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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)

STUDENT RESPONSIBILITIES
(1) In the very beginning of the laboratory work, the students will be organized into groups. For this reason, regular
attendance is strictly required.
(2) Every laboratory session is divided into two parts. In the first part, the instructor will be lecturing on the test
objective, procedure and data collection. In the second part, the students, organized in groups, are required to
conduct the field work. In order to perform the field work within the assigned period, and to gain the maximum
benefit from the field work, the students must familiarize themselves with the purpose, objective, and procedure of
the experiment before coming to the laboratory. Relevant lecture notes and laboratory manual should be studied
carefully and thoroughly.
(3) At the end of the test, every group should submit a draft sheet of the data collected for approval by the
instructor.
(4) It should be understood that laboratory facilities and instruments are provided to enhance the learning process
and to give first hand experience of surveying.
(5) The instruments and tools must be properly cared and cleaned during and after every laboratory session. Also,
students should always take precautions to avoid any possible hazards. Students must follow laboratory
regulations provided at the end of this section.
REPORT WRITING
Every student is required to submit his own separate report for each test conducted. Reports should be writing on
8½ x 11 in. high-quality paper. In general, the reports should be arranged in the following order:
LABORATORY REGULATIONS
(1) Make sure that you know the location of Fire Extinguishers, First Aid Kit and Emergency Exits before you start
your experiments.
(2) Get First Aid immediately for any injury, no matter how small it is.
(3) Do not wear loose dress
(4) Always use close shoes (i.e. safety or boots)
(5) Do not play with valves, screws and nuts
(6) Do not try to run and operate any machine without permission and knowledge of the lab. personnel

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
LIST OF EXPERIMENT BUILDING MATERIALS LAB
[Cement, Fine Aggregate (sand), Coarse Aggregate (stone chips), Concrete, Brick, Steel Reinforcement]
S.N Aim/Objective of Experiment BIS Specification Permissible Values
Blended cement
CEMENT (sampling of cement as per IS:3535-1986) OPC (33, 43 & 53) PSC)
(PPC &
IS:4031(Part Penetration upto 5-7
1. Standard Consistency of Cement Vicat plunger
4)-1988 mm
IS:4031 (Part Penetration 5+/-0.5 Needle/Annula
2. Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement
5)-1988 mm rA
Density=
IS:4031 (Part pycnometer or
3. Specific gravity of cement (or Density of cement) 3.1 to
11)-1988 Le-chatelier flask
3.16g/cm 3

Fineness of Cement (Blaine air permeability IS:4031 (Part Specific


4. S=10 cm2/g
apparatus) 2)-1999 surfaceS
Compressive strength of cement (70.6 mm mortar IS:4031 (Part
5.
cube) 6)-1988
IS:4031(Part (i)Le-Chatelier
6. Soundness of cement
3)-1988 (ii) Autoclave
SAND (Natural Sand or Stone Crushed Sand)
Water absorption (Moisture content), Bulk density IS:2386 (Part
7.
of sand III)-1963
IS:2386 (Part
8. Specific gravity of sand
III)-1963
IS:2386 (Part
9. Particle Size Distribution of fine aggregate (sand)
I)-1963
AGGREGATE
Water absorption (Moisture content) of coarse IS:2386 (Part
10.
aggregate III)-1963
Dry rodded density of coarse aggregate (Specific IS:2386 (Part
11.
Gravity) III)-1963
Sieve Analysis of stone chips (Particle size IS:2386 (Part
12.
distribution) I)-1963
13. Crushing value of coarse aggregate
Estimation of DeIeterious Materials and Organic IS:2386 (Part
14.
Impurities II)-1963
IS:2386
15. Alkali Aggregate Reactivity of aggregate
(PartVII)-1963
CONCRETE
BS:1881Part102-1
16. Workability of concrete (slump test)
983
IS:516-1959
17. Compressive strength of concrete (cube test) BS:1881Part-116-1
983
18. Concrete Mix Design (M25, M30, M40, M45) IS:10262-2009
19. Workability of concrete (Compaction factor)
20. Flexural strength of concrete (cylinder strength)
21. Vee-Bee Consistometer Test
BRICK
22. Water absorption of brick
23. Compressive strength of brick
24. Efflorescence of bricks
25. Reinforcing bar (mild steel)
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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 1 (a)
STANDARD CONSISTENCY, INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME OF CEMENT
OBJECTIVES: To determine Standard Consistency, Initial and Final Setting Time of given Cement Sample and to
compare these values with the specification of IS code IS: 4031 (Part 4)-1988, IS:5513-1976.
APPARATUS: Vicat Apparatus Conforming to IS: 5513-1976, Balance of capacity 1Kg and sensitivity to 1gram,
Gauging trowel conforming to IS: 10086-1982.
DEFINITION: The standard consistency of a cement paste is defined as that consistency which will permit the vicat
plunger to penetrate to a point 5 to 7mm from the bottom (or 33-35 mm from the top) of the vicat mould.
PROCEDURE:
1. Unless otherwise specified this test shall be conducted at a temperature 27 + 20C and the relative humidity of
laboratory should be 65 + 5%.
2. Initially a cement sample of about 300 g is taken in a tray and is mixed with a known percentage of water by
weight of cement, say starting from 26% and then it is increased by every 2% until the normal consistency is
achieved.
3. Prepare a paste of 300 g of Cement with a weighed quantity of potable or distilled water, taking care that the time
of gauging is not less than 3 minutes, nor more than 5 min, and the gauging shall be completed before any sign of
setting occurs. The gauging time shall be counted from the time of adding water to the dry cement until
commencing to fill the mould.
4. Fill the Vicat mould (E) with this paste, the mould resting upon a non-porous plate. After completely filling the
mould, smoothed the surface of the paste, making it level with the top of the mould. The mould may be slightly
shaken to expel the air.
5. Place the test block in the mould, together with the non-porous resting plate, under the rod bearing the plunger;
lower the plunger gently to touch the surface of the test block, and quickly release, allowing it to sink into the paste.
This operation shall be carried out immediately after filling the mould.
6. Prepare trial pastes with varying percentages of water and test as described above until the amount of water
necessary for making up the standard consistency as defined in Step 1 is found.

