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# Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.

## Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)

UNIT-07
CONSOLIDATION OF SOILS
Definition:

Consolidation may be defined as the gradual expulsion of pore water from voids is defined as consolidation. or
1. It is a line-dependent phenomenon.
2. Soil is completely saturated.
3. Volume reduction is due to expulsion of pore water from voids.
4. It occurs on account of load placed on the soil is called consolidation..

Δh
W W

V1 S S
V2

(a) (b)
Fig.1. Before consolidation After consolidation
Terzaghi’s One dimensional consolidation theory:
Assumptions:
The following are the assumptions of one dimensional consolidation theory;
a.The soil is homogeneous and fully saturated.
b.Soil particles and water are incompressible.
c.Darcy’s law for the velocity of flow of water through soil is perfectly valid.
d.Coefficient of permeability,k is constant during the process.
e.Soil is laterally confined so that the compression is one dimensional.
f.Excess pore water drains out only in a vertical direction.
g.Linear relationship between effective pressure and void ratio exist are constant for every stage of consolidation.
h.The time log of consolidation is due entirely to the low permeability of soil, and thus the secondary consolidation is disregarded.
The following figure shows one dimensional consolidation theory;
Sand
Drainage face Δσ total vertical stress
A Ui=ΔσIz d

dx
dy H/2 t=0t4 t4 t3 t2 t1
Clay σIz t=00
Uz t=00
H
Consolidated layer H/2

Sand b c
Fig.a. Section of clay layer Fig.b. Excess pore pressure distribution.
σIz=Vertical effective pressure at depth Z.
Uz=Pore pressure at depth Z.
Fig.2.
A layer of clay is shown sandwiched between two sand strata. The clay layer is subjected to an increase in total vertical stress Δσ
distributed uniformly a semi-infinite area. At the instant of loading, that is,t=0, the excess pore pressure will increase uniformly
by ui (ui= Δσ) over the thickness H of the layer as shown by abcd in figure(b). After a time t has elapsed, because of the drainage into
the sand layers above and below, the distribution of excess pore water pressure will have changed to the shape shown by the unshaded
portion in figure(b).
H is the maximum distance that water has to travel to reach a drainage face; that is, the length of the longest drainage path. If
there are two drainage surfaces, one of the top and another at bottom of the consolidation layer, it is called double drainage layer and
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
H will then be equal to half of the thickness of the clay layer(H=H/2). If there is only one drainage surface, it is called single drainage
layer and H will be equal to the thickness of clay layer (i.e. H=H).
In the Terzaghi’s solution, he consider the three factors i.e.,
a. Drainage path(H)
b. Time factor(Tv)
c. Coefficient of Consolidation(Cv). i.e.,

Cv t
Time factor Tv = (1)
H2
k
Cv = (2)
mv γ w
k (1 + e )
Cv = (3)
a v *γ w
Where, Tv= time factor.
t= time in seconds.
H=Thickness of permeability in cm/sec or m/sec.
k=Co-efficient of volume change in cm2/sec or m2/sec.
mv= Co-efficient of volume change in cm2/gm or m2/KN.
Cv= Co-efficient of consolidation in cm2/sec or m2.sec
γw= Unit weight of water in gm/cm3 or KN/m3.
av= Co-efficient of compressibility.
e=void ratio.
e0 − e f
mv = (4).
(1 + e0 ) * ( p ef − p o )
Normally Consolidated, Under Consolidated and Over Consolidated Soils:
a. Normally Consolidated Soils:
A soil is said to be normally loaded if the present effective overburden pressure Po is the maximum pressure to which the layer
has ever been subjected at any time in its history is called normally consolidated soils.
i.e. Pc=Po
where, Po is called Overburden pressure
Po=γz in KN/m2
Pc=Preconsolidated pressure=Pc=load/area in KN/m2.
(Total load of building)

G L
G

γ= density of soil
Z

b
Fig.3. Normally consolidated soils.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)

## b. Over Consolidated soils:

A soil layer is said to be precompressed (over consolidated) if the layer was subjected at one time in its history to a greater
effective over burden pressure is called over consolidated pressure.

## (Total load of building)

G L
G L
Z=depth of foundation
Clay layer or depth of foundation.
γ= density of soil
Fig.4. Over Consolidated soils:
i.e. Pc>Po
where, Po=γZ in KN/m2.
Pc=Total design load of structure in KN/m2.

