0 25,0 36,0 49,0
Creepage distance
6 0,5 0,7 1,0 1,3 2,6 3,3 5,0 6,0 8,3 12,0 16,3
under coating (mm)

Comparative tracking ia 100 100 100 175 175 275 275 275 275 275
index (CTI)
ib 100 100 100 175 175 175 175 175 175 175

NOTE 1 – Except for separation distances, no values for voltages higher than 1 575 V are proposed at present. NOTE 2 – At voltages up to
10 V, the CTI of insulating materials is not required to be specified.

clearance distances may be in accordance with the Code of Practice BS5345

Peak Voltage Minimum clearance in air between Minimum clearance in air

terminals of separate circuits between terminals and earth
(V) (mm) (mm)
0-90 6 4
90-375 6 6

Different between peak voltage and Um or Ui

IEC 60079-11 is completely different from BS 5345, What is the moost common std ??

Table – Temperature classification of printed board wiring (in a maximum

ambient temperature of 40 °C)

Minimum track width Maximum permissible current for temperature classification

T1 to T4 and Group I T5 T6
0,15 1,2 1,0 0,9
0,2 1,8 1,45 1,3
0,3 2,8 2,25 1,95
0,4 3,6 2,9 2,5
0,5 4,4 3,5 3,0
0,7 5,7 4,6 4,1
1,0 7,5 6,05 5,4
1,5 9,8 8,1 6,9
2,0 12,0 9,7 8,4
2,5 13,5 11,5 9,6
3,0 16,1 13,1 11,5
4,0 19,5 16,1 14,3
5,0 22,7 18,9 16,6
6,0 25,8 21,8 18,9
NOTE 1 – The value given for maximum permissible current, in amperes is the r.m.s. a.c. or d.c. value.

NOTE 2 – This table applies to printed boards 1,6 mm or thicker with a single layer of copper of 35 m thickness.

NOTE 3 – For boards with a thickness between 0,5 mm and 1,6 mm, divide the maximum current specified by 1,2.

NOTE 4 – For boards with conducting tracks on both sides, divide the maximum current specified by 1,5.

NOTE 5 – For multilayer boards, for the track layer under consideration, divide the maximum current specified by 2.

NOTE 6 – For 18 m copper thickness, divide the maximum current by 1,5.

NOTE 7– For 70 m copper thickness, multiply the maximum current by 1,3.

NOTE 8 – For tracks passing under components dissipating 0,25 W or more either normally or under fault conditions,
divide the maximum current specified by 1,5.

NOTE 9 – At terminations of components dissipating 0,25 W or more either normally or under fault conditions, and for 1,00
mm along the conductor, either multiply the track width by 3 or divide the maximum current specified by 2. If the track goes
under the component, apply the factor specified in note 8 in addition.

The Zener Barrier

The faults which can jeopardize the security of IS systems are either overvoltage or overcurrent, and protection against these
conditions is afforded by the use of an interface, typically a Zener barrier.
The interface, which is connected between the safe area and hazardous area apparatus, is normally located in the safe area
and situated as close as possible to the boundary with the hazardous area, but may be located in the hazardous area if installed
in a flameproof enclosure.

A simple zener barrier has three principal components, (1) a resistor, (2) a zener diode, and
(3) a fuse, all of which must have infallible properties.

Infallibility, with regard to the current limiting resistor, means that in the event of it failing, failure will be to a higher resistance
value or open-circuit. Clearly, failure to a lower resistance value or short-circuit would allow more current to flow in the IS
circuit, which is contrary to the concept of this type of protection. Infallibility will be satisfied by the use of a quality wire-
wound or metal film resistor which should not operate at more than 2/3 of its rated current, voltage and power for a specified
temperature range. The next component for consideration is the zener diode, the purpose of which is to limit the voltage
available to the apparatus in the hazardous area. The zener diode, as a single item, is not considered to be an infallible
component, must also be operated at only 2/3 of its rated current, voltage and power. Diode is required to fail to a short-
circuit. Failure to a higher resistance or open-circuit could allow voltage levels beyond safe limits to “invade” the hazardous
The third component, a fuse, is located at the input (safe) end of the zener barrier, its purpose being to protect the zener diodes,
and not to protect against, for example, a short- circuit in the field apparatus. Infallibility of the fuse is assured by the use of a
sand-filled ceramic type capable of operating properly even when exposed to a prospective fault-current of up to 4000 A. A
fuse of this type avoids the problem which can occur with other types of fuses when they rupture, namely vaporization which
can allow the fuse to continue to conduct.

 In the event of a short-circuit developing in the apparatus in the hazardous area, or across the IS wiring,
the series resistor in the zener barrier will limit the short-circuit current to a safe level so that the integrity
of the system is maintained.
 If a voltage greater than the normal maximum voltage of the IS system invades the circuit at the input
terminals of the zener barrier, this will trigger the zener diode, and the resulting fault current will be
shunted to earth. The excessive voltage is, therefore, prevented from reaching the apparatus in the
hazardous area as illustrated in the diagram on the following page.
Category "ia"  Zone “0,1,2”

With Um and Ui applied, the intrinsically safe circuits in electrical apparatus of category "ia" shall not be capable of causing
ignition “maintain the safety” in each of the following circumstances:

a. in normal operation and with the application of those non-countable faults which give the most onerous condition;
b. in normal operation and with the application of one countable fault plus those non-countable faults which give the most onerous condition;
c. in normal operation and with the application of two simultaneous countable faults plus those non- countable faults which give the most
onerous condition.

