Anda di halaman 1dari 17

,

RATIFICATION PAGE

Complete report of Human Anatomy and Physiology practicum with title


“Skeleton”, that arranged by:
Name : Nurul Athirah Arbi
ID : 1114040168
Group : I (One)
Class : ICP A 2011
Has been checked by Assistant and Assistant Coordinator, so this report
was accepted.

Makassar, June 16th 2014


Assistant Coordinator , Assistant,

Firdaus, S.Pd Iswati Sakra


ID. 101 404 175
,

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
The system works on the human body simultaneously and
harmoniously coordinated and fully achieves the same goal which is to keep
the body alive. The smallest movements we do every day, such as breathing,
crying, screaming in pain, smile, jump and others are the result of a perfect
coordination in the human body. Movement, both internal and external are
characteristic of all living things. The movement is an important
characteristic of an organism that must obtain food, in everyday life people
always do the movement whose purpose as a tool to make the shift
significantly. It is inevitable that the framework is a tool supporting passive
motion on the body, as well as support the body and also protects the soft
parts of the body, without any order, it can be imagined how fragile body,
and it is impossible for the muscles to perform contractions without assisted
by the framework.
Skeletal system is a system built by the structure of the body that are
hard to support and protect. This system includes the exoskeleton and the
endoskeleton. Exoskeletons are embryological derived from the epidermis
only, dermis, or both. While endoskeleton derived embryological from sub
dermal tissue, namely bone endoskeleton, endoskeleton of cartilage and
chordae. Exoskeletons are generally found in invertebrate animals. In the
vertebrate skeleton is more commonly known dermal endoskeleton. Not just
theory, therefore, it is necessary to direct observation of the object, so that
students can understand the layout, functions, characteristics, and structure of
the bones that make up the skeletal system in living organisms and is able to
explain it.
,

B. Purpose
The purpose of this experiment is to determine the anatomical position
in humans.
C. Benefit
The benefit from this experiment is to know and determine the
anatomical position in humans.
,

CHAPTER II
PREVIEW OF LITERATURE

The human body skeleton is formed (although still in the form of cartilage)
at the end of second month of pregnancy. The cartilage is formed by mesenchyme
that contains many osteoblasts. Bone cells are formed concentric from inside to
outside. Every bone cell covers the blood vessel and nerve forming Haversian
system. The matrix of bone cells are composed protein, calcium and phosphors.
Calcium and phosphors causes the displacement of bone matrix called
ossification. The are 206 bones composer of human body skeleton. Generally,
human body skeleton consist of axial and appendicular skeleton. Axial bones are
bones that compose major axis of human body, from head until coccyx. Axial
bones are divided into cranium and sternum. The function of skull are protecting
the brain, eyes, inner ear and forming face. Cranium is divided into head bone and
face bone. And those bone are unites forming the thoracic cavity, the place of the
heart and lungs. Those bones consist of the vertebral column, sternum, ribs,
pectoral girdle and pelvic girdle (Riandari, 2009: 120).
The human skeleton consists of both fused and individual bones supported
and supplemented by ligaments, tendons, muscles and cartilage. It serves as a
scaffold which supports organs, anchors muscles, and protects organs such as the
brain, lungs and heart. Because of these and other factors affecting an individual's
weight the human skeleton may comprise between 12 and 20 percent of a person's
total body weight with the average being 15 percent. Fused bones include those of
the pelvis and the cranium. Not all bones are interconnected directly: there are
three bones in each middle ear called the ossicles that articulate only with each
other. The hyoid bone, which is located in the neck and serves as the point of
attachment for the tongue, does not articulate with any other bones in the body,
being supported by muscles and ligaments. Muscles can apply very strong pulling
forces to the bones of the skeleton. To resist these forces, bones have enlarged
,