## c. Under Consolidated Soils:

A soil layer is said to be compressed (under consolidated) if the layer was subjected at one time in its history to a lesser effective
over burden pressure.
i.e. Pc<Po
Pc loose material placed or water logged area
i.e. Pc=Total structural
G L Po=Overburden
Pressure=γZ

Z γ

## Fig.5. Under Consolidated Soils.

d. Over Consolidated ratio (OCR):
Over consolidation ratio may be defined as it is the ratio of preconsolidation pressure to the over burden pressure is called Over
Consolidation ratio.
i.e. OCR=Pc/Po
Therefore for a normally consolidated soil, OCR=1 and for a preconsolidated or over consolidated soil OCR>1. If the OCR<1 then it
is said to be under consolidated soils.
Preconsolidation pressure and its determination by Casagrande’s method and Log-Log method:
Preconsolidation Pressure, Pc:
Preconsolidation pressure may be defined as, it is the total structural load per unit area due to void ratio and effective over burden
pressure is called preconsolidation pressure ,Pc.
The following graph shows pressure-void ratio curve.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)

c B

D Clay

## Expansion or Virgin Curve

swelling Curve

E X

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
σ' (Applied effective pressure) KN/m2
Fig.6. Pressure-void ratio Curve.
Procedure:
1. Now increased the load from A to B then void ratio decreased, then the portion AB called Vergin Compression Curve.
2. Then now decreased or remove the load after certain time then the pressure decreased from point B to C and increased the void ratio
from point B to C then the point BC is called Expansion Curve.
3. Once again increased the pressure C to D point at a certain load and decreased the void ratio from point C to D is called
Recompression Curve.
4.Now then goon increased the vertical load continuously upto point E then the void ratio will decreased continuously upto till end,
point E is called Vergin Curve.
Determination of preconsolidation Pressure,Pc: by
a. Casagrande’s method. b. Log-Log method.
a. Casagrande’s method:

Y
α
Tangent line AC
B Horizontal line AB
A E α/2

## α/2 D Bisection line AD

This AD line is required for
c locate the pc' by backward extension
Void ratio(e)

pc'

X
logp'
Fig.7. Pressure-Void ratio Curve.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
Procedure:
1. The point A of maximum curvature is selected by inspection on the curved portion.
2. Draw a horizontal line AB and the line AC tangent to the curve are drawn through the point A.
3. The angle BAC is then bisected by the line AD.
4. The point of intersection E of the bisector AD.
5. Now draw the backward extension of the lower straight portion of the curve represents the probable preconsolidation pressure
P c.
b. Log-Log method or Burmister method:
Y

5 F H
A
1

1
C 3 B
Original triangle hatched
2 O 1
D
Void ratio(e)

4 BC-Rebound Curve

6
k E
logp' X

## Fig.8. e-logP curve by Burmister method.

Procedure:
1. As soon as the straight line portion of the e-logP curve is approached, the sample is rebounded and
2. Now increased the pressure from A to B.
3. Then unloaded from B to C referred as rebound curve.
4. Now reloaded from C to D referred as reloaded curve.
5. Once again continue the load increased then the void ratio decreased.
6. Now draw the straight line from ED through F then BOD becomes a triangle hatched portion.
7. Then shifted the hatched portion to the above line BF.
8. Now draw the vertical line, point H to point downward then the point k is called Pc (Preconsolidation Pressure).
Laboratory One Dimensional Consolidation Test:
The test results are used for estimating the rate of settlement and amount of settlement of structure.
In addition, the effect of saturation on consolidation, the permeability of the loaded specimen and the amount of swelling when
unloaded, may also be determine in this test.
A thinner specimen requires a short time for consolidation and its side friction is also less.
While the pressure-voids ratio curve is essentially independent of specimen size, the coefficient of consolidation is found to
increase with size. Therefore, some uniformity in the size of the specimens is desirable.
The test specimen is allowed to consolidate under a number of successive increments of vertical pressure, each pressure increment
being maintained constant until the compression vertically ceases, generally 24hours.

## Applied Pressure,kg/cm2 or KN/m2 Time in minutes Final dial gauge in mm

0.25 or 25 0.25
0.50 or 50 0.50
1. or 100 1.00
2.0 or 200 2.00
4.0 or 400 4.00
8.0 or 800 8.00
16.0 or 1600 15.00
32.0 or 3200 30.00
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
64.0 or 6400 60.00
128.0 or 12800 120.00
256.0 or 25600 240.00
512.0 or 51200 480.00
1024.0 or 102400 1440.00

After the completion of consolidation under the desired maximum vertical pressure, the specimen is unloaded and allowed to swell.
After the completion of swelling, the final dial readings are taken and the specimen is taken out the consolidometer and dried to
determine its water content.
Pressure Void ratio Curves for determination of void ratio:
The pressure-void ratio curve can be obtained if the void ratio of the sample at the end of each increment of load is determined.
The following parameters are required to determine void ratio (e);
a. Cross-sectional area of sample A.
b. The specific gravity, G of the solids.
c. The dry weight, Ws of the soil sample.
d. The sample thickness h, at any stage of the test.
Let Vs= Volume of the solids in the sample.
where, Vs= Ws/Gγw or Vs=hsa or hs=Vs/a
where, hs= thickness of solid matter then e is the void ratio of the sample, then;
Ah − Ahs h − hs h − hs
e= = ∴e = (1)
Ahs hs h
where, h=thickness of sample

