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TUGAS KPM SMP

‘PERBANDINGAN KURIKULUM INDONESIA


DAN SINGAPURA’
Dosen Pengampu:
Beni Ashyar, M. Pd

Oleh :

Kelompok 6/ TMT 3B

Nama anggota kelompok :

1. Ade restu pratama (3214113033)


2. Anisiatul lailiyah (3214113047)
3. Bella maristha cahya retnani (3214113055)
4. Dyas eko eviani (3214113062)

SEKOLAH TINGGI AGAMA ISLAM NEGERI


TULUNGAGUNG
2012
A. KONDISI PENDIDIKAN DI SINGAPURA

1
Singapura merupakan salah satu negara yang pendidikannya, perekonomian,
teknologi, dan sumber daya manusia yang maju di dunia, terutama di Asia Tenggara. Oleh
karena itu, Singapura menjadi salah satu negara tujuan untuk menuntut ilmu.Selama
bertahun-tahun, Singapura telah berkembang dari sistem pendidikan ala Inggris yang
tradisional menjadi sistem pendidikan yang bertujuan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan
individual dan mengembangkan bakat peserta didik.

Keunggulan sistem pendidikan di Singapura terletak pada kebijakan dua bahasa (


Bahasa Inggris dan bahasa ibu yaitu: Melayu/Mandarin/Tamil) dan kurikulum yang lengkap
dimana inovasi dan semangat kewirausahaan menjadi hal yang sangat diutamakan. Para
individu menunjukkan bakat-bakat yang berkaitan satu sama lain dan kemampuan untuk
bertahan dalam lingkungan yang penuh dengan persaingan, dan dipersiapkan untuk sebuah
masa depan yang lebih cerah.

Sistem pendidikan di Singapura meliputi:

1. Sekolah Dasar & Menengah

Secara umum, lamanya pendidikan dasar di Singapura sama dengan di Indonesia


yaitu enam (6) tahun, terdiri dari program dasar selama empat (4) tahun dan diikuti oleh
program orientasi selama dua (2) tahun. Pada akhir tahun keenam, pelajar akan mengikuti
ujian PSLE (Primary School Leaving Examination). Kurikulum yang diajarkan lebih
memfokuskan pada pengajaran bahasa Inggris, bahasa ibu seperti Cina, Melayu atau Tamil,
serta pelajaran matematika, pengetahuan alam, musik, seni rupa dan kerajinan tangan,
olahraga dan pendidikan sosial.

Setelah lulus ujian PSLE, pelajar meneruskan ke sekolah menengah dengan


kurikulum ‘O’ Level selama empat (4) tahun atau ‘N’ Level selama lima (5) tahun, sesuai
dengan kemampuan individu. Kurikulum ini mencakup bahasa Inggris, bahasa ibu seperti
Cina, Melayu atau Tamil, serta pelajaran matematika, science dan humanities. Pada tahun
ketiga, pelajar dapat memilih untuk mengambil kelas kesenian, science, ilmu tata niaga atau
jurusan teknik. Ujian akhir yaitu Singapore - Cambridge General Certificate of Education
‘Ordinary’ (GCE ‘O’ Level) atau ‘Normal’ (GCE ‘N’ Level). Melalui kurikulum ini, pelajar dilatih
dan diajarkan cara berpikir kritis. Normal adalah kursus empat tahun menjelang ujian Normal-

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tingkat (N-level), dengan kemungkinan tahun kelima diikuti oleh tingkat O-. Normal dibagi menjadi
Normal (Akademik) dan Normal (Teknis). Pada tahun 2004, Departemen Pendidikan
mengumumkan bahwa siswa yang dipilih dalam kegiatan normal akan memiliki kesempatan
untuk duduk untuk ujian O-level secara langsung tanpa terlebih dahulu mengambil ujian N-tingkat. .

2. Pra-Universitas (Junior College)

Setelah menyelesaikan ujian GCE ‘O’ Level, untuk mempersiapkan diri memasuki
kurikulum universitas, pelajar dapat memilih mendaftar ke Pra-Universitas (Junior College)
atau langsung ke ITE (Institutes of Technical Education) atau Politeknik. Pra-Universitas atau
yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Junior College atau disingkat JC ini berdurasi dua (2)
tahun. Kurikulum terdiri dari dua (2) pelajaran wajib yaitu general paper dan salah satu dari
bahasa ibu (Cina, Melayu atau Tamil), serta maksimum empat (4) pelajaran dari tingkat ‘A’
Level. Selesai dari JC, pelajar akan memperoleh Singapore - Cambridge General Certificate of
Education ‘Advanced’ (GCE ‘A’ Level) dan dapat melanjutkan ke tahun pertama universitas di
Singapura.

3. ITE (Institutes Of Technical Education) & Politeknik

Untuk pelajar yang telah menyelesaikan ujian GCE ‘O’ Level atau GCE ‘N’ Level,
pilihan lainnya selain daripada masuk ke JC, adalah ITE dan Politeknik. Keduanya memiliki
durasi belajar selama tiga (3) tahun pada tingkat Diploma; yang membedakan adalah
persyaratan untuk mendaftar, Politeknik memiliki persyaratan masuk yang lebih tinggi
dibanding ITE. Kebanyakan pelajar Indonesia mendaftar ke Politeknik dibandingkan ke ITE.

4. Universitas Negeri

Singapura sebagai pusat pendidikan tersier menawarkan kesempatan belajar


berbeda, karena didukung oleh fasilitas pendidikan dan teknologi yang canggih. Pendidikan
tersier di Singapura mempunyai dedikasi mempersiapkan para pelajar di dalam menghadapi
masa depan mereka. Di Singapura terdapat tiga (3) universitas negeri yang menawarkan
program Bachelor, Master hingga PhD; dengan syarat penerimaan yang sangat kompetitif
dan juga beasiswa dengan kontrak kerja setelah kelulusan.

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B. PERBANDINGAN PENDIDIKAN SINGAPURA DAN INDONESIA

Pendidikan formal Singapura dimulai dari tingkat kindergarten kemudian primary


school, secondary school, pre university, ITE, university. Pendidikan diIndonesia juga di
mulai dari TK (kindergarten), Sekolah Dasar dan Sekolah Menengah, sekolah menengah
terdiri dari Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) dan Sekolah Menengah Atas (SMA),
kemudian Universitas.