The non-countable faults applied may differ in each of the above circumstances.

Category "ib"  Zone “1,2”

With Um and Ui applied, the intrinsically safe circuits in electrical apparatus of category "ib" shall not be capable of causing
ignition in each of the following circumstances:

a) in normal operation and with the application of those non-countable faults which give the most onerous condition;
b) in normal operation and with the application of one countable fault plus the application of those non-countable faults
which give the most onerous condition.

Category "ic"  Zone “2”

in normal operation and with the application of those non-countable faults which give the most onerous condition;

1. Zener safety barrier;

2. Barrier mounting rail/earth bar;
3. SWA/braid connected (earthed) to enclosure via gland;
4. Screen connected to barrier mounting rail/earth bar;
5. Dedicated earth conductors connected to main earth point using either:
a. two separate 1.5 mm minimum conductors (BS EN60079-14), or
b. a single copper conductor 4 mm minimum (BS 5345 Part 4 & BS EN60079-14)
2 2
Note: Longer runs may require conductors of larger cross-sectional area, e.g. 6mm or 10 mm

6. Junction box;
7. Cable glands;
8. Junction box bonded locally to structure;
9. Screen through connected;
10. Screen terminated but not isolated at field apparatus.

Resistive Circuits

For a purely resistive circuit, if the voltage is known, the maximum circuit current can be determined from the graph, which enables selection
of the correct interface.
Thus, for a purely resistive circuit for operation in a IIC hazard, it is intended that a 28 V, 300 Ω zener barrier will be used. A safety factor of
10% must be applied to the voltage of this device since a rise in its temperature may raise the triggering voltage of the zener diodes. Applying
the safety factors of 10% (1.1 x 28 V = 30.8 V) produces a value of 30.8 V, which is then located on the horizontal (voltage) axis of the graph.

Moving vertically from this point towards the IIC curve, and then moving horizontally from the point of contact with the curve towards the
vertical (current) axis, gives a safe current of 140mA safety factor of 1.5 must be applied to this value, i.e. 2/3 of 140mA is equal to 93.33mA.
By applying ohm’s law, 28V/93.33 mA = 300 Ω, the same resistance as the zener barrier, it has been verified that the 28V, 300
Ω interface is suitable for maintaining the integrity of the IS circuit in a IIC hazard.


The maximum inductance of the interconnecting cables can be established from the inductive circuit curves after first of all evaluating the
maximum source current. Assuming an interface with a maximum output of 28 V and 300 Ω resistance, the maximum source current is:

28 V/ 300 Ω = 93.33 mA
Applying a safety factor of 1.5: 1.5 x93.33 mA = 140 mA
From the graph, the maximum safe inductance for the interconnecting cables, assuming connection to simple apparatus in the hazardous
area, is found to be approximately 4.0 mH. This value is found by projecting vertically form 140 mA on the current axis, and then horizontally
towards the inductance axis form the point of contact on the IIC curve.


For capacitance circuits, the procedure is exactly the same. A safety factor of 1.5 is applied to the zener barrier voltage of 28 V.

i.e. 1.5 x 28 V = 42 V

Using the IIC curve in the graph,the maximum safe capacitance for the interconnecting cables, assuming that connection is to ‘simple
apparatus’ in the hazardous area, is found to be 0.08 μF approximately.
Comparison of the above values with the data provided by the cable manufacturer will establish of the
interconnecting cable run is satisfactory.
In case of more than one associated apparatus the connection determine the
Voltage/Current configuration according to parallel or series circuits

Where fuses are used to protect other components, I n shall be assumed to flow continuously. The fuse time-current
characteristics shall ensure that the transient ratings of protected components are not exceeded. Where the fuse time -
current characteristic is not available from the manufacturer's data.

 Where fuses are encapsulated, the casting compound shall not enter the fuse interior. This requirement shall be satisfied by testing
samples or by a declaration from the fuse manufacturer confirming acceptability of the fuse for encapsulation. Alternatively, the
fuse shall be sealed prior to encapsulation.
 Fuses used to protect components shall be replaceable only by opening the apparatus enclosure. The type designation and the
fuse rating In, or the characteristics important to intrinsic safety shall be marked adjacent to the fuses.
 Fuses shall have a rated voltage of at least Um (or Ui in intrinsically safe apparatus and circuits). General industrial standards
for the construction of fuses and fuse holders shall be applied and their method of mounting shall not reduce the clearances,
creepage distances and separations afforded by the fuse and its holder.

Simple apparatus

Simple electrical apparatus and components (e.g. thermocouples, photocells, junction boxes) may
be used in intrinsically safe systems without certification provided that
a) they do not generate or store more than 1.2 V, 0.1 A, 20 µJ and 25 mW in the intrinsically safe
system in the normal or fault conditions of the system
b) if no components located in the hazardous area can dissipate more than 1.3 W in such conditions.
c) Simple electrical apparatus and components should also meet the insulation, creepage and
clearance and enclosure requirements.
d) The temperature classification awarded to simple electrical apparatus and components complying
with these requirements should generally be T4 (135 °C). Junction boxes and switches, however,
may be awarded T6 (85 °C) because, by their nature, they do not contain heat dissipating
e) sources of stored energy with well-defined parameters, for example capacitors or inductors, whose
values shall be considered when determining the overall safety of the system;

Simple intrinsically safe systems will be awarded category 'ia' if all items of certified electrical
apparatus in such systems have been awarded category 'ia' and category 'ib' if some or all of the items
of certified apparatus in such systems have been awarded category 'ib'.
Switches and other devices of this type with normally sparking contacts may not normally be installed
in category 'ia' intrinsically safe systems or parts of systems unless they are afforded the additional
protection required by one of the standards.

