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Submitted by
Khilendra Gurung
June, 2009 

I am deeply indebted to Western Poverty Alleviation Project (WUPAP) for the financial
and technical support to conduct this study. I would like to express special thanks to a
number of individuals for their support and kind cooperation during the study period.

Firstly, I would like to express my sincere thanks to Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Shrestha, NTFP
Specialist- WUPAP for his encouragement, support, cooperation and suggestions during
the entire study period.

I am grateful to Mr. Dhan Bahadur Shrestha; Coordinator-WUPAP for his kind

cooperation and support during the study period.

My special thanks go to Mr. Subash Chandra Das; DFO Humla; Mr. Junga Bahadur
Rokaya; Coordinator LDFB Humla; Rajan Raut; LDFB Humla for their guidance during the
field work and sharing their valuable ideas and experiences.

My heartfelt thanks go to Mr. Dal Bhandari, Suman Bhandari, Hari Bista, Ratan Baduwal
for their assistance and support during the entire field trip from Jumla to Humla and Mr.
Padam Dhami for his backup in the trip from Simikot to Maila of Humla.

At last but not least, I would like to thank local communities of Neurighat (Jumla); Rara
and Bahu (Mugu); Piplang (Shreemasta VDC), Phoo cha (Rodikot VDC), Thehe (Thehe
VDC), Ripa (Sarkidew VDC) and Shree nagar (Shree nagar VDC) for their warm
hospitality and assistance in accommodation and for providing information of the

Khilendra Gurung

June, 2009
Table of contents


1. Introduction 1

1.1 Objectives 2

1.2 Study area 3

1.2.1 Major habitats and vegetation types 5

2. Methodology 7
2.1 Data collection 7

2.1.1 Primary data collection 7 Key informant survey and resource mapping 7 Focus group discussion 8 Identification of NTFPs 8 Inventory of NTFPs 8 Habitat identification 8 Sampling 8
2.1.2 Secondary data collection 9

2.2 Data processing and analysis 9

2.2.1 Density of selected species 10

2.2.2 Frequency of selected species 10

2.3 Prioritization of NTFPs 10

2.4 Rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA) 11

2.5 Growth and yield studies 11


3. Assessment of threats to biodiversity 13

3.1 Internal and external factors affecting biodiversity 13

3.2 Major threats to biodiversity 13

3.2.1 Uncontrolled burning of pasture and forest 14
3.2.2 Uncontrolled harvesting of NTFPs 14
3.2.3 Slash and burn farming 14
3.2.3 Unmanaged harvesting of timber, fodder and firewood 14
3.2.4 Overgrazing 15


4. Assessment of five commercially harvested NTFPs 16

4.1 Distribution and habitats 16

4.2 Current stocks of selected NTFPs 19

4.3 Regeneration 23
4.3.1 Jatamansi 23
4.3.2 Kutki 24
4.3.3 Sugandhwal 24
4.3.4 Sunpati 24
4.3.5 Juniper 25


5. Prioritization of NTFPs 26

5.1 Prioritization of NTFPs in Humla 26

5.2 Threat analysis 28

5.2.1 RVA analysis in Humla 28


6. Overview of enterprise modalities to be set up in Humla 30

6.1 Identification of enterprise modalities to be set up in Humla 30

6.2 Requirements for enterprise success 32


7. Growth and yield studies 34

7.1 Harvest impacts 35

7.2 Documentation of sustainable harvesting practices 38

7.3 Adoption of conservation practices 38


8.1 Conclusion 39

8.2 Recommendations 40

References 42

Annexes 44

Lists of tables

Table 1: Matrix preference ranking 10

Table 2: Criteria for RVA 11

Table 3: Distribution and habitats of selected commercial plant species in

Humla studied sites 17

Table 4: Major associated species of selected plant species in Humla18

Table 5: Overall frequency of occurrence and mean stock of

fresh products of selected NTFPs of the study area 19

Table 6: Area covered and total stock of clean dry products by species for
study area 19
Table 7: Distribution and production of the selected NTFPs by different
combinations of association with other species 20

Table 8: Mean production of fresh Jatamansi rhizomes by elevation,

habitats, aspect, slope, and Soil moisture content 21

Table 9: Mean production of fresh Kutki roots by elevation, habitats,

aspect, slope, and Soil moisture content 22

Table 10: Mean production of fresh Sunpati leaves by elevation, habitats,

aspect, slope, and Soil moisture content 22

Table 11: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Humla district 26

Table 12: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Humla 28

Table 13: Potentiality for enterprise development in Humla 30

Table 14: Mean production of fresh Jatamansi roots and rhizomes by

habitat types and harvest intervals (in kg/ha) 34

Table 15: Mean ground cover percentage of Jatamansi by habitat types

and harvest intervals 35

Table 16: Comparison of Total clean dry products production estimates to

actual harvest levels in 2006/2007 (in Tons) 35

Table 17: The parts harvested and harvesting practices for the selected
commercial species 37

Table 18: Recommended optimal harvesting practices

for sustainable use 38

Lists of maps

Map 1: NTFPs Surveyed VDCs of Humla district 4

Acronyms and abbreviations
ANOVA: Analysis of Variance

ANSAB: Asia Network for Sustainable Agriculture and Bioresources

BDS-MaPS: Business Development Services-Marketing and Production Services

CI: Confidence Interval

Cm: Centimeter

DFO: District Forest Office

FUG: Forest User Group

Ha: Hectare

HDI: Human Development Index

IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Kg: Kilogram

LFUG: Leasehold Forest User Group

LSD: Least Square Deviation

M: Meter

MIS: Marketing Information System  

MPR: Matrix Preference Ranking

NSCFP: Nepal Swiss Community Forestry Project

NTFP: Non Timber Forest Product

GDP: Gross Domestic Product

RVA: Rapid Vulnerability Assessment

SNV: The Netherlands Development Organization

Sq km: Square Kilometer

UNDP: United Nations Development Program

VDC: Village Development Committees

WUPAP: Western Upland Poverty Alleviation Project



1. Introduction
Nepal has been acclaimed as a good producer of non timber forest
products (NTFPs) from forest and meadows that mainly contain wide range of
potent medicinal, aromatic and other economically important plants. It has
been estimated that the production of NTFPs in Nepal contributes over 5% of
gross domestic product (GDP) of the country. Nepal’s NTFPs resources have
not yet been given due attention for their conservation as well as for their
sustainable utilization and development. Due to inadequate information and
lack of authentic statistics, difficulties have been created to deal with them
properly. Incomplete inventory and lack of proper identification of NTFPs
confuses not only the District Forest Offices (DFO) but also the entire
community of dealers. Villagers are the primary collectors of NTFPs. They
collect various plants and plant parts as demanded by the middle men,
agents or employers. In return, whatever they receive they spend for their
daily needs. However, the collection of NTFPs from the wild sources has been
continuing all over the country. In fact it has been playing an important role
in subsistence of the villagers’ livelihood. This is particularly true in the remote
mountainous district like Humla.

Western Upland Poverty Alleviation Project (WUPAP) working districts harbors

rich source of NTFPs. Collection of NTFPs is an important source of livelihood
for the local communities residing in those districts. Local communities have
been using NTFPs as food supplements, medicines, dyes, fiber, clothing,
construction, energy and support to farm nutrients and livestock feed for
years. However, they are not benefited from the resources due to the lack of
knowledge on the resources, their market value and their potentiality for
cultivation and value addition. Subsistence agriculture, animal husbandry
and foreign employment (mainly in India) are the main source of local
economy in the area with very limited options for livelihood support.
Conservation initiatives through sustainable use of NTFPs would uplift
livelihood of local communities residing in the area if: a) communities take on
increased responsibility for management of forest resources; b) ecological
monitoring and biologically sustainable harvesting practices are developed;
c) communities have greater access to market linkage; d) communities
sustain forest based enterprise with equal benefit sharing mechanism and e)
communities adopt both indigenous and scientific knowledge for
appropriate management systems.


To address the current needs, one way would be the initiation for the
commercial cultivation of valuable NTFPs, their processing at local level and
market linkage of raw or processed products via community initiatives. It is
essential that women, poor, underprivileged groups and forest user groups
(FUGs)/Leasehold forest user groups (LFUGs) are included in such a model.
The women, poor and underprivileged groups should be transformed to skillful
entrepreneur and FUGs/LFUGs be a commercial entity taking the
responsibility of resource conservation and management. The semi-
processed and processed NTFPs products produced from such enterprises
should be market linked after the value addition at the local level thereby
benefiting the local communities.

In this aspect, the proposed study aims to document the availability and
distribution pattern of NTFPs linking local livelihood with resource conservation
and management, initiating community based forest enterprise and its
linkage to market through product promotion. It would certainly assist in
conserving the biodiversity of the areas and assist in livelihood of the local
communities, especially poor and underprivileged groups, which are the
ultimate goal, set up by the project.

1.1 Objectives
The overall objective is to explore NTFPs availability in Humla district and its
prospects for enterprise development with the possibility of market linkage, in
consultation with community groups.

The specific objectives are as follows:

1. To assess the availability and distribution of selected NTFPs in Humla

2. To prioritize NTFPs on the basis of trade value and threat
3. To determine and map out the potential NTFPs habitats for commercially
harvested species
4. To quantify the current stock of the selected commercially harvested
NTFPs of the study area
5. To determine the factors affecting regeneration status of the
commercially harvested species
6. To observe the current resource management practices in a socio-
historical perspectives
7. To estimate the annual harvest rate for and impact of harvesting
commercial species from the study area
8. To identify the forest based community enterprises to be set up and its
implementation models
9. To visualize the NTFPs products that can be value added locally
10. To develop and establish biological monitoring system for user groups


11. To provide recommendations for sustainable promotion of NTFPs in the


1.2 Study area

Humla district is situated in the high Himalaya Mountains of the northwest
Nepal. It is one of the most remote districts, with the nearest Nepali road-
head in the Terai, a two-week journey by foot from Simikot. There is air service
between Nepalganj and Simikot, connecting Humla to the rest of the world.
Humla is one of the five districts of the Karnali Zone and falls within the mid-
western development region of the country. The district’s elevation ranges
from 1,524-7,337m. Total area of the district is 5,655 sq. km. The highest
proportion (24.2%) of the district’s land is under pastureland (grazing);
approximately 12.8% under forest, 1.6% under cultivation, and 61.4% under
other categories (remain covered with snow, bare rocky areas, river system
etc.) (Sharma and Subedi, 1994).
Altogether 12 Village Development Committees (VDCs) within Humla district
viz. Darma, Mimi, Shreemasta, Melchham, Gothi, Rodikot of the eastern
block; Kharpunath, Thehe and Bargaun of the central block and Raya,
Sarkidew and Kalika of the southern block were chosen for the study. The
details of the study area are presented in the map 1.

