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ISSN 2319-8885


Design Implementation of Copper Film Distribution Transformer

Dept of Electrical Power Engineering, Mandalay Technological University, Mandalay, Myanmar,
Dept of Electrical Power Engineering, Mandalay Technological University, Mandalay, Myanmar,

Abstract: Transformer is essential and important in power system. Distribution transformer is designed for output rating of
500kVA, 11/0.4kV with sheet winding. Application of sheet windings is common practice for distribution transformers but is
usually only applied to small power transformers. In distribution transformer, sheet (copper film) windings are very common
for low voltage windings. The benefit of this is that any high voltage ampere-turn asymmetry which might occur is
compensated automatically by an appropriate internal current distribution in the low voltage foil. This reduce the axial stresses
produced by the short circuits to a minimum (down to 10% of those for conventional windings), thus enabling the axial support
construction to be greatly simplified. This paper presents a design theory and calculation of a three phase foil winding
transformer design with the output rating of 500VA, 11kV~0.4 kV used in distribution.

Keywords: Distribution Transformer, Sheet Windings, Copper Film, Low Voltage Winding, Tap Changer.

I. INTRODUCTION of laminations is 0.23mm, 0.27mm, 0.3mm and 0.35mm.

Transformer convert generation level voltage to Grain-Oriented Electrical Steel is used as the core material
transmission level voltage and transmission level voltage to for transformer. The slitting operation itself means slitting the
distribution level voltage. Smaller transformer then converts mother coil into narrow hoops. But in case of electrical steel,
distribution level voltage to consumer level voltage. such an operation causes deterioration of magnetic properties
Transformer is a static device, no moving continuously of the mother coil [1]. Core slitting shows in figure 1.
moving parts that mechanically links two or more circuits for
time-varying voltage and current, used in electrical power
systems to transfer power between circuits through the use of
electromagnetic induction. The transformer is an
electromagnetic conversion device in which electrical energy
received by primary winding is first converted into magnetic
energy which is reconverted back into a useful electrical
energy in other circuits (secondary winding). The transformer
is constructed with temperature measuring device, tap
changer, bushing and cable box on incoming and outgoing


A transformer is basically electromagnetic static
equipment based on the principle of Faraday’s Law of
electromagnetic induction. When going into the design, we
shall now discuss on the processing of three major raw
materials which constitute about 70 percent of the cost of a
transformer. They are Cold-Rolled Grain Oriented Silicon Figure 1. Core Slitting
Steel, Winding wires and strips, and Oil.
B. Core Building
A. CRGO Silicon Steel Various types of core stacking for three phase
A transformer essentially of a magnetic core is built up transformers have commonly been adopted during
of laminations of high grade silicon steel sheet, which are manufacture. Step core building schemes have been shown in
insulated by a special coating of varnish. The usual thickness figure 2. The following processes are core procedure [1].

Copyright @ 2014 SEMAR GROUPS TECHNICAL SOCIETY. All rights reserved.


Figure 2. Core cutting and stacking processes for 3 phase Figure 4. Foil winding for LV voltage.
Helical Winding: When the current is heavy for the low
C. Types of Winding voltage winding, the Helical winding (Spiral Winding a
According to the voltage ratings and current, we adopt special type flat spiral winding) is used. In the helical
one of the following types of windings. winding, it is possible to make complete transposition of the
total number of parallel conductors in the course of winding.
1. Cylindrical Winding
Because of simple construction, good space factor and High Series Capacity Winding: The high series capacity
economy, the Cylindrical Winding is used for the low voltage winding which is used for transformer above 72.5kV, has
and small current. Cylindrical winding are wound with very good impulse voltage characteristics and great dielectric
various conductor such as Rectangular copper conductors, strength [3].
Round magnetic wire (enamel) and Copper foil (see fig 3).
D. Coil Insulation and Insulation Paper
Insulation structure is to achieve the coordination of
penetrating dielectric strength and creeping dielectric
strength so as to resist to the stress of commercial frequency
and various surges. Usability as insulation in electrical
1. Flexibility
2. Easy to use
3. Higher insulation with lesser thickness
4. Higher resistance to oil
5. Reasonable heat resistance
6. Lower chloride impurities
The paper is silted into various widths depending upon
the number of coverings required on the controller [4].

