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Gelombang Akustik

• Pengertian Akustika
• Fenomena Gelombang Akustik/Bunyi
• Komponen Dasar dan Sifat Akustik
• Jenis-Jenis Gelombang
• Macam-Macam Gelombang Akustik

Sentagi Sesotya Utami Engineering Physics, University of Gadjah Mada


Gelombang Akustik Pengertian Akustika

• Akustika pada awalnya hanya mempelajari


bagaimana gelombang bunyi yang merambat di
udara dapat di dengar oleh telinga manusia sebagai
suara
• Akustika adalah ilmu bunyi, ilmu suara
• bahasa Yunani “akoustikos” yang berarti
berhubungan dengan pendengaran, sedangkan
akustika diartikan sebagai ilmu yang mempelajari
tentang sesuatu yang berhubungan dengan produksi,
perambatan, penerimaan dan penggunaan bunyi

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Gelombang Akustik Fenomena Gelombang Bunyi

• digambarkan sebagai perubahan tekanan yang


berpindah dari satu posisi ke posisi lain melalui suatu
medium elastis sebagai hasil dari getaran yang
‘mengganggu’ medium dan lama kelamaan akan
menghilang
• berlakunya fenomena gelombang alami
memiliki satu frekuensi tunggal gelombang
sinus tunak dan murni

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Gelombang Akustik Fenomena Gelombang Bunyi

• Osilasi yang terjadi dihasilkan oleh


gerakan berputar dari partikel A
dengan kecepatan sudut ω konstan
• Nilai A_ adalah proyeksi dari Acos ωt
= Acos θ ke diameter lingkaran yang
memiliki jari-jari A.
• Titik A hasil proyeksi tersebut ditelusur
menjadi gelombang sinus yang
tergambar di sebelah kanan dengan
2 sumbu x menunjukkan waktu t
2 • Gambar diatas menunjukkan proyeksi
dari tiga titik yaitu waktu t1, t2, dan t3.
• proyeksi jejak perjalanan partikel • Amplitudo dari osilasi besarnya sama
suatu medium (A) yang berpindah dengan radius dari lingkaran
tempat dalam dengan bergulir, sementara amplitudo puncak ke
menghasilkan lintasan putar puncak gelombang sinus tersebut
• pola osilasi, dimana partikel A sama dengan diameter lingkaran
menghasilkan proyeksi gerakan bolak
balik melewati sumbu x dengan
frekuensi tertentu
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Gelombang Akustik Komponen Dasar dan Sifat Akustik
Period (T) of a wave is duration
between any point on a wave and
the same point on the next cycle.
Measured in milliseconds for
audible sounds. T = 1/f. Notice there
is as much negative portion as
positive portion of a wave (so that
the mean is the pressure of still air
(or whatever).
Frequency (f) is the number of cycles per second. f = 1/T. Often it is measured in
thousands.
Amplitude (A) of a wave, the instantaneous pressure or displacement of particles in the
medium. The amplitude has no relation to wave speed or its frequency. A given sound
with greater amplitude sounds louder than the same sound with smaller amplitude
Velocity of wave front motion (s) depends solely on the medium. Thus it is independent
of A, T or f. Waves of any frequency move at the same very low velocity in a slinky but
faster in air and faster still in water and steel.

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Gelombang Akustik Jenis – Jenis Gelombang

1. Transverse. Particles move


perpendicular to wave front. Like a
wave in a rope or slinky.
2. Longitudinal. Particles move
forward/backward re wave front. Like
sound (or slinky).

3. Combination waves. Both horizontal and perpendicular motion. Like familiar


surface waves on water.
4. Varying number of dimensions for the medium: 1D (on a line, like rope or wire), 2D
(on a surface, like ripples on pond), 3D (in a volume, like sound in air, earthquakes in
the planet). The behavior of the waves is fundamentally the same for all of these,
despite the differences.

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Macam-Macam Gerakan Muka Gelombang
Gelombang Akustik Akustik
1. Propagation. Waves keep on going once initiated. However, in 2D or 3D media, their
amplitudes get smaller as they spread since the energy gets distributed over greater
and greater distances.
2. Diffraction. Waves bend around corners. But low frequencies bend better than high
frequencies. Thus in the middle panel below, only low frequencies will spread like
those shown. As frequencies get higher, they tend to beam straight ahead and not
spread to the right and left.
3. Reflection. Waves reflect partially when resistance of medium increases.
4. Additivity (or superposition). When several waves are in the same place at the same
time, they just add to each other at each moment in time. Since (+4) plus a (-4) = 0, it is
possible for two sounds to add up to no sound at all - as long as they always have the
opposite amplitudes at some single location.

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Gelombang Akustik Macam-Macam Gelombang Akustik

1. Pure tone or `simple sound.' The wave looks like a `sinusoid' curve. (See the
second figure above.) It is the simplest possible wave shape - mathematically,
the projection of fixed-rate circular motion onto a perpendicular plane.
2. Complex waves: the sum of two or more sinusoids, usually harmonically
related (that is, integer multiples of a `fundamental frequency', the f0).
a) harmonic sounds: They sound like a hum or buzz, they have a clear pitch.
b) nonperiodic sounds: eg, nonharmonic tones (eg, bell which seems to have
several different pitches) and noise (hiss or whoosh)
c) fundamental frequency - the lowest frequency component of a complex
wave. It has this name both because this frequency `generates' all the others
and because typically this is the auditory heard pitch of a complex tone.
3. Fourier's Theorem: "Any wave that is periodic can be represented as the sum
of sinusoidal components whose frequencies are integer multiples of the
fundamental period with appropriately chosen amplitudes. "
4. Spectrum Display: a graph showing the sinusoidal components that are
summed to equal some sound wave.