## Determination of Consolidation Characteristics of Soils:

a. Compression Index, Cc:
Compression index Cc is a dimensionless quantity which represents the slope of the linear portion of the pressure-void ratio curve
on a semi-log plot.
By referring the e-logP curve;

eo Cc=compression index

ef

## Peo Pef KN/sqm

Fig.9. e-logP curve
eo − e f
Compression Index Cc = (1)
log p f − log p o
And according to Terzaghi’s and Peck formula;
Compression Index C c = 0.009(W L − 10) (2)
b. Co-efficient of Consolidation ,Cv;
Co-efficient of Consolidation is applied to indicate the combined effects of permeability and compressibility of a soil on the rate
of volume change is referred as co-efficient of consolidation, Cv,
k k (1 + eo )
i.e., C v = or in m2/sec. (3)
mv γ w av γ w

## c. Co-efficient of Volume Change, mv:

The change in volume of a soil per unit of initial volume due to a given increase in pressure is called co-efficient of volume
change.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
eo − e f
i.e., mv = 2

)( p ) in m /KN. (4)
(1 + eo f − po
d. Co-efficient of Compressibility, av:
It is the decrease in void ratio per unit increase in pressure is called coefficient of compressibility av and this is given by the
following relation;
eo − e f
av = (5)
p f − po
e. Degree of Consolidation, U:
The degree of consolidation is depends on the following factors i.e.
a. Number of drainage faces
b. Thickness of clay layer (d)
c. Coefficient of permeability (k)
d. Coefficient of compressibility (av)
e. Magnitude of the consolidating pressure.
Therefore the degree of consolidation may be expressed by the following empirical expressions;
when, U<60%;
2
π⎛U ⎞
Tv = ⎜ ⎟ (6)
4 ⎝ 100 ⎠
when, U>60%
Tv=1.781-0.933log10(100-U%) (7)
Determination of Co-efficient of Consolidation by
a. Square root of time fitting method.
b. Logarithmic time fitting method and .
c. Rectangular hyperbola method.
a. By square root of time fitting method:
Y
(Ro to Rc called initial consolidation)
10
9 Ro
8 (R0=Initial dial gauge reading at
Rc pressure increment, i.e. t=0 or U=0%)
7
6 Rc called corrected zero reading
5 X1
4 X1' X1'=1.15x1 along X-axis
3
Dial gauge2 X2
Reading 1 X2'=1.15X2 along x-axis
(10-2 mm) X3 X3'=1.15X3 along x-axis

## X4 X4'=1.15X4 along X-axis

R90, U=90% C

0 Rf

X
√t (minutes)
Fig. 10. Time Consolidation Curve (Square root of Time fitting method).
Procedure:
1. Now plot the t V/s Dial gauge readings in mm and locate the points i.e, x1, x2,x3, x4,……+etc due to
pressure increment.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
2. Now locate the Ro point on Y-axis @ initial dial reading.
3. Then draw a line passing through all these points.
4. Now then locate x1'= 1.15x1, x2'= 1.15x2, x3', x4'……….+ xn' along with respect to X-axis.
5. Then now draw a straight line along these points and coincide on a curve and locate the point Re at Y-
axis.
6. Now from this joined point C draw a horizontal line parallel to x-axis and draw a vertical down ward line
at perpendicular to the x-axis.
7. This joined point d is called time t taken at 90% consolidation R90 on the Y-axis.
8. Rf is called approximate 100% consolidation.
For 90% consolidation, the coefficient of consolidation is given by ;
(Tv )90 d 2
Cv = (1)
t 90
where, Tv=Time factor for 90% consolidation (U=90%) from table (10.1) as per Alamsingh and Chawdhary page 26. Tv=0.848
d=Average drainage path or drainage path
0.848d 2
∴ Cv = (2)
t 90
For 50% consolidation then Tv=0.197
0.197d 2
∴ Cv = (3)
t 50
Or
0.197d 2
∴t = (4)
Cv
Hi + H f Hi − ΔH
Where, d = or for double drainage face for t90
4 2
Hi + H f Hi − ΔH
d= or for double drainage face for t50 and ΔH=compression of sample at t50
4 2
Note:-1. Always you locate the dial gauge readings from top to bottom on Y-axis.
2. Always locate the pressure increment from origin O.
3. These square root time fitting method and logarithmic time fitting methods are called Curve fitting methods.
b. By Logarithmic of Time fitting method:

