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In the partial fulfilment

for the project (course PHL415)

Submitted By Submitted to

Himanshu Gaur (2017PHS1007) Dr. Rakesh Kumar

Sushil (2017PHS1020)

Pooja Yadav (2017PHS1012)

Department of Physics

Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar

November 2017


We would like to express our special thanks of gratitude to Dr. Rakesh Kumar as well as our
lab in charge Sahil Kapoor who gave us the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project
on the topic ARC LIGHER which also helped us in doing a lot of Research and we came to
know about so many new things I am really thankful to them.

TOPIC Page Number

Introduction .....1









The electric arc lighter operates on a very simple principle, it produced high voltage between
two or more closely placed electrodes and creates an electric arc between them. The current
flowing between the electrodes of the lighter ionizes the air it passes through produces
plasma. The electrical arc you see that looks like a mini lightning can be used as a heat source
to get things on fire like a regular lighter would do.

A single full charge of the built-in battery should last for at least about 60-80 times and it
could be up to 100 or even more if you don't wait for the built-in failsafe that will turn off
the electric arc after a while of it being on, even if you continue pressing the button.

The Dielectric constant of air is about 3MV/m so a voltage of 1000volts is needed for
breakdown for a gap of 3 mm.

(Industry grade Arc Lighter)

The Project is split into two parts

1) Inverter circuit.
2) Step up transformer.


In one simple inverter circuit, DC power is connected to a transformer through the center
tap of the primary winding. A switch is rapidly switched back and forth to allow current to
flow back to the DC source following two alternate paths through one end of the primary
winding and then the other. The alternation of the direction of current in the primary
winding of the transformer produces alternating current (AC) in the secondary circuit.

As they became available with adequate power ratings, transistors and various other types
of semiconductor switches have been incorporated into inverter circuit designs. Certain
ratings, especially for large systems (many kilowatts) use thyristors (SCR). SCRs provide large
power handling capability in a semiconductor device, and can readily be controlled over a
variable firing range.


The transformer is static electrical equipment which transforms electrical energy (from
primary side windings) to the magnetic energy (in transformer magnetic core) and again to
the electrical energy (on these secondary transformer side). The operating frequency and

nominal power are approximately equal on primary and secondary transformer side
because the transformer is a very efficient equipment, the voltages and currents values are
usually different. Essentially, that is the main task of the transformer, converting high
voltage (HV) and low current from the primary side to the low voltage (LV) and high current
on the secondary side and vice versa. Also, a transformer with its operation principle
provides galvanic isolation in the electrical system.

With those features, the transformer is the most important part of the electrical system and
provides economical and reliable transmission and distribution of electrical energy. The
transformer can transfer energy in both directions, from HV to LV side as well as inversely.
That is the reason why it can work as voltage step up or step down transformer. Both
transformer types have the same design and construction. Any transformer can operate as
step-up or step-down type. It is onl y depending on the energy flows direction.


 DC Battery, 9v
 10KV High Frequency High Voltage Transformer Booster Coil Inverter
 BC107 transistor
 150ohm resistor
 Switch push button
 Connecting wires
 Jumper wires

However due to in availability of some these components, we had to use spare components
of old electronics devices whose description is beyond the scope of this report.


10KV High Frequency High Voltage Transformer Booster Coil Inverter

 Size: 20x17x15mm/0.78"x0.67"x0.59" (L*W*H)

 The transformer is also suitable for 12V voltage, but requires increased base feedback
resistor to about 150 ohms ~1.5K Omega, the resistance should be large to small
replacing and adjusting, not can be too small, otherwise burn triode or transformer,
also should not be too large, too large affect output or the triode tube works in non
switch state and severe fever.
 Transformer Design for the highest output of 10KV, the maximum output of the limit
shall not exceed 15KV, that is, 1.5 cm arc, the higher the output voltage is highly likely
to damage the transformer.


The MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) transistor is a

semiconductor device which is widely used for switching and amplifying electronic signals in
the electronic devices. The MOSFET is a core of integrated circuit and it can be designed
and fabricated in a single chip because of these very small sizes. The MOSFET is a four
terminal device with source(S), gate (G), drain (D) and body (B) terminals. The body of the
MOSFET is frequently connected to the source terminal so making it a three terminal device
like field effect transistor. The MOSFET is very far the most common transistor and can be
used in both analog and digital circuits.