Lamanya jenjang pendidikan kindergarten yaitu selama dua tahun sama seperti TK di
Indonesia. Pendidikan berikutnya yaitu Primary School jika di Indonesia adalah Sekolah
Dasar, lamanya jenjang pendidikan ini adalah 6 tahun. Kemudian jenjang berikutnya adalah
Secondary School yang ditempuh selama 4 sampai 5 tahun tergantung pada tingkat
kemampua siswa. Di Singapura jenjang pendidikan menengah tidak dibedakan seperti di
Indonesia menjadi SMP dan SMA yang masing-masing ditempuh selama 3 tahun. Setelah
selesai dari jenjang pendidikan Secondary School jenjang berikutnya adalah Pre-University
bagi siswa yang akan melanjutkan ke university. Pre-university dilaksanakan selama dua
tahun. Bagi siswa yang tidak ingin melanjutkan ke University, setelah selesai Primary school
mereka dapat langsung melanjutkan ke ITE dan politeknik yang dilaksanakan selama 3
tahun. Berbeda dengan Di Indonesia, setelah selesai jenjang pendidikan SMA atau sederajat,
mereka langsung bisa melanjutkan ke Universitas.

Di Singapura juga mengadakan Ujian Nasional bagi setiap siswa yang akan
melanjutkan ke jenjang pendidikan berikutnya sama halnya dengan di Indonesia. Bedanya,
UN di Singapura tidak menentukan kelulusan karena menurut pemerintah Singapura, setiap
orang punya kesempatan sama untuk melanjutkan pendidikan. Sedangkan jika Di Indonesia,
Ujian nasional adalah penentu kelulusan dengan menentukan nilai minimum. Jadi jika siswa
mendapatkan nilai dibawah nilai minimum maka mereka dinyatakan tidak lulus dan harus
mengikuti ujian ulang. Sebenarnya di Singapura juga menetapkan nilai minimum untuk
setiap pelajaran jika siswa mendapatkan nilai dibawah minimum mereka tetap lulus. Namun
dalam ijazah akan terdapat nilai merah jika tidak ingin nilai merah di ijazah meraka harus
mengulang satu tahun di kelas yang sama.

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No. Aspek yang dibandingkan Perbandingan Pendidikan
Indonesia Singapura
1 Kurikulum Mata Pelajaran Pendidikan agama, PKN, B. B. inggris, matematika,
Indonesia, Matematika, IPA, IPS, Sains, Bahasa Ibu,
Penjaskes, Muatan Lokal Geografi, Fisika, Biologi,
Sejarah, B. Perancis, B.
Jepang.
2 Sistem Pendidikan Tk 2 thn, SD,
Segi kelembagaan dan masa SD 6 thn, SMP 3 thn, Sekolah Lanjutan,
belajar. SMA 3 thn, Junior College centeroes
Perguruan Tinggi 4 thn Institut

3 Pembiayaan Pendidikan Sekolah negeri dibiayai oleh Semua sekolah tingkat


pemerintah dasar di biayai
Sekolah suasta hanya mendapatkan oleh pemerintah
subsidi Sekolah lanjutan Junior
College di subsidi
Pemerintah
4 Usia normal memasuki 6-12 thn 7-13 thn
sekolah
5 Tujuan Pendidikan Nasional Mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa Bertujuan untuk
dan mengembangkan manusia mendidik anak masing-
Indonesia seutuhnya, yaitu masing potensi perlu
manusia yang beriman dan untuk menemukan-
bertaqwa terhadap Tuhan Yang talenta dan untuk
Maha Esa dan berbudi pekerti mengenimbangkan dalam
luhur, memiliki pengetahuan dan dirinya semangat untuuk
keterampilan, kesehatan jasmani belajar
dan rohani, kepribadian yang
mantap serta rasa tanggung jawab
kemasyarakatan dan kebangsaan.
6 Bahasa Nasional Bahasa Indonesia Bahasa Inggris
7 Evaluasi Ujian naik kelas berdasarkan nilai SD = Prinigry School
harian, sikap, dan Ujian semester, leaving exaniination
Ujian Nasional. Sekolah lanjutan =
general Certificare of
education Cordinary

C. Perbandingan Kurikulum Matematika Tingkat Menengah Indonesia dan Singapura.


1. Singapura

O LEVEL MATHEMATICS

5
Secondary One
Topics/SubTopics Content
1. Numbers and Algebra
Numbers and the four • primes and prime factorisation
operations • finding HCF and LCM, squares, cubes, square roots and cube
roots by prime factorisation
• negative numbers, integers, rational numbers, real numbers and
their four operations
• calculations with the use of a calculator
• representation and ordering of numbers on the number line
• use of the symbols <, >, =, =
• approximation and estimation (including rounding off numbers to
a required number of decimal places or significant figures,
estimating the results of computation, and concepts of rounding
and truncation errors)

Ratio, rate and  Ratios involving rational numbers


Proportion  writing a ratio in its simplest form
 average rate
 problems involving ratio and rate

Percentage • expressing one quantity as a percentage of another


• comparing two quantities by percentage
• percentages greater than 100%
• increasing/decreasing a quantity by a given percentage
• reverse percentages
• problems involving percentages

Speed • concepts of speed, uniform speed and average speed


• conversion of units (e.g. km/h to m/s)
•problems involving speed, uniform speed and average speed

Algebraic • using letters to represent numbers


representation and • interpreting notations:
formulae * ab as a × b
𝑎
* as a ÷ b
𝑏
• evaluation of algebraic expressions and formulae
• translation of simple real-world situations into algebraic
expressions
• recognising and representing number patterns (including finding
an algebraic expression for the nth term)

Algebraic manipulation addition and subtraction of linear algebraic expressions


• simplification of linear algebraic expressions, e.g.
2𝑥 3(𝑥−5)
(−2)(3𝑥−5) + 4𝑥 −
3 2
• factorisation of linear algebraic expressions of the form
* ax + ay (where a is a constant)
* ax + bx + kay + kby (where a, b and k are constants)

Functions and graphs cartesian coordinates in two dimensions


• graph of a set of ordered pairs
• linear relationships between two variables (linear functions)
• the gradient of a linear graph as the ratio of the vertical change

6
to the horizontal change (positive and negative gradients)

Solutions of equations solving linear equations in one unknown (including fractional


and inequalities coefficients)
• solving simple inequality (e.g. 3𝑥 ≤ 5)
• solving simple fractional equations that can be reduced to linear
equations, e.g.
𝑥 𝑥−2
 + =3
3 4
• formulating a linear equation in one unknown to solve problems

