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Temperature Control Water bath system using PID Controller

Article  in  International Journal of Applied Engineering Research · January 2015


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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.4 (2015) pp. 3443-3446
© Research India Publications;

Temperature Control Water bath system using PID Controller

T.Kavita B.Naga parvathi M.Lavanya M.Arivalagan
UG student UG student Assistant Professor Assistant Professor
Saveetha School of Engg. Saveetha School of Engg. Saveetha School of Engg. Saveetha Engineering College

Abstract: This paper deals with the controlling of temperature position of a control valve, a damper, or the power supplied to
in a water bath system using a PID controller. This project a heating element.
involves two stages, the first stage is designing the transfer
function for the water bath system. The second stage is
interfacing the predefined PID controller with the water bath Describtion Of Water Bath System
system. This project is designed in a way as user defined data. The water bath process consist of several things mainly water
The user sets up the required temperature limit in the PID tank, sensor, data acquisition system, controller and heater.
controller as the controller set point. An heating element is Here RTD is used as the temperature sensor DAQ is used for
used for heating the water in the water bath and the RTD inter connection between sensor and controller as well as
sensor placed in the water bath is responsible for sensing the controller and driver circuit. The RTD output is in terms of
water bath temperature. Based on the controller constant mille volt range so we use a amplifier circuit for increasing the
values and the temperature of the water bath, the temperature voltage range. The working of the system is described as,
is controlled by controlling the water inlet to the water bath. when the temperature is measured by the RTD it is converted
Ziegler Nichols tuning method is used for the PID controller into the voltage, which is going to the controller through
tuning method. The performance analysis of PD, PI and PID DAQ. The difference between set point and actual value is
controllers is done for the water bath system. applied to the controller, nothing but error .The PWM signal is
produced corresponding to the 10 output voltage of the sensor.
Keywords: Ziegler Nichols tuning method, RTD sensor, PID to control the temperature of the water bath process, it’s tuned
Controller automatically and correcting the error in the process its shown
figure 1.

Process control system is often nonlinear and difficult to
control accurately for the process. Their dynamic models of
the system are more difficult to derive. The conventional PID
controllers, in various combinations have been widely used for
industrial processes due to their simplicity and effectiveness
for linear systems, especially for first and second order
systems. It has been well known that Proportional Integral
Derivative (PID) controllers can be effectively used for linear
systems, but usually cannot be used for higher order and
nonlinear systems [1].

One of its main advantages is that no mathematical modelling

is required since the controller rules are especially based on
the knowledge of system behavior and experience of the
control engineer [2].The inaccuracy of mathematical Figure 1 A schematic diagram of the water bath
modelling of the plants usually degrades the performance of temperature control system
the controller, especially for nonlinear system and complex
control problems. System mainly includes: PID controller
module, the control algorithm module.
System Identification
The PID controller algorithm involves three separate fixed
parameters, and is accordingly called three-term control: the Steps For Performing System Identification
proportional, the integral and derivative values P, I, and D. 1. The input to the system is given as step input.
Simply, these values can be interpreted in words of time: P 2. The change in process variable and steady state is noted
depends on the current error, I on the accumulation of past 3. The total change in PV (Process variable) that is going to
errors, and D is a prediction of future errors, based on present occur is calculated.
rate of change. The weighted sum of these three actions is 4. Compute the value of 63.2% of PV
used to adjust the process via a control element such as the 5. Note down the time (t1) when it pass through the value
6. Subtract this from the time (t2) When the PV starts to build
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.4 (2015)
© Research India Publications;

up, when input change is given commonly used for feedback controller. A PID controller
7. Time constant (t) =t2-t1 calculates an "error" value as the difference between a
9. The general form of the first order transfer function is measured process variable and a fixed set point. The controller
given by used to minimize the error by adjusting the process control
inputs. A PID controller will be called a P, P or I, PD
controller in the absence of the respective control actions

According to the open loop test, the readings are listed above.
The transfer function obtained from this reading is given by

