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COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING

FOCUS: Promotion and Preservation of the health of populations


NATURE OF PRACTICE: comprehensive, general, continual and not episodic
KNOWLEDGE BASE: from nursing and public health
LEVELS OF CLIENTELE: individuals, family, population groups and community as a whole
COMMUNITY - A group of people sharing common geographic boundaries and common values and
interests.
HEALTH- state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or
infirmity
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION - Optimum level of individuals, families and communities
MODERN CONCEPT OF HEALTH - This factor pertains to the power and authority to regulate the
environment

FACTORS AFFECTING LEVEL OF FUNCTIONING

POLITICAL - This factor pertains to the  Substance abuse


power and authority to regulate the  Lack of exercise
environment
Examples: SOCIOECONOMIC INFLUENCES
 Safety Components
 Oppression  Employment
 People empowerment  Education
 Housing
HEALTH CARE DELIVERY SYSTEM - One
ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
component of this factor is the primary health
Components
care which is a partnership approach
 Air
Goal: Effective provision of health services that
 Food
are community-based and accessible
 Water waste
Components:
 Urban/rural noise
 Promotive
 Radiation
 Preventive
 Pollution
 Curative
 Rehabilitative
HEREDITY
Components
BEHAVIORAL
 Genetic endowment
Components
 Defects
 Culture
 Strengths
 Habits
 Risks:
 Ethnic customs
 Familial
Examples
 Ethnic
 Smoking
 Racial
 Intake of alcoholic drinks

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING


Public health as the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and efficiency to enable every
citizen to realize his birthright of health and longevity ( Winslow)

Public health is dedicated to the common attainment of the highest level of physical, mental and social
well-being and longevity
GOAL: contribute to the most effective total development and life of the individual and his society.
(Hanlon)

Community health nursing is a learned practice discipline


Ultimate Goal : contribute to the promotion of client’s optimum level of functioning

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Through teaching and delivery of care. (Jacobson)

Community health nursing is a service rendered by a professional nurse with the community, groups,
families and individuals
GOAL: promotion of health, prevention of illness, care of the sick at home and rehabilitation (Freeman)

Philosophy of community health nursing is based on the worth and dignity of man. (Shetland)

CONCEPTS OF COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING


 HEALTH PROMOTION – primary focus of community health nursing practice
 Practice is extended to benefit not only the individual but the whole family and community
 Community health nurses are GENERALISTS

PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING


 Community health nursing is based on recognized needs of communities, families, groups and
individuals
 The community health nurse must understand fully the objectives and policies of the agency she
represents
 FAMILY – unit of service
 Community health nursing must be available to all
 HEALTH TEACHING – primary responsibility of the community health nurse
 The community health nurse works as a member of the health team
 There must be periodic evaluation
 Opportunities for continuing staff education program must be provided
 PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING
 Make use of available community health resources
 Utilize existing active groups in the community
 Educative supervision
 Accurate recording and reporting
ULTIMATE GOAL: Raise the level of health of the citizenry

ROLES OF THE NURSE IN COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING


Clinician – focus on the health of the individuals on the larger context of the community
Advocate – promote self-care and self-determination
Collaborator – brings together strengths and weaknesses of people involved toward a common goal
Researcher – utilizes data to predict future phenomenon and modify interventions
Counselor – key tasks include listening and providing feedback and information
Case Manager – oversees all aspects of care to facilitate delivery of cost-efficient care; to individualize
and coordinate care
Educator – provide knowledge, skills and attitudes that people need to make appropriate choices or
decision
Hospice Care – providing care skills in a home and other settings and balancing client’s needs
Supervisors- promotes professional growth to their

THE NURSING PROCESS PL PLANNING - formulation of steps to be undertaken


ASSESSMENT - Process of collecting and to achieve desired end
processing data/information about the client STEPS:
STEPS:  Prioritize needs
 Initiate contact  Establish goals based on needs and
 Demonstrate caring attitudes capabilities
 Develop mutual trust and confidence  Construct action and operation plan
 Collect data from all possible sources  Devise evaluation parameters
 Identify problems  Revise plan as needed
 Analyze and interpret data
IMPLEMENTATION - translation of
care plan into action
STEPS:
 Put nursing plan to action

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 Coordinate care / services STEPS:
 Utilize community resources  Care outcomes
 Delegate and supervise  Performance appraisal
 Monitor health services provided  Estimate cost benefit ratio
 Provide health education and training  Assessment problems
 Document responses to nursing action  Identify needed alterations
 Revise plans as necessary
EVALUATION - process of making judgments as
to the extent the objectives are met

CATEGORIES OF HEALTH PROBLEMS


HEALTH DEFICIT
 A gap between actual and achievable health status
 Instances of failure in health maintenance
 Possible precursors of health deficit:
 History of repeated infections or miscarriages
 No regular health check-up
Examples:
 ILLNESS states, diagnosed or undiagnosed
 Failure to thrive/develop
 Disability
Transient (aphasia or temporary paralysis after a CVA)
Permanent (leg amputation secondary to diabetes, blindness from measles,
lameness from polio)

HEALTH THREAT - conditions that are conducive to disease, accident or failure to realize one’s potential
Examples:
 Family history of hereditary disease
 Threat of cross infection
 Accident hazards
 Faulty eating habits
 Poor environmental sanitation
 Unhealthy lifestyle/personal habits

FORESEEABLE CRISIS - anticipated periods of unusual demand on the individual or family in terms of
adjustment/family resources
Examples:
 Marriage
 Pregnancy
 Parenthood
 Divorce or separation
 Loss of job
 Menopause
 Death