2. Geometry and Measurement


Angles, triangles and right, acute, obtuse and reflex angles, complementary and
Polygons supplementary angles, vertically opposite angles, adjacent
angles on a straight line, adjacent angles at a point, interior and
exterior angles
• angles formed by two parallel lines and a transversal:
corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles
• properties of triangles and special quadrilaterals
• classifying special quadrilaterals on the basis of their properties
• angle sum of interior and exterior angles of any convex polygon
• properties of regular pentagon, hexagon, octagon and decagon
• properties of perpendicular bisectors of line segments and angle
bisectors
• construction of simple geometrical figures from given data
(including perpendicular bisectors and angle bisectors) using
compasses, ruler, set squares and protractors, where
appropriate

Mensuration area of parallelogram and trapezium


• problems involving perimeter and area of composite plane
figures (including triangle and circle)
• volume and surface area of cube, cuboid, prism and cylinder
• conversion between cm2 and m2 , and between cm3 and m3
• problems involving volume and surface area of composite solids

3. Statistics and Probability


Data handling data collection methods such as:
* taking measurements
* conducting surveys
* classifying data
* reading results of observations/outcomes of events
• construction and interpretation of: table,bar graph,pictogram,line graph,pie
chart,histogram
purposes and use, advantages and disadvantages of the
different forms of statistical representations
• drawing simple inference from statistical diagrams
Exclude histograms with unequal intervals.

Secondary two
Topics/SubTopics Content
1. Numbers and Algebra
Ratio, rate and Include:
Proportion • map scales (distance and area)

7
• direct and inverse proportion
Algebraic manipulation Include:
• expansion of the product of algebraic expressions
• changing the subject of a formula
• finding the value of an unknown quantity in a given formula
• recognising and applying the special products
∗ (𝑎 ± 𝑏)2 = 𝑎2 ± 2ab + 𝑏 2
• factorisation of algebraic expressions of the form
∗ 𝑎2 𝑥 2 −𝑏 2 𝑦 2
• multiplication and division of simple algebraic fractions, e.g.
3𝑎 5𝑏
∗( )( )
4𝑏 2 4
• addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions with linear or
quadratic denominator, e.g.
1 2
∗ +
𝑥−2 𝑥−3
Functions and graphs Include:
• graphs of linear equations in two unknowns
• graphs of quadratic functions and their properties
Solutions of equations Include:
• solving simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns by
∗ substitution and elimination methods
∗ graphical method
• solving quadratic equations in one unknown by factorisation
• formulating a pair of linear equations in two unknowns or a
quadratic equation in one unknown to solve problems
Set language and • Include:
Notation • use of set language and the following notation
• Venn diagrams
Exclude :
• use of n(A∪ B) = n(A) + n(B) − n(A∩ B)
2. Geometry and Measurement
Congruence and Include:
Similarity • congruent figures as figures that are identical in shape and size
• matching sides and angles of two congruent polygons
• similar figures as figures that have the same shape but different
sizes
• properties of similar polygons:
• enlargement and reduction of a plane figure by a scale factor
• scale drawings
• solving simple problems involving similarity and congruence
Pythagoras’ theorem Include:
• use of Pythagoras’ theorem
• determining whether a triangle is right-angled given the lengths
of three sides
Mensuration Include:
• volume and surface area of pyramid, cone and sphere
3. Statistics and Probability
Data analysis Include:
• interpretation and analysis of:
∗ dot diagrams
∗ stem-and-leaf diagrams
• mean, mode and median as averages
• purposes and use of mean, mode and median
• calculation of the mean for grouped data

8
Probability Include:
• probability as a measure of chance
• probability of single events (including listing all the possible
outcomes in a simple chance situation to calculate the
probability)

Secondary Three/Four
Topics/SubTopics Content
1. Numbers and Algebra
Numbers and the four Include:
operations • examples of very large and very small numbers such as mega/
million (10 6 ), giga/ billion (109 ), tera/ trillion (1012 ), micro
(10−6 ), nano (10−9 ) and pico (10−12 )
• use of standard form A × 10n , where n is an integer, and
1 ≤ A < 10
• positive, negative, zero and fractional indices
• laws of indices
Functions and graphs Include:
• sketching of the graphs of quadratic functions given in the form
∗ y = ± (𝑥 − 𝑝)𝑧 + q
∗ y = ± (x − a)(x − b)
• graphs of functions of the form y = axn
where n = −2, −1, 0, 1, 2, 3, and simple sums of not more than
three of these
• graphs of exponential functions y = kax where a is a positive
integer
• estimation of gradients of curves by drawing tangents
Solutions of equations Include:
and inequalities • solving quadratic equations in one unknown by:
∗ use of formula
∗ completing the square for y = 𝑥 2 + px + q
∗ graphical methods
• solving fractional equations that can be reduced to quadratic
equations, e.g.
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∗ =𝑥+3
𝑥+4
• solving linear inequalities in one unknown, and representing the
solution set on the number line
Applications of Include:
mathematics in • problems derived from practical situations such as
practical situations ∗ utilities bills
∗ hire-purchase
∗ simple interest and compound interest
∗ money exchange
• use of data from tables and charts
• interpretation and use of graphs in practical situations
• drawing graphs from given data
• distance-time and speed-time graphs
Exclude the use of the terms percentage profit and percentage loss.
Matrices Include:
• display of information in the form of a matrix of any order
• interpreting the data in a given matrix
• product of a scalar quantity and a matrix
• problems involving the calculation of the sum and product

