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1.

(a) AB = b – a A1
CB = a + b A1

(b) AB CB = (b – a)•(b + a) M1


= │b│2–│a│2 A1
= 0 since │b│=│a│ R1
Note: Only award the A1 and R1 if working indicates that they
understand that they are working with vectors.

so AB is perpendicular to CB i.e. AB̂C is a right angle AG


[5]

  4  4 
   
2. (a) AB    1 , AC    3  A1A1
 3   1 
   
Note: Accept row vectors.

i j k 8
 
(b) AB  AC   4  1 3  16 M1A1
4  3 1 16
1 1 1 1
       
normal n =  2  so r •  2    2    2  (M1)
 2  2  1  2
       
x + 2y + 2z = 7 A1
Note: If attempt to solve by a system of equations:
Award A1 for 3 correct equations, A1 for eliminating a variable
and A2 for the correct answer.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 1


5 1
   
(c) r =  3     2  (or equivalent) A1
7  2
   
1(5 + λ) + 2(3 + 2λ) + 2(7 + 2λ) = 7 M1
9λ = –18
λ = –2 A1
8
1  
Note: λ = – if 16  is used.
4  
16 

distance = 2 12  2 2  2 2 (M1)
=6 A1

1 1 2
(d) (i) area = AB  AC  8  16 2  16 2 (M1)
2 2
1
= 12 (accept 576 ) A1
2

(ii) EITHER
1
volume = × area × height (M1)
3
1
= × 12 × 6 = 24 A1
3
OR

volume =
1
6

AD  (AB  AC)  M1
= 24 A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 2


(e) AB  AC  8 2  16 2  16 2

i j k
AC  AD  4  3 1 M1
4 1 6
= │–19i – 20j + 16k│ A1
EITHER
1 1 2
19 2  20 2  16 2  8  16 2  16 2 M1
2 2
therefore since area of ACD bigger than area ABC implies that
B is closer to opposite face than D R1
OR
144
correct calculation of second distance as A1
19 2  20 2  16 2
which is smaller than 6 R1
Note: Only award final R1 in each case if the calculations are correct.
[19]

3. (a) CB = b – c, AC = b + c A1A1
Note: Condone absence of vector notation in (a).

(b) AC  CB = (b + c) • (b – c) M1
= │b│2 – │c│2 A1
= 0 since │b│=│c│ R1
Note: Only award the A1 and R1 if working indicates that they understand
that they are working with vectors.

so AC is perpendicular to CB i.e. AĈB is a right angle AG


[5]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 3


4. METHOD 1
equation of journey of ship S1
 10 
r1 = t  
 20 
equation of journey of speedboat S2 ,setting off k minutes later
 70   60
r2 =    (t  k )  M1A1A1
 30  30 
Note: Award M1 for perpendicular direction, A1 for speed, A1 for
change in parameter (e.g. by using t – k or T, k being the time
difference between the departure of the ships).
 10   70   60
solve t       (t  k )  (M1)
 20  30  30 
Note: M mark is for equating their two expressions.
10t = 70 – 60t + 60k
20t = 30 + 30t – 30k M1
Note: M mark is for obtaining two equations involving two different parameters.
7t – 6k = 7
–t + 3k = 3
28
k= A1
15
latest time is 11:52 A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 4


METHOD 2
y
S (26,52) time taken
22 5 t-k
time 26 5 B (70,30)
taken t
10 58
O
(A) x

SB = 22 5 M1A1
(by perpendicular distance)
SA = 26 5 M1A1
(by Pythagoras or coordinates)
26 5
t= A1
10 5
22 5
t–k= A1
30 5
28
k= leading to latest time 11:52 A1
15
[7]

 0 2 1  x   3 
    
5. (a)   1 1 3  y    1 
  2 1 2  z   k 
    
0 2 1
 1 1 3 = 0 – 2( – 2 + 6) + ( – 1 + 2) = –7 M1A1
2 1 2
since determinant ≠ 0  unique solution to the system planes R1
intersect in a point AG
Note: For any method, including row reduction, leading to the explicit
 6  5k 10  k 1  2k 
solution  , ,  , award M1 for an attempt at
 7 7 7 
a correct method, A1 for two correct coordinates and A1 for
a third correct coordinate.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 5


a 2 1
(b) 1 a 1 3
2 1 a2
= a((a + 1)(a + 2) – 3) – 2(–1(a + 2) + 6) + (–1 + 2(a + 1)) M1(A1)
planes not meeting in a point  no unique solution i.e. determinant = 0(M1)
a(a2 + 3a – 1) + (2a – 8) + (2a + 1) = 0
a3 + 3a2 + 3a – 7 = 0 A1
a=1 A1
[5]

 1 2 1 3  r1  r2
 
(c)  0 4 4 4 M1
 2 1 3 k 
 
 1 2 1 3  2r1  r3
 
0 4 4 4  (A1)
0 5 5 6  k 
 
1 2 1 3  4r3  5r2
 
0 4 4 4  (A1)
 0 0 0 4  4k 
 
for an infinite number of solutions to exist, 4 + 4k = 0  k = –1 A1
x + 2y + z = 3
y+z=1 M1
 x  1 1
     
 y    1      1 A1
 z   0 1
     
Note: Accept methods involving elimination.
 x   2  1   x  0  1
           
Note: Accept any equivalent form e.g.  y    0      1 or  y    2      1 .
 z  1  1   z    1 1
           
 x
 
Award A0 if  y   or r = is absent.
z
 
[14]

1
6. (a) x3 + 1 =
x 1
3

(–1.26, –1) (= (  3 2 , –1)) A1

2
(b) f′(–1.259...) = 4.762... (3 × 23 ) A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 6


2
g′(–1.259...) = –4.762... (–3 × 2 3 ) A1
 1 
required angle = 2arctan   M1
 4.762... 
= 0.414 (accept 23.7°) A1
Note: Accept alternative methods including finding the obtuse angle first.
[5]

  1 0  x
   
7. (a) PQ    1, SR   5  y  (M1)
3  1 z 
   
point S = (1, 6, –2) A1

  1  2
   
(b) PQ    1 PS   4  A1
3 1
   
  13
 
PQ  PS   7 
 2 
 
m = –2 A1

(c) area of parallelogram PQRS = PQ PS  (13) 2  7 2  (2) 2 M1

= 222 = 14.9 A1

(d) equation of plane is –13x + 7y – 2z = d M1A1


substituting any of the points given gives d = 33
–13x + 7y – 2z = 33 A1

 0   13
   
(e) equation of line is r =  0     7  A1
 0  2 
   
Note: To get the A1 must have r = or equivalent.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 7


(f) 169λ + 49λ + 4λ = 33 M1
33
λ= (= 0.149...) A1
222
 143 77 11 
closest point is   , ,  (= (–1.93, 1.04, –0.297)) A1
 74 74 37 

(g) angle between planes is the same as the angle between the normals (R1)
 131  7  2  2 1
cos θ = M1A1
222  6
θ = 143° (accept θ = 37.4° or 2.49 radians or 0.652 radians) A1
[17]

8. (a) for using normal vectors (M1)


 1  1
   
 2   0 = 1 – 1 = 0 M1A1
  1  1 
   
hence the two planes are perpendicular AG

(b) METHOD 1
EITHER
i j k
1 2  1 = –2i – 2j – 2k M1A1
1 0 1

OR
a
 
if  b  is normal to π3, then
c
 
a + 2b – c = 0 and a + c = 0 M1
a solution is a = 1, b = –1, c = –1 A1
THEN
π3 has equation x – y – z = d (M1)
as it goes through the origin, d = 0 so π3 has equation x – y – z = 0 A1
Note: The final (M1)A1 are independent of previous working.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 8


METHOD 2
 0  1  1
     
r =  0   s 2   t  0  A1(A1)A1A1
 0    1  1 
     
[7]