Rc, U(%) Z

R=50,U=50%
DGR in mm

R=100,U=100% B

A
Rf t50, U=50%
t1/4 t1

## Logarithmic of time fitting (logt-min)

Fig.11, Logarithmic of time fitting method Curve

Procedure:
1. Two straight portions of the curve intersect at 100% U; the corresponding dial gauge reading designated as R100.
2. A time t1, say 1min, is located on X-axis and locate the point (x) on the early origin curve.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
3. A second point correspond to t1/4 is select and locate the point(x) on the curve.
4. A horizontal line at a height equal to the vertical distance between the second point (z=t1-t1/4).
Now the ordinate of this horizontal line is the corrected zero reading Rc.
5. The consolidation from Rc to R100 is called the primary consolidation.
6. From R100 to Rf= is called secondary consolidation
7. Now locate 50% consolidation, U=50% in between Rc to R100 i.e. R50 is on the curve and t50 on the X-
axis.
Therefore, the co-efficient of consolidation is calculated by the equation;
(Tv )50 d 2 0.197d 2
Cv = or = (1)
t 50 t10
C. By Rectangular hyperbola Method:

m
t/ΔH

D
X
O Time, t

## Fig.12. t v/s (t/ΔH) Curve.

In this rectangular hyperbola method, the following procedure is recommended for the determination of Cv.
1. Obtain the curve t and the specimen deformation (ΔH) from the laboratory consolidation test.
2. Plot the graph of t/ ΔH against t as shown in figure above.
3. Identify the straight-lime portion bc and project it back to point d. Determine the intercept D.
4. Determine the slope m of the line bc.
5. Calculate, Cv as
Cv=0.3(mh2dr)/D----------------- (1)
Note that because the unit of D is time/length and the unit of m is (time/length)/time=1/lemgth, the unit of Cv is
(1/length)(length)2=(length)2/time
(time/length)
wher,hdr is drainage path in cm or m, m is slope obtained from graph. If the drainage on bothe side then hdr becomes 0.5times
thickness of drainage path and if the drainage on one side then hdr become thickness of drainage path.
The rectangular hyperbola method is fairly simple to use, and it gives good results for U=60% to 90%.
Determination of settlement:
The probable settlement is given by;
HC c p + Δp
St = * log10 o (2)
1 + eo po
where, St= Total settlement in cm or mm
H=Thickness of layer in cm or mm
eo=Initial void ratio.
po=initial pressure in kg/cm2 or KN/m2
Δp=Excess pressure =pf-po in kg/cm2
Cc=compression Index
This above formula is given on the basis of e-logp curve.

## Jan/2005 and Dec.08/Jan.09

1. In a consolidation test the void ratio of soil sample decreases from 1.20 to 1.10 when the pressure is increased from 160 to
320KN/m2. Calculate the co-efficient of consolidation if the co-efficient of permeability is 8X10-7mm/sec.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
Solution: Given data;
a.eo=1.20, b.ef=1.10,c.Peo=16kN/m2, d. Pef=320kN/m2, e.k=8*10-7mm/sec=8*10-10m/sec.

eo Cc

ef

Peo Pef
Fig: 13. e-logP curve
To find: i. Cv=?.
Procedure:
a.We have, Coefficient of volume compressibility, mv;

e0 − e f 1.2 − 1.1
mv = = = 2.84 * 10 − 4 m 2 / kN .
(1 + eo ) * ( p ef − p eo ) (1 + 1.2) * (320 − 160)
b. We have, Co-efficient of consolidation, Cv;

k 8 * 10 −10
Cv = = = 2.87 *10 −7 m 2 / sec .
mv * γ w 2.84 * 10 * 9.81
−4

## July/2005 and Dec.08/Jan.09

2. In a consolidation test voids ration decreases from 0.7o to 0.65, when the load was changed from 50KN/m2 to 100KN/m2.
Compute compression index and coefficient of volume change.
Solution: Given data;
a.eo=0.70, b. ef=0.65,c. Peo=50KN/m2, d.Pef=100KN/m2.