The following aspects shall always be considered:

1) simple apparatus shall not achieve safety by the inclusion of voltage and/or current- limiting and/or
suppression devices;
2) simple apparatus shall not contain any means of increasing the available voltage or current, for
example circuits for the generation of auxiliary power supplies;
3) where it is necessary that the simple apparatus maintains the integrity of the isolation from earth
of the intrinsically-safe circuit, it shall be capable of withstanding the test voltage to earth;
4) non-metallic enclosures and enclosures containing light metals when located in the hazardous area.
5) when simple apparatus is located in the hazardous area, it shall be temperature classified. When
used in an intrinsically safe circuit within their normal rating and at a maximum ambient temperature
of 40 °C, switches, plugs, sockets and terminals are allocated a T6 temperature classification for
Group II applications and considered as having a maximum surface temperature of 85 °C for Group
I applications.
Where simple apparatus only is used in the field, the inductance and capacitance present will be due to the
cables only, and if the cable runs are short these parameters will be negligible. The electrical parameters C c, Lc
and Lc/Rc for typical instrument cables with twisted or adjacent cores must be determined by:

a. Obtaining the worst case parameters from the cable manufacturer, or

b. Measurement of the parameters using a sample of the cable, or
c. Adoption of the following values –

Inductance, (L) 1 μH/m

Capacitance, (C) 200 pF/m
Inductance/resistance ratio 30 μ H/Ω

Where field apparatus has both appreciable inductance and capacitance, it is important that the combined
inductance and capacitance of the field apparatus and cables does not exceed the values specified by the
manufacturer of the interface.

Simple or Non-simple ??

 Energy storing devices such as inductors and capacitors have the potential to upset the security of an IS
system. Energy can be stored in these devices over a period of time and then released in a surge of greater
amplitude at, for example, a break in the IS sables due to a fault or live disconnection at terminals. This
could occur regardless of the design constraints on voltage and current, and cause ignition of a surrounding
flammable gas. Measures must, therefore, be applied to counteract this problem at the design stage. Field
apparatus which have energy storing capability, i.e. they have some internal inductance, are termed ‘non-
simple’ and are required to be certified.
 Cables, especially long runs between the interface and the apparatus in the hazardous area, will have
appreciable inductance and capacitance which must be taken into consideration at the design stage.
Energy will be stored under normal operating conditions, but will be greater under fault conditions. The
voltage will influence which parameter is predominant, i.e. for a voltage of around 5 V, the inductance will
be predominant, but at 28V, the capacitance will be predominant.

Determination of maximum external inductance to resistance ratio (Lo/Ro) for resistance limited power source

The maximum external inductance to resistance ratio (Lo/Ro) which may be connected to a resistance
limited power source shall be calculated using the following formula. This formula takes account of a
1,5 factor of safety on current and shall not be used where Ci for the output terminals of the apparatus
exceeds 1 % of Co.

e is the minimum spark-test apparatus ignition energy in joules, and is for
– Group I apparatus: 525 J

– Group IIA apparatus: 320 J

– Group IIB apparatus: 160 J

– Group IIC apparatus: 40 J

Ri is the minimum output resistance of the power source, in ohms;
Uo is the maximum open circuit voltage, in volts;
Li is the maximum inductance present at the power source terminals, in henries.
If Li = 0 then

Such connections should be made to a high integrity earth in such a way as to ensure that the impedance from
the point of connection to the main power system earth point is less than 1 Ω.
The earth cable must be insulated, and the insulation undamaged, along its entire length so that contact with the
plant metalwork is avoided: Where the risk of damage is high, mechanical protection for the cables should be
a) At least two separate 1.5mm2 (minimum) copper conductors, or
b) At least one 4mm2 (minimum) copper conductor.

If earthing of the circuit is required for functional reasons, the earth connection shall be made outside
zone 0, but as close as is reasonably practicable to the zone 0 apparatus.

Galvanic Isolation
Although zener barriers have been, and continue to be, widely used in industry, they have particular limitations which are:
a. A dedicated high-integrity earth is necessary to divert fault currents away from the hazardous area.
b. A direct connection exists between the hazardous and safe area circuits and earth, which tends to apply constraints
on the rest of the system.
c. Hazardous area apparatus must withstand a 500 V insulation resistance test to earth.
Devices which overcome these difficulties are isolation interfaces typically relays, opto isolators and transformers.

Relay/Transformer Isolation

In the example below, isolation between the hazardous and safe areas is achieved by means of an high integrity component
approved transformer and component approved relay. The design of these devices ensures that high voltage invasion of the
IS circuit will be prevented from reaching the hazardous area apparatus.

Opto-coupler/Transformer Isolation

This method comprises a component certified opto-isolator and a component approved transformer. Light (or infrared) emitted
from the LED when it is forward biased falls onto the phototransistor which is shielded from external light.