9. (a + b)•(a – b) = a • a + b • a – a • b – b • b M1
=a•a–b•b A1
= |a|2 – |b|2 = 0 since |a| = |b| A1
the diagonals are perpendicular R1
Note: Accept geometric proof, awarding M1 for recognizing OACB is a
rhombus, R1 for a clear indication that (a + b) and (a – b) are the
diagonals, A1 for stating that diagonals cross at right angles and
A1 for “hence dot product is zero”.
Accept solutions using components in 2 or 3 dimensions.
[4]

10. (a) 2y + 8x = 4 M1
–3x + 2y = –7 A1
2x + 6 – 2x = 6
Note: Award M1 for attempt at components, A1 for two correct equations.
No penalty for not checking the third equation.
solving : x = 1, y = –2 A1

  4  4 
   
(b) │a + 2b│=   3   2  2 
 2   2 
   
 4 
 
=  7
 6 
 
 a  2b  4 2  (7) 2  6 2 (M1)
= 101 A1
[5]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 9


11. (a) (i) use of a • b = │a││b│cos θ (M1)
a • b = –1 (A1)
│a│ = 7, │b│ = 5 (A1)
1
cos θ =  A1
35

(ii) the required cross product is


i j k
6 3 2 = 18i – 24j – 18k M1A1
0 3 4

(iii) using r • n = p • n the equation of the plane is (M1)


18x – 24y – 18z = 12 (3x – 4y – 3z = 2) A1

(iv) recognizing that z = 0 (M1)


2 1
x-intercept = , y-intercept =  (A1)
3 2
 2  1  1  1
area =      A1
 3  2  2  6

(b) (i) p • p = │p││p│cos 0 M1A1


= │p│2 AG

(ii) consider the LHS, and use of result from part (i)
│p + q│2 = (p + q)•(p + q) M1
=p•p+p•q+q•p+q•q (A1)
= p • p + 2p • q + q • q A1
= │p│2 + 2p • q + │q│2 AG

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 10


(iii) EITHER
use of p • q ≤ │p││q│ M1
so 0 ≤ |p + q| = │p│ + 2p • q + │q│ ≤ │p│ + 2│p││q│+│q│2A1
2 2 2 2

take square root (of these positive quantities) to establish A1


│p + q│≤│p│+│q│ AG
OR

M1M1
Note: Award M1 for correct diagram and M1 for correct labelling
of vectors including arrows.
since the sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side,
│p│ + │q│ > │p + q│ A1
when p and q are collinear │p│ + │q│ = │p + q│
 │p + q│ ≤ │p│ + │q│ AG
[19]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 11


12. EITHER
using row reduction (or attempting to eliminate a variable) M1
 2 1 3 2 
 
 3 1 2  2   2 R 2  3R1
  1 2 a b   2 R3  R1
 
 2 1 3 2 
 
0 5  5  10   R 2 / 5 A1
 0 3 2a  3 2b  2 
 
Note: For an algebraic solution award A1 for two correct equations in two variables.
 2 1 3 2 
 
0 1 1 2 
 0 3 2a  3 2b  2   R3  3R 2
 
 2 1 3 2 
 
0 1 1  2 
 0 0 2a  6 2b  8 
 
Note: Accept alternative correct row reductions.
recognition of the need for 4 zeroes M1
so for multiple solutions a = –3 and b = –4 A1A1

OR
2 1 3
3 1 2 0 M1
1 2 a
 2(a – 4) + (3a + 2) + 3(6 + 1) = 0
 5a + 15 = 0
 a = –3 A1
2 1 2
3 1 2  0 M1
1 2 b
 2(b + 4) + (3b – 2) + 2(6 + 1) = 0 A1
 5b + 20 = 0
 b = –4 A1
[5]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 12


13. (a) EITHER
normal to plane given by
i j k
2 3 2 M1A1
6 3 2
= 12i + 8j – 24k A1
equation of π is 3x + 2y – 6z = d (M1)
as goes through (–2, 3, –2) so d = 12 M1A1
π :3x + 2y – 6z = 12 AG
OR
x = –2 + 2λ + 6μ
y = 3 + 3λ – 3μ
z = –2 + 2λ + 2μ
eliminating μ
x + 2y = 4 + 8λ
2y + 3z = 12λ M1A1A1
eliminating λ
3(x + 2y) – 2(2y + 3z) = 12 M1A1A1
π : 3x + 2y – 6z = 12 AG

(b) therefore A(4, 0, 0), B(0, 6, 0) and C(0, 0, –2) A1A1A1


Note: Award A1A1A0 if position vectors given instead of coordinates.

1
(c) area of base OAB =  4  6 = 12 M1
2
1
V=  12  2 = 8 M1A1
3

 3  1
   
(d)  2    0  = 3 = 7 × 1 × cos  M1A1
  6  0
   
3
  arccos
7
3
so θ = 90 – arccos = 25.4° (accept 0.443 radians) M1A1
7

12
(e) d = 4 sin θ = (= 1.71) (M1)A1
7

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 13


1 12
(f) 8=   area  area = 14 M1A1
3 7
Note: If answer to part (f) is found in an earlier part, award M1A1,
regardless of the fact that it has not come from their answers
to part (c) and part (e).
[20]

14. (a) use GDC or manual method to find a, b and c (M1)


obtain a = 2, b = – 1, c = 3 (in any identifiable form) A1

(b) use GDC or manual method to solve second set of equations (M1)
4  11t  7t
obtain x = ;y , z = t (or equivalent) (A1)
2 2
 2    5.5 
   
r =  0   t   3.5  (accept equivalent vector forms) M1A1
 0  1 
   
Note: Final A1 requires r = or equivalent.
[6]

 4    2
   
15. (a) a =   2   totheplane e   1  is parallel to the line (A1)(A1)
 1   k 
   
Note: Award A1 for each correct vector written down, even if not identified.
line  plane  e parallel to a
 4    2
    1
since   2   t  1   k  (M1)A1
 1   k  2
   

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 14


 1 
(b) 4(3 – 2λ) – 2λ –   1    = 1 (M1)(A1)
 2 
Note: FT their value of k as far as possible.
8
λ= A1
7
5 8 3
P , ,  A1
7 7 7
[8]

ab sin 2 cos   sin  cos 2  1  sin 3  1 


16. (a) cos θ =    M1A1
ab 2 2  2 

(b) a  b  cos θ = 0 M1
sin 2α cos α + sin α cos 2α – 1 = 0
 π
α = 0.524    A1
 6

(c) METHOD 1
i j k
sin 2  cos 2 1 (M1)
cos   sin  1

assuming α =
6
Note: Allow substitution at any stage.

i j k
3 1
 1 A1
2 2
3 1
 1
2 2
1 1  3 3   3 1 1 3 
= i     j    k   
 2 2   2 2   2 2 2 2 
 
=0 A1
a and b are parallel R1
Note: Accept decimal equivalents.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 15


METHOD 2
from (a) cos θ = –1 (and sin θ = 0) M1A1
a×b=0 A1
a and b are parallel R1
[8]

1  0  0
     
17. (a) OM   2 , ON   1  and OP   2  A1A1A1
 2  2 1
     

  1   1
   
(b) MP   0  and MN    1, A1A1
  1 0
   
 i j k    1
   
MP  MN    1 0  1   1  (M1)A1
 1 1 0   1 
   

1
(c) (i) area of MNP = MP  MN M1
2
  1
1 
= 1
2 
1
3
= A1
2

 2  0
   
(ii) OA   0 , OG   2 
 0  2
   

  2
 
AG   2  A1
 2 
 
since AG  2(MP  MN) AG is perpendicular to MNP R1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 16


  1  1    1
     
(iii) r   1    2   1  M1A1
 1   2  1 
     
  1
 
r   1  = 3 (accept – x + y + z = 3) A1
1
 

 2   2
   
(d) r =  0    2  A1
0  2 
   
 2  2    1
   
 2    1  = 3 M1A1
 2   1 
   
–2 + 2λ + 2λ + 2λ = 3
5
λ= A1
6
 2   2
  5 
r = 0   2  M1
0 6  2 
   
1 5 5
coordinates of point  , ,  A1
3 3 3
[20]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 17