OBSERVATION: Height of mould= Volume of the mould=


Express the amount of water as a percentage by mass of the dry cement to the first place of decimal.
Sr. No. Weight of Percentage by water of Amount of water added (ml) Penetration (mm)
cement (gms) dry Cement (%)
1.
2.
3.

Weight of water added


Standard consistency, P (%)=  100
Weight of cement
RESULT : The normal consistency of a given sample of cement is in percentage =
PRECAUTION: Care shall be taken to maintain the specified temperature, humidity and the time of mixing so as to
avoid setting of cement paste.
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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.1 (b)
INITIAL AND FINAL SETTING TIME OF CEMENT
OBJECTIVE: To determine the initial and final setting time of a given sample of cement as per IS code IS:4031
(Part 4)-1988, IS:4031(Pat 5)-1988, IS:5513-1976.
APPARATUS: Vicat apparatus conforming to IS : 5513-1976, Balance, Gauging Trowel, Stop Watch, etc
PROCEDURE: Determination of Initial Setting Time
1. Preparation of Test Block: Prepare a neat 300 gms cement paste by gauging the cement with 0.85 times the
water required to give a paste of standard consistency (0.85P). Potable or distilled water shall be used in preparing
the paste.
2. Start a stop-watch at the instant when water is added to the cement. Fill the Vicat mould with a cement paste
gauged as above, the mould resting on a nonporous plate. Fill the mould completely and smooth off the surface of
the paste making it level with the top of the mould.
3. Immediately after moulding, place the test block in the moist closet or moist room and allow it to remain there
except when determinations of time of setting are being made.
4. Determination of Initial Setting Time: Place the test block confined in the mould and resting on the non-porous
plate, under the rod bearing the needle ( C ); lower the needle gently until it comes in contact with the surface of the
test block and quickly release, allowing it to penetrate into the test block.
5. Repeat this procedure until the needle, when brought in contact with the test block and released as described
above, fails to pierce the block beyond 5.0 ± 0.5 mm measured from the bottom of the mould shall be the initial
setting time.
6. Note down the time and penetration from bottom. Plot a curve between time (min) and penetration (mm).

OBSERVATION:
(a) Weight of given sample of cement is = gms
(b) The normal consistency of a given sample of cement is P = %
(c) Volume of water addend 0.85 x P for preparation of test block = ml

Sr. No. Setting Time (Sec) Initial reading Final reading Settlement of needle Penetration (mm)

1.
2.
3.

PROCEDURE: Determination of Final Setting Time


1. Replace the needle (C) of the Vicat apparatus by the needle with an annular attachment (F).
2. The cement shall be considered as finally set when, upon applying the needle gently to the surface of the test
block, the needle makes an impression thereon, while the attachment fails to do so.
3. The period elapsing between the time when water is added to the cement and the time at which the needle
makes an impression only on the surface of test block while the attachment fails to do so shall be the final setting
time.

Sr. No. Setting Time (Sec) Initial reading Final reading Settlement of needle Penetration (mm)

1.
2.
3.

RESULT: (i) The initial setting time of the cement sample is found to be minutes.
(ii) The final setting time of the cement sample is found to be minutes.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 2
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CEMENT
OBJECTIVES: To determining the compressive strength of cement from tests on mortar cubes compacted by
means of standard vibration machine as per IS code IS:4031 (Part 6)-1988, IS:10080-1982, IS:650-1966, IS:
269-1976.
APPARATUS:
The standard sand to be used in the test shall conform to IS:650-1966 (Standard sand particle size 1-2 mm -
33.33%; 500μ - 1mm- 33.33%; 90μ - 500μ- 33.33%)., Vibration Machine, Poking Rod, Cube Mould of 70.6 mm size
conforming to IS : 10080-1982, Balance, Gauging Trowel, Tray, Stop Watch, Graduated Glass Cylinders, etc.
MATERIALS USED:
(i) Cement, (ii) Standard sand, (iii) Water
PROCEDURE:
1. Preparation of test specimens: Clean appliances shall be used for mixing and the temperature of water and that
of the test room at the time when the above operations are being performed shall be 27 ± 2°C. Potable/distilled
water shall be used in preparing the cubes.
2. The material for each cube shall be mixed separately and the quantity of cement, standard sand and water shall
be as follows: Take Cement 200 g and Standard Sand 600 g (i.e. ratio of cement to sand is 1:3) and mix them dry
thoroughly. Add water quantity (P/4 + 3.0) % of combined mass of cement and sand, where P is the percentage of
water required to produce a paste of standard consistency determined as described in IS:4031(Part 4)-1988.
3. Place on a nonporous plate, a mixture of cement and standard sand. Mix it dry with a trowel for one minute and
then with water until the mixture is of uniform colour. The quantity of water to be used shall be as specified in step 2.
The time of mixing shall in any event be not less than 3 min and should the time taken to obtain a uniform colour
exceed 4 min, the mixture shall be rejected and the operation repeated with a fresh quantity of cement, sand and
water.
4. Moulding Specimens: In assembling the moulds ready for use, treat the interior faces of the mould with a thin
coating of mould oil.
5. Place the assembled mould on the table of the vibration machine and hold it firmly in position by means of a
suitable clamp. Attach a hopper of suitable size and shape securely at the top of the mould to facilitate filling and
this hopper shall not be removed until the completion of the vibration period.
6. Immediately after mixing the mortar in accordance with step 1 & 2, place the mortar in the cube mould and prod
with the rod. Place the mortar in the hopper of the cube mould and prod again as specified for the first layer and
then compact the mortar by vibration.
7. The period of vibration shall be two minutes at the specified speed of 12 000 ± 400 vibration per minute.
8. At the end of vibration, remove the mould together with the base plate from the machine and finish the top
surface of the cube in the mould by smoothing the surface with the blade of a trowel.
9. Curing Specimens - keep the filled moulds in moist closet or moist room for 24 ± 1 hour after completion of
vibration. At the end of that period, remove them from the moulds and immediately submerge in clean fresh water
and keep there until taken out just prior to breaking.
10. The water in which the cubes are submerged shall be renewed every 7 days and shall be maintained at a
temperature of 27 ± 2°C. After they have been taken out and until they are broken, the cubes shall not be allowed
to become dry.
11. Test three cubes for compressive strength for each period of curing mentioned under the relevant specifications
(i.e. 3 days, 7 days, 28 days)
12. The cubes shall be tested on their sides without any packing between the cube and the steel plattens of the
testing machine. One of the plattens shall be carried on a base and shall be self-adjusting, and the load shall be
steadily and uniformly applied, starting from zero at a rate of 35 N/mm2/min (I.e. 140 kg/cm2/min).
OBSERVATION:
S. Age of Weight of Cement Cross-Sectional Peak Load Compressive Average Compressive
N. Cube Cube (gms) area (mm2) (kN) Strength (N/mm2) Strength (N/mm2)
1.
2.
3.
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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)