Plugs and sockets

Plugs and sockets used for connection of external intrinsically safe circuits shall be separate
from and non-interchangeable with those for non-intrinsically safe circuits.
Where intrinsically safe or associated apparatus is fitted with more than one plug and socket for
external connections and interchange could adversely affect the type of protection, such plugs
and sockets shall either be arranged, for example by keying, so that interchange is not possible, or
mating plugs and sockets shall be identified, for example by marking or colour coding, to make
interchanging obvious.

6.3.1 Voltage between conductive parts

The voltage which is taken into account when using table 4 shall be the voltage between any two
conductive parts for which the separation has an effect on the type of protection of the circuit under
consideration, that is for example (see figure 3) the voltage between an intrinsically safe circuit

– part of the same circuit which is not intrinsically safe, or

– non-intrinsically safe circuits, or
– other intrinsically safe circuits.

The value of voltage to be considered shall be either of the following, as applicable.

a) For circuits which are galvanically separated within the apparatus, the value of voltage to be considered
between the circuits, shall be the highest voltage that can appear across the separation when the two
circuits are connected together at any one point, derived from
– the rated voltages of the circuits, or
– the maximum voltages specified by the manufacturer which may safely be supplied to the
circuits, or
– any voltages generated within the same apparatus.
Where one of the voltages is less than 20 % of the other, it shall be ignored. Mains supply voltages
shall be taken without the addition of standard mains tolerances. For such sinusoidal voltages,
peak voltage shall be considered to be the following:
X r.m.s. value of the rated voltage.

b) Between parts of a circuit: the maximum peak value of the voltage that can occur in either part of that
circuit. This may be the sum of the voltages of different sources connected to that circuit. One of the
voltages may be ignored if it is less than 20 % of the other.
In all cases voltages which arise during the fault conditions of clause 5 shall, where applicable, be
used to derive the maximum.

Any external voltage shall be assumed to have the value Um or Ui declared for the connection facilities
through which it enters. Transient voltages such as might exist before a protective device, for example a
fuse, opens the circuit shall not be considered when evaluating the creepage distance, but shall be
considered when evaluating clearances.

Assurance of safety (Commissioning) “BS 5345-4”

a) It is necessary to ensure that any installation complies with the following requirements :-
b) The zonal classification of the areas in which each item of electrical apparatus and any interconnecting cables are to be installed.
c) Relevant certificate numbers for certified intrinsically safe systems.
d) Detailed reference to any item of uncertified apparatus including its type number, the name of its manufacturer and the justification upon
which its use is based.
a. NOTE. This requirement is intended to ensure that adequate justification for the use of simple electrical apparatus and components is always
e) For the simple systems, the certificate numbers for the individual items of certified electrical apparatus and the justification for the safety
of the installation.
f) For self-contained intrinsically safe electrical apparatus, the apparatus certificate number.
g) Details of the specific types of cable which may be used with cross reference to any cable requirements contained in certification
a. NOTE. The object of this is to allow cables to be selected on-site without the necessity of measuring their parameters and, also, to draw
attention to any special requirement which may exist (e.g. possible special requirements for multicore cables containing more than one
intrinsically safe circuit).
h) Reference to any special requirements listed in the certification documentation and the detailed methods by which such requirements are
met in the particular installation.
i) The physical location on the plant of each item of electrical apparatus and the proposed routing of any interconnecting cables.
j) Categorization and grouping of such intrinsically safe system or part thereof or of each item of self-contained intrinsically safe electrical
k) Inspection check lists against which commissioning and routine inspections should be carried out.
l) Details of any electrical testing permitted or required as part of the commissioning and routine inspections.
m) A record of any modifications to electrical apparatus or systems together with the justification for such modifications.
9) EX n

type of protection "n"

type of protection applied to electrical apparatus such that, in normal operation and in certain specified abnormal
conditions, it is not capable of igniting a surrounding explosive gas atmosphere
NOTE 1 Additionally, the requirements of this standard are intended to ensure that a fault capable of causing ignition is not likely to occur.
NOTE 2 An example of a specified abnormal condition is a luminaire with failed lamp.

In Zone 2 hazardous locations, the presence of a flammable gas or vapour is not likely to be present,
or if it is present it’s duration will be for a short time only. This fact allows the use of less expensive
methods of protection, i.e. type ‘n’ protection. Type ‘n’ protection is similar in concept to increased
safety type ‘e’ protection. The design features for this type of protection ensure that, in normal
operation, sources of ignition in the form of excessive surface temperatures, arcs or sparks are
prevented from occurring either internally or externally.
Since the design requirements are not as strict as those for increased safety type ‘e’ protection, it is
possible for the manufacturer to install within type ‘n’ apparatus, components which produce hot
surfaces, arcs or sparks, providing these components have incorporated in them additional methods
of protection. The principal design features for type ‘n’ apparatus are as follows.

1) Enclosures, guards, protective covers, motor fan guards and cable glands, are required to
be impact tested to 7J where the risk of impact is high, or 4J where the risk of impact is low;
‫المحاضر قال عليها مش الزم‬
2) Minimum ingress protection IP54 where an enclosure has exposed live parts internally, or
IP44 where insulated live parts are used internally;
3) Use of certified terminals;
4) Terminals manufactured form high quality insulation material;
5) Specified creepage and clearance distances incorporated into the design of the terminals;
6) Terminal locking devices to ensure conductors remain secure in service.

energy-limited apparatus “nL”

electrical apparatus in which the circuits and components are constructed according to the concept of energy
Energy limitation will involve the use of Associated energy- limited apparatus and Energy limited apparatus where
both are separate entities, but when both are contained in the same item of equipment, the equipment is known
as Self protected energy-limited apparatus.
electrical apparatus which contains both energy-limited and non-energy-limited circuits and is constructed so that
the non-energy-limited circuits cannot adversely affect the energy-limited circuits.