eo Cc

ef
X
Peo pef
Fig.14. e-logP curve

To find: i) Cv=?.
Procedure:
a. We have, Coefficient of volume compressibility,mv;
e0 − e f 0.70 − 0.65
mv = = = 5.8824 *10 − 4 m 2 / KN
(1 + eo ) * ( pef − peo ) (1 + 0.7 ) * (100 − 50)
b.We have, Co-efficient of consolidation(Cv):
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
e0 − e f 0.7 − 0.65
Cc = = = 0.116
log10 p ef − lod1 p ef log 10100 − log 50
Jan/2004
3. Saturated soil of 5m thick lies above an impervious stratum below a pervious stratum. It has compression index 0.25 and k
is 3.2*10-10m/sec. Its void ratio at a stress of 147KN/m2 is 1.9, Calculate;
i. The change in void ratio due to increase of stress to 190KN/m2.
ii. Coefficient of volume compressibility,iii. Co-efficient of consolidation, iv. Time required for 50% consolidation.
Solution: Given data
a. H=5m thick=d, b. Cc= 0.25, c. k=3.2*10-10m/sec, d..eo=1.9, e. po=147KN/m2 and f. pf = 196KN/m2.

Impervious

Cc Saturated soil
eo 5m

ef

## Peo Pef Pervious

Fig.15. e-logP curve
To find: a.Δe=?, b.ef=?, c.mv=?. d.Cv=?, e.t50=?, i.e.U=50%.
Procedure:
eo − e f
1. C c =
log p f − log p o
1 .9 − e f
0.25 = ∴ e f = 1.868
log 196 − log 147
2. Change in void ratio ( Λe) ;
Δe = eo − e f = 1.9 − 1.868 = 0.031
3. Co-efficient of volume compressibility ,mv;
eo − e f 1.9 − 1.868
mv = = 2.25 *10 − 4 m 2 / KN
(1 + eo )( p f − po )
=
(1 + 1.9) * (196 − 147 )
4. Coefficient of consolidation Cv.
k 3.2 *10 −10
Cv = = = 1.448 *10 −7 m 2 / sec
mv γ w 2.25 *10 − 4 * 9.81
4. Time taken t;
Tv d 2 0.197d 2 0.197 * 5 2
∴t = =∴ t 50 = = = 34000175.93 sec or 393.52days.
Cv Cv 1.448 *10 −7

July/2004
4. A saturated soil stratum of 5m thick lies above an impervious stratum. It has a compression index of 0.25 and a Coefficient
of permeability of 3.2*10-3mm/sec. It has a void ratio of 1.9 at normal stress of 0.15N/mm2. Compute;
i. The void ratio due to increase of stress to 0.2N/mm2.
ii. Settlement of soil stratum due to the above increase in stress.
Solution: Given data
a. H=5m=5000mm=d, b. Cc= 0.25, c. k=3.2*10-3mm/sec, d.eo=1.9, e. po=0.15N/mm2 and f. pf = 0.2N/mm2.

## b. Draw the diagram of e-logp curve

Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
c.

Impervious

eo Cc Saturated soil
5m
ef

## Fig.16. e-logP curve

To find: a.Δe=?, b.ef=?, c.mv=?. d.Cv=?, e.t50=?, i.e.U=50%.
Procedure:
eo − e f
1. C c =
log p f − log p o
1 .9 − e f
0.25 = ∴ e f = 1.868
log 0.2 − log 0.15
2. Change in void ratio ( Λe) ;
Δe = eo − e f = 1.9 − 1.868 = 0.0312
3. Co-efficient of volume compressibility (mv);
eo − e f 1.9 − 1.868
mv = = 0.22mm 2 / N
(1 + eo )( p f − po )
=
(1 + 1.9) * (0.2 − 0.15)
4. Settlement of soil stratum due to the above increase in stress is given by;
S t = mv * H * Δp = 0.22 * 5000 * (0.2 − 0.15) = 55.172mm
July/2005
5.In a consolidation test voids ratio decreased from 0.7 to 0.65 hen the load was changed from 50KN/m2 to 100KN/m2.
Compute compression index and co-efficient of volume change.
Solution: Given data
a. eo=0.7, b. ef=0.65, c. po=50KN/m2, d.pf=100KN/m2.

Cc
eo

ef

Peo Pef

## Fig.17. e-logP curve

To find: a.Cc=?, b.mv=?
Procedure:
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
eo − e f
1. C c =
log p f − log p o
0.70 − 0.65
Cc = = 0.166
log 100 − log 50
2. Co-efficient of volume compressibility (mv);
eo − e f 0.70 − 0.65
mv = = 5.882 *10 − 4 m 2 / KN
(1 + eo )( p f − po )
=
(1 + 0.7 ) * (100 − 50)
July/2004
6. A stratum of clay 8 m deep, has WL=45%. The surface of clay is at 10m below the present ground level, w=40% and Gs=2.78
for clay. Between ground surface and clay, the subsoil consists of fine grained sand. The ground water level is 4.5m below
ground level. The average submerged unit weight of sand is 10.4KN/m3 and the unit weight of sand above the water table is
17KN/m3. The clay is normally consolidated. The weight of structure coming on top of the sand above the clay increases the
overburden pressure on clay by 40KN/m2. Calculate the settlement of the building.
Solution; Given data
a. WL=45%, b. H=8m, c.w=40%, d. Gs=2.78, e. depth of W.T=4.5m from GL, f.γ' sand=10.4KN/m3,g).γd sand=17KN/m3, h. The clay
is normally consolidated, Sr=1, i. Δp=40KN/m2.
GL
G
4.5m γd Sand W.T