RESULT:
(i) The average 3 Days Compressive Strength of given cement sample is found to be = N/mm2
(ii) The average 7 Days Compressive Strength of given cement sample is found to be = N/mm2
(iii) The average 28 Days Compressive Strength of given cement sample is found to be = N/mm2

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 2
FINENESS OF CEMENT
OBJECTIVES: Determination of Fineness of Cement by ( ii) dry sieving method & (ii) by determination of specific
surface using by Blaine air permeability apparatus as per BIS code IS:4031(Part 1)-1988.
APPARATUS: Test Sieve 90 microns, Balance, Gauging Trowel, Brush, etc.
MATERIALS USED: Dry Cement

PROCEDURE:
1. Fit the tray (or pan) under the sieve IS 90 micron, weigh approximately 10 g of cement to the nearest 0.01 g and
place it on the 90 micron sieve, being careful to avoid loss. Fit the lid over the sieve. Agitate the sieve about 10
minutes by swirling, planetary and linear movement until no more fine material passes through it.
2. Remove and weigh the residue. Gently brush all the fine material off the base of the sieve into the tray. Express
its mass as a percentage of the quantity first placed in the sieve to the nearest 0.1 percent. (say F1).
3. Repeat the whole procedure using a fresh 10 g sample to obtain fineness of cement (F2). Then calculate the
residue of the cement F as the mean of F1 and F2, as a percentage, expressed to the nearest 0.1 percent.
4. When the results differ by more than 1 percent absolute, carry out a third sieving and calculate the mean of the
three values.

Weightof 90 sievewithr esidue  Weightof 90 emptyseive


Fineness of cement (in %) = x 100
Weightofce ment
Result: The fineness of a given sample of cement is %

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 3
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF CEMENT
OBJECTIVES: To determine the specific gravity of cement using by Le Chatelier Flask.
APPARATUS: Le Chaterlier’s flask, Weighing balance, Spoon, Stirrer
MATERIALS USED: Cement (OPC), Kerosene

1. Dry the flask carefully and fill it with kerosene to a point on the stem between zero and 1 ml mark.
2. Record the level of the liquid in the flask as initial reading.
3. Introduce a weighed quantity of cement (about 64 g) into the flask. The level of kerosene will rise. Care should
be taken to avoid splashing and to ensure that cement does not adhere to the sides of the stem of the flask above
the liquid level.
4. After all the cement has been introduced into the flask, the stopper shall be placed in the flask and roll the flask
gently in an inclined position or gently whirled in a horizontal circle, so as to expel air until no further air bubble rises
to the surface of the liquid.
5. Note down the new liquid level as final reading.
6. Repeat the steps 1 to 5 at least for three different samples.
Massofcementingm
7. The density of OPC is given by, Density of cement=
Displacedvolumeincm 3
Displaced volume = Final Reading - Initial Reading
8. Calculate the specific gravity of cement for each of the three samples.
9. Determine the mean specific gravity of the cement by averaging the results of all the three samples.

Result: The specific gravity of a given sample of cement is

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 4
SOUNDNESS OF CEMENT
OBJECTIVE: To determination the Soundness of Cement by Le-Chatelier method as per BIS code IS:4031(Part
3)-1988.
APPARATUS: Le-Chatelier test apparatus conform to IS:5514-1969, Balance, Gauging Trowel, Water Bath etc.
PROCEDURE:
1. Place the lightly oiled mould on a lightly oiled glass sheet and fill it with cement paste formed by gauging cement
with 0.78 times the water required to give a paste of standard consistency [see IS:4031 (Part 4)-1988].
2. The paste shall be gauged in the manner and under the conditions prescribed in standard consistency, taking
care to keep the edges of the mould gently together while this operation is being performed.
3. Cover the mould with another piece of lightly oiled glass sheet, place a small weight on this covering glass sheet
and immediately submerge the whole assembly in water at a temperature of 27 ± 2°C and keep there for 24 hours.
4. Measure the distance separating the indicator points to the nearest 0.5 mm. Submerge the mould again in water
at the temperature prescribed above.
5. Bring the water to boiling, with the mould kept submerged, in 25 to 30 minutes, and keep it boiling for three hours.
Remove the mould from the water, allow it to cool and measure the distance between the indicator points.
6. The difference between these two measurements indicates the expansion of the cement. This must not exceed
10 mm for ordinary, rapid hardening and low heat Portland cements. If in case the expansion is more than 10 mm
as tested above, the cement is said to be unsound.

OBSERVATION:
Express the amount of water as a percentage by mass of the dry cement to the first place of decimal.
Sr. Distance separating the indicator Distances separating the The difference between Remark
No. submerge in normal temp water for indicator submerge in these two measurements
24 hours boiling for three hours.