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(where appropriate) of two matrices
Exclude:
• matrix representation of geometrical transformations
• solving simultaneous linear equations using the inverse matrix
Method
2. Geometry and Measurement
Congruence and Include:
Similarity • determining whether two triangles are
∗ congruent
∗ similar
• ratio of areas of similar plane figures
• ratio of volumes of similar solids
Properties of circles Include:
• symmetry properties of circles:
bisects the angle between the tangents
• angle properties of circles:
∗ angle in a semicircle is a right angle
∗ angle between tangent and radius of a circle is a right angle
∗ angle at the centre is twice the angle at the circumference
∗ angles in the same segment are equal
∗ angles in opposite segments are supplementary
Trigonometry Include:
• use of trigonometric ratios (sine, cosine and tangent) of acute
angles to calculate unknown sides and angles in right-angled
triangles
• extending sine and cosine to obtuse angles
1
• use of the formula 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑖𝑛𝐶 for the area of a triangle
2
• use of sine rule and cosine rule for any triangle
• problems in 2 and 3 dimensions including those involving angles
of elevation and depression and bearings
Exclude calculation of the angle between two planes or of the angle
between a straight line and a plane
Mensuration Include:
• arc length and sector area as fractions of the circumference and
area of a circle
• area of a segment
• use of radian measure of angle (including conversion between
radians and degrees)
• problems involving the arc length, sector area of a circle and
area of a segment
Coordinate geometry Include:
• finding the gradient of a straight line given the coordinates of two
points on it
• finding the length of a line segment given the coordinates of its
end points
• interpreting and finding the equation of a straight line graph in
the form y = mx + c
• geometric problems involving the use of coordinates
Exclude:
• condition for two lines to be parallel or perpendicular
• midpoint of line segment
• finding the area of quadrilateral given its vertices
Vectors in two Include:
Dimensions

10
𝑥 → →
• use of notations: (𝑦), ,a, | |,|𝑎|
𝐴𝐵 𝐴𝐵
• directed line segments
• translation by a vector
• position vectors
𝑥
• magnitude of a vector (𝑦) as√𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2
• use of sum and difference of two vectors to express given
vectors in terms of two coplanar vectors
• multiplication of a vector by a scalar
• geometric problems involving the use of vectors
Exclude:
• expressing a vector in terms of a unit vector
• midpoint of line segment
• solving vector equations with two unknown parameters
3. Statistics and Probability
Data analysis Include:
• quartiles and percentiles
• range, interquartile range and standard deviation as measures
of spread for a set of data
• interpretation and analysis of:
∗ cumulative frequency diagrams
∗ box-and-whisker plots
• calculation of the standard deviation for a set of data (grouped
and ungrouped)
• using the mean and standard deviation to compare two sets of
Data
Probability Include:
• probability of simple combined events (including using possibility
diagrams and tree diagrams, where appropriate)
• addition and multiplication of probabilities
• mutually exclusive events and independent events
Exclude use of P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A∩B)

N(A) LEVEL MATHEMATICS

N(A) Secondary One


Topics/SubTopics Content
1. Numbers and Algebra
Numbers and the four Include:
operations • primes and prime factorisation
• finding HCF and LCM, squares, cubes, square roots and cube
roots by prime factorisation
• negative numbers, integers, rational numbers, real numbers and
their four operations
• calculations with the use of a calculator
• representation and ordering of numbers on the number line
• use of the symbols <, >, ≤, ≥
• approximation and estimation (including rounding off numbers to
a required number of decimal places or significant figures,
estimating the results of computation, and concepts of rounding
and truncation errors)
Ratio, rate and Include:
proportion • comparison between two or more quantities by ratio
• relationship between ratio and fraction

11
• dividing a quantity in a given ratio
• ratios involving rational numbers
• equivalent ratios
• writing a ratio in its simplest form
• average rate
• problems involving ratio and rateinteger
• estimation of gradients of curves by drawing tangents

Percentage Include:
• expressing percentage as a fraction or decimal
• expressing one quantity as a percentage of another
• comparing two quantities by percentage
• percentages greater than 100%
• increasing/decreasing a quantity by a given percentage
• finding percentage increase/decrease
• reverse percentages
• problems involving percentages
Speed Include:
• relationships between distance, time and speed
• writing speed in different units (e.g. km/h, m/min, m/s and cm/s)
• conversion of units (e.g. km/h to m/s)
• calculation of speed, distance or time given the other two
quantities
• concepts of speed, uniform speed and average speed
• problems involving speed, uniform speed and average speed
Algebraic Include:
representation and • using letters to represent numbers
formulae • interpreting notations:
∗ ab as a × b
• evaluation of algebraic expressions and formulae
• translation of simple real-world situations into algebraic
expressions
• recognising and representing number patterns (including finding
an algebraic expression for the nth term)
Algebraic manipulationAlgebraic Include:
manipulation • addition and subtraction of linear algebraic expressions
• simplification of linear algebraic expressions, e.g.
∗ − 2(3x − 5) + 4x

2. Geometry and Measurement


Angles, triangles and Include:
polygons • right, acute, obtuse and reflex angles, complementary and
supplementary angles, vertically opposite angles, adjacent
angles on a straight line, adjacent angles at a point, interior and
exterior angles
• angles formed by two parallel lines and a transversal:
corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles
Mensuration Include:
• area of parallelogram and trapezium
• problems involving perimeter and area of composite plane
figures (including triangle and circle)
• volume and surface area of cube, cuboid, prism and cylinder
• conversion between cm2 and m2, and between cm3 and m3
• problems involving volume and surface area of composite solids∗ tangents from an

12
external point are equal in length
∗ the line joining an external point to the centre of the circle
bisects the angle between the tangents
• angle properties of circles:
∗ angle in a semicircle is a right angle
∗ angle between tangent and radius of a circle is a right angle
∗ angle at the centre is twice the angle at the circumference
∗ angles in the same segment are equal
∗ angles in opposite segments are supplementary
3. Statistics and Probability
Data handling Include:
• data collection methods such as:
∗ taking measurements
∗ conducting surveys
∗ classifying data
∗ reading results of observations/outcomes of events
• construction and interpretation of: table, bar graph,pictogram,etc
• purposes and use, advantages and disadvantages of the different
forms of statistical representations
• drawing simple inference from statistical diagrams
Exclude histograms with unequal intervals.