The major parts of the study area lie above the temperate climatic zone
(2100m). The area is characterized by a semi-arid climate. The humidity of the
area in the winter falls below 20%. The area receives an average annual
precipitation of 1000-1500mm, with a high rainfall in the month of July to
August and snowfall in January to February. Most of the area remains
covered with snow for about four months and the area above the elevation
of 3000m remains covered with snow for more than six months of the year.
The highest mean monthly temperature generally occurs in April or May
before the monsoons breaks and mean monthly temperature decreases to its
lowest during the month of January or February. The northwest monsoon
(winter monsoon) from the Mediterranean Sea brings more precipitation in
this area in comparison to the eastern parts of the country in the winter.
There is some micro-climatic variation primarily due to aspect. The northern
aspect is more moist and vegetated than that of southern one and receives
more snowfall in winter. Thus, the southern facing sides are comparatively
warm, dry, and less vegetated.
Humla scores the lowest Human Development Index (HDI) of all 75 districts in
Nepal, according to the recent UNDP report on Nepal’s Human Index
Development. The district suffers from its remoteness and ruggedness
coupled with the perennial food scarcity and hunger related problems.


The major source of income in the area is agricultural and livestock

production followed by NTFP collection and trading. NTFPs are one of the
major sources of cash earning. In the study area the highest proportion of
livestock is sheep, followed by cattle, goat, buffalo, and fowls. The products
they produce are wool, milk, meat, ghee, yogurt, and eggs. Livestock such as
goat, sheep, mule, horse, yak, and cross-bred yak (Juma) are used for the
transportation of goods.
In summary, the population of the study area lives in poor economic
conditions, has a low literacy rate, lacks basic infrastructure, and suffers from
low agricultural productivity.

Map 1: NTFPs Surveyed VDCs of Humla district


1.2.1 Major habitats and vegetation types

1. Temperate zone (2000-3000m)
1. Lower temperate forests
a. Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) forest
b. Blue Pine (Pinus wallichiana) forest
c. Oak forest (Quercus leucotrichophora, Q. floribunda)
d. Mixed broad-leaf forest (Juglans, Acer, Populus, Alnus)
e. Riverine forest (Aesculus indica, Juglans regia)
2. Upper temperate forests

a. Oak (Quercus semecarpifolia) forest

b. Mixed broad-leaf forest (Acer spp., Rhododendron spp.)

c. Mixed Blue Pine-Oak (Q. semecarpifolia) forest
d. Coniferous forest (Pinus wallichiana, Abies spectabilis, Tsuga dumosa, Taxus
wallichiana, Picea smithiana)

3. Burned areas
4. Rocky slopes
5. Grasslands

2. Sub-alpine zone (3000-4000m)

1. Sub-alpine forests

a. Oak (Quercus semecarpifolia) forest

b. Fir (Abies spectabilis) forest
c. Birch (Betula utilis) forest
d. Rhododendron-Birch forest
e. Juniper (Juniperus spp.) steppe
2. Sub-alpine scrubs (Rhododendron and Sorbus microphylla shrubs)
3. Sub-alpine grasslands

3. Alpine and nival zone (above 4000m)

1. Scrubland (Rhododendron, Juniperus)
2. Grasslands (Graminae, Cyperaceae)
3. Rocky slopes (mat patches, scarcely vegetated rocks, and screes)
4. Glacier and snow-covered land

Although, the commercial exploitation of plant products collected in Humla

has been limited, according to key informants, several medicinal and
aromatic plants have been collected for fifty years or more. People from
Jumla, especially those of the Sinja area, used to come into Humla to harvest
Kutki (Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora), Atis (Aconitum heterophyllum), Nirbishi
(Delphinium himalayai), Panchaunle (Dactylorhiza hatagirea), Guchchi-


chyau (Morchella conica), and Silajit (organic exduate from rock). Traders
also used to come from Sama Bargaon (Jajarkot district) to barter tools,
grains, and clothes for herbs like Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora and Delphinium
The markets for most wild harvested plants from Humla have developed more
recently. The commercial products include medicinal and aromatic
products, plant fibers, herbal dyes, food and flavors, and wood for cottage
industries. Bhutkesh (Selinum tenuifolium), Lekh-Satuwa (Trillidium
govanianum), Bhojpatra (Betula utilis) and Sugandhwal (Valeriana
jatamansii) have been harvested for only a few years and India's current
demand for Jatamansi (Nardostachys grandiflora) dates back to just over
two decades. The high value, low volume plant products that were legally
collected for established markets are: Delphinium himalayai, Picrorhiza
scrophulariiflora, Nardostachys grandiflora, Valeriana jatamansii, Morchella
conica, and Satuwa (Paris polyphylla).
In addition to the trade for cash income, a large number of plants were used
locally to provide food, medicine, fibers, dyes, tannin, gums, resin, incense,
building materials, fodder, fuel wood, and agricultural implements. Some
commercially traded plants were also used for local medicine and incense
making. The most notable products are Kakarsingi (insect gall on Pistacia
integerima), and roots of Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora and Nardostachys
grandiflora. These locally used plant products were also found to be bartered
for grains in Humla and its neighboring districts. The species banned for
collection by the government of Nepal such as Dactylorhiza hatagirea is also
found in the area.
The area also inhabits a number of wild fauna including the following eight
protected and endangered species: Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia),
Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Musk Deer (Moschus moschiferous),
Wolf (Canis lupus), Leopard Cat (Felis bengalensis), Wild Yak (Bos mutus), as
well as Impeyan Pheasant (Lophophorus impejanus), and Satyr Pheasant
(Tragopan satyra).



2. Methodology
A variety of information sources and methods were used for the study. The
main methods used for the study were: biodiversity inventories, growth and
yield studies, participatory rapid appraisal (participatory resource assessment,
participatory mapping, group discussions, key informant interviews, informal
talks, and participant observations), and a review of secondary sources of
information. A brief description of these methods follows.
2.1 Data collection
Both primary and secondary information were used to fulfill the objective of
the study.

2.1.1 Primary data collection

The primary information regarding the NTFPs distribution and ethno botanical
use of NTFPs were collected during the field work using PRA tools. Primary
data collection was done by following methods: Key informant survey and resource mapping

Information about the availability, current status and use of NTFPs were
collected from forest user groups. Discussions were done for listing of
available NTFPs and their identification, priority ranking of NTFPs for the
inventory and suitable site selection.

The workshop was conducted at the district level comprising the community
members, FUG members, LFUGs members, DFO staffs, traders, concerned
stakeholders, media personnel and other key informants at Simikot. The
objectives for the conduction of workshop were:

ƒ Participatory assessment and information on the traded NTFPs,

ƒ Collection sites and trading pattern/trading centers of NTFPs,
ƒ Prioritization of NTFPs,
ƒ Existing NTFPs based enterprises in the district,
ƒ Potentiality for the establishment of various models of community, based
forest enterprises in the district,
ƒ NTFPs having the potentiality of value addition locally,
ƒ Sustainable promotion of NTFPs,
ƒ Value chain analysis of the selected NTFPs. Focus group discussion

Group discussions/interactions were conducted with members of individual
FUG and informal collector groups to find out their perceptions, knowledge,
and skills on historical resource use patterns, harvesting methods, seasons of
collection, regeneration, availability, abundance, local use, trade value, and
marketing of forest products. Identification of NTFPs
NTFPs were identified visually on the basis of researcher's knowledge.
Unidentified species were identified consulting with the reference literatures
Stainton and Polunin (1984); Stainton (1988); Lama et al. (2001); Manandhar
(2002); IUCN (2004). Documentation of all available NTFPs was carried out
according to Shrestha (1998) and Press et al. (2000). Inventory of NTFPs

Inventory methods include two different steps; habitat identification and
sampling. Habitat identification

The sampling was conducted in defined habitats. The identification of NTFPs
habitats was done systematically by observing at each of the following

• Altitude
• Forest type
• Aspect
• Slope
• Plant abundance Sampling
Given the objectives of the study and the resources available, the sampling
was done using the following principles:
• Determine confidence level, which is dependent on the magnitude of real
difference between the parameters of estimates, sample size, and variance
in the population;
• Characterize the population of the study to make strata;
• Stratify by independent variables: habitat types, elevation, and aspect.
Sampling was done separately for each species, since their habitats do not
overlap completely. But the sampling methods were almost the same for all
species as described below.


The overall sample for the inventory was based on three-stage sampling
1. Habitat specific sites,
2. Strips of 50m elevation interval, and
3. Sample plots
Sample selection was stratified and balanced to make the overall sample
proportionately representative of the main parameters thought to influence
the distribution and abundance of vegetation types.
• First stage sampling: Two to four sites for each of the four species
(Jatamansi, Sunpati, Kutki, and Juniper) were selected to represent
different habitat types. The sampling intensity was determined from a pre-
sample and the variability in density. For the pre-sample, information
obtained from collectors, observations, and characteristics of the sites
were used to identify the sites of different densities for sampling. This was
further cross-checked with the biological survey results. Since the variability
was reasonable (<5%) within each stratum, was relied on the initial
sampling intensity.
• Second stage sampling: Stratification for aspect and elevation range was
used. For the two aspects (predominantly north and south) a line transact
across the elevation gradient was taken from the bottom to the top of the
habitat range of the selected species.
• Third stage sampling: One to four sample plots were selected randomly at
an interval of 50m across the elevation gradient. The number of plots to be
sampled was determined by the area (to represent approximately 5-10%
of the area) in a given elevation range.
• The plots were determined as 1m X 1m for herbs, 5m X 5m for shrubs and
10m X 10m for trees (Raunkiaer, 1934).
• Inventory forms were filled for every sampling plot.
2.1.2 Secondary data collection
Secondary data were collected from all the possible documents as reports,
articles, maps, official records, and other published and unpublished
documents etc. related to NTFPs assessment and surveys.

2.2 Data processing and analysis

Data obtained from the field were analyzed to find out density of the
selected species, matrix preference ranking (MPR), rapid vulnerability
assessment (RVA), potentiality for value addition and market linkage, etc.


2.2.1 Density of selected species

Density expresses the numerical strength of the presence of species in a
community. It is the number of individuals per unit area and is expressed as
number per hectare (Raunkiaer, 1934; Zobel et al. 1987).

Total number of plant of any species

Density Pl/ha = × 10000
Total number of quadrat studied × area of quadrat

2.2.2 Frequency of selected species

Frequency is the number of sampling units in which the particular species
occur, thus express the dispersion of various species in a community. It refers
to the degree of dispersion in terms of percentage occurrence (Raunkiaer,
1934; Zobel et al. 1987).

No. of quadrats in which species occured

Frequency = × 100
Total Number of quadrats studied

2.3 Prioritization of NTFPs

Matrix preference ranking (MPR) was used to find out most preferred NTFPs.
By using this tool, the most preferred NTFP species were identified from forests
of each VDC for the detail study. The criteria of preference were made by
the users, availability of the resources and potential for value addition.