8m Clay layer

## Fig.18. Soil Starata.

To find: a. St=?
Procedure:
1. We know that the total settlement is given by the following equation;
HC c ⎡ p + Δp ⎤
St = log10 ⎢ o ⎥ (1)
1 + eo ⎣ po ⎦
2. According to Terzaghi’s;
C c = 0.009(WL − 10) = 0.009(45 − 10) = 0.315
3. Initial void ratio is given by the equation below;
wG 0.4 * 2.78
eo = = = 1.112 …….(Sr=1 for normally consolidated).
Sr 1
4. Overburden pressure Po is given by;
po=4.5*17+5.5*10.4+8/2*(γsat-γw)
⎡ G + eo ⎤ ⎡ 2.78 + 1.112 ⎤
where, γsat= ⎢ ⎥γ w = ⎢ 1 + 1.112⎥ * 9.81 =18.077KN/m3.
⎣ 1 + eo ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
po=133.7+4*(18.077-9.81)=166.768KN/m2.
HC c ⎡ p + Δp ⎤ 8 * 0.315 ⎡166.768 + 40 ⎤
∴ St = log10 ⎢ o ⎥= log10 ⎢ ⎥⎦ = 0.114m or 11.14cm
1 + eo ⎣ p o ⎦ 1 + 1.112 ⎣ 166.768
Jan/2007
7. 20mm thick undisturbed sample of saturated clay is tested in laboratory with drainage allowed through top and bottom.
Sample reaches 50% consolidation in 35minutes. If clay layer from which sample was obtained is 3.0m thick and is free to
drain through top and bottom surfaces, calculate the time required for degree of consolidation in the field. What is the time
required if the drainage in the field is only through the top?
Procedure: Given data
1st Case:
a. 20mm thick sample, b. U=50%, c. t=35minutes, d. H=3m or 300cm thick.
To find: a. Cv=?
2nd Case:
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
a. Tv=0.197 (U=50%), b. H=3m or 300cm, c. Cv=2.11cm2/sec
To find: a. t=?
Procedure:
1st case; We know that the following equation;
Tv d 2
a. C v =
t
2 2
π⎛U ⎞ π ⎛ 50 ⎞
b. Tv = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.197
4 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 4 ⎝ 50 ⎠
2
⎛ 300 ⎞
0.197 * ⎜ ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠
c. C v = = 2.11cm 2 / sec
35 * 60

## 2nd Case: We know that the following equation;

2
⎛ 300 ⎞
0.197 * ⎜ ⎟
Tv d 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠
a. t = = = 8402.84 sec or 140.047minutes.
Cv 2.11
July/2007.
8. A one dimensional consolidation test was conducted on a clay sample, with double drainage condition. The dial gauge
readings recorded for a pressure increment of 100kpa to 200kpa are shown in the table below. One division of the dial gauge
corresponds to 1*10-3mm. The thickness of the clay sample at 100kpa overburden pressure was 16mm. Determine the value of
coefficient of consolidation of the clay by
rectangular hyperbola method.
Elapsed time, minutes 0 0.25 1 2 4 6 9 12 16 25 36 50 60
Dial readings, divisions 340 360 370 378 386 394 402 410 416 426 434 440 443
Solution:
Procedure:a. Calculate ΔH and t/ ΔH
Elapsed time, 0 0.25 1 2 4 6 9 12 16 25 36 50 60
minutes
ΔH*10-3mm 0 20 30 38 46 54 62 70 76 86 94 100 103
t/ ΔH 0 12.5 33.34 52.6 86.9 11.11 14.51 17.14 21.05 29.06 38.29 50 58.25b.
b. Plot the curve t/ ΔH(Y-axis) v/s t(X-axis) on natural graph sheet;

C
60

50 m m=dy/dx=(55-30)810-2/(56-26.25)=8.4034*10-3
D=8*10-2
40

30
b
20
d
10
D
0 X
O 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time, t