RESULT: The given cement is said to be sound / unsound.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 5
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF FINE AGGREGATE (FA) OR SAND
OBJECTIVES: To determine fineness modulus of fine aggregate and classifications based on BIS code
IS:383-1970. (Reference IS:2386 (Part I)-1963, IS:383-1970, IS:460-1962)
APPARATUS: Test Sieves conforming to IS:460-1962 specification of 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 600 micron,
300 micron, 150 micron, 75 micron,Balance, Gauging Trowel, Stop Watch, Pan, etc.
PROCEDURE:
1. The sample shall be brought to an air-dry condition before weighing and sieving. The air-dry sample shall be
weighed and sieved successively on the appropriate sieves arrange starting with the largest sieve in descending
order of size from the top. Care shall be taken to ensure that the sieves are clean before use.
2. Measure 500 gram of the sand. Put the sand in sieve 4.75mm, and shake for 10 minutes. The shaking shall be
done with a varied motion, backwards and forwards, left to right, circular clockwise and anti-clockwise, and with
frequent jarring, so that the material is kept moving over the sieve surface in frequently changing directions.
3. Material shall not be forced through the sieve by hand pressure. Lumps of fine material, if present, may be
broken by gentle pressure with fingers against the side of the sieve.
4. Light brushing with a fine camel hair brush may be used on the 150-micron and 75-micron IS Sieves to prevent
aggregation of powder and blinding of apertures.
5. On completion of sieving, the material retained on each sieve, together with any material cleaned from the mesh,
shall be weighed.
6. Calculate the percentage of weight retained on each sieve. Find the percentage of the weight which has passed
through each sieve.
9. Plot particle size (log scale) and percentage passing and find out D10, D30, D60.
OBSERVATION:
IS sieve Weight of Weight of Weight Percentage Cumulative Cumulative Percentage
size (mm) empty sieve sieve+ sand retained weight weight percentage finer (8) =
(1) (gm) (2) after sieving (gm) (4) retained (5) retained weight 100-Col(7)
(gm) (3) (gm) (6) retained (7)
4.75 mm
2.36 mm
1.18 mm
600 micron
300 micron
150 micron
75 micron
Pan
Total
CALCULATION:
As per Indian standard the aggregate fraction from 4.75mm to 75 micron are termed as fine aggregate.
Fineness modulus is defined as sum of the cumulative percentage of sand retained in the designated sieves
divided by 100. (OR)
Fineness modulus is an empirical factor obtained by adding the cumulative percentages of aggregate retained on
each of the standard sieves ranging from 4.75 mm to 150 micron and dividing this sum by an arbitrary number 100.
TotalofCum mulativepercentagePas sin g
Fineness Modulus =
100
Following limits may be taken as guidance, for fine sand the fineness Modulus between 2.2 - 2.6, for medium sand
the F.M. between 2.6 - 2.9 and for coarse sand the F.M. between 2.9 - 3.2. Sand having a fineness modulus more
than 3.2 will be unsuitable for making satisfactory concrete.

The effective size, i.e. D10 represents a size, in mm such that 10% of the particles are finer then the sieve size.
Where D60 is the grain diameter at 60% passing, i.e. 40% of sample is retained on that particular
sieve then there is 60% passing.
Uniformity Coefficient, Cu = D60 / D10
Coefficient of Curvature, Cc = D230/ (D60 x D10)
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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
RESULT:
(i) Fineness modulus of a given sample of fine aggregate is …….. that indicate coarse sand/medium sand/fine
sand.
(ii) The given sample of fine aggregate is belong to Grading Zones I / II / III / IV.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 6
MOISTURE CONTENT & WATER ABSORPTION OF FINE AGGREGATE (FA) OR SAND
OBJECTIVE: To determine the moisture content, water absorption of given sample of sand.
APPARATUS:
Beaker (1 liter), Hot air oven, Weighing balance, Tray, etc.
MATERIALS USED:
500 gram sample of sand.
PROCEDURE:
1. Take 500g (W1) of fine aggregate sample, wash thoroughly to remove dust. Then place the sample in a container,
put in hot air oven for 24 hours, at a temperature of 100 to 110°C. After 24 hours, measure the weight of air dried
sample (W2).
2. Take out oven dried aggregate (W2) and immerse in water for 24 hours at a temperature between 22°C and
32°C with a cover of at least 5 cm of water above the top of the basket.
3. Take out the immersed aggregate and place in a dry cloth. It shall then be spread out, and best exposed to the
atmosphere away from direct sunlight or any other source of heat for not less than 10 minutes, or until it appears to
be completely surface dry. Measure weight of the aggregate (W3).
4. The aggregate shall then be placed in the oven in the shallow tray, at a temperature of 100 to 110°C and
maintained at this temperature for 24 hours. After 24 hours, It shall then be removed from the oven, cooled in the
airtight container and weighed (W4).
OBSERVATION:
Sl. Weight (W1) Weight (W2) Weight (W3) Weight (W4) Moisture content Water Absorption
No. (W1-W2)/W2 X100 (W3-W4)/W4 X100

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 7
BULKING OF FINE AGGREGATE (FA) OR SAND
OBJECTIVE: To determine bulking of a given sample of fine aggregate as per BIS code IS:2386 (Part III)-1963
APPARATUS: Beaker (Measuring jar 1 liter), spoon, steel rule (taping rod), tray, etc.
MATERIALS USED:
Fine aggregate or sand, distilled water.
PROCEDURE:
1. Put sufficient quantity of the sand loosely into a container until it is about one-thirds full.
2. Level off the top of the sand and pushing a steel rule vertically down through the sand at the middle to the
bottom, measure the height. Suppose this is h1 cm. Measure weight of the sand.
2. Empty the sand out of the container into another container where none of it will be lost. Half fill the first
container with water (about 4% by weight of sand). Put back about half the sand and rod it with a steel rod,
about 6 mm in diameter, so that its volume is reduced to a minimum. Then add the remainder of the sand and
rod it in the same way. Smooth and level the top surface measure the height (h2) of sand. Find the height
percentage increment.
4. Repeat the same procedure with increasing amount of water by 2% until percentage increment of sand
height is reduced.
5. The percentage of bulking of the sand due to moisture shall be calculated from the formula:
Percentage bulking = (h2 -h1) /h1 x 100
6. Plot a graph of percentage increment of sand height against percentage of water.

OBSERVATIONS:
Sl. No Percentage water Height (h2) Height (h1) Percentage bulking
(h2/h1 -1) x 100

RESULT: Bulking of a given sample of fine aggregate is found to be %.