Moreover, the prioritization criteria formulated by other development

organizations like NSCFP, SNV, ANSAB, BDS-MaPS and matrix ranking criteria
have been thoroughly examined to attain the set objectives with proper

Table 1: Matrix preference ranking

SN Criteria Scale and value

1 Market demand High (3), moderate (2), low (1)
2 Margin/profit High (3), moderate (2), low (1)
3 Availability (in time ) Almost always (3), occasional (2), seasonal rare (1)
4 Geographical distribution Widespread (3), moderate (2), low (1)
5 Conservation status High (3), moderate (2), low (1)
6 Potential for cultivation High (3), moderate (2), low (1)
7 Regenerative potential High (3), moderate (2), low (1)
8 Contribution to income High (3), moderate (2), low (1)
9 Gender impact Only women (3), both men and women (2), only
men (1)


10 Potential for value High (3), moderate (2), low (1)

11 Processing technology Manual/local technology (3),
mechanical/expertise required (2),
sophisticated/foreign technology (1)
12 Ethno botanical value Diverse uses (3), medium use (2), single use (1)
Source: Gurung and Pyakurel (2006) and Gurung (2007)

2.4 Rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA)

Rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA) method was used to collect information
to identify species, resources or sites that may be at risk of over exploitation. It
was developed as a quick way of collecting both scientific and indigenous
information about species and has been used to recommend whether or not
that resource species is suitable for harvest.

Table 2: Criteria for RVA

Potential for sustainable use

Low High
Low abundance (1) High abundance (2)
Slow growth (1) Fast growth (2)
Slow reproduction (1) Fast reproduction (2)
Sexual reproduction only Both sexual & vegetative
(1) reproduction (2)
Habitat – specific (1) Habitat - non specific (2)
High habitat diversity (1) Low habitat diversity (2)
High life form diversity (1) Low life form diversity (2)
Life forms Tree and shrub (1); herb (2)
Parts used Roots, rhizomes and bulbs (1); leaves, flowers, barks, fruits (2)
Harvesting Size/age classes not selected for harvesting (2); particular
methods size/age classes selected for harvesting (1)
Source: Watts et al., 1996; Cunningham, 1994, 1996a, 2001; Wong and Jenifer,
2001; Gurung and Pyakurel (2006) and Gurung (2007)

2.5 Growth and yield studies

The criteria for measuring growth depend on the product harvested. For
Juniper (berries) and Sunpati (leaves), it is necessary to know how much new
resource was produced each season by individuals that had been harvested
the previous season. For Jatamansi and Kutki (roots and rhizomes), one should
know how many new individuals of merchantable size enter the population
each year.



Given the time, resources at hand, and remoteness of the area, the growth
and yield data for Juniper, Kutki, Sunpati and other important plants utilized
by community forest user groups were estimated from the information
obtained from interviews with collectors and field observations and/or
For example, the Juniper data from the inventory provided distribution,
quantity of growing stock, and regeneration status. Combining the yield data
for different age classes with the data on growing stock provided a rough
idea on yield per unit area. A determination of how much or what proportion
of berries should be left to ensure regeneration will be a long-term study.
For growth and yield studies, analysis of variance (ANOVA) for yield of roots
and other characters was carried out to see the main effects and
interactions between various factors. Correlation between various characters
has also been explored to aid interpretations. After the test of ANOVA, least
square deviation (LSD) test was carried out at a 5% error level to find out the
significant difference between the specific pair of means.




3. Assessment of threats to biodiversity

3.1 Internal and external factors affecting biodiversity

Natural resources are beginning to be exploited above their sustainable
capacity for the rising human population to meet their subsistence and cash
needs. Transhumance (migratory herding system), terrace farming, collection
of fodder, fuel wood and non-timber forest products (NTFPs), and slash and
burn agriculture locally called as kurilla halne, are still in practice in Humla.
Many households keep large herds of sheep, goats, cattle, mules, and horses.
Human use of the resources has converted formerly diverse vegetation into
homogenous strongholds of a few resilient species indicating the
degradation and loss of biological diversity, especially close to human
settlements. Degraded areas are often taken over by resilient species such as
Urtica dioica, Girardinia diversifolia, Salvia moorcroftiana, Chenopodium
album, Prinsepia utilis, Artemisia sieversiana, Rumex nepalensis, Berberis
asiatica and B. aristata. Many of the side valleys still harbor stands of native
coniferous forest (Abies pindrow and Picea smithiana).
With the increasing extraction of NTFPs for commercial purposes, the
degradation trend of these resources is also increasing. The threats to these
resources are linked to human activities such as uncontrolled harvesting (over
harvesting, inappropriate timing, and methods of harvest), over grazing,
burning, shifting cultivation, poaching, and other activities that lead to
deforestation and habitat loss. These human activities are the results of
several socio-economic factors such as poverty, immediate cash needs of
local people, lack of alternative income generating opportunities, defective
property rights, lack of incentive for conservation, limited knowledge on
conservation, and increasing market demand for these products.

3.2 Major threats to biodiversity

The top threats to biological diversity were identified and ranked by the local
people and the researcher. Ranking of these threats was based on four
1. Size of the affected area;
2. Intensity of the damage;
3. Urgency to counter the threat; and
4. Feasibility of countering the threat.


3.2.1 Uncontrolled burning of pasture and forest

Fire is a common phenomenon in the area and this destroys the valuable
biological resources. People set fires for a number of reasons. In some cases,
it is for bringing up the new shoots of grasses for grazing, in other cases, it is for
slash and burn farming (Kurilla halne), and still in other cases, for honey
collection or hunting. Sometimes it also happens without any intention. It has
been found that fires destroy some portion of the forests every year and
threaten the biodiversity of the area. Uncontrolled burning tied for number
one in a ranking exercise on threats.
3.2.2 Uncontrolled harvesting of NTFPs
Uncontrolled harvesting includes the over harvesting as well as inappropriate
timing and methods of harvesting. This tied for number one with burning in the
threat ranking exercise. The communities of Humla have been harvesting a
large number of plant products from the government owned national forest
and grasslands. Since these forests and grasslands were considered to be
under the government property regime and not under the control of the
communities, there was an incentive to harvest as much as possible before
someone else got to it. At the same time, there was little or no awareness of
conservation coupled with any alternative income generating opportunities
that would change the unsustainable practices.
Although there was little pressure on species that were collected for local use
on a subsistence basis, the pressure on some of the commercial species has
already resulted in over harvesting, and in some cases, immature and
unscientific harvesting leading to the threat of extinction. The indigenous
knowledge and traditional skills of a few individuals on harvesting NTFPs at a
subsistence use level were not enough or enforceable to apply to the
harvesting of commercially demanded species. The same was true on
production management, post harvest operations, processing, and
3.2.3 Slash and burn farming
Slash and burn agriculture, is the process of burning the forest trees and the
shrubs in which the crown fire is set and small patch of the forest is cleared for
the cultivation of cereals and potatoes. Though the first year’s production is
comparable to “regular agricultural areas”, the production gradually goes
down year after year and the people finally abandon the land. These lands
are then susceptible to soil erosion and landslides. This ultimately leads to the
loss of vegetation and disturbs the ecosystem thereby threatening the
biodiversity of the area. Slash and burn was ranked as the second major
threat to biodiversity in Humla.
3.2.3 Unmanaged harvesting of timber, fodder and firewood
Harvesting of timber, fodder, and firewood for subsistence purpose has
exceeded sustainable yields. All factors related to property rights mentioned


in the case of NTFPs are also responsible for inappropriate methods of

harvesting, ultimately destroying the regeneration potential of the species
being harvested. This category was ranked third among the six categories of
3.2.4 Over grazing
During the summer season (May to October) the farmers keep their cattle
around a goth (a temporary hut for farmers during herding season) and
graze the cattle in the forest. Grazing is done generally from the land close to
the homestead as well as the alpine pasture located as high as 4500m. The
grazing animals include cattle, Juma (Yak hybrid), horse, goat and sheep.
There is pressure from both over grazing and lopping trees for fodder.
Common trees used for fodder are Quercus semecarpifolia, Acer
acuminatum, Betula utilis, and Sorbus microphylla. While leaves of some
medicinal plants such as Jurinea dolomaea, Megacarpa polyphylla, and
Rheum australe are grazed by most of the animals and severely affected,
leaves of other plants, such as Jatamansi, are only grazed by sheep and goat
and less severely affected. Secondary effects of grazing, such as trampling,
compaction, destruction of rootstock, and soil erosion adversely affect the
Construction of goths in the forest during the grazing season has also
accelerated the deforestation rate in the area. Matured trees of Birch and Fir
are cut down to construct a goth. The people staying at a goth also require a
lot of fire-wood for cooking and heating purposes. Thus, the areas around the
goths were found degraded with an abundance of resilient species such as
Hale (Rumex nepalensis) and Bijauri phool (Senecio chrysanthemoides).




4. Assessment of five commercially harvested NTFPs

4.1 Distribution and habitats

The distribution of the important plant species is mapped from the knowledge
of key informants and field observations. A summary of the distribution and
habitats of five important commercial plant species of the study area is
presented in Table 3. The five species are Jatamansi, Kutki, Sugandhwal, Atis,
and Guchchi Chyau. Table 3 shows the total area, elevation range, major
habitats, slope range, aspect, soil type, mean ground cover percent, and
frequency of occurrence of five commercial species.
The major associated species of five commercial plants is presented in Table
4 with an elaborate list of associates presented in Annex 1. Associated
species are important, as it presents a sense of what other species can be
conserved when commercial species’ harvesting is better managed and/or
other threats to biodiversity are reduced.
According to the local key informants, Jatamansi was most widely distributed
(approximately 36,052 hectares of land) of the studied areas, among the five
species followed by Kutki, Sunpati, Sugandhwal, and Juniper. Among the
surveyed species, Jatamansi was also the most frequently occurring species
within its range (54.2%) followed by Juniper, Sunpati, and Kutki. But in terms of
ground/canopy coverage Juniper is first, followed by Sunpati, Kutki, and
In the studied sites, Jatamansi was observed between sub-alpine and alpine
regions covering an elevation range of 3500-4500m. This falls within the range
described in the literature: 3300-5100m (Department of Medicinal Plants,
Nepal 1970; Polunin and Stainton, 1984). Jatamansi’s distribution is patchy
and grows predominately in dry, rocks, edges, small depressions, scrubs, and
in open meadows on north, northeast, and northwest facing slopes.
In the study area, Kutki is distributed between the elevations of 3650-4500m.
Within this range, it is found in open meadows, on the screes, rocks, and open
slopes of sub-alpine and alpine. It is found in steeper places than any other
presently harvested species.
Juniper is found in open dry slopes of the sub-alpine habitat, sometimes
forming pure stands of Juniper scrub. The elevation range of this species
within the study area is between 3200-3800m. While, Sunpati is distributed in
an elevation range of 3500-4300m in open slopes of sub-alpine and alpine
scrub land. Sugandhwal is found comparatively in lower elevation ranges,
1700- 2700m, in temperate riverine moist forests/areas.