18. METHOD 1
for finding two of the following three vectors (or their negatives)
0   2   2
     
AB   2 , AC   2 , BC   0  (A1)(A1)
  1   2  1
     
and calculating
EITHER
i j   2
k
 
AB  AC  0 2  1   2  M1A1
 2 2  2  4 
1
area ∆ABC = AB  AC M1
2
OR
i j k  2 
 
BA  BC  0  2 1    2  M1A1
 2 0  1   4 
1
area ∆ABC = BA  BC M1
2
OR
i j k   2
 
CA  CB  2  2 2   2  M1A1
2 0 1  4 
1
area ∆ABC = CA  CB M1
2
THEN
24
area ∆ABC = A1
2
= 6 AG N0

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 18


METHOD 2
for finding two of the following three vectors (or their negatives)
0   2   2
     
AB   2 , AC   2 , BC   0  (A1)(A1)
  1   2  1
     
EITHER

AB AC
cos A = M1
AB AC

6 6  3 
=   or 
5 12 60  15 
2
sin A = A1
5
1
area ∆ABC = AB AC sin A M1
2
1 2
= 5 12
2 5
1
= 24 A1
2
= 6 AG N0

OR

BA  BC
cos B = M1
BA BC
1 1
=  
5 5 5
24  24 
sin B = or A1
25  5 
1
area ∆ABC = BA BC sin B M1
2
1 24
= 5 5
2 25
1
= 24 A1
2
= 6 AG N0

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 19


OR

CA  CB
cos C = M1
CA CB

6 6  3 
=   or 
12 5 60  15 
2
sin C = A1
5
1
area ∆ABC = CA CB sin C M1
2
1 2
= 12 5
2 5
1
= 24 A1
2
= 6 AG N0

METHOD 3
for finding two of the following three vectors (or their negatives)
0   2   2
     
AB   2 , AC   2 , BC   0  (A1)(A1)
  1   2  1
     
AB = 5  c, AC  12  2 3  b, BC  5  a M1A1
52 3 5
s=  3 5 M1
2
area ∆ABC = s(s  a)(s  b)(s  c)
= ( 3  5 )( 3 )( 5  3 )( 3 )
= 3(5  3) A1
= 6 AG N0

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 20


METHOD 4
for finding two of the following three vectors (or their negatives)
0   2   2
     
AB   2 , AC   2 , BC   0  (A1)(A1)
  1   2  1
     
AB = BC = 5 and AC = 12  2 3 M1A1
∆ABC is isosceles

let M be the midpoint of [AC], the height BM = 53  2 M1


2 3 2
area ∆ABC = A1
2
= 6 AG N0
[6]

 2   2
   
19. (a) identifies a direction vector e.g. AB   1  or BA    1  A1
1  1 
   
identifies the point (1, –1, 2) A1
x 1 y  1 z  2
line l1:   AG
2 1 1

1  2 1 1


       
(b) r =   1    1  r   2   2
2 1  3 1
       
1 + 2λ = 1 + μ, –1 + λ = 2 + 2μ, 2 + λ = 3 + μ (M1)
equating two of the three equations gives λ = –1 and μ = –2 A1A1
check in the third equation
satisfies third equation therefore the lines intersect R1
therefore coordinates of intersection are (–1, –2, 1) A1

(c) d1 = 2i + j + k, d2 = i + 2j + k A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 21


i j k
d1 × d2 = 2 1 1 = –i – j + 3k M1A1
1 2 1

Note: Accept scalar multiples of above vectors.

(d) equation of plane is –x – y + 3z = k M1A1


contains (1, 2, 3) (or (–1, –2, 1) or (1, –1, 2))  k = –1 – 2 + 3 × 3 = 6 A1
–x – y + 3z = 6 AG

  1
 
(e) direction vector of the perpendicular line is   1 (M1)
3
 
 3    1
   
r =  1   m  1 A1
  4 3
   
Note: Award A0 if r omitted.

(f) (i) find point where line meets plane


–(3 – m) – (1 – m) + 3( – 4 + 3m) = 6 M1
m=2 A1
point of intersection is (1, –1, 2) A1

(ii) for T′, m = 4 (M1)


so T′ = (–1, –3, 8) A1

(iii) TT   (3  1) 2  (1  3) 2  (4  8) 2 (M1)


= 176 ( 4 11) A1
[22]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 22


20. consider a vector parallel to each line,
 4   3
   
e.g. u =   2  and v   3  A1A1
 1  1
   
let θ be the angle between the lines
u  v 12  6  1
cos θ =  M1A1
uv 21 19
7
= = 0.350... (A1)
21 19
  7 
so 0 = 69.5°  or 1.21rad or arccos   A1 N4
 
  21 19 
Note: Allow FT from incorrect reasonable vectors.
[6]

 1 1 2  x  2
     
21. (a) let A =  2  1 3 , X   y  and B   2  (M1)
 5 1 4 z  5
     
 11 7 1 
point of intersection is  , ,  (or (0.917, 0.583, 0.25)) A1
 12 12 4 

(b) METHOD 1
1 1 2
 
(i) det  2  1 3   0 M1
 5 1 a 
 
–3a + 24 = 0 (A1)
a=8 A1 N1

 1 1 2 2
 
(ii) consider the augmented matrix  2  1 3 2  M1
 5 1 8 5
 
1 1 2 2   1 0 53 0 
   
use row reduction to obtain  0  3  1  2  or 0 1 13 0 
0 0  
 0  1   0 0 0 1 
(or equivalent) A1
any valid reason R1
(e.g. as the last row is not all zeros, the planes do not meet) N0

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 23


METHOD 2
use of row reduction (or equivalent manipulation of equations) M1
 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 
   
e.g.  2  1 3 2    0  3 1  2 A1A1
 5  1 a 5   0  6 a  10  5 
   
Note: Award an A1 for each correctly reduced row.

(i) a – 10 = – 2  a = 8 M1A1 N1

(ii) when a = 8, row 3 ≠ 2 × row 2 R1 N0


[8]

22. (a) OP = i + 2j – k (M1)


the coordinates of P are (1, 2, –1) A1

(b) EITHER
x = 1 + t, y = 2 – 2t, z = 3t – 1 M1
y2 z 1
x – 1 = t,  t, t A1
2 3
y  2 z 1
x–1=  AG N0
2 3
OR
 x  1   1 
     
 y    2   t  2  M1A1
 z    1  3 
     
y  2 z 1
x–1=  AG
2 3

(c) (i) 2(1 + t) + (2 – 2t) + (3t – 1) = 6  t = 1 M1A1 N1

(ii) coordinates are (2, 0, 2) A1


Note: Award A0 for position vector.

(iii) distance travelled is the distance between the two points (M1)
(2  1)  (0  2)  (2  1)  14 (= 3.74)
2 2 2
(M1)A1

(d) (i) distance from Q to the origin is given by


d(t) = t 4  (1  t ) 2  (1  t 2 ) 2 (or equivalent) M1A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 24


e.g. for labelled sketch of graph of d or d2 (M1)(A1)

the minimum value is obtained for t = 0.761 A1 N3

(ii) the coordinates are (0.579, 0.239, 0.421) A1


Note: Accept answers given as a position vector.