E. Transformer Oil
Copper foil Round magnetic wire Insulating oil in an electrical power transformer is
Figure 3. Two types of conductor. commonly known as Transformer Oil. It is normally obtained
by fractional distillation and subsequent treatment of crude
Cylindrical winding with copper foil is terms as foil petroleum. That is why this oil is also known as Mineral
winding. Foil winding design is as shown in figure 4. Insulating Oil. Transformer Oil serves mainly two purposes
one it is liquid insulation in electrical power transformer and
2. Continuous Disc Winding: These are most commonly two it dissipates heat of the transformer i.e. acts as coolant
used for coils below 24kV. In case of parallel constructions, [5].
there is no problem as to circulating current and eddy current III. DESIGN SYSTEM
loss as being made transposition at each turn, being disc A. Basic Concept of Design
shaped coils piled up continuously with no joints and The basic concept of the selection of number of turns
provided with oil ducts, they are of sturdy construction both
electrically and mechanically. with the equation is, E t = K
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.07, May-2014, Pages: 1227-1233
Design Implementation of Copper Film Distribution Transformer
Where, E t =voltage per turn Window area, Aw = 0.075 m2
Width of window, bw = D  d (for various stepped core) (5)
Q = rated kVA
K=factor to be decided L (D  d) = 0.075 m2 and = 2.75(assume)
Based on any assumed value of K a preliminary design is (D - d)
worked out. All performance figures like losses, impedance, Solving the above Equation,
resistance, etc. are calculated and compared with the Length of the core, L = 0.454 m
guaranteed values. In case of any difference between the Width of the window, bw = D  d =0.165 m
calculated values and the guaranteed values, a separate re- D = bw + d = 0.353 m
turn is done with a revised value of K [1]. Overall length of the yoke,
500 W = 2D+0.9d =0.875 mm (6)
E t = 0.75 = 9.682 V/turn (2)
3 W
The value of K factor chosen is 0.75.
B. Selection of Core Area
Based on the requirement of no-load loss and no-load
current, a suitable working flux density are known, the gross d
core area may be calculated by using the formula: window
E t =4.44 f Bm Ai
(3) L
The design is to select the number of turns of coils and
proceed further towards estimating the coil configuration till bw
arriving at the window height of the core frame. Based on the
calculated window height, the design of the low voltage coil
is done. Further, the core diameter, step width, core stack,
core area, flux density, etc. are calculated with the design
output available [1]. The fig 5 and table shows the main
dimensions of magnetic frame.
Figure 5. Main Dimensions of Magnetic Frame.
Et C. Selection of Winding Wires and Strips
Ai = = 0.034 m2 (4) Winding wires and strips are selected on the bases as the
4.44 f Bm
requirement of the design current. While selecting the size of
a conductor, we must keep in mind the winding materials as
Maximum flux density chosen is 1.3 Tesla. For step core, well as the current density. To start the preliminary design,
Ai = ki d2, core diameter, d = 0.188 m the current density may be based on the following values.
ki = stacking factor, For 9 step ,stacking factor is 0.955.
Q = 3.33fBmδkwAw Ai Volt-Amp For aluminium winding: 1.5 A/mm2(maximum)
For copper winding: 3.0 A/mm2 (maximum)
TABLE I: DIMENSIONS OF MAGNETIC FRAME For foil winding: 3.6 A/mm2 (maximum)

Next come, the formula have been dealt with no load

loss, load loss, no load current, percentage reactance,
resistance impedance, efficiency and regulation etc [2]. For
500kVA, 11/0.4kV foil winding distribution transformer,

T2 = =24 turns, (7)

3  kVA
I2 = =721.68 A (8)
3  V2
Current density, δ 2= 3.6 A/mm2
I 721.68
Cross sectional area, a 2  2 = = 200 mm (9)
δ2 3.6

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume.03, IssueNo.07, May-2014, Pages: 1227-1233
Size of the rectangular strand = 360 mm×0.55 mm TABLE II: RADIAL ARRANGEMENT OF LOW
Sectional area of rectangular conductor=198 mm2 VOLTAGE WINDING
T V No Description Dimension
From general equation, 1 = 1 (mm)
T2 V2
1 Bobbin inside diameter 191
Total no: of turn /ph, T1=1200 turns for 5 tapping Bobbin thickness 2
3 Bobbin outside diameter 195
500 × 10
Current per phase, I1 = = 15.15 A 2 Kraft paper (0.13×3) 0.39
3 × 11000 Kraft paper outside diameter 95.78
Current density, δ1 = 3 A/mm2 (choose) 3 LT1st layer thickness 0.55
I1 15.15 2
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
Cross sectional area, a1= = = 5.05 mm (10) LT 2nd layer thickness 0.55
δ1 3
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
2 rd
πd 4a1 4 × 5.05 LT 3 layer thickness 0.55
Area, a1= , d= = = 2.54 mm (11) Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
4 π π
LT 4th layer thickness 0.55
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
Suitable size of the round conductor stand = 2.75 mm th
(diameter). According to the window height L and width bw LT 5 layer thickness 0.55
and choice of conductor size, the following layer construction Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
LT 6th layer thickness 0.55
are suitable (see fig 6).
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
LT 7th layer thickness 0.55
Oil duct b/w core
& insulation

Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3


LT 8th layer thickness 0.55

Total turns=1200 turnsTotal turns=24 turns LT 8th layer outside diameter 08.78
(120 turns per one (one turn per one 4 Oil duct thickness 3
layer) layer) Kraft paper (0.15×2) 0.3
Kraft paper outside diameter 15.38
5 LT 9th layer thickness 0.55
8 layer foil winding

8 layer foil winding

8 layer foil winding

5 layer enamel winding
5 layer enamel winding

Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3

LT 9th layer thickness 0.55

Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3

LT 10th layer thickness 0.55
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
LT 11th layer thickness 0.55
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
LT 12th layer thickness 0.55
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
LT 13th layer thickness 0.55
Figure 6. Winding layer design of transformer. Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
LT 14th layer thickness 0.55
Low Voltage Winding Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2
Conductor size 0.55mm × 360mm LT 15th layer thickness 0.3
Total turn 24 turns Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.55
Total layer 24 layer LT 16th layer thickness 0.3
Liner 15mm LT 16th layer outside diameter 0.55
Axial space for one layer 360mm 228.38
6 Oil duct thickness 3
High Voltage Winding Kraft paper(0.15×2) 0.3
Conductor size diameter 2.75mm (enamel wire) Kraft paper outside diameter 234.98
Total turn 1200 turn 7 LT 17th layer thickness 0.55
Total layer 10 layer Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
Liner 25mm LT 18th layer thickness 0.55
Axial space for one layer 340mm Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
Above layer construction is as shown in figure 6. LT 19th layer thickness 0.55
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
The table shows the radial width of LV and HV winding. LT 20th layer thickness 0.55
Core diameter = 188 mm. Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume.03, IssueNo.07, May-2014, Pages: 1227-1233
Design Implementation of Copper Film Distribution Transformer
LT 21th layer thickness 0.55 Total iron loss by increasing 7% due to unequal flux density
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3 distribution in cores and yokes = 0.8616 kW
LT 22th layer thickness 0.55 Do1 = Di1+b1 = 331.3 mm (14)
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
Clearance b/w h.v winding on adjacent limbs = 21.7 mm
LT 23th layer thickness 0.55
Diamond paper(insulation),0.15×2 0.3
D +D
LT 24th layer thickness 0.55 Dm1 = i1 o1 = 296.29 mm (15)
Outer diameter of L.V winding 247.98 2
Mean length of h.v turns, Lmt =π Dm1
No Description Dimension ρL mt1T1
(mm) Resistance, r1 = = 4.42 Ω (17)
1 Oil duct b/w LV & HV 6 a1
Kraft paper (0.13×5) 0.65 Similarly, for l.v winding D m2, Lm2,r2 can be calculated
Outside diameter of kraft paper 261.28

2 HT 1st layer thickness 2.75

Kraft paper thickness(0.13×5) 0.39
HT 2nd layer thickness 2.75
Kraft paper thickness(0.13×5) 0.39
HT 3rd layer thickness 2.75
Kraft paper thickness(0.13×5) 0.39
HT 4th layer thickness 2.75
Kraft paper thickness(0.13×5) 0.39
HT 5th layer thickness 2.7
HT 5th layer outside diameter 291.9