PRIORITIZING HEALTH PROBLEMS


NATURE OF THE PROBLEM – categorized into health deficit, health threat and foreseeable crisis
Health deficit 3
Health threat 2
Foreseeable crisis 1

MODIFIABILITY OF THE PROBLEM – refers to the probability of success in minimizing, alleviating or


totally eradicating the problem through intervention
Easily modifiable 2
Partially modifiable 1
Not modifiable 0

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PREVENTIVE POTENTIAL –refers to the nature and magnitude of future problems that can be minimized
or totally prevented if intervention is done on the problem under consideration
High 3
Moderate 2
Low attention needed 2
A problem, but not needing immediate attention 1
Not a felt need / problem 0
1

SALIENCE – refers to the family’s perception and evaluation of the problem in terms of seriousness and
urgency of attention needed
A serious problem, immediate

EVALUATION OF CARE AND SERVICES PROVIDED

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS - include the physical settings, instrumentalities and conditions through which
nursing care is given
Components:
 Philosophy
 Objectives
 Building
 Organizational structure
 Financial resources (budget, equipment, staff)

PROCESS ELEMENTS - steps of the nursing process ( assessment, planning, implementing and evaluating)
Components:
 Taking the family health database
 Performing physical examination
 Making a nursing diagnosis
 Determining nursing goals
 Writing a nursing care plan
 Performing nursing interventions
 Coordination of services
 Measuring success of nursing actions

OUTCOME ELEMENTS - changes in the client’s health status that result from nursing interventions
COMPONENTS
 modification of signs and symptoms
 Knowledge
 Attitude
 Satisfaction
 Skill level of client
 Compliance with treatment regimen

NURSING PROCEDURES
PRE-CONSULTATION CONFERENCE
1. Greet and make client at ease
2. Take clinical history
3. Take temperature, blood pressure, height and weight
4. Perform physical assessment
5. Do laboratory examinations
6. Write findings on client records

MEDICAL EXAMINATION
1. Assist client before, during and after examination by physician
2. Inform physician of relevant findings gathered in pre-conference
3. Work with the physician during the examination
4. Ensure privacy, safety and comfort of patient throughout procedure

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5. Observe confidentiality of examination results
Nursing Intervention:
1. Carry out physician’s orders as giving medication or injection
2. Explain and reinforce physician’s orders and advises
3. Teach patient measures to promote and maintain health as proper diet, exercise and
Personal hygiene.
4. Seek information regarding health status of other family members
5. Counseling

PRE-CONSULTATION CONFERENCE
1. Explain findings and needed care or intervention
2. Refer patient to other health worker/agency
3. Make appointment for next clinic/home visit

DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
VISION: Health for all Filipinos

MISSION: Ensure accessibility of health care to improve the quality of life of the Filipinos especially the
poor

NATIONAL HEALTH OBJECTIVES


 Improve the general health status of the population
 Reduce morbidity, mortality, disability and complications
 Eliminate the following diseases as public health problems (schistosomiasis, malaria, filariasis,
leprosy, rabies, measles, tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, vitamin A and iodine deficiency)
 Eradicate poliomyelitis
 Promote healthy lifestyle
 Promote health and nutrition of families and special populations
 Promote environmental health and sustainable development

BASIC PRINCIPLES TO ACHIEVE IMPROVEMENT IN HEALTH


 Ensure universal access to basic health services
 Epidemiological shift from infectious to degenerative disease must be managed
 Enhance the performance of the health sector
 Ensure the prioritization of the health and nutrition of vulnerable groups

PRIMARY STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE HEALTH GOALS


 Support for frontline health workers and local system development
 Assurance of health care
 Increasing investment for primary health care
 Development of national standards and objectives for health

- Dental health program


- Osteoporosis prevention
- Health education and community organizing

- Primary health care


- Reproductive health
- Older persons health service
- Guidelines for good nutrition
- Respiratory Infection Control
- Alternative health care
- Maternal and child care

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- Sentrong Sigla Movement

PRIMARY HEALTH CARE


 Essential health care made universally acceptable to individuals and families in the community
 By means acceptable to them and through their full participation
 At a cost that the community and country can afford at every stage of development

ESSENTIAL HEALTH CARE SERVICES


GOAL : Health for all Filipinos and Health in the Hands of the People by the year 2020
MISSION : To strengthen the health care system wherein people will manage their own health care
CONCEPT : partnership and empowerment of the people
LEGAL BASIS:
 Letter of Instruction 949
 President Ferdinand Marcos
 October 19, 1979
 First International Conference on Primary Health care
 Alma Ata, USSR
 September 6-12, 1978
 Sponsored by the World Health Organization and UNICEF

ELEMENTS/COMPONENTS of PHC
- Education for Health
- Locally Endemic Disease Control
- Expanded Program on Immunization
- Maternal and Child Health
- Essential Drugs and Elderly Care
- Nutrition
- Treatment of CD and Non-CD
- Sanitation: Water and Environment

ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY
 Framework for meeting the goal of primary health care
 Calls for active and continuing partnership among the communities, private and
government agencies in health development

LEVELS OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES


PRIMARY  Provincial/City Hospitals
 Barangay Health Station TERTIARY
 Private Practitioners  Regional Medical Centers and
 Community Hospitals Training Hospitals
 Rural Health Unit  National Medical Centers
SECONDARY  Teaching and Training Hospital
 Emergency/District Hospitals

TWO LEVELS OF PHC WORKER


 VILLAGE / BARANGAY HEALTH WORKERS (V/BHWs)
- Trained community health workers
- Health auxiliary volunteer
- Traditional birth attendant or healer

 INTERMEDIATE LEVEL HEALTH WORKERS


- General medical practitioner
- Public health nurse
- Rural sanitary inspector
- Midwives

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