 0 1  4 
     
(e) (i) a   1 , b   0  and c    1  (M1)A1
1  0   3
     
substituting in the equation a – b = k(b – c), we have (M1)
 0 1 1  4    1   3
           
 1    0  k  0   1    1   k 1  A1
1  0   0    3  1  3 
           
1
 k  1 and k  which is impossible
3
so there is no solution for k R1

(ii) BA and CB are not parallel R2


(hence A, B, and C cannot be collinear)
Note: Only accept answers that follow from part (i).
[23]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 25


1
23. direction vector for line =   or any multiple A1
 1
 2 sin    1 
      0 M1
1  sin     1
2 sin θ – 1 + sin θ = 0 A1
Note: Allow FT on candidate’s direction vector just for line above only.
3 sin θ = 1
1
sin θ = A1
3
θ = 0.340 or 19.5° A1
Note: A coordinate geometry method using perpendicular gradients is acceptable.
[5]

24. EITHER
l goes through the point (1, 3, 6), and the plane contains A(4, –2, 5)
the vector containing these two points is on the plane, i.e.
 1   4    3
     
 3    2   5  (M1)A1
 6  5   1 
     
  1   3  i j k
   
 2    5    1 2  1 = 7i + 4j + k M1A1
  1  1   3 5 1
   
 4  7
   
  2    4   25 (M1)
 5  1
   
hence, Cartesian equation of the plane is 7x + 4y + z = 25 A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 26


OR
finding a third point M1
e.g. (0, 5, 5) A1
three points are (1, 3, 6), (4, –2, 5), (0, 5, 5)
equation is ax + by + cz = 1
system of equations
a + 3b + 6c = 1 M1
4a – 2b + 5c = 1
5b + 5c = 1
7 4 1
a= ,b  ,c  , from GDC M1A1
25 25 25
7 4 1
so x y z 1 A1
25 25 25
or 7x + 4y + z = 25
[6]

25. (a) on l1 A(–3 + 3λ, –4 + 2λ, 6 – 2λ) A1


 4    3
   
on l2 l2 : r =   7     4  (M1)
  3  1
   
 B(4 – 3μ, –7 + 4μ, – 3 – μ) A1
 3  3  7 
 
BA  a  b   2  4  3  (M1)A1
  2    9 
 

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 27


EITHER
 3 
 
BA  l1  BA   2   0
  2
 
 3(3λ + 3μ – 7) + 2(2λ – 4μ + 3) – 2(–2λ + μ + 9) = 0 M1
 17λ – μ = 33 A1
  3
 
BA  l 2  BA   4   0
 1
 
 –3(3λ + 3μ – 7) + 4(2λ – 4μ + 3) – 2(–2λ + μ + 9) = 0 M1
 λ – 26μ = –24 A1
solving both equations above simultaneously gives
λ = 2; μ = 1  A(3, 0, 2), B(1, –3, –4) A1A1A1A1
OR
i j k
3 2  2 = 6i + 9j + 18k M1A1
3 4 1
 2   3  3  7 
   
so AB  p 3    2  4  3  M1A1
 6    2    9 
   
3λ + 3μ – 2p = 7
2λ – 4μ – 3p = –3
–2λ + μ – 6p = –9
λ = 2, μ = 1, p = 1 A1A1
A(–3 + 6, –4 + 4, 6 – 4) = (3, 0, 2) A1
B(4 – 3, –7 + 4, –3 – 1) = (1, –3, –4) A1

 1   3   2
     
(b) AB =   3    0     3  (A1)
  4  2   6
     
|AB| = (2) 2  (3) 2  (6) 2  49 = 7 M1A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 28


(c) from (b) 2i + 3j + 6k is normal to both lines
  3  2
   
l1 goes through (–3, –4, 6)    4    3  = 18 M1A1
 6  6
   
hence, the Cartesian equation of the plane through l1, but not l2,
is 2x + 3y + 6z = 18 A1
[19]

26. (a) (i) METHOD 1


  1  1  0
AB = b  a =  2    1    1  (A1)
 3  2 1
     
  3  1   2 
AC = c  a =  0    1     1 (A1)
 1   2    1
     
  i j k
AB  AC = 0 1 1 M1
2 1 1

= i (1 + 1)  j(0  2) + k (0  2) (A1)


= 2j  2k A1

Area of triangle ABC =


1
2
2 j  2k 
1
2
 
8  2 sq. units M1A1

Note: Allow FT on final A1.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 29


METHOD 2
AB  2 , BC  12, AC  6 A1A1A1

Using cosine rule, e.g. on Ĉ M1


6  12  2 2 2
cos C =  A1
2 72 3

1
Area ABC  absin C M1
2

1  
= 12 6 sin  arccos 2 2 
2  3 


= 3 2 sin  arccos

2 2 
3 

 2  A1

Note: Allow FT on final A1.

(ii) AB = 2 A1
1 1
2 = AB h  2  h , h equals the shortest distance (M1)
2 2
h=2 A1

(iii) METHOD 1
 0 
 
 has form r •  2   d (M1)
  2
 

Since (1, 1, 2) is on the plane


1  1 
   
d = 1 • 2   2 4  2 M1A1
 2   2
   
 0 
 
Hence r •  2  = 2
  2
 
2y  2z = 2 (or y  z = 1) A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 30


METHOD 2

1 0 2


     
r =  1   λ  1   μ   1 (M1)
 2 1   1
     
x = 1 + 2 (i)
y=1+ (ii)
z=2+ (iii) A1
Note: Award A1 for all three correct, A0 otherwise.

x 1
From (i)  =
2
 x 1 
substitute in (ii) y = 1 +    
 2 
 x 1 
=y1+  
 2 
substitute  and  in (iii) M1
 x 1   x 1 
z=2+y1+   
 2   2 
 y  z = 1 A1

(b) (i) The equation of OD is


 0    0 
    
r =  2 ,  or r  λ  1   M1
  2    1 
    
This meets  where
2 + 2 = 1 (M1)
1
=  A1
4
 1 1
Coordinates of D are  0 ,  ,  A1
 2 2
2 2

 1 1 1
(ii) OD  0         (M1)A1
 2 2 2
[20]

27. METHOD 1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 31


Use of | a  b | = | a | | b | sin (M1)
| a  b |2 = | a |2 | b |2 sin2 (A1)
Note: Only one of the first two marks can be implied.
= | a |2 | b |2 (1  cos2) A1
= | a |2 | b |2  | a |2 | b |2 cos2 (A1)
= | a |2 | b |2  (| a | | b | cos)2 (A1)
Note: Only one of the above two A1 marks can be implied.
= | a |2 | b |2  (a • b)2 A1
Hence LHS = RHS AG N0

METHOD 2
Use of a • b = | a | | b | cos (M1)
| a |2 | b |2  (a • b)2 = | a |2 | b |2  (| a | | b | cos)2 (A1)
= | a |2 | b |2  | a |2 | b |2 cos2 (A1)
Note: Only one of the above two A1 marks can be implied.
= | a |2 | b |2 (1  cos2) A1
= | a |2 | b |2 sin2 A1
= | a  b |2 A1

Hence LHS = RHS AG N0


Notes: Candidates who independently correctlysimplify both sides
and show that LHS = RHS should be awarded full marks.
If the candidate starts off with expression that they are trying to
prove and concludes that sin2 = (1  cos2) award M1A1A1A1A0A0.
If the candidate uses two general 3D vectors and explicitly finds
the expressions correctly award full marks. Use of 2D vectors
gains a maximum of 2 marks.
If two specific vectors are used no marks are gained.
[6]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 32


 
OA  AB
28. (a) Use of cos =  
(M1)
OA AB


AB = i  j + k A1
 
AB = 3 and OA = 3 2 A1

 
OA  AB = 6 A1

2  
substituting gives cos =   6  or equivalent M1 N1
6  3 

 
(b) L1: r = OA + s AB or equivalent (M1)
L1: r = i  j + 4k + s(i  j + k) or equivalent A1
Note: Award (M1)A0 for omitting “r =” in the final answer.

(c) Equating components and forming equations involving s and t (M1)


1 + s = 2 + 2t, 1  s = 4 + t, 4 + s = 7 + 3t
Having two of the above three equations A1A1
Attempting to solve for s or t (M1)
Finding either s = 3 or t = 2 A1
Explicitly showing that these values satisfy the third equation R1
Point of intersection is (2, 2, 1) A1 N1
Note: Position vector is not acceptable for final A1.