bony landmarks at sites where powerful muscles attach. This means that not only
the size of a bone, but also its shape, is related to its function. (AnonymA, 2014).
According to AnonymB (2014), human skeleton performs some important
functions that are necessary for survival of human beings:
1. Strength, support and shape: It gives strength, support and shape to the body.
Without a hard and rigid skeletal system, human body cannot stand upright,
and it will become just a bag of soft tissues without any proper shape.
2. Protection of delicate organs: In areas like the rib cage and skull, the skeleton
protects inner soft but vital organs like heart and brain from external shocks.
Any damage to these organs can prove fatal, therefore protective function of
skeleton is very important.
3. Leverage for movements: Bones of the human skeleton in all parts of body
provide attachment to the muscles. These muscles provide motor power for
producing movements of body parts. In these movements the parts of skeleton
acts like levers of different types thus producing movements according to the
needs of the human body.
4. Production of red blood cells: Bones like the sternum, and heads of tibia have
hemopoeitic activity (blood cells production). These are the sites of
production of new blood cells.
Have you ever noticed the difference between and animals to plants? Yes,
maybe one of them is in terms of movement. If we look carefully, the plants rarely
perform movements while the animals and we experienced a lot of movement.
Plants generally perform the movement grow in time, and other small movement.
Movement such as tropism, nasty and the other movements while movement of
animals are able to move on the move while plants cannot. What causes such a
case? It was not because of a system that support the above, namely, the motion
system (Taiyeb, 2014: 3).
According to Tsige, (2003: 51). The bones of the skeleton cannot be seen without
relatively sophisticated equipment. However, there are a number of physical signs that
can assist in the diagnosis of a bone or joint disorder. Important factors noted in the
physical examination include:
,

1. Limitation of movement or stiffness: Many joint disorders, such as the various forms
of arthritis, will restrict movement or produce stiffness at one or more joints.
2. The distribution of joint involvement and inflammation: In a mono arthritic condition,
only one joint is affected. In a poly arthritic condition, several joints are affected
simultaneously.
3. Sounds associated with joint movement: Bony crepitus is a crackling or grating sound
generated during movement of an abnormal joint. The sound may result from the
movement and collision of bone fragments following an articular fracture or from
friction and abrasion at an arthritic joint.
4. The presence of abnormal bone deposits: Thickened, raised areas of bone develop
around fracture sites during the repair process. Abnormal bone deposits may also
develop around the joints in the fingers. These deposits are called nodulesor nodes.
When palpated, nodules are solid and painless. Nodules, which can restrict
movement, often form at the inter phalangeal joints of the fingers in osteoarthritis.
5. Abnormal posture : Bone disorders that affect the spinal column can result in
abnormal posture. This is most apparent when the condition alters the normal spinal
curvature.
,

CHAPTER III
EXPERIMENT METHOD

A. Time and Place


Day/Date : Tuesday/June 3rd 2014
Time : 11.20 A.M until 01.00 P.M
Place : Biology Laboratory in east part in 3rd floor at FMIPA
UNM

B. Tool and Material


1. Tools
a. Pen
2. Material
a. Probandus

b. Torso

c. Paper

C. Work produce
1. Provides all the tools and materials to be used.

2. Observing the torso provided.

3. Shows the parts of bones in the torso.

4. Drawing of the bones is the column of observations.


,

CHAPTER IV
OBSERVATION RESULT

A. Observation result
Skull Picture

Notes: Notes:
1. Sutura koronal 9. Ramus
2. Os. Parietal 10. Dental
3. Squamosal sutura 11. Mandible
4. Os. Sphenoid
5. Os. Lacrimal A. Os. Frontal
6. Os. Temporal B. Os. Nasal
7. Os. Zygomaticum C. Os. Maxilaris
8. Processus zygomaticum D. Os. Mandibularis
,

Skull Picture

Notes:
1. Sutura coronal 11. Processus zygomaticum
2. Os. Frontal 12. Mandibula
3. Margin supraorbital 13. Mastoid procces
4. Os. Lacrimal 14. External auditory
5. Os. Sphenoidalis 15. Sutura lamboidal
6. Concha nasal inferior 16. Os. Occipital
7. Os. Maxila 17. Squamosal sutura
8. Ramus 18. Os. Parietal
9. Os. Mandibula 19. Inferior temporal line
10. Os. Zygomaticum 20. Superior temporal Ine
21. Temporal
,

Chest Bone Picture


Notes:
1. Os. Vertebra servicalis
2. Os. Clavicle
3. Os. Costa Vera
4. Os. Costa Spuria
5. Os. Costa Fluctuantes
6. Os. Vertebra Lombalis
7. Os. Illium
8. Os. Sacrum
9. Os. Coccigealis
10. Os. Ischium
11. Os. Pubicum
12. Os. Thoracalis
13. Os. Procecus Xypoideus
14. Os. Manubrium Sterni
15. Os. Scapula
16. Os. Corpus Sterni

Bone picture of human upper extremities


Notes:
1. Os. Humerus
2. Os. Radius
3. Os. Ulna
4. Os. Carpal
5. Os. Metacarpal
6. Os. Phalanges
,