Energy limited circuits:

In order that this type of apparatus may be correctly installed, manufacturers are required to specify
the maximum values of voltage, current, power, inductance and capacitance including cable
inductance and capacitance that may be connected.

Sealed device(nC)
A device containing normally sparking components or hot surfaces constructed in such a way that opening
is prevented in normal operation and in which the sealing effectively prevents access by a flammable gas
or vapour. The free internal volume must be less than 100 cm3.

enclosed-break device “nC”

device incorporating electrical contacts that are made and broken and that will withstand an internal explosion
of the flammable gas or vapour which may enter it without suffering damage and without communicating
the internal explosion to the external flammable gas or vapour

Enclosed-break devices shall be limited to a maximum rating of 690 V a.c., r.m.s. or d.c. and 16 A a.c. r.m.s.
or dc.

NOTE An enclosed-break device prevents flame transmission to the external atmosphere under the test conditions by the closeness of fit of its parts
which, because of the construction, form an assembly that prevents external ignition of the explosive mixture

This technique is used in, for example, the lamp holders of type ‘n’ apparatus. The example below shows a typical lamp holder
in which there are two sets of contacts. One set of contacts is enclosed in what is effectively a flameproof enclosure in which
the free internal volume must not exceed 20 cm3.

hermetically-sealed device “nC”

device which is so constructed that the external atmosphere cannot gain access to the interior and in which
the seal is made by fusion, for example by soldering, brazing, welding or the fusion of glass.
encapsulated device “nC”

device, which may or may not contain voids, which is so constructed that it is totally immersed in an
encapsulating compound, typically ‘epoxy resin’, so that it is sealed to prevent entry of an external
atmosphere. The encapsulant is required to have a continuous operating temperature (COT) 20 k greater
than the marked maximum temperature and be free of intentional voids. The encapsulant should have a
minimum thickness of 3mm, or not less than 1mm if the free surface area is less than 200mm .

restricted-breathing enclosure “nR”

A technique mainly used in type ‘n’ lighting fittings whereby entry to the interior of the apparatus by a flammable
gas or vapour is restricted by virtue of good sealing at all joints and cable entries. For apparatus fitted with a device
for routine testing of it’s restrictive breathing properties the manufacturer will have tested to ensure that an internal
pressure of 300Pa (30mm water gauge) below atmospheric will not change to 150Pa (15mm water gauge) in less
than 80 seconds. If the apparatus does not have a device for routine testing then the internal pressure must not
change from 3kPa (300mm water gauge) below atmospheric to 1.5kPa (150mm water gauge) in less than 3
minutes. This type of protection is suitable for use in Zone 2 only.

non-sparking device “nA”

device constructed to minimize the risk of occurrence of arcs or sparks capable of creating an ignition hazard
during conditions of normal operation
NOTE For the purposes of this standard normal operation is considered to exclude the removal or insertion of components with the circuit energized

Type ‘n’ apparatus variations Marking

Restricted breathing enclosures R

Energy limited apparatus L
Includes devices protected by: sealing,
encapsulation, hermetic-sealing, enclosed- C
break and non-incendive methods
Non-sparking apparatus A
Cable sealing

The cable sealing between the cable and the gland body shall be ensured by one of the
following means
– an oil resistant elastomeric sealing ring;
– a metallic or composite sealing ring;
– a filling compound.

The cable sealing may be made of a single material or a combination of materials and shall
be appropriate to the shape of the cable concerned.

When used with a gland and cable of the appropriate size, the sealing device shall not damage the
insulation or sheath of the cable. Compliance shall be checked by visual examination.

The distance which the gland protrudes outside the apparatus casing when the gland is assembled
with the largest cable for which it is designed, and with the seal compression nut tightened to the proof
torque specified in the appropriate table.

Threaded fixing component.

The part of a cable gland designed for attaching it to the casing of the apparatus to which the
cable is to be connected. It is provided with an external thread which either engages in a similarly
threaded hole in the casing of the apparatus, or is inserted through a plain hole in the casing and
secured by means of a locknut inside the casing.

Point of entry
In the case of flexible cables, the point of entry shall include a rounded edge at an angle of at
least 75°, the radius R of which is at least equal to one-quarter of the diameter of the
maximum admissible cable in the entry but which need not exceed 3 mm.


IEC 2875/03

– Rounded edge of the point of entry of the flexible cable

 Cable glands used in gas and vapor explosive atmospheres are rated as either Ex d, Ex e or Ex nR,
most manufacturers’ gland are certified for all three protection concepts.
 An additional consideration is electrolytic action caused by contact between dissimilar metals (Gland
& Enclosure) or (Gland & Cable Armour), which results in increased corrosion and degradation of glands
and cable entries [i.e. Brass and aluminum are not compatible metals and contact between them can
result in electrolysis action as they trade electrons, therefore precautions must be taken when
connecting brass glands to aluminum enclosures or to the aluminum armour of cables.
 Glands to be used with aluminum sheathed or aluminum armored cables shall be manufactured
from a material which will ensure freedom from corrosion arising from electrolytic action.