(d) METHOD 1
 1   2   3
     
r =   1    1     3  (A1)
 4   3   3
     
x = 1 + 2  3, y = 1 +  + 3 and z = 4 + 3  3 M1A1
Elimination of the parameters M1
x + y = 3 so 4(x + y) = 12 and y + z = 4 + 3
so 3(y + z) = 12 + 9
3(y + z) = 4(x + y) + 9 A1
Cartesian equation of plane is 4x + y  3z = 9 (or equivalent) A1 N1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 33


METHOD 2
EITHER
The point (2, 4, 7) lies on the plane.
The vector joining (2, 4, 7) and (1,  1, 4) and 2i + j + 3k
are parallel to the plane. So they are perpendicular to the
normal to the plane.
(i  j + 4k)  (2i + 4j + 7k) =  i  5j  3k (A1)
i j k
n  1  5  3 M1
2 1 3

=  12i  3j + 9k or equivalent parallel vector A1

OR
L1 and L2 intersect at D (2, 2,1)

AD = (2i + 2j + k)  (i  j + 4k) = 3i + 3j  3k (A1)
i j k
n 2 1 3 M1
3 3 3

= 12i  3j + 9k or equivalent parallel vector A1

THEN
r • n = (i  j + 4k) • (12i  3j + 9k) M1
= 27 A1
Cartesian equation of plane is 4x + y  3z = 9 (or equivalent) A1 N1
[20]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 34


1
 
29. The normal vector to the plane is  3  . (A1)
 2
 
EITHER
 is the angle between the line and the normal to the plane.
 4  1
   
 1   3
  2  2  3 
cosθ      
3
   (M1)A1A1
14 21 14 21  7 6 

  = 79.9 (= 1.394 ...) A1


The required angle is 10.1 (= 0.176) A1

OR
 is the angle between the line and the plane.
 4  1
   
 1    3
  2  2
sin       
3
(M1)A1A1
14 21 14 21
 = 10.1 (= 0.176) A2
[6]

30. METHOD 1
(from GDC)
 1 1
1 0  
 6 12 
 2 1
0 1  3  6  (M1)
 
0 0 0 0 
 
 
1 1
x λ A1
6 12
2 1
y λ A1
3 6
 1 1   1 2 
r =  i  j    i  j  k  A1A1A1 N3
 12 6   6 3 

METHOD 2
(Elimination method either for equations or row reduction of matrix)

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 35


Eliminating one of the variables M1A1
Finding a point on the line (M1)A1
Finding the direction of the line M1
The vector equation of the line A1 N3
[6]

31. BC = c – b
CA = a – c
 a • (c – b) = 0 M1
and b • (a – c) = 0 M1
 a•c=a•b A1
and a • b = b • c A1
 a•c=b•c M1
 b•c–a•c=0
c • (b – a) = 0 A1
 OC is perpendicular to AB , as b ≠ a. AG
[6]

32. a • b = │a││b│cos θ (M1)


 1   3 
   
a • b =   2     2  = 7 + 3m A1
 3  m
   
a  14 b  13  m 2 A1
a b cos  14 13  m 2 cos 30
7 + 3m = 14 13  m 2 cos 30° A1
m = 2.27, m = 25.7 A1A1
[6]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 36


1 2  3 k 
 
33. (a) 3 1 2 4 M1
5 0 7 5
 
R1 – 2 R2
  5 0  7 k  8
 
 3 1 2 4  (A1)
 5 0 7 5 

R1 + R3
 0 0 0 k  3
 
3 1 2 4  (A1)
5 0 7 5 

Hence no solutions if k  ,k≠3 A1

(b) Two planes meet in a line and the third plane is parallel to that line. A1
[5]

34. (a) x = 3 + 2m
y=2–m
z = 7 + 2m A1
x = 1 + 4n
y=4–n
z=2+n A1

(b) 3 + 2m = 1 + 4n  2m – 4n = – 2(i)
2 – m = 4 – n  m – n = –2(ii) M1
7 + 2m = 2 + n  2m – n = –5(iii)
(iii) – (ii)  m = –3 A1
 n = –1 A1
Substitute in (i), – 6 + 4 = – 2. Hence lines intersect. R1
Point of intersection A is (–3, 5, 1) A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 37


i j 1
k
 
(c) 2 1 2   6 M1A1
 
4  1 1  2 
 1  3  1
     
r •  6   2   6 (M1)
 2  7  2
     
1
 
r •  6  = 29
 2
 
x + 6y + 2z = 29 A1
Note: Award M1A0 if answer is not in Cartesian form.

(d) x = –8 + 3λ
y = – 3 + 8λ (M1)
z = 2λ
Substitute in equation of plane.
–8 + 3λ – 18 + 48λ + 4λ = 29 M1
55λ = 55
λ=1 A1
Coordinates of B are (–5, 5, 2) A1

 3
(e) Coordinates of C are   4, 5,  (A1)
 2
  4
  1
   
r =  5    6 M1A1
 3   
   2
 
 2 
 x
 
Note: Award M1A0 unless candidate writes r = or  y  
z
 
[18]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 38


35. EITHER
Let s be the distance from the origin to a point on the line, then
s2 = (1 – λ)2 + (2 – 3λ)2 + 4 (M1)
= 10λ2 – 14λ + 9 A1
d( s 2 )
= 20λ – 14 A1
d
d( s 2 ) 7
For minimum  0,    A1
d 10

OR
The position vector for the point nearest to the origin is perpendicular to
the direction of the line. At that point:
 1     1
   
 2  3     3  = 0 (M1)A1
 2   0 
   
Therefore, 10λ – 7 = 0 A1
7
Therefore, λ = A1
10

THEN
3 1
x= ,y (A1)(A1)
10 10
 3 1 
The point is  , , 2  . N3
 10 10 
[6]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 39


36. (a)

M1

(M1)

M1
When a = –1 the augmented matrix is

A1
Hence the system is inconsistent  a ≠ –1 R1

(b) When a ≠ –1, (–a – 1)z = 9 – a2


(a + 1)z = a2 – 9
a2 9
z  M1A1
a 1
1 a2 9
2y – z = 0  y  z  M1A1
2 2(a  1)
 3(a 2  9) 2(a 2  9) 9  a 2
x = – 3y + z =   M1A1
2(a  1) 2(a  1) 2(a  1)
 9  a2 a2 9 a2 9 
The unique solution is  , ,  when a ≠ –1

 2(a  1) 2(a  1) a  1 

(c) 2–a=1  a=1 M1


8 8 8
 Thesolution is , ,  or (2, –2, –4) A1
 4 4 2
[13]

37. (a) AB = –i – 3j + k, BC = i + j A1A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 40


i j k
(b) AB  BC   1  3 1 M1
1 1 0
= –i + j + 2k A1

1
(c) Area of ∆ABC = │–i + j + 2k│ M1A1
2
1
= 11 4
2
6
= A1
2

(d) A normal to the plane is given by n = AB BC = –i + j + 2k (M1)


Therefore, the equation of the plane is of the form –x + y + 2z = g
and since the plane contains A, then –1 + 2 + 2 = g  g = 3. M1
Hence, an equation of the plane is –x + y + 2z = 3. A1

(e) Vector n above is parallel to the required line.