## d. Cv=0.3(mh2dr)/D, where, h2dr=16+(16-0.105)/2*2=7.9737mm

e. Cv=0.30(8.4034*10-3*7.9737*7.9737)/8*10-2=1.985mm2/minute.
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
Dec.2010
9. A soil sample 20mm thick takes 20min to reach 20% consolidation. Find the time taken for a clay layer of 6m thickness in
the field to reach 40% consolidation. Sample in laboratory and clay in field are same. Assume double drainage in both cases.
Solution:
a. Tv=π/4(U/100)2= π/4(20/100)=0.0314
b. Cv=Tvd2/t=0.0314*3000*3000/(20*60)=2.617*10-3002/sec.
c. Field u=40%, Tv=0.125
d. t=Tv*d2/Cv=5003days.
May/June.2010
10. In a consolidation test, a soil sample 20mm in thickness took 28minutes to reach 90% consolidation under two-way
drainage condition. For the same soil in the field what would be the time taken in days for 50% and 90% consolidation, if the
thickness of soil layer is 4m and if there is i) One way drainage and ii) Two-way drainage?.
Solution:
a. Cv=0.848d2/t90=0.848(400*400)/(28*60)=5.05*10-4cm2/sec
b. t90=3110days for one way drainage and 777.5days for two way drainage.
c. Cv=0.197*d2/t50, then t50=722.4 days for one ways drainage and 180.6days for two ways drainage.
Dec-2011
11. A 20mm thick clay specimen under double drainage undergoes 50% consolidation in 10minutes in the laboratory. Under
the similar drainage conditions, what time is required for 90% consolidation for a 2m thick clay layer in the field?
Ans: 1. Tv=Cvt/H2=0.196. 2. Cv=0.196*12/10=0.0196cm2/min.. 3. T90=Cvt/H2=0.848. 4. t=0.848*1002/0.0196=432653min or 72010Hr
or 300.45days.
2002 scheme.June-July.2009
12. In laboratory consolidation test a clay specimen 20mm thick under double drainage , the time required for 50%
consolidation of the clay is 30minutes. Calculate the coefficient consolidation. Calculate time required for 90% consolidation of
the same clay in field it is 2m thick and drains on one face only. Take T50=0.196; T90=0.848.
Solution:
a. Cv=0.196*10*10/(30*60)=0.0109mm/sec
b.Cv=Tv1*d12/t1= Tv2*d22/t2 then, t2=0.848(2000*2000)/0.0109=311510204.4sec=9.88years.
13. Soil investigation at a site gave the following information. The top soil upto a depth of 10.6m is fine sand, and below this
lies soft clay layer of 7.6m thick. The water table is at 4.6m below the ground surface. The submerged unit weight of sand γb, is
10.4KN/m3, and et unit weight above water table is 17.6KN/m3. the water content of the normally consolidated clay Wn=40%
its liquid limit, WL=45%, and specific gravity of the solid particles is 2.78. The proposed construction will transmit a net stress
of 120KN/m2.
Find the average settlement of the clay layer.
Solution: Given data
a. WL=45%, b. H=7.6m, c.w=40%, d. Gs=2.78, e. Depth of W.T=4.6m from GL, f.γ' sand=10.4KN/m3, g. γd sand=17.6KN/m3, h. The
clay is normally consolidated, Sr=1, i. Δp=120KN/m2.
GL
G
4.6m γd Sand W.T

## 7.6m Clay layer

Fig.19. Soil Starata.
To find: a. St=?
Procedure:
1. We know that the total settlement is given by the following equation;
HC c ⎡ p + Δp ⎤
St = log10 ⎢ o ⎥ (1)
1 + eo ⎣ po ⎦
2. According to Terzaghi’s;
C c = 0.009(WL − 10) = 0.009(45 − 10) = 0.32
3. Initial void ratio is given by the equation below;
wG 0.4 * 2.78
eo = = = 1.112 …….(Sr=1 for normally consolidated).
Sr 1
4. Overburden pressure Po is given by;
po=4.6*17.6+6*10.4+7.6/2*(γsat-γw)
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
⎡ G + eo ⎤ ⎡ 2.78 + 1.112 ⎤
where, γsat= ⎢ ⎥γ w = ⎢ 1 + 1.112⎥ * 9.81 =18.077KN/m3.
⎣ 1 + eo ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
po=143.36+3.8*(18.077-9.81)=174.90KN/m2.
HC c ⎡ p + Δp ⎤ 7.6 * 0.315 ⎡174.9 + 120 ⎤
∴ St = log10 ⎢ o ⎥= log10 ⎢ = 0.26m or 26cm
1 + eo ⎣ p o ⎦ 1 + 1.112 ⎣ 174.9 ⎥⎦
14. An Odometer test is performed on a 2cm thick clay sample. After 5 minutes, 50% consolidation is reached. After ho long a
time would the same degree of consolidation be achieved in the field where the clay layer is 3.7m thick?. Assume the sample
and the clay layer has the same drainage boundary conditions (double drainage).
Solution: Given data
1st case: a. d1=H/2=2/2=1cm, b. t1=5minutes, c. U=50% i.e. Tv=0.197
To find; a. Cv=?
2nd case: a. d2=H/2=3.7/2=1.85cm, b. U=50%.
To find: a. t2=?
Procedure:
1st case; a. We know that the following equation;