Table 3: Distribution and habitats of selected commercial plant species in

Humla studied sites

Commercial Total Elevation Habitat types Slope Aspect Soil Mean Frequency
species area 1
range (m) in type ground of
(ha) degree cover

(%) (%)

Jatamansi 36,051.86 3500- Birch forest, 20-40 North, Black 26.2 54.2
4500m open northeast, humus
meadows, northwest and
bushy cover of deep
Rhododendron soil
and R.
open slopes,
rocky surface,
and small
depression of
sub alpine

Kutki 27,674.77 3650- Open 20-50 North, Sandy 28.0 20.2

4500m meadows of northeast, loam,
sub alpine on northwest rocky
the screes, boulder
rock, and open

Sunpati 18,262.71 3500- Open slopes of 10-35 East, Humus 39.7 51.3
4300m the sub alpine northeast soil
scrubland and north

Juniper 9,550.00 3200- Open dry 15-35 Southeast, Sandy 42.0 51.7
3800m slopes of the south loam,
sub alpine shallow
habitat, soils
pure Juniper
shrub stands

Sugandhwal 13,075.00 1700- Temperate 10-30 North, Humus NA NA

2700m riverine forest northwest and
and moist Blue black
Pine forest deep




1. Elevation ranges within parenthesis are taken from literature: Department of

Medicinal Plant, 1970; Polunin and Stainton, 1984.
2. Mean ground cover percentage is for those plots where the species is present
(see frequency of occurrence). In the case of Juniper, this represents canopy cover
of the species.
3. Frequency of occurrence percentage is the number of total sample plots in which
the species is present. For example, if we take a random sample of 100 plots, for
Jatamansi in the elevation range 3500-4500m it will be found in 54 plots = a
frequency of occurrence of 54%.

Table 4: Major associated species of selected plant species in Humla

SN Selected species Major associated species

1 Jatamansi Anaphalis sp., Juniperus indica, Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora,
Geum elatum, Rhododendron companulatum, R.
anothopogon, Sorbus microphylla, Dactylorhiza hatagirea,
Rheum australe, Morina polyphylla, Jurinea dolomiaea,
Selinum tenuifolium, Aconogonum sp., Potentila sp., Arnebia
benthamii, Megacarpa polyphylla, Bistorta sp., Iris sp., Primula
sp., Delphinium sp., Caltha palustris, Pedicularis sp., Thalictrum
sp., Rumex nepalensis, Mosses and lichens, grasses
2 Kutki Anaphalis sp., Betula utilis, Juniperus indica, Jurinea
dolomiaea, Nardostachys grandiflora, Dactylorhiza hatagirea,
Geum elatum, Rhododendron anthopogon, Aconitum bisma,
Potentila sp., Rheum australe, Chenopodium album, Berberis
sp., Bistorta sp., Megacarpa polyphylla, Primula sp., Caltha
palustris, Selinum tenuifolium, Morina polyphylla, Primula spp.,
mosses and lichen, grasses
3 Sunpati Geum elatum, Rhododendron companulatum, Drosera
peltata, Aconogonum sp., Anaphalis sp., Anemone sp.,
Rheum australe, Aconitum sp., Nardostachys grandiflora,
Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora, Delphinium sp., Jurinea
dolomiaea, Morina polyphylla, Caltha palustris, Abies pindrow,
Sorbus macrophylla, Betula utilis, Primula spp., grasses
4 Juniper Pinus wallichiana, Abies spectabilis, Cupressus torulosa,
Rhododendron anthopogon, Betula utilis, Anaphalis sp., R.
companulatum, Primula sp., Anemone sp., Quercus
semecarpifolia, Polygonum sp., Delphinium himalayai,
Prinsepia utilis, Berberis sp., Cotoneaster sp., Prunus sp., Rosa
sericea, Rosa macrophylla, grasses
5 Sugandhwal Pinus wallichiana, Quercus semecarpifolia, Abies spectabilis,
Fragaria nubicola, Arisaema sp., Selinum tenuifolium,
Anaphalis sp., Populus ciliata, Asculus indica, Acer
acuminatum, Cotoneaster himalayansis, Bergenia ciliata, Salix



4.2 Current stocks of selected NTFPs

Overall frequency of occurrence, mean fresh product stock per hectare,
ratio of fresh to dry weight, and kilograms of dry product per hectare for
Jatamansi, Kutki, Sunpati, and Juniper are given in Table 5. Low, medium,
and high estimated total stocks in terms of clean dry commercial products
available within the study area are given in Table 6. The three different
estimates are derived from 95% confidence interval for the mean production.
The mean and medium production figures are the same. However, for the
purpose of enterprise planning the resource management the study has
been using the low scenario figures in harvesting targets and community
natural resource management plans. Both the mean production and total
stock available is highest for Jatamansi among the selected species.
Table 5: Overall frequency of occurrence and mean stock of fresh
products of selected NTFPs of the study area

Plant Frequency of Fresh Products Ratio of fresh Dry

species occurrence (%) (kg/ha) to dry weight Products
Jatamansi 54.23 2,315.60 1:0.44 1,018.86

Kutki 20.20 817.52 1:0.61 498.69

Sunpati 51.29 1,045.40 1:0.44 459.98

Juniper 51.72 997.11 1:0.70 697.98

Table 6: Area covered and total stock of clean dry products by species for
study area

Plant Total area (ha) Total stock of clean dry product (Ton)
Low Medium High

Jatamansi 36,051.9 17,648.72 19,919.75 22,190.79

Kutki 27,674.8 2,234.29 2,787.82 3,341.21

Sunpati 18,262.7 3,894.36 4,308.57 4,722.77

Juniper 9,550.0 640.29 3,447.49 6,254.69

Source: ANSAB, 1999

The major factors that affect distribution of these selected NTFPs include
elevation, habitat types (ground coverage), aspect, slope, and moisture


condition. Association among the species is also dependent on these factors.

Table 7 reveals that the association of these three species is largely
dependent on elevation and that their habitats overlap with each other. For
example, Jatamansi starts growing a lower elevation (3600-3700m), then is
found mixed with Kutki and Sunpati up to 4000m, while above 4000m both
Jatamansi and Kutki are present, but Kutki dominates. Sunpati has a much
narrower elevation range in comparison to Jatamansi and Kutki. Table 7 also
reveals that production for each of the species is higher when they are not
associated with the other two.
Table 7: Distribution and production of the selected NTFPs by different
combinations of association with other species

Species and its Mean production Habitat Elevation
ground 1
association ±95% CI (kg/ha) types range (m)
cover (%)


Jatamansi only 30.62 2772.49±426.92 1,6,8,10 3600-3800

Jatamansi and 50.35 2022.16±1011.08 1,6,8,10 3700-4200


Jatamansi and 22.6 1919.47±332.80 1,6,8 3700-4000


Jatamansi, Kutki 19.65 1771.25±726.00 1,6 3700-3900

and Sunpati


Kutki only 33.47 883.13±219.31 6,8,10 3800-4250

Kutki and 12.97 435.00±127.10 1,6,8,10 3700-4200


Kutki and Sunpati 20.80 622.50±141.86 6,8 3800-4000

Kutki, Jatamansi 12.65 377.00±201.29 6 3700-3900

and Sunpati


Sunpati only 50.96 1339.38±197.61 1,6,8 3800-4000

Sunpati and 28.23 1213.00±165.29 1,6,8 3700-4000




Sunpati and Kutki 28.16 745.31±174.90 6,8 3800-4000

Sunpati, 20.24 613.03±218.68 6 3700-3900

Jatamansi and

95% confidence interval for mean production

Habitat types code: 1: Tree cover, 6: scrubland, 8: grassland, 10: rocky


Further detailed study was done for Jatamansi, Kutki, and Sunpati to
document the effect on production of elevation, habitat type, aspect, slope,
and moisture content. These results are detailed in Tables 8, 9, and 10.
Production of Jatamansi varies significantly with elevation, habitat types,
aspects and moisture content. Generally, the higher production is observed
in mid elevation (3800-4000m) and under shrubs (Table 8). Table 9 reveals that
the production of Kutki is higher in upper elevations within its range. Table 10
reveals that production of Sunpati is higher in shrub land, in the slopes facing
east, northeast and southeast, and in areas with less than 20° slope.
Table 8: Mean production of fresh Jatamansi rhizomes by elevation, habitats,
aspect, slope, and Soil moisture content

Frequency of Mean
occurrence production Mean ground cover
(%) ± 95% CI (%)

Elevation range (p=0.000)

3550-3800m 55.1 1555.88±296.0 22.2

3800-4000m 54.4 2835.5±452.0 27.3

4000-4250m 52.0 2659.3±680.6 32.3

Habitat types (p=0.000)

Tree cover 48.6 1490.5±407.6 21.3

Scrubland 55.4 3135.7±491.3 29.8



Open 56.3 2021.7±370.4 25.7


Overall 54.2 2315.6±264.0 26.3

Table 9: Mean production of fresh Kutki roots by elevation, habitats, aspect,

slope, and Soil moisture content

Frequency of Mean
occurrence production Mean ground cover
(%) ± 95% CI (%)

Elevation range (p=0.001)

3650-3800m 20.1 494.1±199.3 24.1

3800-4000m 20.2 820.2±215.8 24.8

4000-4250m 20.5 1309.6±451.2 39.1

Habitat types (p=0.09)

Tree cover 20.7 510.2±262.1 20.4

Scrubland 17.0 788.5±305.1 16.5

Open 22.8 971.2±251.4 38.1


Overall 20.2 817.5±162.3 28.0

Table 10: Mean production of fresh Sunpati leaves by elevation, habitats,

aspect, slope, and Soil moisture content

Frequency of Mean
occurrence (%) production Mean ground
± 95% CI cover (%)

Elevation range (p=0.2)

3650-3800m 42.7 938.9±183.1 36.3

3800-4000m 60.1 1131.5±147.8 43.3



4000-4250m 48.8 967.4±190.5 38.4

Habitat types (p=0.001)

Tree cover 35.3 672.4±132.3 32.0

Scrubland 76.6 1275.9±157.2 42.5

Open 38.3 822.1±128.0 35.7


Aspect (p=0.003)

North 56.5 893.6±219.1 30.8

Northeast 49.0 1039.5±234.4 37.4

East 71.7 1449.6±221.2 50.9

Southeast 40.5 1106.3±397.3 48.0

South 14.3 490.6±378.5 25.0

Southwest 22.2 489.4±308.7 39.7

West 50.0 860.2±241.0 30.8

Northwest 60.0 941.6±277.6 32.4

Slope (p=0.007)

