Anda di halaman 1dari 15

# Chapter

Objectives
1.  Deﬁne and apply the ConKnuity EquaKon in solving ﬂuid
dynamics problems;
2.  Deﬁne and implement Bernoulli’s Theorem in solving ﬂuid
dynamics problems;
3.  Deﬁne and uKlize Torricelli’s Theorem in solving ﬂuid
dynamics problems;
4.  Examine Venturi Eﬀect found in nature.
Outline
•  Fluid Dynamics
1. EquaKon of ConKnuity
2. Bernoulli’s Theorem
3. Torricelli’s EquaKon
4. Venturi Eﬀect

Fluids In Motion
The Behavior of ﬂuids in moKon is
complex

Consider for example, the rise of
smoke from a burning cigareve.

First the smoke rises in a regular
stream (laminar ﬂow), but the
simple streamlined ﬂow quickly
becomes turbulent and the smoke
begins to swirl irregularly.

Turbulent ﬂow is very diﬃcult to
describe even qualitaKvely.

Fluids In Motion

## •  In this part, we only consider

1. Non-turbulent ﬂows

3. Non-viscous ﬂuid (ﬂow with no dissipaKon of mechanical energy)

4. Incompressible ﬂuids (density is constant throughout the ﬂuid)
1. Equation of Continuity
Describes the ﬂow of a ﬂuid through a
tube with varying cross-secKonal
area.

A1v1 = A2v2 (1)

A is the cross-secKonal area of the tube,
v is the velocity of the ﬂuid that is
ﬂowing

The quanKty Av is called
IV (volume ﬂow rate)

IV = Av = constant (2)

EquaKon 1 and 2 are called conKnuity
equaKons
KAPUSO PA RIN!!!
•  Blood ﬂows in an aorta of radius 1.0 cm
at 30 cm/s. What is the volume ﬂow
rate?
•  (Answer: IV = Av = 9.42 x 10-5 m3/s)

•  Blood ﬂows from an artery of radius of
0.3 cm, where its speed is 10 cm/s into a
region where the radius is reduced to 0.2
cm because of the thickening of arterial
walls (arteriosclerosis). What is the
speed of the blood in the narrower
region?
•  (Answer: v2 = (A1/A2)v1 = 22.5 cm/s)
2. Bernoulli’s Equation
Bernoulli’s EquaKon relates the
pressure, elevaKon and speed
of an incompressible ﬂuid in

It follows Newton’s Laws and is
most easily derived by
applying the work-energy
theorem to a segment of a
ﬂuid.

P + ρgy + ½ ρv2 = constant

P is Pressure, ρ is density of ﬂuid,
y is the elevaKon of the ﬂuid,
v is the ﬂow rate.
2. Bernoulli’s Equation

## ¨  P + ρgy + ½ ρv2 = constant

¨  P1 + ρgy1 + ½ ρv12 = P2 + ρgy2 + ½ ρv22
¨  Special case when ﬂuid is at rest v1=v2 = 0
¨  P = ρg (y2 – y1) = ρgh
2. Bernoulli’s Equation
¨  A large tank of water has a small
hole a distance h below the
water surface. Find the speed of
the water as it ﬂows out the
hole.

¨  Picture the Problem:
We apply Bernoulli’s EquaKon to
points a and b in the ﬁgure. Since
the diameter of the hole is much
smaller than the diameter of the
tank, we can neglect the velocity
of the water at the top (point a)
2. Bernoulli’s Equation
Solu&on:
1. Bernoulli’s EquaKon with va = 0 gives:

¨  Pa + ρgya + 0 = Pb + ρgyb + ½ ρvb2

2. The pressure at point a and point b is the same, Pat, since both
points are open to the air:

¨  Pa = Pb = Pat
¨  Pat + ρgya + 0 = Pat + ρgyb + ½ ρvb2

3. Solve for the speed vb of the water ﬂowing from the hole.
¨  vb2 = 2g (ya – yb) =2gh
¨  or vb = (2gh)½
3. Torricelli’s Law
•  This law follows from Bernoulli’s
EquaKon.

•  From the previous example, the
water emerges from the hole
with speed equal to the speed it
would have if it dropped in free
fall a distance h.

•  This is Torricelli’s Law!
4. Venturi Effect
When the speed of a ﬂuid
increases, the pressure
drops. This is known as
Venturi’s Eﬀect.

This follows from Bernoulli’s
EquaKon, in which the
elevaKons are the same.
P + ½ ρv2 = constant

Venturi Meter is a device used to
measure the ﬂow rate of a
ﬂuid. (See Figure at bovom
right)

4. Venturi Effect on Wings

## Air ﬂow around a wing foil.

(a) when the wing is horizontal the ﬂow is uniform and the
pressure above the wing is the same as below it

(b) when the wing is Klted, the pressure is greater at the
bovom of the wing than at the top of the wing, creaKng
the liu.
4. Venturi Effect on Atomizers

## ¨  When the bulb of an atomizer is squeezed, the air is forced through

the constricKon in the horizontal tube, which reduces the pressure
there below atmospheric pressure.
¨  Because of the resulKng pressure diﬀerence, the liquid in the jar is
pumped through the verKcal tube, enters air stream and emerges
from the nozzle.
¨  A similar eﬀect occurs in the carburevor of a gasoline engine