When measuring sand by volume, allowance should be made for the fact that it can occupy a greater volume when
damp than when it is dry. This effect is known as bulking. The extent of the bulking varies with the moisture content
and the coarseness of the sand.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 8
SILT CONTENT IN FINE AGGREGATE (FA) OR SAND
(clay, fine silt and fine dust, which includes particles up to 20 micron)
OBJECTIVE:
To determine silt content in a given sample of fine aggregate by sedimentation method as per BIS code IS:2386
(Part II) -1963.
APPARATUS:
A watertight screw-topped glass jar of dimensions similar to a 1-kg fruit preserving jar, A device for rotating the jar
about its long axis, with this axis horizontal, at a speed of 80 ± 20 rev/min, A sedimentation pipette, A 1000-ml
measuring cylinder, scale, well-ventilated oven, Taping rod etc.
CHEMICAL:
A solution containing 8 g of sodium oxalate per liter of distilled water shall be taken. For use, this stock solution is
diluted with distilled water to one tenth (that is 100 ml diluted with distilled water to one liter).

TEST PROCEDURE:
1. Approximately 300 g of the sample in the air-dry condition, passing the 4.75-mm IS Sieve, shall be weighed and
placed in the screw-topped glass jar, together with 300 ml of the diluted sodium oxalate solution. The rubber
washer and cap shall be fixed, care being taken to ensure water tightness.
2. The jar shall then be rotated about its long axis, with this axis horizontal, at a speed of 80 ± 20 rev/min for a
period of 15 minutes.
3. At the end of 15 minutes, the suspension shall be poured into the 1 000-ml measuring cylinder and the residue
washed by gentle swirling and decantation of successive 150-ml portions of sodium oxalate solution, the washings
being added to the cylinder until the volume is made up to 1000 ml.
4. The suspension in the measuring cylinder shall be thoroughly mixed by inversion and the tube and contents
immediately placed in position under the pipette.
5. The pipette A shall then be gently lowered until the tip touches the surface of the liquid, and then lowered a
further 10 cm into the liquid.
6. Three minutes after placing the tube in position, the pipette A and the bore of tap B shall be filled by opening B
and applying gentle suction at C.
7. A small surplus may be drawn up into the bulb between tap B and tube C, but this shall be allowed to run away
and any solid matter shall be washed out with distilled water from E.
8. The pipette shall then be removed from the measuring cylinder and its contents run into a weighed container,
any adherent solids being washed into the container by distilled water from E through the tap B.
9. The contents of the container shall be dried at 100 to 110°C to constant weight, cooled and weighed.

CALCULATIONS:
The proportion of fine silt and clay or fine dust shall then be calculated from the following formula:
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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)

100  1000W2 
Percentage of clay and fine silt or fine dust =   0 .8 
W1  V 
W1 = Weight in gm of the original sample
W2 = Weight in gm of the dried residue
V = Volume in ml of the pipette
0.8 is the weight in gm of sodium oxalate in one liter of the diluted solution

RESULT:
The clay, fine silt and fine dust content of given sample of fine aggregate is found to be %.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 9
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF FINE AGGREGATE (FA) OR SAND
OBJECTIVE:
To determine specific gravity of a given sample of fine aggregate as per BIS code IS:2386 (Part III)-1963.
APPARATUS:
Pycnometer, 1000-ml measuring cylinder, well-ventilated oven, Weighing balance, Taping rod, Stirrer, Filter papers
and funnel, Tray, etc.
MATERIALS USED:
Fine aggregate or sand, distilled water

TEST PROCEDURE: (1)

1. Take a clean, dry pycnometer, and find its weight with its cap and washer (W1)
2. Put about 200 g to 400 g of sand in the pycnometer and find its weight (W2)
3. Fill the pycnometer and filled in sand as in step2, with distilled water and measure its
weight (W3)
4. Empty the pycnometer, clean it thoroughly, and fill it with clean water only to the hole of the conical cap, and find
its weight (W4)
5. Repeat the same procedure at least for three different samples.
S Weight of empty Weight of Pycn+dry Weight of Weight+ Pycn.+ Specific gravity of
N Pycn. (W1) (g) sand (W2) (g) Pycn.+ dry sand water (W4) (g) sand
+water (W3) (g) (W2  W1 )
(W2  W1 )  (W3  W4 )

TEST PROCEDURE: (2)


1. A sample of about 500 g shall be placed in the tray and covered with distilled water at a temperature of 22 to
32°C. Soon after immersion, air entrapped in or bubbles on the surface of the aggregate shall be removed by
gentle agitation with a rod. The sample shall remain immersed for 24 ± l/2 hours.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
2. The water shall then be carefully drained from the sample, by decantation through a filter paper, any material
retained being return& to the sample. The fine aggregate including any solid matter retained on the filter paper shall
be exposed to a gentle current of warm air to evaporate surface moisture and the material just attains a
‘free-running‘ condition. The saturated and surface-dry sample shall be weighed (weight A).
3. The aggregate shall then be placed in the pycnometer which shall be filled with distilled water. Any trapped air
shall be eliminated by rotating the pycnometer on its side, the hole in the apex of the cone being covered with a
finger. The pycnometer shall be dried on the outside and weighed (weight B).
4. The contents of the pycnometer shall be emptied into the tray, care being taken to ensure that all the aggregate
is transferred. The pycnometer shall be refilled with distilled water to the same level as before, dried on the outside
and weighed (weight C).
5. The water shall then be carefully drained from the sample by decantation through a filter paper and any material
retained returned to the sample. The sample shall be placed in the oven in the tray at a temperature of 100 to
110°C for 24+/- 1/2 hours, during which period it shall be stirred occasionally to facilitate drying. It shall be cooled in
the air-tight container and weighed (weight D).

CALCULATION:
Specific gravity, apparent specific gravity and water absorption shall be calculated as follows:
D D 100( A  D)
Specific Gravity = , Apparent Specific Gravity = , Water Absorption=
A  ( B  C) D  ( B  C) D
A = Weight in gm of saturated surface of dry sample
B = Weight in gm of pycnometer or gas jar containing sample and filled with distilled water
C = Weight in gm of pycnometer or gas jar filled with distilled water only
D = Weight in gm of oven dried sample.

