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Human Anatomy & Physiology II – Dr.

Sullivan
Unit IX – Reproductive System
Chapter 27 (male) & Chapter 28 (female)
I. Male Reproductive System: Anatomy
a) Scrotum: a sac consisting of loose skin & CT hanging from the root of the penis.
i) The scrotum is the supporting structure for the testicles or testes.
b) Testicles: two oval glands suspended within the scrotum divided into 250-300 lobules, each
lobule consisting of one to three tightly coiled seminiferous tubules.
i) The seminiferous tubules produce sperm using a process known as spermatogenesis.
c) Sperm: The male haploid reproductive gamete carrying all the genetic information donated by the
father to a fertilized egg in reproduction.
i) Three parts:
(1) Head: the nucleus
(2) Acrosome: on the tip of the head, contains enzymes designed to penetrate the wall of the
egg.
(3) The midpiece: containing mitochondria
(4) Tail: flagella for motility
d) Epididymis: small, comma-shape organ along the posterior border of the testes
i) Sperm cells mature in the epididymis so they can become motile and able to fertilize the
ovum (egg)
e) Semen: A mixture of sperm and seminal fluid used to carry sperm through ejaculation (the release
of semen via the urethra)
f) Ductus Deferens: a duct about 45 cm long extending from the epididymis supriorly from the
scrotum around the anterior of the pubic symphysis and around the urinary bladder from the
anterior to posterior eventually swelling into a thicker protion called the ampulla until it reaches
the prostate gland on the way to the urethra.
i) Stores sperm as well as conveys sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
g) Spermatic Cord: A tube that encloses the ductus deferens, arteries, veins, muscles, and nerves as
the travel through the male reproductive system.
h) Ejaculatory Ducts: formed by the union of the ampulla of the ductus deferens and the seminal
vesicle as they pass through the prostate.
i) They terminate in the prostatic urethra where they release sperm and seminal vesicle
secretions into the urethra just before ejaculation.
i) Urethra: A duct shared (in males) by the urinary and reproductive systems to allow semen and
urine to exit the body through the tip of the penis.
i) Divided into three segments:
(1) Prostatic Urethra: the most proximal part of the urethra begins surrounded by the
prostate gland
(2) Membranous Urethra: just inferior to the prostatic, it passes by the ischia and pubis
bones through a muscle called the urogenital diaphragm.
(3) Penile Urethra: after passing through the urogenital diaphragm, the urethra enters the
penis where it extends all the way to the tip at the opening called the external urethral
orifice.
(a) This is where urine and semen exit the body.
j) Accessory Sex Glands: glands that secrete most of the liquid portion of semen
i) Seminal Vesicles: two convoluted, pouchlike structureslying posterior to the base of the
urinary bladder.
(1) secrete a viscous (thick) fluid rich in fructose (monosaccharide sugar), prostaglandins and
clotting factors.
(2) Normally makes up about 60% of the semen volume
ii) Prostate: a single, donut-shaped gland about the size of a golf ball.
(1) Grows slowly until puberty, more rapidly until about aget 30, stops growing, then starts
again after 45.
(2) Secretes a milky, acidic fluid that helps semen coagulate after ejaculation.
(3) Bulbourethral Glands: found just distal to the urogenital diaphragm
(a) bilateral, about the size of a pea.
(b) secretes alkaline (basic) fluid that neutralizes the acidic environment of the urethra
and mucus that lubricates the urethral lining and the tip of the penis during
intercourse.
iii) Penis:
(1) Cylindrical in shape, with three main parts creating a passageway for the urethra
(2) Root: the base of the penis (most proximal portion)
(3) Body: the shaft
(a) Contains the corpora cavernosa and corpus spongiosum
(4) Glans: the head or tip of the penis.
(5) Erection: during sexual stimulation, the arteries in the penis dilate causing the corpora
cavernosa to fill with blood and enlarge and stiffen the penis.
(6) Ejaculation: upon physical sexual stimulation, the seminal fluid is released and
forcefully expelled through the penile urethra to exit the body.