=< 20
0 58.0 1376.5±223.6 49.7

21 -35
0 42.9 911.0±124.1 33.6

36 and 57.8 1074.5±182.3 32.5

Overall 51.3 1045.4±100.5 39.7

4.3 Regeneration
4.3.1 Jatamansi
Jatamansi is a perennial herb, nearly 15-30cm tall, broad-leaved, with rose-
purple to whitish flowers. Jatamansi flowers in June-July and its seeds mature
in late August. The herb regenerates both by seed dispersal and root division
in its natural habitat. In most cases, plants tend to start bearing flowers and


producing seeds after three years. Local gatherers indicated that the roots
benefit from being thinned, as thicker and stronger roots are then produced.
Collectors also indicated that rhizomes found under bushes multiply faster
than those in open areas, and herbs growing at higher elevations have larger
roots. Cultivation is possible using seedlings or rhizome cuttings but the plants
from cutting grow faster than seedlings.
Jatamansi regenerates well, if harvesting is done properly. Proper harvesting
includes time of year harvested, age of plants harvested, amount harvested
in terms of percentage of root taken from an individual plant and number of
plants taken in a given area, interval between harvesting, and halting and/or
reduced incidence of destructive practices (e.g. burning). For example,
harvesting of Jatamansi in summer before rainfall is detrimental to
regeneration. Local harvesters indicated that fire, grazing and unscientific
harvesting (premature and over harvesting) are the main destructive factors
for the growth and regeneration of this species.
4.3.2 Kutki
Kutki is a perennial herb with radical, spathulate, and sharply serrated leaves;
and elongate, stout creeping rootstock. Kutki flowers in June-August and its
seeds mature in late September. This species regenerates naturally by both
seeds and rhizome. Kutki has a lower regeneration rate than Jatamansi. The
regeneration of Kutki is better in shady and moist areas rather than in open
areas. It can also be cultivated at higher altitudes of the Himalayas using
seeds or rhizome cuttings.
Kutki is more threatened in the study areas than Jatamansi. Local harvesters
indicated they have to walk a longer distance to harvest Kutki than the
previous years and realized the traditional harvesting method (i.e. uprooting
of all plants) is not suitable for the regeneration of this species. Premature
collection is also threatening the sustainability of this species, but fire is the
most destructive factor for Kutki growth and regeneration.
4.3.3 Sugandhwal
Sugandhwal is a perennial, slightly hairy, tuft herb that grows up to 45cm in
height with persistent long petioled and deeply cordate-ovate radical
leaves. Sugandhwal flowers in April-June and its seeds mature in July. It
regenerates by seeds and rhizome. It propagates easily from its seeds and
has been cultivated successfully from seed in some parts of Nepal. The seed
sowing period is February-March. Being a shade loving plant, Sugandhwal
regenerates better in shady and moist areas than on open slopes. The natural
regeneration of this species after harvest is moderate, not as strong as
Jatamansi, but better than Kutki. Sugandhwal also suffered from the same
destructive factors as Kutki and Jatamansi in natural habitats.
4.3.4 Sunpati
Sunpati is a small, strongly aromatic shrub with ovate leaves and compact
clusters of 4-6 white or yellow flowers. It regenerates from seeds and


underground root. It flowers in June-July and its seeds mature in August. The
natural regeneration of this species after harvest is moderate. Regeneration
of this species is not as problematic as Jatamansi, Kutki, and Sugandhwal, as
the harvesting method is less destructive to the plant. Only the young leaves
and twigs are handpicked or cut with cutting tools, which does not harm the
plant’s growth. Sunpati is one of the under-used plants in the studied area.
Fire and other biological disturbances severely affect the regeneration of
Sunpati. Destruction of Sunpati cover also affects the growth of Jatamansi
growing underneath it.
4.3.5 Juniper
Juniper is a prostrate shrub or a tree with two types of leaves; awl-shaped on
the lower branches and scale like on the terminal branches. It regenerates
from seeds. It can be cultivated easily from seed. Juniper plant starts fruiting
at the age of 4 years but the plant produces abundant fruit after 6 years. The
normal fruiting season is from May-July. The leaves can be collected from the
plants of three or more years of age. The regeneration of the species
depends upon the number of fruiting trees, fruit production, seed dispersal,
and other ecological factors.




5. Prioritization of NTFPs
The species were prioritized based on 8 principal criteria viz. (i) highly
demanded commercial species (ii) species having high market price (iii)
having potential for domestic value addition (iv) species available over wide
geographical range (v) species harvestable in short rotation period (vi) land
fertility requirement for species (vii) species importance in ethno botany and
(viii) species conservation status.

5.1 Prioritization of NTFPs in Humla

NTFPs were prioritized on the basis of the interaction during the workshop with
the concern stakeholders and as per the discussion with the collectors during
the field visits. NTFP species prioritized for value addition, marketing linkage
and further assessment in Humla are Kutki (Neopicrorhiza scrophulariifolia),
Chirayito (Swertia chirayita), Jatamansi (Nardostachys grandiflora), Atis
(Aconitum heterophyllum), Padamchaal (Rheum australe), Lauth salla (Taxus
wallichiana), Dhatelo (Prinsepia utilis), Sugandhawal (Valeriana jatamansii),
Satuwa (Paris polyphylla), Bhutkesh (Selinum tenuifolium), Sunpati
(Rhododendron anthopogon), Ghodemachha (Thymus linearis), Guchchi
chyau (Morchela esculenta and M. indica), Dalechuk (Hippophae salicifolia),
Bhui chuk (Hippophae tibetana) and Okhar (Juglans regia). The details are
given in table below:

Table 11: Matrix preference ranking of NTFPs in Humla district

Potential for value addition
Geographical distribution

Contribution to income
Regenerative potential
Potential for cultivation

Processing technology

Ethno botanical value

Availability ( in time )

Conservation status
Market demand

Gender impact
Margin / Profit

NTFP species


Kutki (Neopicrorhiza 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 3 29




Chirayito (Swertia 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 24

Jatamansi 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 31

Atis (Aconitum 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 1 1 1 26

Dhupi (Juniperus 3 3 3 1 3 2 1 1 3 3 3 3 29

Padamchaal (Rheum 3 2 3 1 2 3 2 1 3 2 1 2 25

Lauth salla (Taxus 2 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 17


Dhatelo (Prinsepia utilis) 1 1 3 2 3 3 2 1 3 3 3 3 28

Sugandhawal 3 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 1 29
(Valeriana jatamansii)

Satuwa (Paris 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 20

Bhutkesh (Selinum 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 23

Sunpati 3 3 3 2 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 29

Ghodemachha 1 1 3 3 2 3 2 1 3 3 3 3 28
(Thymus linearis)

Guchchi chyau 3 3 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 3 25
esculenta/M. indica)

Dalechuk (Hippophae 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 2 1 3 3 3 29

Bhuichuk (Hippophae 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 3 3 3 27

Okhar (Juglans regia) 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 3 24



5.2 Threat analysis

Rapid vulnerability assessment (RVA) analysis was carried out for the
prioritized NTFPs species of the study area of Humla. RVA was conducted on
the basis of the following criteria: 1) Ecology, 2) Life form, 3) Parts used and 4)
Harvesting method.

5.2.1 RVA analysis in Humla

On the basis of RVA analysis, the most vulnerable NTFP species of Humla are
Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana), Dhupi (Juniperus indica), Kutki (Neopicrorhiza
scrophulariifolia), Sunpati (Rhododendron anthopogon), Jatamansi
(Nardostachys grandiflora), Dalechuk (Hippophae salicifolia) and Bhuichuk
(Hippophae tibetana). The details are shown in table below:

Table 12: RVA analysis of NTFPs in Humla




Mode of reproduction
Rate of reproduction

Harvesting methods
Life form diversity
Habitat diversity

Parts used

Life form



Kutki (Neopicrorhiza 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 14


Chirayito (Swertia chirayita) 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 16

Jatamansi (Nardostachys 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 15

Atis (Aconitum heterophyllum) 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 17

Dhupi (Juniperus indica) 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 13

Padamchaal (Rheum australe) 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 16

Lauth salla (Taxus wallichiana) 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 12

Dhatelo (Prinsepia utilis) 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 17

Sugandhwal (Valeriana jatamansii) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 18

Satuwa (Paris polyphylla) 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 16

Bhutkesh (Selinum tenuifolium) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 18

Sunpati (Rhododendron 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 14

Ghodemachha (Thymus linearis) 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 19

Guchchi chyau (Morchela 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 16

esculenta/M. indica)

Dalechuk (Hippophae salicifolia 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 15

Bhuichuk (Hippophae tibetana) 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 15

Okhar (Juglans regia) 2 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 16




6. Overview of enterprise modalities to be set up in Humla

Forest based enterprises exist in various modalities, which can be outlined in
aspects of ownership structure, linkages to raw materials, target markets,
seasonality of operation, technological sophistication, management
structure, product types and other similar characteristics.

On the ownership dimension, 5 different modalities can be set up in Humla,

they are as follows:

a) Sole enterprise,

b) FUG enterprise,

c) Consortium of FUGs enterprise,

d) Cooperatives and

e) Private limited company

In terms of linkages of raw materials, economic and enterprise activities are

based on raw materials drawn from community forests and government
forests of the district.

6.1 Identification of enterprise modalities to be set up in Humla

On the basis of the resource availability, processing technology,
communities’ willingness and market linkage, the following are the
potentiality for enterprise development in the study areas.

Table 13: Potentiality for enterprise development in Humla

SN NTFPs/ Products Potentiality for enterprise


1. Allo fibre (Girardinia diversifolia), Collective marketing centre- A

Hemp fibre (Cannabis sativa), cooperative model
Sugandhawal (Valeriana
jatamansii), Kutki (Neopicrorhiza
scrophulariifolia), Satuwa (Paris
polyphylla), Chiraiyito (Swertia
chirayito), Padamchal (Rheum



australe), Guchhi chyau (Morchella

conica/M. esculenta), Bhutkesh
(Selinum tenuifolium), Atis (Aconitum

2. Roots/rhizomes of Jatamansi Processing of Valerian oil from

(Nardostachys grandiflora), Sugandhawal roots/rhizomes –
Sugandhawal (Valeriana jatamansii) Establishment of processing unit at
Raya/Ripa village

Processing of Jatamansi oil from

Jatamansi roots/rhizomes –Establishment
of processing unit at
Pangkha/Fucha/Kurilla villages

Processing of Juniper needle oil/Juniper

Leaves and berries of Juniper berry oil from the needles and berries of
(Juniperus indica) Juniper - Establishment of processing unit
at Langdung (Bargaun)

Processing of Anthopogon oil from

Leaves and aerial parts of Sunpati
leaves of Sunpati- Establishment of
(Rhododendron anthopogon)
processing unit at Langdung (Bargaun)

Processing of Himalayan thyme oil from

Leaves of Ghodemachha (Thymus the aerial parts of Ghodemachha at the
linearis) processing units of the aforementioned

3. Atis, Chirayito, Sugandhawal, 1. Establishment of multipurpose nursery;

Satuwa, Padamchaal, Bhutkesh,
etc. 2. Commercial cultivation enterprises in
private lands of the respective villages

4. Fruits of Dalechuk (Hippophae Juice and herbal drinks making at

salicifolia) and Bhuinchuk (H. Simikot/Bargaun villages

5. Titepati leaves, Timur leaves and Organic insecticides/pesticides making

barks, Angeri leaves (Lyonia at the respective villages
ovalifolia), Bulu leaves (Pieris
formosa), Ketuke (Agave cantula)

6. Seeds of Dhatelo (Prinsepia utilis), Edible/vegetable oil expelling enterprises

Pangar (Aeculus indica), Okhar at the respective villages
(Juglans regia), Chuli (Prunus



armeniaca), Khamu (Prunus sp)

7. Allo and hemp fibres Fibre processing and clothes weaving

enterprise at respective villages

8. Herbal tea from Ghodemachha, Herbal tea enterprises at the respective

Ram tulsi (Origanum vulgare), villages/household level
Gandraino (Pleurospermum

6.2 Requirements for enterprise success

The success of the enterprises can be assessed on the basis of the following

a. Raw material availability

A long term biologically sustainable supply of the targeted natural product in

sufficient quantities is necessary for the enterprise activity to be financially

b. Legal access to and control over the natural resources

Collectors should be able to manage natural products harvesting and

incorporate the enterprise activity into their overall forest management plans.
Enterprise activities must comply with a range of legal requirements.

c. Equitable distribution of benefits

If community members do not feel the benefits are being distributed fairly
there will be less incentive to protect the natural resources. The overall raw
material source could become threatened as well as the commercial activity
and ecosystem’s biodiversity.

d. Appropriate processing technology

Is the technology compatible with the prevailing infrastructure and human

resource conditions at the chosen location?