Bone picture of human lower extremities


Notes:
1. Os. Femur
2. Os. Patela
3. Os. Fibula
4. Os. Tibia
5. Os. Tarsal
6. Os. Metatarsal
7. Os. Phalanges
8. Os. Calcaneus

B. Discussion
Based on the observations made in the human frame, it is known that
the human system consist of three parts, namely the skull, limb bones and
limb bones. The skull (cranium) formed by several bones that form curve one
another very closely related and consists of two parts: the cranium bones and
the bones of the face. Bone braincase consists of bones connected to each
other by jagged bone called sutures. Limb bones are formed by segments of
the spine (vertebrae), breastbone (sternum), ribs (costae), bone shoulder girdle
(pectoral), and the hip bone (pelvis) while the limb bones (extremity) consists
of the extremities upper and lower extremities.
1. Skull is composed of the cranial bones and facial bones. The cranial
bones include:
a. Os. frontal, frontal bone is located in the cranial bone anterior side,
bordering the parietal bone suture through koronalis. In the frontal
bone there is a sinus (cavity) is called the frontal sinus, which is
connected to the nasal cavity.
,

b. Os. ethmoidal, ethmoid bone is a bone that is behind the nasal and
lacrimal bones. Some parts of the ethmoid bone crista galli is
(projection superior to the attachment of the meninges), cribriform
plate (Crista galli basis, with the olfactory foramen missed olfactory
nerve).
c. Os. nasal, nasal bone is a bone that forms the bridge of the nose and
adjacent to the maxillary bone.
d. Os. spenoidal, sphenoid bone is a bone that runs from the fronto-
parieto-temporal one to the other
e. Os. lacrimal, lacrimal bone is a bone bordering the ethmoid bone and
maxillary bone, naso-lacrimal duct associated as the tear ducts.
f. Os. zigomatic, Bone zigomatikum a cheek bone, which articulates
with the frontal, temporal, and maxilla.
g. Os. maxilla, maxillary bone is the upper jaw bone. Maxillary
processes palatine include, among others, that forms part of the
anterior palate and alveolar process that holds the upper teeth.
h. Mandible, mandible is the lower jaw bone, which articulates with the
temporal bone through the process of the condylar.
i. Os. occipital, occipital bone is a bone located on the back side of the
skull. Between the occipital bone and parietal bones are separated by a
lamboid suture. At the base of the foramen magnum are the occipital
bone, the foramen that connect the brain and spinal cord.
j. Os. temporal there are two temporal bones on each side of the lateral
skull. Between the temporal bone and parietal bone is limited by the
squamous suture. Linkage between the temporal bone and the bone
called the processus zigomatikum.
k. Os. parietal there are two parietal bones, which are separated from
each other by the sagittal suture. While squamous suture separates the
parietal bone and the temporal bone.
,

2. Thoracic an order that covers the chest and protect the vital organs in it.
In general, the thorax is composed of the clavicle, scapula, sternum, and
the bones Costal.
a. Os. scapula bone is located in the posterior, and articulates with the
clavicle via the acromion. In addition, the scapula is also associated
with the glenoid fossa of the humerus through.
b. Os. clavicle is the bone that articulates with the acromion of the
scapula through, and at the other end that articulates with the
manubrium of the sternum.
c. Sternum is an elongated bone, from top to bottom, is composed of
the manubrium, body of the sternum, and processes xyphoideus.
Manubrium articulates with the clavicles, Costal first, and the body
of the sternum. While the corpus sternum is where cartilage means
calculation costal 2nd to 12th.
d. Os. costae is bone articulates with the thoracic vertebrae in the
posterior segment, and in the anterior articulates with the manubrium
and body of the sternum. There are 12 bones Costal; 7 Costal first
called Costal true (because each separately in the anterior articulates
with the manubrium and body of the sternum), 3 second Costal
called false Costal (due in part attached to the anterior third Costal
7th), and 2 Costal latter Costal drift (due in part articulates the
anterior two are not at all).
e. Columna Vertebral formed from individual bones called vertebrae
as. There are about 26 vertebrae, includes 7 cervical vertebrae, 12
thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, sacral vertebrae 1 (which
consists of 5 individual vertebra) and the first vertebra coccygeal
(consisting of 4-5 small coccygeal).
3. Extremity superior
a. Os. humerus, is the long bone in the upper arm, which is associated
with the glenoid fossa of the scapula through. In the proximal
humerus have some other parts of the anatomical neck, surgical
,

