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1.  Define and apply the ConKnuity EquaKon in solving fluid
dynamics problems;
2.  Define and implement Bernoulli’s Theorem in solving fluid
dynamics problems;
3.  Define and uKlize Torricelli’s Theorem in solving fluid
dynamics problems;
4.  Examine Venturi Effect found in nature.
•  Fluid Dynamics
1. EquaKon of ConKnuity
2. Bernoulli’s Theorem
3. Torricelli’s EquaKon
4. Venturi Effect

Fluids In Motion
The Behavior of fluids in moKon is

Consider for example, the rise of
smoke from a burning cigareve.

First the smoke rises in a regular
stream (laminar flow), but the
simple streamlined flow quickly
becomes turbulent and the smoke
begins to swirl irregularly.

Turbulent flow is very difficult to
describe even qualitaKvely.

Fluids In Motion

•  In this part, we only consider

1. Non-turbulent flows

2. Steady-state flow

3. Non-viscous fluid (flow with no dissipaKon of mechanical energy)

4. Incompressible fluids (density is constant throughout the fluid)
1. Equation of Continuity
Describes the flow of a fluid through a
tube with varying cross-secKonal

A1v1 = A2v2 (1)

A is the cross-secKonal area of the tube,
v is the velocity of the fluid that is

The quanKty Av is called
IV (volume flow rate)

IV = Av = constant (2)

EquaKon 1 and 2 are called conKnuity
•  Blood flows in an aorta of radius 1.0 cm
at 30 cm/s. What is the volume flow
•  (Answer: IV = Av = 9.42 x 10-5 m3/s)

•  Blood flows from an artery of radius of
0.3 cm, where its speed is 10 cm/s into a
region where the radius is reduced to 0.2
cm because of the thickening of arterial
walls (arteriosclerosis). What is the
speed of the blood in the narrower
•  (Answer: v2 = (A1/A2)v1 = 22.5 cm/s)
2. Bernoulli’s Equation
Bernoulli’s EquaKon relates the
pressure, elevaKon and speed
of an incompressible fluid in
steady flow.

It follows Newton’s Laws and is
most easily derived by
applying the work-energy
theorem to a segment of a

P + ρgy + ½ ρv2 = constant

P is Pressure, ρ is density of fluid,
y is the elevaKon of the fluid,
v is the flow rate.
2. Bernoulli’s Equation

¨  P + ρgy + ½ ρv2 = constant

¨  P1 + ρgy1 + ½ ρv12 = P2 + ρgy2 + ½ ρv22
¨  Special case when fluid is at rest v1=v2 = 0
¨  P = ρg (y2 – y1) = ρgh
2. Bernoulli’s Equation
¨  A large tank of water has a small
hole a distance h below the
water surface. Find the speed of
the water as it flows out the

¨  Picture the Problem:
We apply Bernoulli’s EquaKon to
points a and b in the figure. Since
the diameter of the hole is much
smaller than the diameter of the
tank, we can neglect the velocity
of the water at the top (point a)
2. Bernoulli’s Equation
1. Bernoulli’s EquaKon with va = 0 gives:

¨  Pa + ρgya + 0 = Pb + ρgyb + ½ ρvb2

2. The pressure at point a and point b is the same, Pat, since both
points are open to the air:

¨  Pa = Pb = Pat
¨  Pat + ρgya + 0 = Pat + ρgyb + ½ ρvb2

3. Solve for the speed vb of the water flowing from the hole.
¨  vb2 = 2g (ya – yb) =2gh
¨  or vb = (2gh)½
3. Torricelli’s Law
•  This law follows from Bernoulli’s

•  From the previous example, the
water emerges from the hole
with speed equal to the speed it
would have if it dropped in free
fall a distance h.

•  This is Torricelli’s Law!
4. Venturi Effect
When the speed of a fluid
increases, the pressure
drops. This is known as
Venturi’s Effect.

This follows from Bernoulli’s
EquaKon, in which the
elevaKons are the same.
P + ½ ρv2 = constant

Venturi Meter is a device used to
measure the flow rate of a
fluid. (See Figure at bovom

4. Venturi Effect on Wings

Air flow around a wing foil.

(a) when the wing is horizontal the flow is uniform and the
pressure above the wing is the same as below it

(b) when the wing is Klted, the pressure is greater at the
bovom of the wing than at the top of the wing, creaKng
the liu.
4. Venturi Effect on Atomizers

¨  When the bulb of an atomizer is squeezed, the air is forced through

the constricKon in the horizontal tube, which reduces the pressure
there below atmospheric pressure.
¨  Because of the resulKng pressure difference, the liquid in the jar is
pumped through the verKcal tube, enters air stream and emerges
from the nozzle.
¨  A similar effect occurs in the carburevor of a gasoline engine