Conditions to be considered include: transport and storage facilities;

equipment/machinery availability; power or fuel required for the processing
activity and technical skills available.



e. Good management

People with knowledge of, and experience with managing proposed

activities should be available to run the enterprise or they should be closely
involved in its operations.

f. Commercial sustainability

Commercial sustainability is a simple concept. Sell the product at a price and

volume that covers all the costs associated with the natural product
enterprise with enough money left over as profit.

g. Access to capital

Start up capital and on going working capital is needed for the enterprise.

h. Available and accessible market for the products

Is there a market for the available quantity and quality of product? Is there
adequate demand at the expected selling price? Who will buy the product?

6.3 Challenges for forest based enterprises

Marketing barrier is the major identified challenges for the NTFP based
enterprises. The specific challenges are as follows:

• Limited number of wholesalers and controlled price information.

• Less developed market for many products and high price fluctuations.
• Many producers with small quantities of products receiving only a small
portion of the total income.
• Role and services of brokers and middlemen.
• Lack of market information; current marketing channels, amount of each
products, price variation as well as future supply and demand of the
products, processed product, development and future price projection
• Most of the traders with an inadequate marketing knowledge and skills.
• Limited access to availability of information and technology for product
• Lack of marketing infrastructure like storage, transportation, quality testing
laboratory facilities, etc.
• Difficulties in matching market requirements by suppliers due to several
uncertainties such as production fluctuation, decreased collection due to
unfavorable weather, inconsistent quality of products, lack of quality
checking facilities, etc.




7. Growth and yield studies

On the basis of the data obtained by observations during field study, data
captured with the help of key informants, the data obtained from assessment
conducted by ANSAB during 1997/1998, the growth and harvest of Jatamansi
has been presented in Table 14.
Table 14: Mean production of fresh Jatamansi roots and rhizomes by habitat
types and harvest intervals (in kg/ha)

Harvest interval Habitat

Bushy Open Row average

1 Year 872.57 723.50 730.25

2 Years 2227.34 1626.50 1724.88

3 Years 3700.66 2314.06 2976.04

4 Years 5484.38 4301.79 4215.34

5 Years 6375.00 5250.00 5707.06

Column average 2843.25 1673.40 2030.84

Note: F-test: a critical value of p<0.00 for harvest interval and p<0.03 for habitat
types; N=130 LSD for harvest intervals (in year): 5 NS 4, 5 or 4*3 or 2 or 1, 3*2 or 1, 2*1

The data in Table 14 reveals that the mean yield increases significantly with
the increase in the years of harvesting interval from one year to four years but
the least significant difference test (LSD) shows that there is no statistically
significant increase in the yield after four years. Similar is the result for the
percentage of ground-cover increment with the increase in the years of
harvest interval (Table 15). Although there is no statistical significance in the
yield obtained from the plots of 4 and 5 years of rotation, the increased yield
and reduced cost of collection make it economical to harvest at an interval
of 5 years.
Although the percentage of ground cover by Jatamansi is not significantly
different in open or busy habitats, the Jatamansi yield obtained from busy
habitats is significantly higher than that from the open grassland for all
rotational lengths. This might be due to the availability of more organic
matter and moisture for the Jatamansi plant under the bush.



Table 15: Mean ground cover percentage of Jatamansi by habitat types

and harvest intervals

Harvest interval Habitat

Bushy Open Row average

1 Year 18.81 14.14 14.79

2 Years 19.33 19.23 18.33

3 Years 23.17 24.71 22.85

4 Years 49.25 51.25 41.31

5 Years 57.13 52.23 51.52

Column average 23.81 20.92 25.62

Note: F-test: a critical value of p<0.000 for harvest interval and p<0.914 for habitat
types; N=130

7.1 Harvest impacts

In determining sustainable yield levels, it is important to focus on how and
when products are harvested, as it is to emphasize the amount harvested.
This is an important lesson, as too often management plans only focus on the
amount harvested and/or permits are issued for amounts without
consideration of harvesting method. Table 16 provides a comparison of the
total estimated production in tons (clean dry products) of Jatamansi and
Kutki to the 2006/2007 harvest levels.
Table 16: Comparison of Total clean dry products production estimates to
actual harvest levels in 2006/2007 (in Tons)

Plant Low Medium High Harvest

species production production production Levels
estimate estimate estimate 2006/2007
Jatamansi 17,648.72 19,919.75 22,190.79 81.84
Kutki 2,234.29 2,787.82 3,341.21 23.08



The comparison between the lowest estimate for total growing stock of
Jatamansi and Kutki to the 2006/2007 harvest levels indicates current harvest
levels (and even increased levels) are sustainable provided proper methods
of harvest and regeneration management are practiced.
Since the marketable products of Jatamansi, Kutki and Sugandhwal are the
roots, the whole plant was being destroyed as collectors would uproot the
entire plant. In the case of Sunpati and Juniper, only vegetative parts (leaves
and berries) are harvested, which can be done without killing the plant
assuming enough leaves are left. Some portion of the berries must also be left
for the Juniper plant cannot reproduce.
Participatory monitoring and field observations uncovered traditional
harvesting practices that were detrimental to regeneration. Guidelines and
recommendations were made to mitigate the adverse impacts, and some
FUGs have already adopted the improved practices. As more FUGs formalize
and implement their resource management plans the adoption rate is
expected to go up. A comparison of the traditional and recommended
harvesting methods for selected species is presented in Table 17. The time of
year the product is harvested also impacts on its ability to regenerate.



Table 17: The parts harvested and harvesting practices for the selected
commercial species

Plant Parts Traditional practices of New harvesting

species harvested harvest practices adapted by

Jatamansi Rhizomes Whole plants are dug out Whole plants are pulled
(without leaving any plant) out from the bushy area
from the earth using kuto, and dug out carefully
a local digging tool. No from the open grassland
restrictions in the use of with Kuto leaving
tools, seasons, parts of approximately 20% plants
forest and quantity of undisturbed for
harvest. The method is regeneration. Restrictions
destructive for the are applied in the use of
regeneration and growth tools, season, parts of
of the plants. It also forest and quantity of
loosens the soil surface harvest, generally
making it more prone to following a five-year
surface erosion. rotational cycle.

Kutki Rhizome Whole Kutki plants are Kutki is dugout with kuto
and roots uprooted with kuto and and hand picked if the
are sometimes hand rhizomes are long leaving
picked without leaving about 20% of the Kutki
any plants and propagules plant. Similar restrictions
for regeneration. No group are instituted as in the
restrictions are applied. case of Jatamansi.

Sunpati Leaves Only negligible quantity of Leaves are either

leaves are handpicked or handpicked or cut with
twigs are cut for local use scissors leaving more than
(mixed with other herbs to 30% leaves for plant
make incense). growth.

Juniper Leaves and Branches are cut to collect Berries are handpicked
berries the leaves for local use for and leaves are collected
subsistence purposes only. from the small branch
cuttings with little
disturbance to the plants.



7.2 Documentation of sustainable harvesting practices

The important aspect of the documentation on sustainable harvesting
practices is the emphasis on methods and timing of extraction. The
amount harvested is not the most critical factor in instituting sustainable
harvesting practices. Table 18 provides a summary of the recommended
optimal harvesting practices for selected NTFPs as determined from the
field research and studies in Humla.
Table 18: Recommended optimal harvesting practices for sustainable use

Plant species Optimal Optimal Optimal Optimal harvesting

and parts harvest rotational percentage of method
harvested season interval plant not
Jatamansi Fall 5 years 20% plants Whole plants pulled
(rhizomes) undisturbed from bushy areas and
dug out carefully with
prescribed tool (kuto)
from open grasslands.

Kutki (rhizomes Fall 3-5 years 20% of plants Plant is dug out with
and roots) undisturbed kuto or hand picked if
rhizome is long.

Sunpati Fall 1 year 30% of leaves Leaves handpicked or

(leaves) left on plant cut with scissors.

7.3 Adoption of conservation practices

There have been several promising trends in the area of adoption of
conservation practices. Since these practices are new to the
communities, yet are encouraged that the following sustainable practices
have been adopted by some villages in the studied area with positive
economic and environmental results.
• Reduced pasture burning in the major NTFP collection areas;
• Implementation of rotational harvesting and enforcement of group
collection practices at the village level;
• Institutionalization of rules and regulations and effective policing by
FUGs; and
• Initiation of biological and social monitoring of harvesting practices by




8.1 Conclusion
Resource assessment of NTFPs in Humla district using the inventory
parameters and relevant analytical tools revealed that there are
tremendous potentialities for the cultivation, harvesting, value addition
and marketing of prioritized NTFPs. The local communities are more curios
for the promotion of NTFPs which would support their livelihood.

Stock studies and enterprise development potentialities assessment of

selected NTFPs in Humla revealed that there are immense potentialities of
enterprise set up for the product lines as edible oil/vegetable oil expelling,
herbal drinks/juice making, organic insecticide/pesticide, cultivation of
NTFPs, collective marketing centre for crude herbs and NTFPs and essential
oils extraction (Anthopogon oil, Jatamansi oil, Juniper oil, Oregano oil,
Thyme oil and Valerian oil) in various locations of Humla district.

For genesis, operation and growth of forest based enterprise in Humla; a

biologically sustainable harvesting mechanism should be prepared for
each community forests, leasehold forests and government managed
forests. Moreover, some factors that contribute to or hinder the genesis,
operation and growth of enterprises should be taken into account. These
include: awareness raising, technical assistance, financial support,
marketing support, marketing outlets, community characteristics, natural
resource base, technology, policy factors, enterprise consequences and
natural resource conservation.

In conclusion, the communities’ motivation towards entrepreneurship,

institutionalization of user groups (both FUGs and LFUGs) and regulatory
mechanisms for sustainable harvesting of NTFPs would definitely create
the income generating opportunities and would assist in the conservation
of biodiversity and reduction of poverty in Humla district.