RESULT:
(i) The Specific Gravity of a given sample of fine aggregate is found to be
(ii) The Water Absorption of a given sample of fine aggregate is found to be %.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 10
BULK DENSITY OF FINE AGGREGATE (FA) OR SAND

OBJECTIVE: To determine the bulk density of sand.


APPARATUS:
Cylindrical metal measure, tamping rod, weighing balance.
MATERIALS USED:
500 gram sample of sand.
TEST PROCEDURE:
1. Measure empty weight of cylindrical metal measure (Wc).
2. Measure diameter and height of cylindrical metal measure, and determine its volume (Vc).
3. Fill the cylinder with aggregate making three layers and tamp it 25 times each layer. Measure total weight (WT).
4. Repeat the same procedures for three different samples.

OBSERVATION:

Sl.No. Weight (Wc) (kg) Volume of Cylinder (Vc) (cum) Weight (WT) (kg) WT  WC
Density = kg/m3
VC

RESULT: The bulk density of a given sample of fine aggregate (or sand) is kg/m3.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 11
MOISTURE CONTENT, WATER ABSORPTION, DRY RODDED DENSITY AND SIEVE ANALYSIS OF STONE
CHIPS (COARSE AGGREGATE)
OBJECTIVE: To determine (i) Moisture content and Water absorption of coarse aggregate.
(ii) Dry rodded density of coarse aggregate.
(iii) Particle Size Distribution of of Stone chips (coarse aggregate).
APPARATUS:
(iii) For Water absorption test: Beaker (1 lt) , Hot air oven, weighing balance, tray
(iv) For Dry rodded density test: Cylindrical metal measure, tamping rod, weighing balance.
(v) For Sieve Analysis: Test sieve confirming to IS:460-1962 specification of sieve 80 mm, 40 mm, 20 mm, 16 mm,
12.5 mm, 10 mm, 4.75 mm, Balance, Gauging trowel, Stop watch, etc.

MATERIALS USED:
Stone chips (Coarse Aggregate)

TEST PROCEDURE: For water absorption


1. Take 500 g (W1) of coarse aggregate sample, wash thoroughly to remove finer particles and dust. Then place the
sample in a container, put in hot air oven for 24 hours, at a temperature of 100 to 110°C. After 24 hours, measure
the weight of air dried sample (W2).
2 Take out oven dried aggregate (W2) and immerse in water for 24 hours at a temperature between 22°C and 32°C
with a cover of at least 5 cm of water above the top of the basket.
3. Take out the immersed aggregate and place in a dry cloth. It shall then be spread out not more than one stone
deep, and best exposed to the atmosphere away from direct sunlight or any other source of heat for not less than
10 minutes, or until it appears to be completely surface dry. Measure weight of the aggregate (W3).
4. The aggregate shall then be placed in the oven in the shallow tray, at a temperature of 100 to 110°C and
maintained at this temperature for 24 hours. After 24 hours, It shall then be removed from the oven, cooled in the
airtight container and weighed (W4).

OBSERVATIONS:
Visual observation: Write about colour and shape (rounded/angular)
Sl.No Weight (W1) Weight (W2) Weight (W3) Weight (W4) Moisture content= Water absorption=
. W1  W2  W3  W4 
X 100   X 100
W2 W
 4 

RESULT: (i) The moisture content of a given coarse aggregate sample is %.


(ii) The water absorption of a given sample of coarse aggregate is %.

TEST PROCEDURE: For dry rodded density


1. Measure empty weight of cylindrical metal measure (Wc)
2. Measure diameter and height of cylindrical metal measure, and determine its volume (Vc).
3. Fill the cylinder with aggregate making three layers and tamp it 25 times each layer. Measure total weight (WT).
4. Repeat the same procedures for three different samples.
OBSERVATION:
Sl.No. Weight (Wc) (kg) Volume of Cylinder (Vc) (m3) Weight (WT) (kg)  W  WC 
Density =  T  X100
 W C 

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
TEST PROCEDURE: For Sieve Analysis [Reference IS:2386 ( Part I) -1963, IS:383-1970, IS:460-1962]
1. Take 500 g of coarse aggregate.
2. Arrange the various sieves one over the other in the order of their mesh openings- the largest aperture sieve
being kept at the top and the smallest aperture sieve at the bottom. Keep a pan at the bottom of the whole
assembly.
3. Put the course aggregate on the top sieve, cover it with a lid and put the whole assembly in the sieve shaking
machine for 10 to 15 minutes (not less than 2 minutes) of shaking.
4. Measure weight of the aggregate retained on each sieve.
5. Calculate percentage of aggregate retained on each sieve on the basis of the total mass of aggregate taken, and
from these results, calculate percentage passing through each sieve.
6. Plot the particle size distribution curve using semi-log graph [particle size in log scale (xaxis) and % finer in
ordinary scale (y axis)]
7. Calculate Fineness Modulus of coarse aggregate.

OBERVATION:
IS sieve Weight of Weight of Weight Percentage Cumulative Cumulative Percentage
size (mm) empty sieve sieve+ C.A. retained weight weight percentage finer (8) =
(1) (gm) (2) after sieving (gm) (4) retained (5) retained weight 100-Col(7)
(gm) (3) (gm) (6) retained (7)
40 mm
20 mm
16 mm
12.5 mm
10 mm
4.75 mm
Pan
Total

Fineness Modulus =
 Cummulative%Weight Re tained
100

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 11
COARSE AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE (A.C.V.)
OBJECTIVES:
To determine the aggregate crushing strength of coarse aggregate using compression testing machine as per BIS
code IS:2386 (Part IV)-1963, IS:383-1970.

APPARATUS:
(i) Steel cylinder with open ends of internal diameter 15.2 cm, a square base plate, plunger having a piston
diameter of 15 cm.
(ii) Cylindrical measure of internal diameter of 11.5 cm and height 18 cm.
(iii) Steel tamping rod having diameter of 1.6 cm length 45 to 60 cm.
(iv) Balance of capacity 3 kg with accuracy up to 1 gm.
(v) Compression testing machine capable of applying load of 40 tonnes at a loading rate of 4 tonnes per minute.
(vi) IS Sieves of sizes 12.5 mm, 10 mm and 2.36 mm.