Tv d 2
Cv = (1)
t
C v 1 * t1 C v 2 * t 2
2
= 2
d1 d2
2 2
⎡d ⎤ ⎡1.85 ⎤
t 2 = ⎢ 2 ⎥ * t1 = ⎢ ⎥ * 5 = 17.1125 min utes
⎣ d1 ⎦ ⎣ 1 ⎦
15. A normally consolidated clay of thickness 4m is sandwiched between to sand layers with outlets. The stress at the mid-
height of the clay layer was 1.9t/m2 before any loading was placed. However, due to placement of a fill on the ground surface
the stress at the midle-height of the clay layer increases by 1.1t/m2. The initial void ratio and compression index of clay were
1.2 and 0.3 respectively. Determine the total compression of the clay a long time after placement of the fill and time required
for 20% and 80% of ultimate compression if co-efficient of consolidation of clay is 4*10-3cm2/sec.
Solution: Given data
a. H=4m, b. po=1.9t/m2, c.Δp=1.1t/m2, d. eo= 1.2, e. Cc=0.3, f. Cv=4*10-3cm2/sec.
GL
G
Sand

4m 2m Clay layer

2m
Sand
Fig.20. Soil strata location.
To find: a. St=?. b. t=? for U=20%, c.t=? for U=80%.
Procedure:
1. We know that the total settlement is given by the following equation;
HC c ⎡ p + Δp ⎤
St = log10 ⎢ o ⎥ (1)
1 + eo ⎣ po ⎦
4 * 0.3 ⎡1.9 + 1.1⎤
St = log10 ⎢ = 10.82cm or 0.1082m
1 + 1.2 ⎣ 1.9 ⎥⎦
2. For 20% consolidation;
2 2
π⎛U ⎞ π ⎛ 20 ⎞
Tv = ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.0314
4 ⎝ 100 ⎠ 4 ⎝ 50 ⎠
3. We have;
Compiled by: Prof.B.S.Chawhan M.Tech(Geo-Tech Engg), Asst.Professor,CED,Government.Engineering College,Haveri-581110(12/4/2011-Till date)
2
⎛ 400 ⎞
2 0.0314 * ⎜ ⎟
Tv d ⎝ 2 ⎠
t= = = 314159.25 sec or *1/60*60*60=3.636days.
Cv 4 * 10 −3
4. For 80% consolidation;
Tv = 1.781 − 0.933 log(100 − U % ) = 1.781 − 0.933 log(100 − 80) = 0.567
2
⎛ 400 ⎞
2 0.567 * ⎜ ⎟
Tv d ⎝ 2 ⎠
5. t = = = 5671390.14 sec or 65.641days.
Cv 4 * 10 −3
16. During a consolidation test, a sample of fully saturated clay 3m thick is consolidated under a pressure increment of
200KN/m2. When equilibrium is reached, the sample thickness is reduced to 2.6cm, the pressure is then removed and the
sample is allowed to expand and adsorb water . The final thickness is observed as 2.8cm and the final moisture content is
determined as 24%. If the specific gravity of the soil solids is 2.7, find the void ratio of the sample before and after
consolidation.

17. A recently completed fill was 10m thick and its initial average void ratio was 1.0. the fill was loaded on the surface by
constructing an embankment covering a large area of the fill. Some months after the embankment was constructed,
measurements of the fill indicated an average void ratio of 0.8. Estimate the compression of the fill.

18.Soil investigation at a site gave the following information. Fine sand exists to a depth of 10.6m and below this lie a soft clay
layer 7.6m thick. The water table is at 4.6m below the ground surface. The submerged unit weight of sand γb is 10.4KN/m3,
and the wet unit weight above the water table is 17.6KN/m3.The water content of the normally consolidated clay Wn-40%, its
liquid limit WL=45%, and the specific gravity of the solid particles is 2.78. The proposed construction will transmit a net stress
of 120KN/m2 at the centre of the clay layer. Find the average settlement of the clay layer.

19. A strata of normally consolidated clay of thickness 3m is drained on one side only. It has a hydraulic conductivity of
k=5*10-8 cm/sec and a coefficient of volume compressibility mv=125*10-2cm2/sec. Determine the ultimate value of the
compression of the stratum by assuming a uniformity distributed load of 250KN/m2 and determine the time required for
20percent and 80percent consolidation.

GOOD-LUCK