Therefore, x = 2 – t A1
y=–1+t A1
z = – 6 + 2t A1

(f) x=2–t
y=–1+t
z = – 6 + 2t
–x + y + 2z = 3
–2 + t – 1 + t – 12 + 4t = 3 M1A1
–15 + 6t = 3
6t = 18
t=3 A1
Point of intersection (–1, 2, 0) A1

(g) Distance = 3 2  3 2  6 2  54 (M1)A1

1
(h) Unit vector in the direction of n is e = n (M1)
n
1
= (–i + j + 2k) A1
6
Note: –e is also acceptable.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 41


(i) Point of intersection of L and P is (–1, 2, 0).
  3
 
DE   3  (M1)A1
 6 
 
  3
 
 EF   3  M1
 6 
 
 coordinates of F are (–4, 5, 6) A1
[25]

38. (a) L1 : x = 2 + λ; y = 2 + 3λ; z = 3 + λ (A1)


L2 : x = 2 + µ; y = 3 + 4µ; z = 4 + 2µ (A1)
At the point of intersection (M1)
2+λ=2+µ (1)
2 + 3λ = 3 + 4µ (2)
3 + λ = 4 + 2µ (3)
From (1), λ = µ A1
Substituting in (2), 2 + 3λ = 3 + 4λ
 λ = µ = –1 A1
We need to show that these values satisfy (3). (M1)
They do because LHS = RHS = 2; therefore the lines intersect. R1
So P is (1, –1, 2). A1 N3

(b) The normal to Π is normal to both lines. It is therefore given by


the vector product of the two direction vectors.
i j k 
 
Therefore, normal vector is given by 1 3 1  M1A1
1 4 2 
 
= 2i – j + k A2
The Cartesian equation of Π is 2x – y + z = 2 + 1 + 2 (M1)
i.e. 2x – y + z = 5 A1 N2

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 42


 3 5
(c) The midpoint M of [PQ] is  2, ,  . M1A1
 2 2
The direction of MS is the same as the normal to Π, i.e. 2i – j + k (R1)
The coordinates of a general point R on MS are therefore
 3 5 
 2  2 ,   ,    (M1)
 2 2 
5  1 
It follows that PR = (1 + 2λ)i +     j     k A1A1A1
2  2 
At S, length of PR is 3, i.e. (M1)
2 2
5  1 
(1 + 2λ)2 +           9 A1
2  2 
25 1
1 + 4λ + 4λ2 + – 5λ + λ2 + + λ + λ2 = 9 (A1)
4 4
6
6λ2 = A1
4
1
λ=  A1
2
Substituting these values, (M1)
the possible positions of S are (3, 1, 3) and (1, 2, 2) A1A1 N2
[29]

4   3
   
39. (a) Finding correct vectors AB   3  AC   1  A1A1
  1  1 
   
Substituting correctly in scalar product AB AC = 4(–3) + 3(1) – 1(1) A1
= –10 AG N0

(b) AB  26 AC  11 (A1)(A1)
 10
Attempting to use scalar product formula, cos BÂC  M1
26 11
= –0.591 (to 3 s.f.) A1
BÂC = 126° A1 N3
[8]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 43


 cos  sin   cos  sin  
40. (a) A2 =   
  sin  cos    sin  cos  
 cos 2   sin 2  cos sin   sin  cos 
=  
 M1(A1)
  sin  cos   cos  sin   sin 2
  cos 2
 
 cos   sin 
2 2
2 sin  cos 
=  
 A1
  2 sin  cos  cos 2
  sin 2
 
 cos 2 sin 2 
=   AG
  sin 2 cos 2 

 cos sin    cos n sin n 


n

(b) let P(n) be the proposition that     


  sin  cos    sin n cos n 
for all n  +

P(1) is true A1
 cos sin    cos sin  
1

    
  sin  cos    sin  cos 
assume P(k) to be true A1
Note: Must see the word ‘true’ or equivalent, that makes clear an
assumption is being made that P(k) is true.

 cos sin    cos k sin k 


k

    
  sin  cos    sin k cos k 
consider P(k + 1)
k 1
 cos sin    cos sin    cos sin  
k

       (M1)
  sin  cos    sin  cos    sin  cos 
 cos k sin k  cos sin  
    A1
  sin k cos k   sin  cos 
 cos k cos  sin k sin  cos k sin   sin k cos 
   A1
  sin k cos  cos k sin   sin k sin   cos k cos 
 cos(k  1) sin(k  1) 
   A1
  sin(k  1) cos(k  1) 
if P(k) is true then P(k + 1) is true and since P(1) is true then P(n) is true
for all n  + R1
Note: The final R1 can only be gained if the M1 has been gained.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 44


(c) EITHER
 cos( ) sin( ) 
A–1 =   from formula
  sin( ) cos( ) 
 cos  sin  
=   A1
 sin  cos 

 cos   sin   cos  sin    cos  sin   cos   sin  


A–1A = AA–1 =     
 sin  cos    sin  cos     sin  cos   sin  cos  
M1
Note: Accept either just A–1A or just AA–1.
1 0
=   A1
0 1
A–1 is inverse of A
OR
1  cos  sin  
A–1 =   M1
cos 2   sin 2   sin  cos 
 cos  sin  
A–1 =   A1
 sin  cos 
putting n = –1 in formula gives inverse A1
[13]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 45


2 3 n 1
1 1 1 1 n2
41. prove that 1 + 2    3   4   ...  n   4
 2  2 2  2 2 n 1
for n = 1
1 2
LHS = 1, RHS = 4 – =4–3=1
20
so true for n = 1 R1
assume true for n = k M1
2 3 k 1
1 1 1 1 k 2
so 1 + 2    3   4   ...  k    4
 2  2  2 2 2 k 1
now for n = k + 1
2 3 k 1 k
1 1 1 1 1
LHS: 1 + 2    3   4   ...  k    (k  1)  A1
 2  2 2 2  2
k
k 2 1
=4– k 1
 (k  1)  M1A1
2 2
2(k  2) k  1
=4–  k (or equivalent) A1
2k 2
(k  1)  2 k 3
=4– ( k 1) 1
(accept 4 – ) A1
2 2k
Therefore if it is true for n = k it is true for n = k + 1. It has been shown
to be true for n = 1 so it is true for all n (  +). R1
Note: To obtain the final R mark, a reasonable attempt at induction
must have been made.
[8]

42. (a) sin (2n + 1)x cosx – cos (2n + 1)x sinx = sin (2n + 1)x – x M1A1
= sin 2nx AG

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 46


(b) if n = 1 M1
LHS = cos x
sin 2 x 2 sin x cos x
RHS =  = cos x M1
2 sin x 2 sin x
so LHS = RHS and the statement is true for n = 1 R1
assume true for n = k M1
Note: Only award M1 if the word true appears.
Do not award M1 for ‘let n = k’ only.
Subsequent marks are independent of this M1.
sin 2kx
so cos x + cos 3x + cos 5x + ... + cos(2k – 1)x =
2 sin x
if n = k + 1 then
cos x + cos 3x + cos 5x + ... + cos(2k – 1)x + cos(2k + 1)x M1
sin 2kx
= cos (2k + 1)x A1
2 sin x
sin 2kx  2 cos(2k  1) x sin x
= M1
2 sin x
sin(2k  1) x cos x  cos(2k  1) x sin x  2 cos(2k  1) x sin x
= M1
2 sin x
sin(2k  1) x cos x  cos(2k  1) x sin x
= A1
2 sin x
sin(2k  2) x
= M1
2 sin x
sin 2(k  1) x
= A1
2 sin x
so if true for n = k, then also true for n = k + 1
as true for n = 1 then true for all n  + R1
Note: Final R1 is independent of previous work.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 47


sin 4 x 1
(c)  M1A1
2 sin x 2
sin 4x = sin x
4x = x  x = 0 but this is impossible
π
4x = π – x  x  A1
5

4x = 2π + x  x  A1
3

4x = 3π – x  x  A1
5
for not including any answers outside the domain R1
Note: Award the first M1A1 for correctly obtaining 8 cos3 x – 4 cos x – 1 = 0
or equivalent and subsequent marks as appropriate including the
 1 1 5 
answers arccos   , .
 2 4 

[20]

1
43. (a) (i) 1 × 2 + 2 × 3 + ... + n(n + 1) = n(n + 1)(n + 2) R1
3

(ii) LHS = 40; RHS = 40 A1

(b) the sequence of values are:


5, 7, 11, 19, 35 … or an example A1
35 is not prime, so Bill′s conjecture is false R1AG

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 48


(c) P(n) : 5 × 7n + 1 is divisible by 6
P(1): 36 is divisible by 6  P(1) true A1
assume P(k) is true (5 × 7k + 1 = 6r) M1
Note: Do not award M1 for statement starting ‘let n = k’.
Subsequent marks are independent of this M1.
consider 5 × 7k+1 + 1 M1
= 7(6r – 1) + 1 (A1)
= 6(7r – 1)  P(k + 1) is true A1
P(1) true and P(k) true  P(k + 1) true, so by MI P(n) is true for all n  + R1
Note: Only award R1 if there is consideration of P(1), P(k) and P (k + 1)
in the final statement.
Only award R1 if at least one of the two preceding A marks has
been awarded.
[10]

44. let n = 1
LHS = 1 × 1! = 1
RHS = (1 + 1)! – 1 = 2 – 1 = 1
hence true for n = 1 R1
assume true for n = k
k

 r (r!)
r 1
= (k + 1)! – 1 M1

k 1

 r (r!)
r 1
= (k + 1)! – 1 + (k + 1) × (k + 1)! M1A1

= (k + 1)!(1 + k + 1) – 1
= (k + 1)!(k + 2) – 1 A1
= (k + 2)! – 1 A1
hence if true for n = k, true for n = k + 1 R1
since the result is true for n = 1 and P (k)  P(k + 1) the result is proved
by mathematical induction n  + R1
[8]

1 0 0   1  1 0   0 1 0
 –1     
45. (a) (i) X = B – A = 1 1 0    0 1  1   1 0 1 A1
1 1 1   0 0 1   1 1 0 
    
 1 0 0   1 1 1  0  1  1
–1      
Y = B – A =   1 1 0    0 1 1    1 0  1 A1
 0  1 1   0 0 1  0  1 0 
    

 0 1 0 
–1 –1 
(ii) X + Y =  1 0  1 (A1)
0 1 0 
 

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 49


X–1 + Y–1 has no inverse A1
as det(X–1 + Y–1) = 0 R1

 n(n  1) 
1 n 
n  2 
(b) if P(n): A =  0 1 n 
0 0 1 
 
 
 1(1  1) 
1 1 
 2 
for n = 1, P(1) : A =  0 1 1   P(1) is true A1
0 0 1 
 
 
 k (k  1) 
1 k 
k  2 
assume P(k) is true i.e. A =  0 1 k  M1
0 0 1 
 
 
for n = k + 1,
Ak+1 = Ak A or AAk M1
 k (k  1) 
1 k  1 1 1
 2  
= 0 1 k  0 1 1
0 0 1  0 0 1
 
 
 k (k  1) 
1 1 k 1 k  
 2 
= 0 1 1 k  M1A1
0 0 1 
 
 
 ( k  1)( k  2 ) 
1 1 k 
 2 
= 0 1 1 k  A1
0 0 1 
 
 
hence P(k)  P(k + 1) and P(1) is true, so P(n) is true for all n  +
. R1 N0

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 50


 n(n  1) 
1 n  1 x y  1 0 0
n n –1  2    
(c) (i) A (A ) = I   0 1 n  0 1 x    0 1 0 M1
0 0 1  0 0 1   0 0 1 
 
 
 n(n  1) 
 1 x  n y  nx   1 0 0
 2   
 0 1 xn   0 1 0 A1
0  0 0 1 
 
0 1

 
solve simultaneous equations to obtain
n(n  1)
x + n = 0 and y + nx + 0 M1
2
n(n  1)
x = –n and y = A1A1 N2
2

 n(n  1)   n(n  1) 
1 n  1  n  2 0 n2 
 2   2   
(ii) An + (An)–1 =   0 1 n   0 1  n   0 2 0 
0 0  
1  0 0 1   0 0 2 
   
   
A1
[18]

6
46. (a) S6 = 81  81  (2a  5d ) M1A1
2
 27 = 2a + 5d
11
S11 = 231  231  (2a  10d ) M1A1
2
 21 = a + 5d
solving simultaneously, a = 6, d = 3 A1A1

(b) a + ar = 1 A1
a + ar + ar2 + ar3 = 5 A1
 (a + ar) + ar2(1 + r) = 5
1
 1  ar 2   5
a
obtaining r2 – 4 = 0 M1
 r = ±2
r = 2 (since all terms are positive) A1
1
a= A1
3

(c) AP rth term is 3r + 3 A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 51


1 r 1
GP rth term is 2 A1
3
1 r–1
3(r + 1) × 2 = (r + 1)2r–1 M1AG
3

n
(d) prove: Pn :  (r  1)2
r 1
r 1
= n2n, n  +

show true for n = 1, i.e.


LHS = 2 × 20 = 2 = RHS A1
assume true for n = k, i.e. M1
k

 (r  1)2
r 1
r 1
 k2k , k  +

consider n = k + 1
k 1

 (r  1)2
r 1
r 1
 k 2 k  (k  1)2 k M1A1

= 2k(k + k + 2)
= 2(k + 1)2k A1
= (k + 1)2k+1 A1
hence true for n = k + 1
Pk+1 is true whenever Pk is true, and P1 is true, therefore Pn is true R1
for n  +
[21]

47. (a) f (x) = (1 + 2x) e2x A1


f (x) = 0 M1
1
 (1 + 2x)e2x = 0  x =  A1
2
f (x) = (22x + 2  22  1)e2x = (4x + 4)e2x A1
 1 2
f      A1
 2 e
2 1
> 0  at x =  , f (x) has a minimum. R1
e 2
 1 1
P ,  A1
 2 2e 

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 52


(b) f(x) = 0  4x + 4 = 0  x = 1 M1A1
 1 2 4
Using the 2nd derivative f     and f (2) =  4 , M1A1
 2 e e
the sign change indicates a point of inflexion. R1

(c) (i) f (x) is concave up for x >  1. A1


(ii) f (x) is concave down for x < 1. A1

(d)

A1A1A1A1
Note: Award A1 for P and Q, with Q above P,
A1 for asymptote at y = 0,
A1 for (0, 0),
A1 for shape.

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 53


(e) Show true for n = 1 (M1)
f (x) = e2x + 2xe2x A1
2x 0 2x
= e (1 + 2x) = (2x + 2 ) e
Assume true for n = k, ie f (k) x = (2k x + k  2k  1) e2x, k  1 M1A1

Consider n = k + 1, ie an attempt to find


d k
dx
 
f ( x) . M1

f (k + 1) (x) = 2k e2x + 2e2x (2k x + k  2k  1) A1


= (2k + 2 (2k x + k  2k 1)) e2x
= (2  2k x + 2k + k  2  2k  1) e2x
= (2k + 1 x + 2k + k  2k) e2x A1
= (2k + 1 x + (k + 1) 2k) e2x A1
P(n) is true for k  P(n) is true for k + 1, and since true
for n = 1, result proved by mathematical induction  n  +
R1
Note: Only award R1 if a reasonable attempt is made to
prove the (k + 1)th step.
[27]

1
48. (a) r=  (A1)
3
27
S  M1
1
1
3

S 
81
 20.25 A1 N1
4

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 54


(b) Attempting to show that the result is true for n = 1 M1
a1  r 
LHS = a and RHS = a A1
1 r
Hence the result is true for n = 1
Assume it is true for n = k

a  ar  ar 2  ... ar k 1 

a 1 r k  M1
1 r
Consider n = k + 1:

a  ar  ar 2  ...  ar k 1  ar k 

a 1 r k
 ar k
 M1
1 r


 
a 1  r k  ar k 1  r 
1 r
a  ar k  ar k  ar k 1
= A1
1 r
Note: Award A1 for an equivalent correct intermediate step.
a  ar k 1