3 Oil duct thickness 4

Kraft paper thickness (0.13×3) 0.39
Outside diameter of kraft paper 300.68

4 HT 6th layer thickness 2.75

Kraft paper thickness (0.13×3) 0.39
HT 7th layer thickness 2.75 Load loss arises from the resistive components, used for
Kraft paper thickness (0.13×3) 0.39 building the high voltage and low voltage windings. It
HT 8th layer thickness 2.75 comprises I2R loss of windings, loss due to eddy current and
Kraft paper thickness (0.13×3) 0.39 stray loss in the tank and core clamp.
HT 9th layer thickness 2.75 Copper losses in l.v winding = 2.565 kW
Kraft paper thickness (0.13×3) 0.39 Copper losses in h.v winding = 3.043 kW
HT 10th layer thickness 2.75 Total copper losses in two winding = 5.608 kW
Outer diameter of HV winding 331.3
Winding connections and stray losses increase the copper
D. Transformer Losses losses, which is taken approximately 5%.
Transformer loss has mainly two components as no-load Total copper losses = 1.05× 5.608 kW = 5.8884 kW.
loss and load loss. No-load loss results the steel materials,
used for magnetizing core laminations. It includes hysteresis E. Percentage Reactance, Resistance and Impedance
and eddy current loss, dielectric loss and copper loss due to Percentage Reactance: The formula commonly being used
no-load current. for calculating reactance is as follows:

Volume of the cores = 3×Ac×L (12) 2πfμ 0l mt (AT) b + b2

Iron loss in cores = 0.3805 kW Ɛx = [a + 1 ] = 0.04 pu (18)
Lc E t 3
Volume of the yoke = 2AyW (13) Percentage Resistance: The formula commonly being used
Iron loss in yokes = 0.4247 kW for percentage resistance is as follows:
Iron loss in cores and yokes = 0.8052 kW

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume.03, IssueNo.07, May-2014, Pages: 1227-1233
Total copper losses The length of the tank for 3 phase transformer,
Ɛr = = 0.01 pu (19)
kVA rating L = 2D+D +Δ l =1112.3 mm
t o1

Percentage Impedance: Percentage impedance is the The width of the tank for 3 phase transformer,
vector sum of percentage reactance and percentage b = D +Δb= 491.3 mm
t o1
2 2 The height of the tank for 3 phase transformer,
Z(%) = X(%) + R(%) = 0.04 pu (20)
h = L+2h +Δh= 1142 mm
t y
F. Efficiency
Output Power
Efficiency = × 100 (21)
Output Power + total losses

Where, output is the rated kVA and total losses are equal
to the sum total of no-load and load loss in kW [4].
Efficiency at full load at unity p.f = 98.67 %
G. Regulation
The voltage ratio defined for any transformer is at no-
load. During loading the load voltage drops down, based on
its percentage reactance and resistance. For any assumed load
other than the rated load and at any power factor, the
percentage regulation is approximately equal to

I1 ( R1 cos θ + X1 sin θ)
Per unit regulation, Ɛx= ×100 (22)
Per unit regulation at 0.8 p.f, Ɛ = 0.038 pu
Per unit regulation at unity p.f, Ɛ = 0.0119 pu = 1.19 %



Specification Symbo Unit Design

l Values

Performance Total width

Details bt=491.3mm
Pi kW 0.8616 Total length
Iron losses Pc kW 5.8884 Lt=1112.3 mm 28

Copper losses P kW 6.75

Figure 6. Tank design of distribution transformer
Total losses ƞ % 98.67
Full load Ɛ pu 0.0119 V. CONCLUSIONS
Voltage For 500kVA, 11/0.4kV, three phase, delta-star connected,
Regulation core type transformer is already designed. It can be used in
distribution system. Low voltage windings made of copper
sheet are attractive in regard to ease of manufacturing and
high mechanical strength. It also provides a unique axial
strength against short circuit forces exerted on the windings
To calculate main dimensions of tank, the following in case of through fault. By using this type of transformer,
clearances have been assumed. core losses and copper losses can be reduced than other types
Total clearance length-wise, Δl = 7.5 cm of transformer.
= 75 mm (assumed) VI. REFERENCES
Total clearance width-wise, Δb = 16 cm [1] “The J & P Transformer Book (Twelfth editions)”, A
Practical Technology of the Power Transformer.
= 160 mm (assumed)
Total clearance height-wise, Δh = 18 cm [2] “Transformer (Second edition)”, Bharat Heavy Electricals
= 180 mm (assumed) Limited Bhopal (MP).
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume.03, IssueNo.07, May-2014, Pages: 1227-1233
Design Implementation of Copper Film Distribution Transformer
[3] “Design of Transformers”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing
Company Limited.

[4] “Services Handbook for Transformer (ABB)”.

[5] S.Rao, M.E, M.I.E.India.,”Power Transformer and

Special Transformer” .

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume.03, IssueNo.07, May-2014, Pages: 1227-1233