N(A) Secondary Two


Topics/SubTopics Content
1 Numbers and Algebra
Ratio, rate and Include:
proportion • map scales (distance and area)
• direct and inverse proportion
Algebraic manipulation Include:
• expansion of the product of two linear algebraic expressions
• factorisation of linear algebraic expressions of the form
∗ ax + ay (where a is a constant)
• recognising and applying the special products
∗ (𝑎 ± 𝑏)2 = a2 ± 2ab + 𝑏 2
• factorisation of algebraic expressions of the form
∗ 𝑎2 𝑥 2 −𝑏 2 𝑦 2
• multiplication and division of simple algebraic fractions, e.g.• factorisation of
algebraic expressions of the form
• multiplication and division of simple algebraic fractions, e.g.
• addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions with linear or
quadratic denominator, e.g.
3𝑎 5𝑏
∗( )( )
4𝑏 2 4
Functions and graphs Include:
• cartesian coordinates in two dimensions
• graph of a set of ordered pairs
• linear relationships between two variables (linear functions)
• the gradient of a linear graph as the ratio of the vertical change
to the horizontal change (positive and negative gradients)
• graphs of linear equations in two unknowns
Solutions of equations Include:
and inequalities • solving linear equations in one unknown (including fractional
coefficients)
• solving simple inequality (e.g. 3x ≤ 5 )

13
• solving simple fractional equations that can be reduced to linear
equations, e.g.
𝑥 𝑥−2
∗ + =3
3 4

N(A) Secondary Two


Topics/SubTopics Content
1. Numbers and Algebra
• solving simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns by
∗ substitution and elimination methods
∗ graphical method
• formulate a linear equation in one unknown or a pair of linear
equations in two unknowns to solve problems
2. Geometry and Measurement
Angles, triangles and Include:
polygons • properties of triangles and special quadrilaterals
• classifying special quadrilaterals on the basis of their properties
• angle sum of interior and exterior angles of any convex polygon
• properties of regular pentagon, hexagon, octagon and decagon
• properties of perpendicular bisectors of line segments and angle
bisectors
• construction of simple geometrical figures from given data
(including perpendicular bisectors and angle bisectors) using
compasses, ruler, set squares and protractors, where
appropriate
Congruence and Include:
similarity • congruent figures as figures that are identical in shape and size
• matching sides and angles of two congruent polygons
Mensuration Include:
• volume and surface area of pyramid, cone and sphere
3. Statistics and Probability
Data analysis Include:
• interpretation and analysis of:
∗ dot diagrams
∗ stem-and-leaf diagrams
• mean, mode and median as averages
• purposes and use of mean, mode and median
• calculation of the mean for grouped data.
Probability Include:
• probability as a measure of chance
• probability of single events (including listing all the possible
outcomes in a simple chance situation to calculate the
probability)

N(A) Secondary Three/Four


Topics/SubTopics Content
Certain parts of the syllabus have been underlined. These will only be tested in Section B
of Paper 2 of the GCE ‘N’ Level (Syllabus A) examinations.
1. Numbers and Algebra
Numbers and the four nclude:
operations • examples of very large and very small numbers such as mega/
million (106 ), giga/ billion (109 ), tera/ trillion (1012 ), micro
(10−6 ), nano (10−9) and pico (10−12 )

14
• use of standard form A × 10𝑛 , where n is an integer, and
1 ≤ A < 10
• positive, negative, zero and fractional indices
• laws of indices
Algebraic manipulation Include:
• expansion of the product of algebraic expressions
• changing the subject of a formula
• finding the value of an unknown quantity in a given formula
• addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions with linear or
quadratic denominator, e.g.
1 2
∗ +
𝑥−2 𝑥−3
Functions and graphs Include:
• graphs of quadratic functions and their properties
∗ positive or negative coefficient of 𝑥 2
∗ maximum and minimum points
∗ symmetry
• sketching of the graphs of quadratic functions given in the form
∗ y = ± (𝑥 − 𝑝) 2 + q
• graphs of functions of the form y = a𝑥 𝑛 where n = −2, −1, 0, 1,
2, 3, and simple sums of not more than three of these
• graphs of exponential functions y = 𝑘𝑎 𝑥 where a is a positive
integer
• estimation of gradients of curves by drawing tangents

N(A) Secondary Three/Four


Topics/SubTopics Content
Certain parts of the syllabus have been underlined. These will only be tested in Section B
of Paper 2 of the GCE ‘N’ Level (Syllabus A) examinations.
1. Numbers and Algebra
Solutions of equations Include:
• solving quadratic equations in one unknown by
∗ factorisation
∗ use of formula
∗ completing the square for y = 𝑥 2 + px + q
∗ graphical methods
• solving fractional equations that can be reduced to quadratic
equations, e.g.
6
∗ =𝑥+3
𝑥+4
• formulate a quadratic equation in one unknown to solve
Problems
Applications of Include:
mathematics in • problems derived from practical situations such as
practical situations ∗ utilities bills
∗ hire-purchase
∗ simple interest and compound interest
∗ money exchange
• use of data from tables and charts
• interpretation and use of graphs in practical situations
• drawing graphs from given data
• distance-time and speed-time graphs
Exclude the use of the terms percentage profit and percentage loss.
2 Geometry and Measurement
Congruence and Include:

15
similarity • similar figures as figures that have the same shape but different
sizes
• properties of similar polygons:
∗ corresponding angles are equal
∗ corresponding sides are proportional
• enlargement and reduction of a plane figure by a scale factor
• scale drawings
• solving simple problems involving similarity and congruence
Properties of circles Include:
• symmetry properties of circles:
∗ equal chords are equidistant from the centre
∗ the perpendicular bisector of a chord passes through the
centre
∗ tangents from an external point are equal in length
∗ the line joining an external point to the centre of the circle
bisects the angle between the tangents
• angle properties of circles:
∗ angle in a semicircle is a right angle
∗ angles in the same segment are equal
∗ angles in opposite segments are supplementary
Pythagoras’ theorem Include:
and trigonometry • use of Pythagoras’ theorem
• determining whether a triangle is right-angled given the lengths
of three sides
• use of trigonometric ratios (sine, cosine and tangent) of acute
angles to calculate unknown sides and angles in right-angled
triangles
• extending sine and cosine to obtuse angles
1
• use of the formula 𝑎𝑏𝑠𝑖𝑛𝐶 for the area of a triangle
2
• use of sine rule and cosine rule for any triangle
• problems in 2 and 3 dimensions including those involving
angles of elevation and depression and bearings
Exclude calculation of the angle between two planes or of the angle
between a straight line and a plane.
Mensuration Include:
• arc length and sector area as fractions of the circumference and
area of a circle
• area of a segment
• use of radian measure of angle (including conversion between
radians and degrees)
• problems involving the arc length, sector area of a circle and
area of a segment
Coordinate geometry Include:
• finding the gradient of a straight line given the coordinates of two
points on it
• finding the length of a line segment given the coordinates of its
end points
• interpreting and finding the equation of a straight line graph in
the form y = mx + c
• geometric problems involving the use of coordinates
Exclude:
• condition for two lines to be parallel or perpendicular
• midpoint of line segment
• finding the area of quadrilateral given its vertices

16
3 Statistics and Probability
Data analysis Include:
• quartiles and percentiles
• range, interquartile range and standard deviation as measures of
spread for a set of data
• interpretation and analysis of:
∗ cumulative frequency diagrams
∗ box-and-whisker plots
• calculation of the standard deviation for a set of data (grouped
and ungrouped)
• using the mean and standard deviation to compare two sets of
Data
Probability Include:
• probability of simple combined events (including using possibility
diagrams and tree diagrams, where appropriate)
• addition and multiplication of probabilities
• mutually exclusive events and independent events
Exclude use of P(A∪B) = P(A) + P(B) − P(A∩B) .