neck, tubercle major, minor and sulcus intertuberkular tubercles. At


the distal humerus have some other parts of the condyles, lateral
epicondyle, capitulum, trochlear, medial epicondyle and the
olecranon fossa (posterior side). Will ulna bone articulates with the
humerus in the olecranon fossa, forming a hinge joint.
b. Os. ulna, of the forearm is located on the medial side of the
anatomical position. In the proximal region, the ulna articulates with
the humerus through the olecranon fossa (in the posterior part) and
through the process of the coronoid (with the trochlea of the
humerus). This articulation shaped hinge joint, allowing the flexion-
extension motion. Also articulates with the radial ulna on the lateral
side. This articulation joints form the range, allowing the pronation-
supination motion. In areas distal ulna articulates with the radial
return, there is also a so-called processes styloid processes.
c. Os. radius, of the forearm is located on the lateral side of the
anatomical position. In proximal radius articulates with the ulna,
allowing the pronation-supination motion. While in the distal region,
there styloid processes and area for the attachment of the carpal
bones include bones scaphoid and lunate bones.
d. Os. carpal, consists of 8 short bones that articulate with the distal end
of the ulna and radius, and the proximal end of the metacarpal bone.
Between the carpal bones are sliding joints. The eighth is the
scaphoid bone, lunate, triqutrum, piriformis, trapezium, trapezoid,
capitate, and hamate.
e. Os. metacarpal, metacarpal bone consists of 5 contained in the wrist
and proximal portion articulates with the distal part of the carpal
bones. Joints produced by the carpal bones and metacarpal hand
made to be very flexible. At the thumb, there is a saddle joint
between carpal and metacarpal bones of the thumb allows such
movement crosses the palm and allows the clamping / gripping
,

something. Special on 1 finger metacarpal bone (thumb) and 2


(index finger) there is a sesamoid bone.
f. Os. phalanges, phalangs bones are the bones of the fingers, there are
two in each thumb phalangs (phalangs proximal and distal) and 3 in
each of the other fingers (phalangs proximal, medial, distal). Hinge
joint formed between bone phalangs make hand movements to be
more flexible, especially for grasping something.
4. The inferior extremities, lower extremities consists of the pelvic bones,
femur, tibia, fibula, tarsal, metatarsal, and the bones phalangs.
a. Os. femur, Femur is the fibula, which articulates with the proximal
part of the pelvis and the distal section articulates with the tibia
through the condyles. In areas proximal processes are called
trochanter major and minor trochanter, intertrochanteric connected
by lines. At the distal anterior and lateral condyle are the medial
condyle for articulation with the tibia, and patella bone surface for.
In the distal part of the posterior fossa intercondylar there.
b. Os. tibia, is the lower leg bone that is located more medially than the
fibula. At the proximal, medial condyle and tibia has lateral facies
where they are for articulation with the condyle of the femur. There
is also facies to articulate with the head of the fibula on the lateral
side. Moreover, the tibial tuberosity for the attachment of ligaments
have. In areas distal tibial articulation formed by the tarsal bones and
the medial malleolus.
c. Os. fibula, the lower leg bone fibula is located more laterally than
the tibia. In the proximal fibula articulates with the tibia. While in
the distal fibula and the lateral malleolus facies formed for
articulation with the tarsal bones.
,

CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion
After doing observation, we can concluded that the are 206 bones
composer of human body skeleton. Generally, human body skeleton consist
of axial and appendicular skeleton. Axial bones are bones that compose major
axis of human body, from head until coccyx. Axial bones are divided into
cranium and sternum. Cranium is divided into head bone and face bone. And
those bone are unites forming the thoracic cavity, the place of the heart and
lungs. Those bones consist of the vertebral column, sternum, ribs, pectoral
girdle and pelvic girdle.
B. Suggestion
1. Suggestion for Assistant
I hope assistant can give information and directive about observation,
may be can give time to make the result observation.
2. Suggestion for the all friends
I hope all friends can hear and can see if assistant and coordinator
assistant give information, so we can do observation.
,

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AnonymA. 2014. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_skeleton. Accessed at May


13th 2014. Makassar.

AnonymB. 2014. http://www.mananatomy.com/body-systems/skeletal-system.


Accessed at May 13th 2014. Makassar.

Riandari, Henny. 2009. Theory and Application of Biology 2. Solo: PT Tiga


Serangkai Pustaka Mandiri.

Taiyeb, Mushawwir, at all. 2014. Guidebook of Practicum Human Anatomy and


Physiology. Makassar: Biology Department FMIPA UNM.

Tsige, Yosief , 2003. Skeletal system. The Body Systems: Clinical and Applied
Topics.