(Proposed Circuit)

The Working of project is simple it involves two parts Inverter and step up as explained
earlier. The power from battery is used to derive the circuit. In the 1 st figure the the two
transistors are working complementary to each other, when Q1 is conducting, it switches
ON Q2 which in the mean time is Switching Q1 off, however after being switched ON it Tries
to Switch Q1 on. This creates an AC signal in the circuit.

If the switch is cycled fast enough, the inductor will not discharge fully in between charging
stages, and the load will always see a voltage greater than that of the input source alone
when the switch is opened. Also while the switch is opened, the capacitor in parallel with
the load is charged to this combined voltage. When the switch is then closed and the right
hand side is shorted out from the left hand side, the capacitor is therefore able to provide
the voltage and energy to the load. During this time, the blocking diode prevents the
capacitor from discharging through the switch. The switch must of course be opened again
fast enough to prevent the capacitor from discharging too much.

The Output from the 1st stage is now fed to the second stage, which is a step up
transformer, the output from the 1st stage is about 50-100 Volts, so the output needed is
about 1000 Volts at least. The second stage is then just a transformer of just turn ratio of
about 20.

Inside the transformer, A varying current in the transformer's primary winding creates a
varying magnetic flux in the transformer core and a varying magnetic field impinging on the
secondary winding. This varying magnetic field at the secondary winding induces a varying
EMF or voltage in the secondary winding due to electromagnetic induction. The primary and
secondary windings are wrapped around a core of infinitely high magnetic permeability so
that all of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary windings. With
a voltage source connected to the primary winding and load impedance connected to the
secondary winding, the transformer currents flow in the indicated directions.

Can be used in place of lighter as it has following advantages

 It is completely electric, so there is no fuel that depletes or a flame that can be

dangerous. You can recharge the built-in battery and the electric arc is quite well
protected that it will be quite hard to accidentally burn yourself or burn something
else while using the lighter.
 The electric arc lighter is windproof, so unlike a traditional flame if there is wind it
will not be a problem the electric arc will remain lit. You can easily check that by
moving the lighter fast creating strong air movement while it is lit. It is not
weatherproof however, so be careful not to get it wet... it is electronic after all and
water and electronics do not mix well.
 The electric lighter is rechargeable and does not wear off easily like a regular lighter,
so you can use it for a long period of time without problems. The rechargeable
Lithium battery inside is not easily replaceable for normal users, but it could still be
replaced when it dies, you only need to find a suitable size battery.

Other Uses are

 Stun Gun
 Electric Taser
 Electro-Shock Weapon.


 Lighting surface is pretty small. This may not be the case with all plasma arc
lighter models, but some of them create quite a small arc. Thus, in order to
light up a cigarette, you’ll need to roll it a little, for all its tip to catch fire.
 High pitch sound. All lighters of this sort create some sort of sound when lit.
In some cases it might be a soft electric buzz, in other cases a sharp beep.
Some may find it annoying.
 Battery is depleted. It takes a toll on battery on every use.

 Voltages greater than 50 V applied across dry unbroken human skin can cause
heart fibrillation if they produce electric currents in body tissues that happen to pass
through the chest area. The voltage at which there is the danger
of electrocution depends on the electrical conductivity of dry human skin. Living
human tissue can be protected from damage by the insulating characteristics of dry
skin up to around 50 volts. If the same skin becomes wet, if there are wounds, or if
the voltage is applied to electrodes that penetrate the skin, then even voltage
sources below 40 V can be lethal. Here we are generating voltages above 500 Volts.

 Even voltages insufficient to break down air can be associated with enough energy to
ignite atmospheres containing flammable gases or vapours, or suspended dust. For
example, hydrogen gas, natural gas, or petrol/gasoline vapor mixed with air can be
ignited by sparks produced by electrical apparatus.

 Saturation puts a practical limit on the maximum magnetic fields achievable in

ferromagnetic-core electromagnets and transformers of around 2 T, which puts a
limit on the minimum size of their cores. This is one reason why high power motors,
generators, and utility transformers are physically large; because they must have
large magnetic cores.