8.2 Recommendations
The local communities play a crucial role for the conservation and
sustainable utilization of NTFPs in Humla district.

Conservation, sustainable management and responsible utilization of

NTFPs are the ever raised issues, but why and how to conserve and
manage are the big questions challenging ever. Therefore, the following
steps and actions are recommended for addressing conservation of NTFPs
and linking livelihood issues of local communities in Humla:

1. Awareness programs (workshops, exhibitions, exposure visits, and

demonstration of the products) on the importance of NTFPs; conservation
and sustainable utilization, cultivation and responsible harvesting at local
level need to be conducted.

2. Capacity building/strengthening the concerned FUGs/LFUGs on

institutional development, governance/equity, fund mobilization, financial
management, record keeping, benefit sharing mechanism etc. should be

3. Field based training package on NTFPs promotion; time and technique

of collection, local processing technology, storage, quality control,
packaging, labeling, and cultivation of major NTFPs should be conducted.

4. Detailed inventory and quantification of the total stock of all the

prioritized NTFPs should be conducted.

5. Development of biological sustainable harvesting system; blocks

rotation system preferable for harvesting; participatory monitoring system
should be prepared for each user groups.

6. Detailed assessment of the potential enterprises that can be set up in

the district should be conducted in collaboration with various user groups.

7. Feasibility study on market linkage, technology transfer, equipments

and availability of skill manpower should be conducted for each product



8. Micro-credit facilities should be provided for the initiation of small scale

enterprises and financial and operational support should be provided for
the small/medium scale consortium enterprises.

9. Initiation for the management and conduction of pilot model enterprise

preferably, herbal incense; Seabuckthorn juice making, vegetable oil
expelling (Dhatelo, Walnut, Chuli and Khamu), essential oil production
(Anthopogon, Jatamansi and Juniper oils) and herbal tea making.

10. Formation of committee/organization for providing necessary

technology, seeds/seedlings to farmers.

11. Establishment of marketing information system (MIS) on NTFPs at

Simikot, and Shreenagar blocks.

12. Formation of collective marketing centre/cooperative for marketing

NTFPs/NTFPs products in Simikot, Sarkeghat and Shreenagar.



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and Commercial Utilization of Natural Products on Biodiversity in Humla,
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Forest Products: Experience and Biometric Principles. Non-Wood Forests
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Manual for Ecology. Ratna Book Distributors, Kathmandu, Nepal.



Annex: 1
Lists of NTFPs of Humla district
SN Botanical name Local name Family
1 Abies pindrow Royle Thingo Pinaceae
2 Abies spectabilis (D.Don) Mirb. Thingo Pinaceae
3 Acanthopanax cissifolius (Griff. ex Seem.) Harms Araliaceae
4 Acer acuminatum Wall. ex D.Don Tilailo Aceraceae
5 Acer caesium Wall.ex Brandis Aceraceae
6 Acer campbellii Hook. f. & Thoms. ex Hiern Phirphire Aceraceae
7 Aconitum ferox Wall. ex Ser. Bikh Ranunculaceae
8 Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle Atis Ranunculaceae
9 Aconogonum molle (D.Don) H.Hara Polygonaceae
10 Aconogonum tortuosum (D.Don) Hara Chawanle Polygonaceae
11 Acorus calamus L. Bojho Araceae
12 Aesculus indica (Colebr.ex Cambess.) Hook. Hippocastanaceae
13 Agapetes hookeri (C.B.Clarke) Airy Ericaceae
14 Ajuga lupulina Maxim Labiatae
15 Allium carolinianum DC. Jangali lasun Amaryllidaceae
16 Allium wallichii Kunth Jimbu Amaryllidaceae
17 Alnus nepalensis D.Don Betulaceae
18 Alnus nitida (Spach) Endl. Betulaceae
19 Anaphalis contorta (D.Don) Hook.f. Buki jhar Compositae
20 Anaphalis triplinervis (Sims) C.B. Clarke Buki phul Compositae
21 Androsace geraniifolia Watt Primulaceae
22 Androsace strigillosa Franch. Primulaceae
23 Anemone obtusiloba D.Don Kangre jhar Ranunculaceae
24 Anemone polyanthes D.Don Ranunculaceae
25 Anemone rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex DC. Bagh paile Ranunculaceae
26 Anisodus luridus Link & Otto Solanaceae
27 Aralia cachemirica Decne. Dal Kabro Araliaceae
28 Arisaema flavum (Forssk.) Schott. Chare banko Araceae
29 Arisaema griffithii Schott Araceae
30 Arisaema jacquemontii Blume Male banko Araceae
31 Arisaema tortuosum (Wall.) Schott. Bhang Banko Araceae
32 Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G.Don) I.M. Maharangi Boraginaceae
33 Artemisia dubia Wall. ex Besser Compositae
34 Artemisia gmelinii Weber ex Steckmo Pati Compositae
35 Arundinaria racemosa Munro Gramineae
36 Asparagus filicinus Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don Kurilo Liliaceae
37 Asparagus racemosus Willd. Kurilo Liliaceae
38 Aster falconeri (C.B. Clarke) Hutch. Tare phool Compositae
39 Aster himalaicus C.B. Clarke Compositae
40 Aster stracheyi Hook.f. Compositae
41 Astilbe rivularis Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Thulo ausadhi Saxifragaceae


42 Begonia dioica Buch.- Ham. ex D. Don Begoniaceae

43 Berberis angulosa Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thomson Chotto Berberidaceae
44 Berberis aristata DC. Chotto Berberidaceae
45 Berberis asiatica Roxb.ex DC. Chotto Berberidaceae
46 Berberis insignis Hook. f. & Thomson Berberidaceae
47 Bergenia ciliata (Haw.) Sternb. Saxifragaceae
48 Betula utilis D.Don Bhojpatra Betulaceae
49 Bistorta affinis (D.Don) Greene Simauro Polygonaceae
50 Bistorta amplexicaulis (D.Don) Greene Polygonaceae
51 Bistorta macrophylla (D.Don) Sojak Myakuri Polygonaceae
52 Calanthe tricarinata Lindl. Orchidaceae
Ek aankhe
53 Caltha palustris L. phool Ranunculaceae
54 Cannabis sativa (Lam.) Small & Cronquist Cannabaceae
55 Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medikus Tori ghans Cruciferae
56 Caragana brevispina Royle Leguminosae
57 Caragana gerardiana Royle Leguminosae
58 Cardamine loxostemonoides O.E.Shulz Cruciferae
59 Carum carvi L. Jangali jeera Umbelliferae
60 Cassiope fastigiata (Wall.) D.Don Ericaceae
61 Castanopsis tribuloides (Sm.) A.DC. Fagaceae
62 Celtis australis L. Ulmaceae
63 Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. Umbelliferae
64 Cephalanthera longifolia (L.) Fritsch Orchidaceae
65 Chesneya nubigena (D.Don) Ali Chyali Leguminosae
66 Cicerbita macrorhiza (Royle) Beauv. Doli phool Compositae
67 Cissampelos pareira L. Menispermaceae
68 Clematis buchananiana DC. Tinpate lahara Ranunculaceae
69 Clematis montana Buch.-Ham.ex DC. Junge lahara Ranunculaceae
70 Codonopsis convolvulacea Kurz Campanulaceae
71 Coelogyne sp Orchidaceae
72 Colquhounia coccinea Wall. Sano tusare Labiatae
73 Coriaria napalensis Wall. Machhaino Coriariaceae
74 Corydalis cashmeriana Royle Fumariaceae
75 Corydalis govaniana Wall. Fumariaceae
76 Corydalis juncea Wall. Papaveraceae
77 Cotoneaster frigidus Wall. ex Lindl. Ruis Rosaceae
78 Cotoneaster microphyllus Wall. ex Lindl. Ghari Rosaceae
Cremanthodium arnicoides (DC. ex Royle) R.
79 Good Compositae
80 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Akash beli Convolvulaceae
81 Cyananthus lobatus Wall. ex Benth. Campanulaceae
82 Cyathula capitata Moq. Amaranthaceae
83 Cynanchum canescens (Willd.) K. Schum. Giama dudh Asclepiadaceae
84 Cynoglossum zeylanicum (Vahl ex Homem.) Bhende kuro Boraginaceae


Thunb.ex Lehm.
85 Cypripedium cordigerum D.Don Orchidaceae
86 Cypripedium himalaicum Rolfe Orchidaceae
87 Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo Hatajadi Orchidaceae
88 Daphne papyracea Wall. ex Steud. Thymelaeaceae
89 Datura stramonium L. Dhature phool Solanaceae
90 Debregeasia salicifolia (D.Don) Rendle Tusare Urticaceae
91 Delphinium grandiflorum Bruhl Ranunculaceae
92 Delphinium himalayai Munz Nirbisi Ranunculaceae
93 Desmodium elegans DC. Bakhre ghans Leguminosae
94 Dioscorea deltoidea Wall.ex Griseb. Kande vyakur Dioscoreaceae
95 Diplazium giganteum (Baker) Ching Daunde Dryopteridaceae
96 Diplazium stoliczkae Bedd. Kalo nyuro Dryopteridaceae
97 Dipsacus inermis Wall. Mula pati Dipsacaceae
98 Drepanostachyum falcatum (Nees) Keng f. Tite nigalo Gramineae
99 Dryopteris flix-mas Unyu Dryopteridaceae
100 Elaeagnus parvifolia Wall. ex Royle Guyeli Elaeagnaceae
101 Elsholtzia eriostachya (Benth.) Benth. Bhote pati Labiatae
102 Elsholtzia flava (Benth.) Benth. Chhinke jhar Labiatae
103 Elsholtzia fruticosa (D.Don) Rehder Chhinki Labiatae
104 Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf. Sallejari Ephedraceae
105 Ephedra intermedia Schrenk & C.A. Mey Ephedraceae
106 Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl. ex DC) C.B. Clarke Compositae
107 Eulophia sp Orchidaceae
108 Euphorbia stracheyi Boiss Dudhe jhar Euphorbiaceae
109 Euphorbia wallichii Hook.f. Pahelo bikh Euphorbiaceae
110 Fagopyrum dibotrys (D. Don) H. Hara Bhande Polygonaceae
111 Ficus sp Moraceae
112 Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ex Lacaita Bhuin kaphal Rosaceae
113 Fritillaria cirrhosa D.Don Kakoli Liliaceae
114 Gentiana capitata Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Hans phool Gentianaceae
115 Gentiana sp Gentianaceae
116 Geranium donianum Sweet Rato asne Geraniaceae
117 Geranium pratense L. Geraniaceae
118 Girardinia diversifolia (Link) Friis Bhyangre Urticaceae
119 Gnaphalium affine D.Don Buki phool Compositae
120 Gynura nepalensis DC. Compositae
121 Hedera nepalensis K.Koch Pipal pate Araliaceae
122 Hedychium ellipticum Buch.-Ham. ex Sm. Zingiberaceae
123 Hemiphragma heterophyllum Wall. Rato gedi Scrophulariaceae
124 Heracleum candicans Wall. ex DC. Chhetaro Umbelliferae
125 Heracleum lallii Norman Chhetaro Umbelliferae
126 Heracleum nepalense D.Don Bhote jeera Umbelliferae
127 Herpetospermum pedunculosum (Ser.) Baill. Ban karela Cucurbitaceae
128 Hippophae salicifolia D.Don Tare chuk Elaeagnaceae