NOTE. It is important to select a basic material and a finish which are suitable for the situation
in which the gland is to be installed. Gland materials should be compatible with the sheathing
and armor materials.

 In Marking of any installed certified equipment,

Two Suffix letters can be used after the certificate number these are:
X = Special or specific condition of installation or use.
U = Component approved, e.g. unfinished, uncertified.

Where a gland has an ‘X’ condition, this cable gland shall be used for fixed installations.


 Type A1. For unarmoured cable with an elastomeric or plastics outer sheath, where the function of the gland
is to secure the outer sheath of the cable,
 Type A2. As type AI, but with an IP66 seal between the outer sheath and gland.
 Type A3. As type AI, but with an electrical bond for the metallic inner sheath.
 Type A4. As type A2, but with an electrical bond for the metallic inner sheath.

Type A1 Type A2

 Type B. For armoured or wire braided cable, where the function of the gland is to secure the armour or metallic
braid and to provide electrical continuity between such armour or braid and the threaded fixing component of
the gland. (Reda cable)

 Type C, For armoured or wire braided cable with elastomeric or plastics outer sheath. As type B, but with an
IP66 seal between outer sheath and gland.
 Type D1. For armoured or wire braided cable with an extruded elastomeric or plastics inner sheath. As type
B, but with an IP66 seal between the inner sheath and threaded fixing component.
 Type D2. As type DI, but with an electrical bond for the metallic inner sheath.

 Type E1. For armoured or wire braided cable with an extruded elastomeric or plastics inner sheath and
elastomeric or plastics outer sheath. As type B, but with IP66 seals between the outer sheath and
gland and between the inner sheath and threaded fixing comaonent.
 Type E2. As type E 1, but with an electrical bond for the metallic inner sheath.

Polymeric cable gland.

A device manufactured in polymeric material designed to attach and secure the end of an unarmoured cable
to the equipment by means suitable for the type and description of cable for which it is designed.
Type A1P. For unarmoured cable with a polymeric outer sheath, where the function of the gland is to
secure the outer sheath of the cable.
Type A2P. As type A1, but with an IP66 seal between the outer sheath and gland.

Corrosion resistant cable gland

A mechanical cable gland designed from metallic
and/or non-metallic materials to meet the criteria of a cable gland resistant to corrosion from the corrosive

 Type AK2. For unarmoured cables with an elastomer or plastics outer sheath where the function of the gland is to secure the
outer sheath of the cable. The gland incorporates an IP66 seal or seals between the outer sheath and the gland.
 Type AK4. As type AK2, but with an electrical bond for a metallic inner sheath.
 Type CK. For armoured or wire braided cable with an elastomeric or plastics outer sheath, where the function of the gland is
to secure the armour or metallic braid and to provide electrical continuity between such armour or braid and the threaded
fixing component of the gland. The gland is also fitted with an IP66 seal between the outer sheath and gland.
 Type EK1.. For armoured or wire braided cable with an extruded elastomeric or plastics inner sheath and elastomeric or
plastics outer sheath, where the function of the gland is to secure the armour or metallic braid, and to provide electrical
continuity between such armour or braid and the threaded fixing component of the gland. The gland is also fitted with an IP66
seal between the outer sheath and gland and between the inner sheath and threaded fixing component.
 Type AK2.. As type EK1, but with an electrical bond for a metallic inner sheath.


 EX Gland CW  Type C and for steel wire armor (SWA)

 If a gland is suitable for more than one type of protection, all of the relevant suffixes shall be used.


Serrated or “shake proof” washers act as anti-vibration devices to prevent the cablegland or other cable entry device and locknut
arrangement from loosening. It can also be used as an earth enhancing device on painted enclosures.

frictional sparking
Cold flow
Certain types of cable “Low smoke” and/or fire-resistant cables employ materials which can exhibit significant 'cold flow' characteristics
which could reduce the effectiveness of seals and have adverse effects on the protection of the apparatus or equipment. The cable
supplier should be consulted and, if necessary, a suitable cable entry device should be employed, for example, the use of cable entry
devices which have compression seals should be avoided since the part of the cable acted on by the seal can “flow” away from the
pressure of the seal resulting in an ineffective seal.

Jointing of Cables

In hazardous areas, cable runs should, ideally, be continuous and without interruption where possible.
Joints may only be made using appropriate methods, for example, in an enclosure having a type of
explosion protection suitable for the Zone, or by epoxy or compound filled devices, or heat shrink sleeving
in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Whichever method is used, the joints must be
mechanically, electrically and environmentally appropriate. Conductor connections are required to be
made by any of the following methods: compression connectors, secured screw connectors, welding or
brazing. Soldering is permissible if the conductors being connected are held together by suitable
mechanical means and then soldered.

Cable glands should not be installed at a temperature below that recommended by the manufacturer, since the temperature can be critical
for the correct function of the cable seal. The minimum temperature can be taken as being below 0 °C. If the minimum temperature for
the gland being installed is not shown, the manufacturer should be consulted.
After installation, the temperature is not a critical factor. However, glands should not be chosen for installation outside the operating
temperature range declared by the manufacturer.

General installation requirements

The installation of equipment in hazardous areas may involve the use of metallic mounting brackets,
cable tray, weather protection etc. It is important that the light metal content of such items does not
exceed the following limits relative to the EPL requirements for different locations. If the light metal
content exceeds the limits specified, frictional sparking can become stronger.

