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Analysis of Stable and Unstable Manifolds in

Fluid Flows Using Lagrangian Coherent


Structures

Department of Mechanical Engineering


NUST College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
National University of Sciences & Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan 44000

differential equations [3]. A frequent example of dynamical


Abstract- In dynamical systems, regions containing similar systems is fluid flow, Today's scientific and engineering
dynamics can be identified and their boundaries visualized using community has been bestowed with an important assignment
Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS). In fluid flows, LCS can
to study the behavior of fluid flows. Such studies have found
be approximated as virtual boundaries dictating the structure of
flow. Current study makes use of LCS to simulate two cases for
an important spot in several industries like aerospace, medical,
fluid flows; flow features around the turbine blade and a automotive, and energy etc. With time several computational
ventilation system. Detection of LCS will present a useful techniques have been developed to simulate more and more
technique of providing an insight into coherent structures on the complex phenomena in processes, such as combustion,
suction surface and vortex formation downstream of the blade. multiphase flows etc. The requirement of interpreting complex
The performance of the low pressure turbine is significantly
results has resulted in creation of several visualization
affected by the laminar separation bubble that forms on the
suction surface and it is hence very important to capture the
techniques [ 4]. These visualization techniques help in
details of the associated flow features. This information can in elucidating the physics of flows and helps in extracting more
turn help in the examination of procedures developed for their meaning out of the results. Most of the tools used for analysis
control. A TI06 LP turbine blade is selected for the purpose of of results in fluid flow problem are either based on Eulerian or
present study. A numerical simulation is performed using Lagrangian perspective of flow [5]. Conventional techniques
Transition SST model. The results of the computational study are
which include vectors and streamlines are based on Eulerian
validated using experimental and other computational studies.
point of view. In Eulerian perspective properties of fluids are
Information from the CFD study is then used to generate LCS.
Different flow features are indentified and their evolution with written as functions of space and time and are calculated at
time is observed. LCS help describe the process of vortex one particular instant of time on a specific spatial location. In
formation and are related to the flow topology. LCS associated Lagrangian perspective, specific particles of fluid are followed
with the separation bubble are discussed. A second case of in time and their properties calculated. One of the difficulties
ventilation inside a two dimensional domain is considered. LCS
faced in interpretation of results of fluid flow simulations is
are used to depict the effect of ventilation systems with changing
inlet air velocity angles. Study of ventilation using LCS show the
making sense of turbulence and chaos in complex fluid flows.
patterns of fluid flow inside the domain and can be useful in However in spite of their complexity turbulent flows are not
design of HVAC systems by identifying real time location of completely devoid of any structure. There are certain regions
virtual walls inside the domain. inside the flow that maintain some kind of structure. These
Index Terms-Lagrangian Coherent Structures, TI06 LP bounded regions with similar topological properties are
Turbine, HVAC
referred to as coherent structures. A vortex can be taken as
example of one such coherent structure. In most cases the
coherent structures are responsible for controlling the
I. INTRODUCTION
dynamics of flow. The non coherent parts just advect over the
HIS of most important aspects in the study of
Tdynamical systems is the ability to interpret results
domain without having a considerable impact over it [6]. This
property of flow can be put into use by focusing more on the
obtained during experimental or computational studies [1]. coherent structures inside the flow and not spending much
Dynamical systems are systems that change their state with resource over non coherent regions.
time [2]. These systems follow certain rules defined by
algebraic equations, partial differential equations or ordinary In dynamical systems, a manifold attached to fixed points
across which the mass flux is zero can be referred to as a
'Graduate Student separatrix. The concept of a zero mass flux lines can be used
2 AffiliateResearch Member, Interdisciplinary Center for Applied in fluid flows to identify structure and dynamics of the system.
Mathematics, Virginia Tech, MC 0531, Blacksburg VA 24061, USA. There are conventional analytical techniques that are used to
3Graduate Student
identify separatrices attached to stationary fixed points [1]. In
978-1-4799-6369-0/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE

Proceedings of 2015 12th International Bhurban Conference on Applied Sciences & Technology (IBCAST) 375
Islamabad, Pakistan, 13th -17th January, 2015