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# KINEMATICS SL

v = 8.0ms –1

Sea

## The stone leaves Antonia’s hand with a speed v = 8.0ms–1.

The acceleration of free fall g is 10 m s–2 and all distance measurements are taken from the point
where the stone leaves Antonia’s hand.

## (i) the maximum height reached by the stone.

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(ii) the time taken by the stone to reach its maximum height.

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The time between the stone leaving Antonia’s hand and hitting the sea is 3.0 s.

## (b) Determine the height of the cliff.

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(Total 6 marks)

2. Linear motion

## (a) Define the term acceleration.

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(b) An object has an initial speed u and an acceleration a. After time t, its speed is v and it has
moved through a distance s.

## The motion of the object may be summarized by the equations

v = u + at,

s= 1
2
v  u t.
(i) State the assumption made in these equations about the acceleration a.

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## (ii) Derive, using these equations, an expression for v in terms of u, s and a.

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(c) The shutter speed of a camera is the time that the film is exposed to light. In order to
determine the shutter speed of a camera, a metal ball is held at rest at the zero mark of a

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vertical scale, as shown below. The ball is released. The shutter of a camera is opened as
the ball falls.

0 cm

scale

camera
196 cm

208 cm

The photograph of the ball shows that the shutter opened as the ball reached the 196 cm
mark on the scale and closed as it reached the 208 cm mark. Air resistance is negligible and
the acceleration of free fall is 9.81 m s–2.

(i) Calculate the time for the ball to fall from rest to the 196 cm mark.

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(ii) Determine the time for which the shutter was open. That is, the time for the ball to
fall from the 196 cm mark to the 208 cm mark.

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(Total 9 marks)

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3. Motion of a ball

A ball of mass 0.25 kg is projected vertically upwards from the ground with an initial velocity of
30 m s–1. The acceleration of free fall is 10 m s–2, but air resistance cannot be neglected.

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the velocity v of this ball for the upward part
of the motion.

v / ms–1 30.0

25.0

20.0

15.0

10.0

5.0

0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
t/s

## (a) State what the area under the graph represents.

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(b) Estimate the maximum height reached by the ball.

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## (i) the acceleration;

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## (ii) the magnitude of the force of air resistance.

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(d) Use the graph to explain, without any further calculations, that the force of air resistance is
decreasing in magnitude as the ball moves upward.

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(e) The diagram below is a sketch graph of the upward motion of the ball.

Draw a line to indicate the downward motion of the ball. The line should indicate the
motion from the maximum height of the ball until just before it hits the ground.

v / ms–1 30

20

10

0.0
0.0 2.0 4.0 t/s
–10

–20

–30
(2)

(f) State and explain, by reference to energy transformations, whether the speed with which
the ball hits the ground is equal to 30 m s–1.

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(g) Use your answer in (f) to state and explain whether the ball takes 2.0 s to move from its
maximum height to the ground.

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(2)
(Total 15 marks)

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4. Linear motion

At a sports event, a skier descends a slope AB. At B there is a dip BC of width 12 m. The slope
and dip are shown in the diagram below. The vertical height of the slope is 41 m.

A
(not to scale)

slope
41m

B C D
1.8m

dip 12m

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the speed v down the slope of the skier.

25.0

20.0

15.0
v / ms –1
10.0

5.0

0.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
t/s

The skier, of mass 72 kg, takes 8.0 s to ski, from rest, down the length AB of the slope.

## (i) calculate the kinetic energy EK of the skier at point B.

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## (ii) determine the length of the slope.

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(b) (i) Calculate the magnitude of the change EP in the gravitational potential energy of
the skier between point A and point B.

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(ii) Use your anwers to (a)(i) and (b)(i) to determine the ratio

EP  EK  .
E P

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## (iii) Suggest what this ration represents.

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(c) At point B of the slope, the skier leaves the ground. He “flies” across the dip and lands on
the lower side at point D. The lower side C of the dip is 1.8 m below the upper side B.

(i) Calculate the time taken for an object to fall, from rest, through a vertical distance of
1.8 m. Assume negligible air resistance.

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(ii) The time calculated in (c)(i) is the time of flight of the skier across the dip.
Determine the horizontal distance travelled by the skier during this time, assuming
that the skier has the constant speed at which he leaves the slope at B.

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(2)
(Total 15 marks)