EPL Ga locations --> Zone 0

Total content of aluminium, magnesium, titanium and zirconium - 10%, or Total
content of magnesium, titanium and zirconium - 7.5%

EPL Gb locations --> Zone 1

Total content of magnesium and titanium - 7.5%

EPL Gc locations --> Zone 2

No limitations.
safety extra-low voltage (SELV)
extra-low voltage system (i.e. normally not exceeding 50 V a.c. or 120 V ripple-free d.c.) which is electrically
separated from earth and from other systems in such a way that a single fault cannot give rise to an electric

IEC 60079-14 Notes

1. If luminaires with fluorescent tubes are used, then the area should be confirmed to be free from
group IIC gas/vapour before tubes are transported through the area or changed, unless suitable
precautions are taken to prevent tubes being broken. Low-pressure sodium lamps should not be
used in any hazardous area owing to the risk of ignition from the free sodium from a broken lamp.

2. Use of uncertified apparatus

Apart from
 simple apparatus used within an intrinsically safe circuit, or
 electrical apparatus designed specifically for zone 2 (for example type of protection “n”)
 electrical apparatus which does not, in normal operation, have ignition-capable hot
surfaces; and
• does not, in normal operation, produce arcs or sparks, or
• in normal operation produces arcs or sparks but the values, of the electrical
parameters (U, I, L and C) in the circuit (including the cables) do not exceed
the values specified in IEC 60079-11 with a safety factor of unity.

the use of uncertified apparatus should be restricted to exceptional circumstances, e.g.

research, development, pilot plant and other new project work where suitable certified
apparatus is not obtainable. In such circumstances the users of this apparatus should
obtain a document of conformity.
NOTE A document of conformity shows that the apparatus has been examined and, where necessary, tested by a
competent body (who may be the user) and has been found to conform to the requirements of the appropriate standard for
the particular type of protection.

3. If plugs and sockets are present in a hazardous area, they should be suitable for use in the
particular zone and have mechanical and/or electrical inter-locking to prevent an ignition
source occurring during insertion or removal of the plug. Alternately, they should only be
energized in a “gas-free” situation

4. If electrical testing, for example continuity testing, is necessary to facilitate the installation
of hazardous area electrical apparatus, care should be taken to ensure that the testing
operation is safe for the hazardous area. This may be achieved in various ways including
the appropriate use of test equipment which is certified for hazardous area use.
Alternatively, testing shall be carried out in a “gas-free” situation

5. Type TN system
Consideration should be given to monitoring leakage between the neutral conductor and the PE
conductor within the hazardous area.
6. Type TT system
shall be protected by a residual current device..
 TT or TN type system, a residual current device (RCD) with a rated residual operating current not exceeding
300 mA shall be used. Preference should be given to RCDs with a rated residual operating current of 30
mA. The device shall have a maximum break time not exceeding 5 s at the rated residual operating current
and not exceeding 0,15 s at five times the rated residual operating current;

7. IT system, an insulation monitoring device shall be used to disconnect the supply whenever
the insulation resistance is not greater than 50Ω per volt of rated voltage.

8. SELV and PELV systems (Extra low Voltage)

9. Cathodically protected metallic parts

Cathodically protected metallic parts located in hazardous areas are live extraneous
conductive parts which shall be considered potentially dangerous (especially if equipped with
the impressed current method) despite their low negative potential. No cathodic protection
shall be provided for metallic parts in zone 0 unless it is specially designed for this

The insulating elements required for the cathodic protection, for example insulating elements
in pipes and tracks, should if possible be located outside the hazardous area. If this is not
possible, national requirements should be followed.

10. Cables

10.1. Non-sheathed single cores

Non-sheathed single core cables shall not be used for live conductors, unless they are installed
inside switchboards, enclosures or conduit systems.

10.2. Fortuitous contact

Except for trace-heating, fortuitous contact between the metallic armouring/sheathing of cables and
pipework or equipment containing flammable gases, vapours or liquids shall be avoided.
The insulation provided by a non-metallic outer sheath on a cable will usually be sufficient to avoid

10.3. Cable surface temperature

When cables, other than high-temperature cables, are selected and installed in accordance with
manufacturer's recommendations, the cable surface temperature will not normally exceed temperature
class T4 and is unlikely in practice to exceed T6.

10.4. Unused cores in multi-core cable

The hazardous area end of each unused core in multi-core cables shall either be connected to earth
or be adequately insulated by means of suitable terminations. Insulation by tape alone is not

10.5. Overhead lines

Where an overhead line with uninsulated conductors provides power or telecommunications services
to apparatus in a hazardous area, it should be terminated in a non-hazardous area and the service
continued into the hazardous area with cable or conduit.

10.6. For portable and transportable electrical apparatus, a metallic flexible armour or screen is
incorporated in the cable, this shall not be used as the only protective conductor. The cable should
be suitable for the circuit protective arrangements, e.g. where earth monitoring is used, the
necessary number of conductors should be included. Where the apparatus needs to be earthed,
the cable may include an earthed flexible metallic screen in addition to the PE conductor.