Design & Calculations

PID Controller: Zeigler Nichols open loop tuning formula
Figure 2 Block diagram of PID Controller
Steady state value=7.5
28.3% of the steady state value t1 = 2.5424 sec. The PID control scheme is named after its three correcting the
63.2% of the steady state value t2 = 6.0515sec. terms, whose sum values constitutes the manipulated variable
Time constant (T) = (t2 - t1) × 1.5 (MV). The proportional, integral, and derivative terms are
= (6.0515 -2.5424) × 1.5 summed to calculate the output of the PID controllers.
= 5.263sec. Defining values in U(t) as the controller output, then final the
Time delay (td) = (t2-T) = (6.0515 – 5.2636) PID algorithm
= 0.7879sec.
Transfer function of the given Process,


Proportional gain, Kp: Proportional gain, a tuning parameter

Ke: Integral gain, a tuning parameter

  Kd: Derivative gain, a tuning parameter e: Error = SP – MV

t: Time or instantaneous time

The Values of KP, KI and KD values of PID Controller is

shown in below table 1 are obtained by using the Ziegler
Nichols method.
Here, Table 1 Values of PID parameter

Controller Kp KI KD
PID 14.16 8.98 5.57

Result And Discussion

6.1 Ziegler Nichols Closed Loop Response for PID Controller
The transfer function obtained through empirical method of
Controller Design modelling is used as the system for studying the performance
of PD, PI & PID Controllers by Ziegler Nichols closed loop
5.1 PID controller response for PID controller as shown in figure above for the
A proportional integral derivative controller (PID controller) is temperature control system for water bath system is shown in
a generic control loop feedback mechanism (controller) widely figure 4
used in industrial control systems. PID controller is most

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.4 (2015)
© Research India Publications;

Figure 4 Simulation circuit of water bath system Figure 7 simulation PD output of water bath system

td(delay tr(rise Max ts(settling

time) time) peak time)
PID 0.64 1.53 1.25 6.34
PI 0.67 1.55 1.3 6.26
PD 0.72 - - -

In this paper the temperature process and the control strategy
adopted is PID controller. The temperature controller was
identified based the simulation output curve of PI , PD, PID
responses respectively .with this rise time, settling time, delay
time and maximum peak overshoot values are tabulated in the
table1.from the above table it is clear that the PID controller
Figure 5 Simulation PID output of water bath system has the less settling time, delay time, rise time and maximum
peak overshoot when compared to the other controllers by
using the transfer function model, simulation of Proportional
Integral Derivative controller was implemented. This
controller controls the temperature inside the water bath and
also maintains it while comparing with the other controllers
this PID controller enhances different tuning methods for
sensing and controlling the temperature.

In future, we are planning to do the modifications in the

control of temperature by controlling the water inlet of the
water bath by using different controllers. By this we conclude
that this method is efficient in maximum temperature tracking

Figure 6 simulation PI output of water bath system References

[1] T.P.Mote, Dr.S.D.Lokhande, “Temperature Control
System Using ANFIS”, International Journal of Soft
Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231-2307,
Volume-2, Issue-1, March 2012.
[2] Melba Mary.P, Marimuthu N.S Albert Singh. N,
“Design of Intelligent Self-Tuning Temperature Controller for
Water Bath Process”, International Journal of Imaging Science
and Engineering (IJISE), ISSN: 1934-9955, VOL.1, NO.4,
October 2007.

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.4 (2015)
© Research India Publications;

[3] Robert Babuška, Henk Verbruggen, “Neurofuzzy

methods for nonlinear system identification”, 1367-5788/$ –
see front matter © 2003 Published by Elsevier Science
[4] Yunseop Kim (2011), “Fuzzy Logic Temperature
Control”, IEEE Transactions on system Man and cybernetics
[5] Ajay B. Patil (2008), “Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy
Controller for Process Control System”, IEEE Region 10
Colloquium and the Third International Conference on
Industrial and Information Systems, December 8 -10.


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