II. The Female Reproductive System: Anatomy
a) Ovaries: bilateral, almond-shaped and sized organs that produce the female haploid reproductive
gametes (ova or eggs) carrying all the genetic information from the mother for reproduction.
b) Uterine Tubes (aka Fallopian): bilateral tubes that carry the ovum from the ovary to the uterus.
i) Fimbria: finger-like projections on the ovarian end of the uterine tube designed to sweep the
ovum into the tube after ovulation (release of the ovum by the ovary).
ii) Sperm cells usually enter the uterine tube and fertilize the ovum there. The union of the two
in a successful fertilization results in a zygote, which begins to undergo cell division while it
makes its way to the uterus (about 6 or 7 days).
iii) The zygote is propelled by currents created by the fimbria’s sweeping motions.
c) Uterus (aka womb): the site where the zygote is implanted after fertilization so that it can develop
into an embryo, eventually a fetus, and contribute to labor and child-birth.
i) Located superior and posterior to the urinary bladder and anterior to the rectum.
ii) Within the peritoneum at the inferior
iii) Held into its position in the pelvic cavity by folds of peritoneum that afford it stability and
flexibility
iv) Bilateral broad ligaments: to the internal wall of the pelvic cavity
v) Bilateral Uterosacral ligaments: to the sacrum on either side of the rectum
vi) Cardinal Ligaments: anchor the cervix and vagina to the pelvic wall
vii) Round Ligaments: extend from the lateral aspects of the uterus to the anterior wall of the
pelvic cavity.
viii) Uterine Cavity: the space inside the uterus
(1) There are three layers to the uterine cavity wall:
(a) Endometrium: the highly-vascularized, innermost layer
(i) Stratum Functionalis: the innermost layer of the endometrium that lines the
uterine cavity and thickens during the 28-day menstrual or reproductive cycle to
prepare for implantation of the zygote.
1. If fertilization does not occur, this is shed during menstruation.
(b) Myometrium: the middle layer (smooth muscle)
(c) Perimetrium: the outermost layer
(2) The cervix is the most inferior portion of the uterus, which opens the uterus up into the
vagina.
(a) the cervix is made of smooth muscle and lined internally by stratified squamous
epithelium (the cells scraped and examined during a pap smear test).
(b) External Os: entrance from vagina to the cervix
(c) Internal Os: entrance from cervix into main uterus
(d) Cervical canal: the lumen of the cervix
d) Vagina: Tubular, muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body that
serves as the receptacle for the penis during sexual intercourse.
e) Vulva: the external females genitalia made of many components
i) Mons Pubis: elevation of adipose tissue covered by skin and pubic hair that cushions the
pubic symphysis
ii) Labia Majora: two lateral, longitudinal folds of skin that extend posteriorly and inferiorly.
(1) abundant in sweat and sebaceous glands, and adipose tissue
(2) homologous to the scrotum in males
iii) Labia Minora: two smaller folds of skin medial to the labia majora.
(1) no hair or sweat glands, but abundant in sebaceous glands
(2) homologous to the spongy urethra in males.
iv) Clitoris: small cylindrical mass of erectile tissue and nerves at the anterior junction of the
labia minora.
(1) homologous to the glans panis in males
v) Vaginal Orifice: the external opening to the vagina
vi) External urethral orifice: opening to the urethra (for urinary system only in females)
f) Mammary Glands: bilateral glands in the breasts that are sweat glands modified to produce milk
for an infant.
i) The mammary glands in the breasts are surrounded by adipose tissue.
ii) The glands secrete milk into lactiferous ducts that carry the milk out of the breast via a series
of small openings in the nipple (a small darkly pigmented projection in the center of the
breast).
iii) Areola: darkly-pigmented and roughened skin surrounding the nipple
(1) Rich in sebaceous glands
iv) Suspensory Ligaments: strands of connective tissue running from the skin and deep fascia to
support the breast.