N(T) LEVEL MATHEMATICS

N(T) Secondary One


Topics/SubTopics Content
1. Numbers and Algebra
Numbers and the four Include:
operations • negative numbers, integers, and their four operations
• four operations on fractions and decimals (including negative
fractions and decimals)
• calculations with the use of a calculator, including squares,
cubes, square roots and cube roots
• representation and ordering of numbers on the number line
• use of the symbols <, >, ≤, ≥
• rounding off numbers to a required number of decimal places or
significant figures
• estimating the results of computation

Ratio Include:
• comparison between two or more quantities by ratio
• dividing a quantity in a given ratio
• ratios involving fractions and decimals
• equivalent ratios
• writing a ratio in its simplest form
• problems involving ratios
Percentage Include:
• expressing percentage as a fraction or decimal
• finding the whole given a percentage part
• expressing one quantity as a percentage of another
• comparing two quantities by percentage
• percentages greater than 100%
• finding one quantity given the percentage and the other quantity
• increasing/decreasing a quantity by a given percentage
• finding percentage increase/decrease
• problems involving percentages
Algebraic • using letters to represent numbers

17
representation and • interpreting notations:
formulae * ab as a × b
𝑎
* as a ÷ b
𝑏
• evaluation of algebraic expressions and formulae
• translation of simple real-world situations into algebraic
expressions
• recognising and representing number patterns (including finding
an algebraic expression for the nth term)
2. Geometry and Measurement
Angles, triangles and Include:
Polygons • right, acute, obtuse and reflex angles, complementary and
supplementary angles, vertically opposite angles, adjacent
angles on a straight line, adjacent angles at a point, interior and
exterior angles
• angles formed by two parallel lines and a transversal:
corresponding angles, alternate angles, interior angles
Mensuration Include:
• area of triangle
• area and circumference of circle
• area of parallelogram and trapezium
• problems involving perimeter and area of composite plane
figures
• visualising and sketching cube and cuboid (including use of
nets to visualise the surface area of these solids)
• volume and surface area of cube and cuboid
• conversion between cm2 and m2, and between cm3 and m3
• problems involving volume and surface area of composite
Solids
3. Statistics and Probability
Data handling Include:
• data collection methods such as:
∗ taking measurements
∗ conducting surveys
∗ classifying data
∗ reading results of observations/ outcomes of events
• construction and interpretation of:table,bar graph,pictogram,etc
• purposes and use, advantages and disadvantages of the
different forms of statistical representations
• drawing simple inference from statistical diagrams
Exclude histograms with unequal intervals

N(T) Secondary Two


Topics/SubTopics Content
1 Numbers and Algebra
Ratio Include:
• rates and average rates (including the concepts of speed and
average speed)
• conversion of units
Algebraic manipulation Include:
• addition and subtraction of linear algebraic expressions
• simplification of linear algebraic expressions, e.g.
Functions and graphs Include:
• cartesian coordinates in two dimensions

18
• graph of a set of ordered pairs
• linear relationships between two variables (linear functions)
• the gradient of a linear graph as the ratio of the vertical change
to the horizontal change (positive and negative gradients)
Solutions of equations Include:
• solving linear equations in one unknown (including fractional
coefficients)
• formulating a linear equation in one unknown to solve problems
2 Geometry and Measurement
Angles, triangles and Include:
quadrilaterals • properties of triangles and special quadrilaterals
• classifying special quadrilaterals on the basis of their properties
• properties of perpendicular bisectors of line segments and angle
bisectors
• construction of simple geometrical figures from given data
(including perpendicular bisectors and angle bisectors) using
compasses, rulers, set squares and protractors where
appropriate
Exclude properties of polygons.
Congruence, similarity Include:
and transformations • congruent figures as figures that are identical in shape and size
• matching sides and angles of two congruent polygons
• similar figures as figures that have the same shape but different
sizes
• properties of similar polygons:
* corresponding angles are equal
* corresponding sides are proportional
Pythagoras’ theorem Include:
• use of Pythagoras‘ theorem
• determining whether a triangle is right-angled given the lengths
of three sides
Mensuration Include:
• visualising and sketching prism and cylinder (including use of
nets to visualise the surface area of these solids)
• volume and surface area of prism and cylinder
3 Statistics and Probability
Data analysis Include:
• interpretation and analysis of dot diagrams
• purposes and use of averages: mean, mode and median
• calculations of mean, mode and median for a set of ungrouped
Data
Probability Include:
• probability as a measure of chance
• probability of single events (including listing all the possible
outcomes in a simple chance situation to calculate the
probability)
Exclude probability of combined events: P(A and B), P(A or B).
4 Integrative Contexts
Problems derived from Include:
practical real-life • practical situations such as
situations * profit and loss
(The content should be * simple interest and compound interest
distributed over 3 * household finance (earnings, expenditures, budgeting, etc.)
years, from Sec 2 to * payment/ subscription rates (hire-purchase, utilities bills,

19
Sec 4) etc.)
* money exchange
* time schedules (including 24-hour clock) and time zone
variation
* designs (tiling patterns, models/structures, maps and plans,
packagings, etc.)
* everyday statistics (sport/ game statistics, household and
market surveys, etc.)
• tasks involving:
* use of data from tables and charts
* interpretation and use of graphs in practical situations
* drawing graphs from given data
* creating geometrical patterns and designs
* interpretation and use of quantitative information
Exclude use of the terms percentage profit and percentage loss.