MATERIALS USED:
Sample of course aggregates

THEORY:
The aggregate crushing value provides a relative measure of resistance to crushing under a gradually applied
compressive load. To achieve a high quality of pavement aggregate possessing low aggregate crushing value
should be preferred. The aggregate crushing value of the coarse aggregates used for cement concrete pavement
at surface should not exceed 30% and aggregates used for concrete other than for wearing surfaces, shall not
exceed 45% as specified by Indian Standard (IS) and Indian Road Congress (IRC).
With aggregate of ‘aggregate crushing value‘ 30 or higher, the result may be anomalous, and in such cases the ‘ten
percent fines value‘ should be determined instead. Aggregates used in concrete, should be strong enough to
sustain gradually varying loads under compression.

TEST PROCEDURE:
TEST PROCEDURE:
1. Take surface-dry sample aggregates passing through 12.5 mm and retained on 10 mm IS sieve is selected for
standard test.
2. The aggregate shall be tested in a surface-dry condition. If dried by heating, the period of drying shall not
exceed four hours, the temperature shall be 100 to 110°C and the aggregate shall be cooled to room temperature
before testing.
3. The cylindrical measure is filled by the test sample of the aggregate in three layers of approximately equal depth,
each layer being tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the tamping rod. After the third layer is tamped, the
aggregates at the top of the cylindrical measure are leveled off by using the tamping rod as a straight edge. Then
the test sample is weighed. Let that be W1 gm. The same weight of sample shall be taken for the repeat test.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
4. Then the cylinder of test apparatus is kept on the base plate and one third of the test sample from cylindrical
measure is transferred into cylinder and tamped 25 times by rounded end of the tamping rod. Similarly other two
parts of the test specimen are added. Total depth of the material in the cylinder after tamping shall however be 100
mm.
5. The cylinder of test apparatus, with the test sample and plunger in position, shall then be placed between the
platens of the compression testing machine and loaded at as uniform rate 4 tonnes per minute as possible so that
the total load is reached in 10 minutes. The total load shall be 400 kN (40 tonnes). The compression testing
machine is stopped and load is released.
6. Aggregates including the crushed position are removed from the cylinder and sieved on a 2.36mm IS sieve and
material which passes this sieve is collected and weighed. Let this be W2 gm.
7. The above step is repeated with second sample of the same aggregate. Two tests are done and the average
value to the nearest whole number is reported as aggregate abrasion value.

CACULATION:
Then the aggregate crushing value is defined as the ratio of weight of fines passing the specified IS sieve (W2 gm)
to the total weight of the sample (W1 gm).
Aggregate crushing value= ( W2 / W1)x100.
W1= Weight in gm of saturated surface of dry sample, and
W2 = Weight in gm of fraction passing through appropriate sieve

OBSERVATION:
S.N. Total weight of dry aggregate Weight of fines passing through Aggregate Crushing Mean Value
Sample (W1) gm 2.36 mm IS sieve (W2) gm Value (%)

RESULT:
The mean (average) of the crushing value aggregate given sample of coarse aggregate is %.

ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA :
The aggregate crushing value should not be more than 45 per cent for aggregate used for concrete other than for
wearing surfaces, and 30 per cent for concrete used for wearing surfaces such a runways, roads and air field
pavements.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 12
AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE (A.I.V.) OF COAESE AGGREGATE
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the aggregate impact value of given sample of coarse aggregate as per IS:2386 Part IV-1963,
IS:383-1970.
APPARATUS:
(i) The apparatus consists of an Impact testing machine: The machine consists of a metal base. A detachable
cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter 10.2 cm and depth 5 cm and not less than 6.3 mm thick.
(ii) Metal hammer of weight between 13.5 to 14 kg, 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm long with a 2 mm chamfer at the
lower edge, and case-hardened.
(iii) An arrangement for raising the hammer and allow it to fall freely between vertical guides from a height of 38 cm
on the test sample in the cup.
(iv) Cylindrical metal measure having 7.5 cm and depth of 5 cm for measuring aggregates.
(v) Tamping rod of circular cross section, 1 cm in diameter and 23 cm long, rounded at one end.
(vi) I.S. sieve of sizes 12.5 mm, 10 mm and 2.36 mm.
(vii) Balance of capacity not less than 500 gm to weigh accurate up to 0.01 gm.

THEORY:
A test designed to evaluate the toughness of stones i.e., the resistance of the stones to fracture under repeated
impacts may be called Impact test on aggregates. The test can also be carried on cylindrical stone specimen
known as Page Impact test. The aggregate Impact test has been standardized by Indian Standard Institution. The
aggregate impact test is conducted as per IS-2386 Part IV.
The aggregate Impact value indicates a relative measure of the resistance of aggregate to a sudden shock or an
Impact, which in some aggregates differs from its resistance to a slope compressive load in crushing test. A
modified Impact test is also often carried out in the case of soft aggregates to find the wet Impact value after
soaking the test sample.
Various agencies have specified the maximum permissible aggregate Impact values for the different types of
pavements. IRC has specified the following values:
The maximum allowable aggregate Impact value for water bound Macadam; Sub-Base coarse 50% where as
cement concrete used in base course is 45%. WBM base course with Bitumen surface in should be 40%.
Bituminous Macadam base course should have A.I.V of 35%. All the surface courses should possess an A.I.V
below 30%.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
TEST PROCEDURE:
1. The test sample consists of aggregates passing 12.5 mm sieve and retained on 10mm sieve and dried in an
oven for 4 hours at a temperature of 100 0C to 110 0C.
2. The aggregates are filled up to about 1/3 full in the cylindrical measure and tamped 25 times with rounded end of
the tamping rod. The rest of the cylindrical measure is filled by two layers and each layer being tamped 25 times.
The overflow of aggregates in cylindrical measure is cut off by tamping rod using it has a straight edge.
3. Then the entire aggregate sample in a measuring cylinder is weighted nearing to 0.01 gm and taken as W1 gm.
4. The aggregates from the cylindrical measure are carefully transferred into the cup which is firmly fixed in position
on the base plate of machine. Then it is tamped 25 times.
5. The hammer is raised until its lower face is 38 cm above the upper surface of aggregates in the cup and allowed
to fall freely on the aggregates. The test sample is subjected to a total of 15 such blows each being delivered at an
interval of not less than one second.
6. The crushed aggregate is than removed from the cup and the whole of it is sieved on 2.36 mm sieve until no
significant amount passes. The fraction passing the sieve is weighed accurate to 0.1 gm.
7. Repeat the above steps with other fresh sample. Two tests are done and the average value to the nearest whole
number is reported as aggregate impact value.