1 r

=

a 1  r k 1  A1
1 r
Note: Illogical attempted proofs that use the result to be proved
would gain M1A0A0 for the last three above marks.
The result is true for n = k  it is true for n = k + 1 and as it is
true for n =1, the result is proved by mathematical induction. R1 N0
Note: To obtain the final R1 mark a reasonable attempt must
have been made to prove the k + 1 step.
[10]

49. (a) (i) Attempting to find M2 M1

 a 2  bc ab  bd 
M = 
2

2 
A1
 ac  cd bc  d 
b (a + d) = b or c(a + d) = c A1
Hence a + d = 1 (as b ≠ 0 or c ≠ 0) AG N0
(ii) a2 + bc = a M1
 bc = a  a2 (= a(1  a)) A1 N1

(b) METHOD 1
Using det M = ad  bc M1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 55


det M = ad  a(1  a) or det M = a(1  a)  a(1  a)
(or equivalent) A1
= 0 using a + d = 1 or d = 1  a to simplify their
expression R1
Hence M is a singular matrix AG N0
METHOD 2
Using bc = a(1  a) and a + d = 1 to obtain bc = ad M1A1
det M = ad  bc and ad  bc = 0 as bc = ad R1
Hence M is a singular matrix AG N0

(c) a(1  a) > 0 (M1)


0<a<1 A1A1 N3
Note: Award A1 for correct endpoints and A1 for correct
inequality signs.

(d) METHOD 1
Attempting to expand (I  M)2 M1
(I  M)2 = I  2M + M2 A1
= I  2M + M A1
=IM AG N0

METHOD 2
2
1  a  b 
Attempting to expand (I  M) =  2
 (or equivalent) M1
  c 1 d 
 1  a 2  bc  b1  a   b1  d 
(I  M)2  
  c1  a   c 1  d  bc  1  d 
2 
 
(or equivalent) A1
Use of a + d = 1 and bc = a  a to show desired result.
2
M1
1  a  b 
Hence (I  M)2 =   AG N0
  c 1 d 

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 56


(e) (Let P(n) be (I  M)n = I  M)
For n = 1: (I  M)1 = I  M, so P(1) is true A1
Assume P(k) is true, i.e. (I  M)k = I  M M1
Consider P(k + 1)
(I  M)k + 1 = (I  M)k (I  M) M1
= (I  M) (I  M) (= (I  M)2) A1
= (I  M) A1
P(k) true implies P(k + 1) true, P(1) true so P(n) true  n +
R1 N0
[20]

n
λk  nk
50. (a) P(Z = n) = e
k 0
λ

k!
 e  
n  k !
M1A1

e     n

 k !n  k ! λ
n!
= k
 nk M1A1
n! k 0

e    
=    n A1
n!

This shows that Z is Poisson distributed with mean ( + ). R1

(b) The result is (trivially) true for n = 1. A1


k
Assuming it to be true for n = k, i.e. U r ~ Pokm M1
r 1

k 1 k
Consider U r  U r  U k  1
r 1 r 1
M1A1

which, using (a) is Po(km + m) i.e. Po([k + 1]m) A1


Hence proved by induction since true for n = k  true for
n = k + 1 and we have shown true for n = 1. R1
[12]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 57


51. (a) Let n = 1
 cos  sin    cos  sin  
1

LHS =     
 sin  cos   sin  cos 
 cos1  sin 1   cos  sin  
RHS =     
 sin 1 cos1   sin  cos 
Hence true for n = 1 M1A1
Assume true for n = k M1
 cos  sin    cos k  sin k 
k

     A1
 sin  cos   sin k cos k 
Result for k + 1 is M1
k 1
 cos  sin    cos k  sin k  cos  sin  
      A1
 sin  cos   sin k cos k  sin  cos 
 cos k cos  sin k sin   cos k sin   sin k cos 
=   A1
 sin k cos  cos k sin   sin k sin   cos k cos 
 cos(k  1)  sin(k  1) 
=   A1
 sin(k  1) cos(k  1) 
Hence if true for k, true for k + 1. However, result is true for k = 1. R1
Hence proved by induction.

 cos  sin    cos sin  


1
1
(b)      M1A1A1
 sin  cos  cos   sin 2 
2
  sin  cos 
Note: Award M1 for any recognition that the inverse is required.
1  cos sin  
A1 for and A1 for   .
cos   sin    sin  cos 
2 2

 cos sin  
=   A1
  sin  cos 
 cos( )  sin( )   cos sin  
Now      A1
 sin( ) cos( )    sin  cos 
Hence true. AG
[14]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 58


52. Let f(n) = 5n + 9n + 2 and let Pn be the proposition that f(n) is divisible by 4.
Then f(1) = 16 A1
So P1 is true A1
Let Pn be true for n = k, i.e. f(k) is divisible by 4 M1
Consider f (k + 1) = 5k+1 + 9k+1 + 2 M1
= 5k(4 + 1) + 9k(8 + 1) + 2 A1
= f(k) + 4(5k + 2 × 9k) A1
Both terms are divisible by 4 so f(k + 1) is divisible by 4. R1
Pk true  Pk+1 true R1
Since P1 is true, Pn is proved true by mathematical induction for n  +. R1 N0
[9]

 2  4  16
53. (a) z=  1  i 3 M1
2
–1 + i 3  re i  r = 2 A1
3 2π
θ = arctan  A1
1 3
–1 – i 3 = re  r = 2

3 2π
θ = arctan  A1
1 3

i
   2e 3 A1

i
  2e 3 A1

(b)

A1A1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 59


(c) cos nθ + i sin nθ = (cos θ + i sin θ)n
Let n = 1
Left hand side = cos 1θ + i sin 1θ = cos θ + i sin θ
Right hand side = (cos θ + i sin θ)1 = cos θ + i sin θ
Hence true for n = 1 M1A1
Assume true for n = k M1
cos kθ + i sin kθ = (cos θ + i sin θ)k
 cos(k + 1)θ + i sin(k + 1)θ = (cosθ + i sin θ)k(cos θ + i sin θ) M1A1
= (cos kθ + i sin kθ)(cos θ + i sin θ)
= cos kθ cosθ – sin kθ sin θ + i(cos kθ sinθ + sin kθ cosθ) A1
= cos(k + 1)θ + i sin(k + 1)θ A1
Hence if true for n = k, true for n = k + 1
However if it is true for n = 1
 true for n = 2 etc. R1
 hence proved by induction

3

8e i2π i
(d)   2e 3 A1
2 i

3
4e
4π 4π
= 2 cos  2i sin (M1)
3 3
2 i 3
=  2  1  i 3 A1A1
2 2

(e) a3 = 8ei2π A1
β3 = 8e–i2π A1
Since e2π and e–2π are the same α3 = β3 R1

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 60


(f) EITHER
α = –1 + i 3 β = –1 – i 3
α* = – 1 – i 3 β* = – 1 + i 3 A1
αβ* = (–1 + i 3 ) (–1 + i 3 ) = 1 – 2 i 3 – 3 = 2 – 2 i 3 M1A1
βα* = (–1 – i 3 )(–1 – i 3 ) = 1 + 2 i 3 – 3 = –2 + 2 i 3 A1
 αβ* + βα* = –4 A1
OR
Since α* = β and β* = α
2π 2π 4π
i i i
αβ* = 2e 3  2e 3  4e 3 M1A1
2π 2π 4π
i i i
βα* = 2e 3  2e 3  4e 3 A1
 i 4π  i

αβ* + βα* = 4 e 3  e 3
 
 
 4π 4π 4π 4π 
= 4 cos  i sin  cos  i sin  A1
 3 3 3 3 
4π 1
= 8 cos  8    4 A1
3 2

πn
i2
(g) αn = 2 n e 3 M1A1
This is real when n is a multiple of 3 R1
i.e. n = 3N where N  +
[31]

IB Questionbank Mathematics Higher Level 3rd edition 61