N(T) Secondary Three/Four


Topics/SubTopics Content
1. Numbers and Algebra
Numbers and the four Include:
operations • use of index notation for integer powers:
• examples of very large and very small numbers such as mega/
million (106 ), giga/ billion (109 ), tera/ trillion (1012 ), micro
(10−6 ), nano (10−9 ) and pico (10−12 )
• use of standard form A × 10𝑛 , where n is an integer, and
1 ≤ A < 10
Exclude:
• use of the terms ‘rational numbers’, ‘irrational numbers’ and
‘real numbers’
• primes and prime factorisation
• fractional indices and surds
Ratio and proportion Include:
• map scales (distance and area)
• direct and inverse proportion
Algebraic manipulation Include:
• expansion of the product of two linear algebraic expressions
• multiplication and division of simple algebraic fractions, e.g.
• changing the subject of a simple formula
• finding the value of an unknown quantity in a given formula
• factorisation of linear algebraic expressions of the form
∗ ax + ay (where a is a constant)
∗ ax + bx + kay + kby (where a, b and k are constants)
• factorisation of quadratic expressions of the form x2 + px + q
Exclude:
• use of special products:
(a ± b)2 = a2 ± 2ab + b2
a2 − b2 = (a + b)(a − b)
• factorisation of algebraic expressions of the form
∗ a2x2 − b2 y2
∗ a2 ± 2ab + b2
∗ ax2 + bx + c , where a ≠ 1
• addition and subtraction of algebraic fractions

20
Functions and graphs Include:
• graphs of linear equations in two unknowns
• graphs of quadratic functions and their properties
∗ positive or negative coefficient of x2
∗ maximum and minimum points
∗ symmetry
Exclude sketching of graphs of quadratic functions.
Solutions of equations Include:
• solving simple fractional equations that can be reduced to linear
equations, e.g.
• solving simultaneous linear equations in two unknowns by
* substitution and elimination methods
* graphical method
• solving quadratic equations in one unknown by use of formula
• formulating a quadratic equation in one unknown or a pair of
linear equations in two unknowns to solve problems
Exclude solving quadratic equations by:
• method of completing the square
• graphical methods
2 Geometry and Measurement
Congruence, similarity Include:
and transformations • drawing on square grids the following transformations of simple
plane figures
∗ reflection about a given horizontal or vertical line
∗ rotation about a given point through multiples of 90o
clockwise/anticlockwise
∗ translation represented by a given translation arrow
∗ enlargement by a simple scale factor such as
, 2 and 3,
given the centre of enlargement
• scale drawings
Exclude:
• use of coordinates
• negative scale factors
Symmetry, tessellations Include:
and projections • line and rotational symmetry of plane figures
• order of rotational symmetry
• identifying the unit figure(s) of a tessellation and continuing a
tessellation
• orthographic projection drawings, including plan (top view), front,
left and right views
Exclude symmetry of solids.
Pythagoras’ theorem Include:
and trigonometry • use of trigonometric ratios (sine, cosine and tangent) of acute
angles to calculate unknown sides and angles in right-angled
triangles (including problems involving angles of elevation and
depression)
for the area of a triangle
(extending sine to obtuse angles)
Exclude:
• sine rule and cosine rule
• bearings
Mensuration Include:
• visualising and sketching pyramid, cone and sphere (including

21
use of nets to visualise the surface area of these solids, where
applicable)
• volume and surface area of pyramid, cone and sphere
• arc length and sector area as fractions of the circumference
and area of a circle
Exclude the radian measure of angle.
3 Statistics and Probability
Data analysis Include:
• percentiles, quartiles, range and interquartile range
• interpretation and analysis of cumulative frequency diagrams
4 Integrative Contexts
Problems derived from Include:
practical real-life • practical situations such as
situations * profit and loss
(The content should be * simple interest and compound interest
distributed over 3 * household finance (earnings, expenditures, budgeting, etc.)
years, from Sec 2 to * payment/ subscription rates (hire-purchase, utilities bills,
Sec 4) etc.)
* money exchange
* time schedules (including 24-hour clock) and time zone
variation
* designs (tiling patterns, models/structures, maps and plans,
packagings, etc.)
* everyday statistics (sport/ game statistics, household and
market surveys, etc.)
• tasks involving:
* use of data from tables and charts
* interpretation and use of graphs in practical situations
* drawing graphs from given data
* creating geometrical patterns and designs
* interpretation and use of quantitative information
Exclude use of the terms percentage profit and percentage loss.

2. Indonesia
Kelas VII, Semester 1

Standar kompetensi Kompetensi Dasar


Bilangan
1. Memahami sifatoperasi hitung bilangan dan 1. Melakukan operasi hitung bilangan bulat dan pecahan
penggunaannya dalam pemecahan masalah 1.2 Menggunakan sifat-sifat operasi hitung bilangan bulat
dan pecahan dalam pemecahan masalah
Aljabar
2. Memahami bentuk aljabar, persamaan dan 2.1 Mengenali bentuk aljabar dan unsur-unsurnya
pertidaksamaan linear satu variabel 2.2 Melakukan operasi pada bentuk aljabar
2.3 Menyelesaikan persamaan linear satu variabel
2.4 Menyelesaikan pertidaksamaan linear satu variabel
3. Menggunakan bentuk aljabar persamaan dan 3.1 Membuat model matematika dari masalah yang
pertidaksamaan linear satu variabel, dan berkaitan dengan persamaan dan pertidaksamaan
perbandingan dalam pemecahan masalah linear satu variabel
3.2 Menyelesaikan model matematika dari masalah yang
berkaitan dengan persamaan dan pertidaksamaan

22
linear satu variabel
3.3 Menggunakan konsep aljabar dalam pemecahan
masalah aritmetika sosial yang sederhana
3.4 Menggunakan perbandingan untuk pemecahan
masalah

Kelas VII, Semester 2

Standar Kompetensi Konsep Dasar


Aljabar
4. Menggunakan konsep himpunan dan 4.1 Memahami pengertian dan notasi himpunan,
diagram venn dalam pemecahan masalah serta penyajiannya
4.2 Memahami konsep himpunan bagian
4.3 Melakukan operasi irisan, gabungan, kurang
(difference), dan komplemen pada himpunan
4.4 Menyajikan himpunan dengan diagram venn
4.5 Menggunakan konsep himpunan dalam
penyelesaian masalah
Geometri
5. Memahami hubungan garis dengan garis, 5.1 Menentukan hubungan antara dua garis,
garis dengan sudut, sudut dengan sudut, serta besar dan jenis sudut
serta menentukan ukurannya 5.2 Memahami sifat-sifat sudut yang terbentuk
jika dua garis berpotongan atau dua garis
sejajar berpotongan dengan garis lain
5.3 Melukis sudut
5.4 Membagi sudut
6. Memahami konsep segiempat dan segitiga 6.1 Mengidentifikasisifat-sifat segitiga
dan serta menentukan ukurannya berdasarkan sisi dan sudutnya
6.2 Mengidentifikasi sifat-sifat persegi panjang,
persegi, trapesium, jajargenjang, belah
ketupat, dan layang-layang
6.3 Menghitung keliling dan luas bangun segitiga
dan segi empat serta menggunakannya dalam
pemecahan masalah
6.4 Melukis segitiga, garis tinggi, garis bagi, garis
berat, dan garis sumbu