CALCULATION:
Let the original weight of the oven dry sample be W1 gm and the weight of fraction passing 2.36 mm I.S sieve be
W2 gm. Then aggregate Impact value is expressed as the % of fines formed in terms of the total weight of the
sample.
Aggregate Impact Value= (W2 / W1) X 100
OBSERVATION:
S.N. Total weight of aggregate sample Weight of the aggregate passing Aggregate Impact Mean Value
filling the cylinder measure= W1 through 2.36mm is sieve after the Value (%)
gm test= W2 gm

RESULT:
The aggregate Impact value of given sample of coarse aggregate is %.

The aggregate impact value should not be more than 45 per cent for aggregate used for concrete other than for
wearing surfaces, and 30 per cent for concrete used for wearing surfaces such a runways, roads and air field
pavements.

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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
EXPERIMENT NO.: 13
AGGREGATE ABRATION VALUE (A.B.V.) OF COAESE AGGREGATE
OBJECTIVE: To determine the abrasion value of given aggregate sample by conducting Los Angeles abrasion Test
machine. (Reference IS:2386 (Part IV)-1963, IS:383-1970, AASHTO T 96, ASTM C 131)

APPARATUS:
(i) Los Angeles Abration Testing Machine with inside diameter 70 cm and inside length of 50 cm.
(ii) Abrasive charges (cast iron or steel balls/spheres) having diameter 4.8 cm and weight 390 to 445 gm
(iii) I.S Sieve with 1.7 mm opening.
(iv) Weighting Balance of capacity 10 kg with 0.1 gm accuracy.
(v) Metallic Tray
(vi) Oven

THEORY:
Abrasion is a measure of resistance to wear or hardness. It is an essentially property for road aggregates
especially when used in wearing coarse. Due to the movements of traffic, the road stones used in the surfacing
course are subjected to wearing actions at the top. When traffic moves on the road the soil particle (sand) which
comes between the wheel and road surface causes abrasion on the road stone. The abrasion test on aggregate is
found as per I.S.-2386 part-IV.
Abrasion tests on aggregates are generally carried out by any one of the following methods:
a. Los Angeles abrasion test.
b. Deval abrasion test.
c. Dorry abrasion test.
Los Angeles Abrasion Test: The principle of Los Angeles abrasion test is to find the percentage wear due to the
relative rubbing action between the aggregates and steel balls used as abrasive charge pounding action of these
balls also exist while conducting the test. Maximum Allowable Los Angeles Abrasion Values of Aggregates in
Different types of pavement layers as per Indian Road Congress (IRC) are:
For sub-base course a value of 60%. For base course such as WBM, Bituminous Macadam (B.M.), Built-Up spray
grout base course and etc. value of 50%.
For surface course such as WBM, BM, Bituminous Penetration Macadam,Built-Up spray grout binder course and
etc. a value of 40%.
If aggregates are used in surface course as bituminous carpet, bituminous surface dressing, single or two coats,
cement concrete surface course and etc. a value of 35%.
If aggregates are used for bituminous concrete, Cement concrete pavement as surface coarse than aggregate
abrasion value of 30% maximum.

TEST PROCEDURE:
1. Clean and dry aggregate sample confirming to one of the grading A to G is used for the test. (Refer table no. 1).
2. Aggregates weighing 5 kg for grading A, B, C or D and 10 kg for gradings E, F or G may be taken as test
specimen and placed in the cylinder.
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LABORATORY MANUAL ON CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS (UIT RGPV BHOPAL-33)
3. The abrasive charge is also chosen in accordance with table no.1 and placed in the cylinder of the machine, and
cover is fixed to make dust tight.
4. The machine is rotated at a speed of 30 to 33 revolutions per minute.
5. The machine is rotated for 500 revolutions for gradings A, B, C and D, for gradings E, F and G, it shall be rotated
for 1000 revolutions.
6. After the desired number of revolutions, the machine is stopped and the material is discharged from the machine
taking care to take out entire stone dust.
7. Using a sieve of size larger than 1.70 mm I.S sieve, the material is first separated into two parts and the finer
position is taken out and sieved further on a 1.7 mm I.S sieve.
8. Two tests are done and the average value to the nearest whole number is reported as abrasion value.

CALCULATION:
Let the original weight of aggregate be W1 gm, weight of aggregate retained on 1.70 mm IS sieve after the test be
W2 gm.
Los Angeles abrasion value % = (W1-W2) / W1 X100

Table: Gradings of Test Sample with Specified Abrasive Charge


Weight in gm of each test sample in the size range, mm Abrasive
Grading

(Passing and retained on square holes) Charge


Wt. of
80-63 63-40 50-40 40-25 25-20 20-12.5 12.5-10 10-6.3 6.3-4.75 4.75-2.36 ball Charge
A 1250 1250 1250 1250 12 5000+/-25
B 2500 2500 11 4584+/-25
C 2500 2500 8 3330+/-20
D 5000 6 2500+/-15
E 2500 2500 5000 12 5000+/-25
F 5000 5000 12 5000+/-25
G 5000 5000 12 5000+/-25

OBSERVATION:

S.N. Weight of Weight of Specimen retain on 1.7 mm IS Sieve Percentage wear Mean Value
specimen = W1 gm after abrasion test = W2 gm

RESULT:
The aggregate Abrasion Value of given sample of coarse aggregate is %.
NOTE: The percentage of wear should not be more than 16 per cent for concrete aggregates.

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