129 Hippophae tibetana Schlecht. Bhuin chuk Elaeagnaceae

130 Hypericum elodeoides Choisy Jibre ghans Guttiferae
131 Ilex dipyrena Wall. Seto khasru Aquifoliaceae
132 Ilex excelsa (Wall.) Hook.f. Aquifoliaceae
133 Incarvillea mairei (Leveille) Grierson Bignoniaceae
134 Insect gall on Pistacia integrima Kakarsingi
135 Inula cappa (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don) DC Compositae
136 Inula racemosa Hook f. Puskar mula Compositae
137 Iris goniocarpa Baker Piperi Iridaceae
138 Iris kemaonensis D.Don ex Royle Piperi Iridaceae
139 Jasminum humile L. Jai phul Oleaceae
140 Jasminum officinale L. Lahare chameli Oleaceae
141 Juglans regia C.DC. Juglandaceae
142 Juniperus indica Bertol. Dhupi Cupressaceae
143 Jurinea dolomiaea Boiss. Dhup jadi Compositae
144 Lagotis kunawurensis (Royle ex Benth.) Rupr. Scrophulariaceae
145 Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth. ex Hook.f.) Kudo Labiatae
146 Leontopodium himalayanum DC. Jhulo Compositae
147 Leontopodium jacotianum Beauv. Jhulo Compositae
148 Leontopodium monocephalum Edgew. Jhulo Compositae
149 Ligularia amplexicaulis DC. Aankhe phul Compositae
150 Lilium nepalense D.Don Ban lasun Liliaceae
151 Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude Angeri Ericaceae
152 Maharanga emodi (Wall.) A. DC. Boraginaceae
153 Mahonia napaulensis DC. Mandre chutro Berberidaceae
154 Malva verticillata L. Laphe sag Malvaceae
155 Mazus dentatus Wall. ex Benth. Scrophulariaceae
156 Meconopsis grandis Prain Kyasar Papaveraceae
157 Meconopsis horridula Hook.f . & Thoms. Papaveraceae
158 Meconopsis paniculata Prain Kheldar Papaveraceae
159 Megacarpaea polyandra Benth. Cruciferae
160 Morchella conica Guchhi chyau
161 Morchella esculenta Guchhi chyau
162 Morina nepalensis D.Don Chilleti Dipsacaceae
163 Morina polyphylla Wall. ex DC. Dipsacaceae
164 Morus australis Poir. Kimbu Moraceae
165 Myricaria rosea W.W. Smith Humbu Tamaricaceae
166 Nardostachys grandiflora DC. Jatamansi Valerianaceae
Neolitsea cuipala (Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don)
167 Kosterm. Lauraceae
168 Neolitsea pallens (D.Don) Momiy Lauraceae
169 Neopicrorhiza scrophulariifolia (Pennell) Hong Kutki Scrophulariaceae
170 Origanum vulgare L. Ram tulsi Labiatae
171 Oxalis corniculata L. Chari amilo Oxalidaceae
172 Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill Boke Polygonaceae


173 Paris polyphylla Sm. Satuwa Liliaceae

174 Parmelia sp Jhyau Parmeliaceae
175 Pedicularis hoffmeisteri Klotzsch Scrophulariaceae
176 Persea odoratissima (Nees) Kosterm. Kaulo Lauraceae
177 Phlomis bracteosa Royle ex Benth. Labiatae
178 Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Jaringo sag Phytolaccaceae
179 Picea smithiana (Wall.) Boiss. Jhulo Pinaceae
180 Pilea racemosa (Royle) Tuyama Urticaceae
181 Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Khote salla Pinaceae
182 Pinus wallichiana A.B. Jacks. Gobre salla Pinaceae
183 Piptanthus nepalensis (Hook.) D.Don Siksike Leguminosae
184 Plantago depressa Willd. Khete saag Plantaginaceae
185 Plantago erosa Wall. Khete saag Plantaginaceae
186 Plantago major L. Isabgol sag Plantaginaceae
187 Pleurospermum dentatum (DC.) C.B.Clarke Gandraino Umbelliferae
188 Pleurospermum hookeri C.B. Clarke Bhuset Umbelliferae
189 Podophyllum hexandrum Royle Laghu patra Berberidaceae
190 Polygonatum cirrhifolium (Wall.) Royle Ramsikia Liliaceae
191 Polygonatum verticillatum (L.) All Khirlung Liliaceae
192 Populus ciliata Wall.ex Royle Bhote pipal Salicaceae
193 Potentilla atrosanguinea (Lodd.) Hook.f. Rosaceae
194 Potentilla fruticosa L. Bhairung pate Rosaceae
195 Potentilla fulgens Wall. ex Hook. Bajradanti Rosaceae
196 Potentilla peduncularis D.Don Mula jhar Rosaceae
197 Primula macrophylla D.Don Primulaceae
198 Primula sikkimensis Hook.f. Primulaceae
199 Prinsepia utilis Royle Dhatelo Rosaceae
200 Prunus armeniaca L. Chuli Rosaceae
201 Prunus sp Khamu Rosaceae
202 Pterocephalus hookeri (C.B. Clarke) Diels Dipsacaceae
203 Punica granatum L. Darim Punicaceae
204 Pyracantha crenulata (D. Don) M. Roem. Rosaceae
205 Pyrus pashia Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Rosaceae
206 Quercus lanata Sm. Phalant Fagaceae
207 Quercus leucotrichophora A.Camus Banjh Fagaceae
208 Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. Khasru Fagaceae
209 Rabdosia rugosa (Wall. ex Benth.) H.Hara Labiatae
210 Ramalina sp Jhyau
211 Ranunculus brotherusii Freyn Ranunculaceae
212 Ranunculus sceleratus L. Ranunculaceae
213 Ranunculus tricuspis Maxim. Ranunculaceae
214 Rheum acuminatum Hook. f. & Thoms. ex Hook. Khokkim Polygonaceae
215 Rheum australe D.Don Padamchaal Polygonaceae
216 Rheum moorcroftianum Royle Boke Polygonaceae
217 Rhodiola himalensis (D.Don) S.H.Fu Crassulaceae


218 Rhododendron anthopogon D.Don Sunpati Ericaceae

219 Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Lali gurans Ericaceae
220 Rhododendron barbatum Wall. ex G.Don Chimalo Ericaceae
221 Rhododendron campanulatum D.Don Seto chimal Ericaceae
222 Rhododendron campylocarpum Hook.f. Chimal Ericaceae
223 Rhododendron lepidotum Wall. ex G.Don Bhale sunpati Ericaceae
224 Rhus javanica L. Bhaki amilo Anacardiaceae
225 Rhus wallichii Hook. f. Bhalayo Anacardiaceae
226 Ribes glaciale Wall. Ban aiselu Grossulariaceae
227 Rosa brunonii Lindl. Gulab Rosaceae
228 Rosa macrophylla Lindl. Bhainsi Kanda Rosaceae
229 Rosa sericea Lindl. Jungali gulab Rosaceae
230 Roscoea alpina Royle paanch aule Zingiberaceae
231 Roscoea purpurea J.E.Smith Rasgari Zingiberaceae
232 Rubia manjith Roxb. ex Fleming Majhitho Rubiaceae
233 Rubus ellipticus Sm. Aiselu Rosaceae
234 Rubus foliolosus D.Don Kalo aiselu Rosaceae
235 Rubus hoffmeisterianus Kunth & Bouche Rosaceae
236 Rumex hastatus D.Don Kapu Polygonaceae
237 Rumex nepalensis Spreng. Hale Polygonaceae
238 Salix calyculata Hook. f. ex Andersson Salicaceae
239 Salix denticulata Anders Salicaceae
240 Sambucus adnata Wall. ex DC. Sambucaceae
241 Sarcococca hookeriana Baill. Khursani pate Buxaceae
242 Selinum tenuifolium Wall. Bhutkesh Umbelliferae
243 Silene sp Naru Caryophyllaceae
244 Skimmia laureola (DC.) Sieb.& Zucc.ex Walp. Narpati Rutaceae
245 Smilacina oleracea (Baker) Hook.f. in Hook.f. Liliaceae
246 Smilacina purpurea Wall. Sikari sag Liliaceae
247 Smilax aspera L. Syal daino Liliaceae
248 Sorbus cuspidata (Spach) Hedl. Chyuli Rosaceae
249 Spiraea canescens D.Don Rosaceae
250 Stellera chamaejasme L. Jharan Thymelaeaceae
251 Swertia chirayita (Roxb.ex Fleming) H.Karst. Chirayito Gentianaceae
252 Swertia nervosa (G.Don) C. B. Clarke Bhale chirayito Gentianaceae
253 Swertia racemosa (Griseb.) C.B.Clarke Tigta Gentianaceae
254 Symplocos paniculata (Thunb.) Miq. Lodh Symplocaceae
Tanacetum dolichophyllum (Kitam.) Kitam. ex
255 Kitam & Gould Bayo jadi Compositae
256 Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. Tuki phul Compositae
257 Taxus wallichiana Zucc. Lauth salla Taxaceae
258 Thalictrum cultratum Wall. Ranunculaceae
259 Thalictrum foliolosum DC. Dampate Ranunculaceae
260 Thermopsis barbata Royle Leguminosae


261 Thymus linearis Benth. machha Labiatae
262 Toona serrata (Royle) M. Roem. Meliaceae
263 Trigonella emodii Benth. Leguminosae
264 Trillidium govanianum (D.Don) Kunth Liliaceae
265 Tsuga dumosa (D.Don) Eichler Thingre salla Pinaceae
266 Urtica dioica L. Sisnu Urticaceae
267 Usnea longissima Ach. Jhyau Usneaceae
268 Usnea orientalis Jhyau Usneaceae
269 Valeriana hardwickii Wall. jatamansi Valerianaceae
270 Valeriana jatamansii Jones Samayo Valerianaceae
271 Verbascum thapsus L. Guna puchhar Scrophulariaceae
272 Viburnum erubescens Wall. ex DC. Ban chulo Sambucaceae
273 Viburnum mullaha Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don Mallo Sambucaceae
274 Viola biflora L. Ghatte phool Violaceae
275 Viola sp Violaceae
276 Viscum album L. Harchur Viscaceae
277 Waldheimia tomentosa (Decne.) Regel Compositae
278 Wikstroemia canescens Meisn. Kalo logte Thymelaeaceae
279 Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz Dhanyero Lythraceae
280 Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Timur Rutaceae
281 Zanthoxylum nepalense Babu Timur Rutaceae