Kelas VIII, Semester 1

Standar Kompetensi Kompetensi Dasar

Aljabar

1. Memahami bentuk aljabar, relasi, 1.1 Melakukan operasi aljabar


fungsi, dan persamaan garis lurus
1.2 Menguraikan bentuk aljabar kedalam faktor-
faktornya

23
1.3 Memahami relasi dan fungsi

1.4 Menentukan nilai fungsi

1.5 Membuat sketsa grafik fungsi alajabar


sederhana pada sistem koordinat cartesius

1.6 Menentukan gradien, persamaan dan gerafik


garis lurus

2. Memahami sistem persamaan linear2.1 Menyelesaikan sistem persamaan linaer dua


dua variabel dan menggunakannya variabel
dalam pemecahan masalah
2.2 Membuat model matematika dari masalah
yang berkaitan dengan sistem persamaan
linear dua variabel

2.3 Menyelesaikan model matematika dari


masalah yang berkaitan dengan persaman
linear dua variabel dan penafsirannya

Geometri dan Pengukuran

3. Menggunakan Teotema Pythagoras3.1 Menggunakan teorema pythagoras untuk


dalam pemecahan masalah menentukan panjang sisi-sisi segitiga siku-siku

3.2 Memecahkan masalah pada bangun datar


yang berkaitan dengan teorema pythagoras

Kelas VIII, Semester 2

Standar Komperensi Kompetensi Dasar

Geometri dan pengukuran

4. Menentukan unsur, bagian lingkaran4.1 Menentukan unsur dan bagian-bagian


serta ukurannya lingkaran

4.2 Menghitung keliling dan luas lingkaran

4.3 Menggunakan hubungan sudut pusat,


panjang busur, luas juring dalam pemecahan
masalah

4.4 Menghitung panjang garis singgung


persekutuan dua lingkaran

4.5 Melukis lingkaran dalam dan lingkaran luar


suatu segitiga

5. Memahami sifat-sifat kubus, balok, 5.1 Mengidentifikasi sifat-sifat kubus, balok,


prisma, limas, dan bagian-bagiannya,

24
serta menentukan ukurannya prisma, dan limas serta bagian-bagiannya

5.2 Membuat jaring-jaring kubus, balok, prisma,


dan limas

5.3 Menghitung luas permukaan dan volume


kubus, balok, prisma, dan limas

Kelas IX, Semester 1

Standar Kompetensi Kompetensi Dasar

Geometri dan Pengukuran

1. Memahami kesebangunan bangun 1.1 Mengidentifikasi bangun-bangun datar yang


datar dan penggunaannya dalam sebangun dan kongruen
pemecahan masalah
1.2 Mengidentifikasi sifat-sifat dan segitiga
sebangun dan kongruen

1.3 Menggunakan konsep kesebangunan segitiga


dalam pemecahan masalah

2. Memahami sifat-sifat tabung, 2.1 Mengidentifikasi unsur-unsur tabung, kerucut


kerucut, dan bola, serta menentukan dan bola
ukurannya
2.2 Menghitung luas selimut dan volume tabung,
kerucut dan bola

2.3 Memecahkan masalah yang berkaitan dengan


tabung, kerucut dan bola

Statika dan Peluang

3. Melakukan pengolahan dan 3.1 Menentukan rata-rata, median, dan


penyajian data modusdata tunggal serta penafsirannya

3.2 Menyajikandata dalam bentuk tabel dan


diagram batang, garis, dan lingkaran

4. Memahami peluang kejadian 4.1 Menentukan ruang sampel suatu percobaan


sederhana
4.2 Menentukan peluang suatu kejadian
sederhana

Kelas IX, Semester 2

Kompetensi Standar Kompetensi Dasar

Bilangan

25
5. Memahami sifat-sifat bilangan 5.1 Mengidentifikasi sifat-sifat bilangan
berpangkat dan bentuk akar serta berpangkat dan bentuk akar
penggunaannya dalam pemecahan
masalah sederhana 5.2 Melakukan operasi aljabar yang melibatkan
bilangan berpangkat bulat dan bentuk akar

5.3 Memecakan masalah sederhana yang


berkaitan dengan bilangan berpangkat dan
bentuk akar

6. Memahami barisan dan deret 6.1 Menentukan pola barisan bilangan sederhana
bilangan serta penggunaannya
dalam pemecahan masalah 6.2 Menentukan suku ke-n barisan aritmetika dan
barisan geometri

6.3 Menentukan jyumlah n suku pertama deret


aritmetika dan deret geometri

6.4 Memecahkan masalah yang berkaaitan


dengan barisan dan deret

7. Memahami sifat-sifat logaritma serta


7.1 Menghitung nilai logaritma suatu
menyelesaikan permasalahan yang bilanganMenggunakan sifst-sifat logaritma
berhubungan dengan logaritma

Dari dua tabel di atas nampak perbedaan yang cukup mencolok antara kurikulum
ke dua negara dalam tingkat sekolah menengah. Di indonesia fokus materi hanya pada
aljabar, geometri dan statistika yang sederhana. Sedangkan di Singapura materi yang
disajikan dalam tingkat sekolah menengah lebih rumit, dan tergantung juga pada tingkat
sekolah yang di ambil seperti kelas O atau kelas N. Kelas dengan klasifikasi O ditempuh
selama 4 tahun sedangkan klasifikasi N ditempuh selama 5 tahun.
Walaupun waktu yang ditempuh dalam sekolah menengah lebih lama daripada
di Indonesia ternyata materi yang di ajarkan justru lebih banyak dan lebih kompleks. Bahkan
ada beberapa materi yang di Indonesia dipelajari dalam tingkat sekolah lanjut (SMA), tetapi
di Singapura sudah di ajarkan dalam tingkat menengah seperti trigonometri dan matriks.

26

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