III. The Female Reproductive Cycle


a) During the reproductive years, non-pregnant females exhibit cyclical changes in the ovaries and
uterus.
i) Each cycle takes approximately one month and functions to release an ovum and prepare the
uterus to receive a fertilized ovum.
ii) The cycles are controlled by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus (brain), anterior
pituitary gland (brain), and the ovaries.
b) There are two main cycles included in the Female Reproductive Cycle
i) Ovarian Cycle – events in the ovaries occurring during and after the maturation of an oocyte
(egg cell)
ii) Uterine Cycle (aka Menstrual Cycle) – A series of changes in the endometrium of the uterus
(concurrent to the ovarian cycle) preparing it for implantation and development of a
potentially fertilized ovum.
c) Phases of the Female Reproductive Cycle
i) Menstrual Phase: aka Menstruation.
(1) 1st 5 days of cycle
(2) The first day of menstruation marks the first day of the cycle
(3) Approximately 100-150ml of blood, mucus, tissue fluid, and epithelial cells are shed
from the endometrium.
(a) Caused by a decrease in ovarian hormones signaling that there has been no
fertilization in the previous cycle.
(4) At the same time about 20 small, secondary follicles in the ovary begin to enlarge and
move to the edge of the ovary to prepare to be released for ovulation.
ii) Preovulatory Phase: between the end of menstruation and ovulation
(1) Typically lasts from days 6-13 in the 28-day cycle
(2) This is the most variable of the phases and is responsible for the differences in duration
from person to person.
(3) Under the influence of a pituitary hormone called Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH),
about 20 follicles begin to grow in the ovaries, all harboring a primary oocyte.
(a) In one of the two ovaries, a dominant follicle emerges above all other growing
follicles as the largest and becomes the dominant follicle.
(i) The other follicles undergo atresia (degeneration), due to a decrease in FSH.
(ii) Inside this follicle, a primary oocyte is maturing and awaiting it’s release
(ovulation) from the follicle.
(iii) The dominant follicle matures and becomes the mature follicle (aka Graafian
Follicle) and continues to grow to about 20mm in diameter.
(4) During this time, the endometrium is repaired in the uterus and begins to proliferate to
prepare itself for a fertilized ovum again.
(a) AKA the Proliferative Phase.
iii) Ovulation: The mature follicle ruptures and releases the secondary oocyte into the pelvic
cavity.
(1) Usually occurs on day 14 of the cycle.
(2) A surge of another pituitary hormone called Leutenizing Hormone (LH) occurs. 9 hours
later, it causes the rupture of the dominant follicle and release of the secondary oocyte.
(3) The oocyte is usually swept into the uterine tube by its fimbria.
(4) LH can be detected by an OTC test to determine ovulation the day before it begins.
iv) Postovulatory Phase: The time between ovulation and the next onset of menstruation (aka
menses).
(1) Last from day 15 to Day 28.
(2) The most consistent in length of all the phases.
(3) After ovulation, the mature follicle collapses and a blood clot forms.
(a) The follicle now becomes the corpus hemorragicum,
(b) Then, the cells of the c.h. mix and form a corpus luteum.
(4) The corpus luteum secretes hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, relaxin, and
inhibin.
(a) These hormones promote the growth and coiling of the endometrial glands in the
uterus, thickening and vascularization of the endometrium preparing it for
implantation of a fertilizes egg (aka zygote).
(5) If the oocyte is NOT fertilized:
(a) The corpus luteum lasts 2 weeks, continuing to release progesterone and estrogen
until it degenerates into the corpus albicans.
(b) When the progesterone and estrogen release stops, the pituitary gland increases its
release of FSH & LH, follicular growth resumes and a new ovarian cycle begins.
(c) Withdrawal of progesterone also cause the onset of menstruation and the a new
uterine cycle begins as well.
(6) If the secondary oocyte IS fertilized and begins to divide:
(a) The corpus luteum lasts beyond its 2 week life span.
(b) 8 days after fertilization, the embryo itself releases a hormone called human
chorionic gonadotrpin (hCG). This hormone is what saves the corpus luteum from
degeneration.
(c) The corpus luteum continues to secrete hormones promoting the growth of the
endometrium in preparation for implantation of the fertilized ovum.
(d) hCG in the maternal blood or urine is the indicator for a positive pregnancy test.