11. Conduit

11.1. Conduits shall be provided with stopping boxes where it enters or leaves a hazardous area and adjacent
to enclosures to maintain the appropriate degree of protection (e.g. IP54) of the enclosure.
11.2. The conduits shall be pulled up tight at all of the threaded connections.
11.3. Where the conduit system is used as the protective conductor, the threaded junction shall be suitable to
carry the fault current which would flow when the circuit is appropriately protected by fuses or circuit-
11.4. In the event that the conduit is installed in a corrosive area, the conduit material shall either be corrosion
resistant or the conduit shall be adequately protected against corrosion. Combinations of metals that can
lead to galvanic corrosion shall be avoided.
11.5. After cables are installed in the conduit, stopping boxes shall be filled in accordance with manufacturer ’s
instructions with a compound which does not shrink on setting and is impervious to, and unaffected
by, chemicals found in the hazardous area.
11.6. Non-sheathed insulated single or multicore cables may be used in the conduits. However, when the
conduit contains three or more cables, the total cross-sectional area of the cables, including
insulation, shall be not more than 40 % of the cross-sectional area of the conduit.
11.7. Long runs of wiring enclosures shall be provided with suitable draining devices to ensure satisfactory
draining of condensate. In addition, cable insulation shall have suitable water resistance.
11.8. To meet the degree of protection required by the enclosure, in addition to the use of stopping boxes, it
may be necessary to seal between the conduit and the enclosure (for example by means of a sealing
washer or non-setting grease).

12. Motors supplied at varying frequency and voltage

Motors supplied at varying frequency and voltage require either:

a) means (or equipment) for direct temperature control by embedded temperature sensors
specified in the motor documentation or other effective measures for limiting the surface
temperature of the motor housing. The action of the protective device shall be to cause the
motor to be disconnected. The motor and convertor combination does not need to be tested
together; or
b) the motor shall have been type-tested for this duty as a unit in association with the convertor
specified in the descriptive documents according to IEC 60079-0 and with the protective
device provided.
NOTE 1 In some cases, the highest surface temperature occurs on the motor shaft.

NOTE 2 For motors with protection type “e” terminal boxes, when using convertors with high-frequency pulses in the output, care
should be taken to ensure that any overvoltage spikes and higher temperatures which may be produced in the terminal box are taken
into consideration.

NOTE 3 A current-dependent time lag protective device (in accordance with clause 7, point a)) is not to be regarded as an “other
effective measure”.
13. Personal electrical apparatus

Items of personal apparatus which are battery or solar operated (e.g. electronic wrist watches, hearing
aids, car alarm remote controls, key ring torches, calculators, etc.) are sometimes carried by personnel
and inadvertently taken into a hazardous area.

The risk with electronic watches is small and their use in a hazardous area is generally acceptable.

All other personal battery or solar operated apparatus (including electronic wrist watches incorporating
a calculator) should be either assessed for use in the hazardous area or should only be taken into the
hazardous area after a certificate guaranteeing the absence of a flammable atmosphere has been
NOTE An increased risk is associated with lithium batteries which may be used to power personal electronic apparatus and their use should
be assessed as described.

Metallic glands are an essential part of the

system design in respect of Electromagnet
protection. Non metallic glands create the weak
link in the system between shielded cable and

Requirement for Ex d cable glands for

 < 2 litres
 Screwed entry threads must maintain flame
 Inner seal must be explosion proof and gas tight
 Trend is to use dual certified Ex d & Ex e  Not
unusual to use the identical gland for both Ex d
and Ex e applications for less confusion in
installation in the field.
The standardization of thread type in the IEC world is typically
around the Metric straight thread. However, other thread types do
exist in the IEC world and if not Metric or a variation of, are a PG,
BSP or BST thread type.

Cable Shrouds – Becoming increasingly less used as they have a

tendency to hold water in and cover up potential corrosion with

Drains – EEx e drains

A note on single core cables entering enclosures

Eddy currents can overheat iron or steel cabinets, locknuts or bushings or any
ferrous metal that completely encircles the single conductor cables. This
presents no problem in multi‐conductor cables, where the magnetic fields tend
to cancel each other out. For single core cables, it is recommended that these
cables enter metal enclosures through a non‐ferrous plate such as aluminum
If “Cables Pass” far away from any place with risk of corrosion or accidental damage (i.e. cables for ceiling mounted
lighting fixtures) a standard PVC insulated cables in proper cable trays are allowed. When cables come down to
working areas, or pass beside to valves or other equipment that might release heat or corrosive substances that
might damage cables insulation, it is recommended to pass relevant cables inside a galvanized steel pipes. If cables
go to vibrating machines (example: electrical motors) pipes should be flexible hoses, for the last 500mm approx.
connected to special cable glands with female threaded head which allow for flexible hoses direct connection to
the gland nut, without leaving any part of cables uncovered.

Table 9 – Torque to be applied to the stem of bushing used for

connection facilities

Diameter of the stem Torque

of the bushings Nm
M4 2,0

M5 3,2

M6 5

M8 10

M 10 16

M 12 25

M 16 50

M 20 85

M 24 130
NOTE Torque values for sizes other than those specified above may be determined from
a graph plotted using these values. In addition, the graph may be extrapolated to allow
torque values to be determined for bushings larger than those specified.

luminaires with fluorescent tubes are used, then the area should be confirmed to be free from group
IIC gas/vapour before tubes are transported through the area or changed, unless suitable precautions are
taken to prevent tubes being broken. Low-pressure sodium lamps should not be used in any hazardous area
owing to the risk of ignition from the free sodium from a broken lamp.