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Applied Social Sciences

-practical application of social science.

Aristotle

= Episteme vs. Techne

Knowledge Practical

Episteme - the production of knowledge

Techne - “art” or “craft”

Early Beginnings of Applied Social Science

-growth of Universties in Europe

-Dominant Group<Minority Groups (Macro perspective vs. Micro perspective.)

Reasons:

Necessity, Demands, Attention to state instead of individuals.

Disciplines in Applied Social Sciences:

1. Accounting

-providea business principles an dother applied skills in the area of accounting.

2. Business Administration

-specializes in the operations and management of business institutions.

3. Communication

-how humans use verbal or non verbal messages.

-study of communication.

4. Counseling

- skilled and principle use of relationship to facilitate knowledge, emotional acceptance,


and growth for the optimal development of personal resources.

5. Criminilogy

-study of crime, criminal behavior and the legal system.

6. Healthcare Management

-provides professionals in clinics, hospitals, private practices, nursing homes, research


facilities

7. Human resources and organizational Developmemt


- provides background on personnel management, staff training and development.

8.

-specializes in the administrative knowledge needed to meet the demands of corporate


technical system.

9. Marketing

-includes promotion, creative services, public re

10. Policy Studies

-combination of policy analysis and program evaluation.

-study of nature, causes and effects of alternative public policies with particular emphasis
on determining the policies that will achieve given goals

11. Public administration

-implementation of government policy

-prepares civil servants for working in the public service.

12. Social Work

-seeks to improve the quality of life and well-being of an individual, group or community by
intervening through research.

-critical and holistic approach.

13. Urban Planning

-concerned with the use of land, protection and use of environment

COUNSELING

 A learning process by which individuald=s learn about themselves and their interpersonal
relationships and enacy behaviors that advance their perosnal development.

 Includes a sequence of steps ir actions whhich are geared towards a oarticular end.

 Leads client to a journey of self-explorartion, self-discovery.

DECISION MAKING - the knowledge and awareness that clients gained from counseling.
Counseling as a Relationship

Counseling is “a professional relationship between a trained counselor and a client.”

Counseling as an Art

counseling is “a flexible and creative process whereby the counselor adjusts the approach to the
unique and emerging needs of the clients.

Counseling as a Science

Delves into the objective realm of the counseling process.

A. Counseling as an Emerging Profession

A service sought by people in distress or in some degree of confusion who wish to discuss and
resolve these in a relationship.

Counseling Psychotherapy Guidance

Short-term long-term short-term

School, corporate setting clinical setting school setting

Mental Emotional

Curative Curative Preventative

Professional counselors Professional Doctors Anyone

CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING

1. Egalitarian - equal rights

2. Trust + confidentiality

Guidance and Counseling Act of 2004/ R.A No. 9258

-AN ACT PROFESSIONALIZING THE PRACTICE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING AND CREATING
FOR THIS PURPOSE A PROFESSIONAL REGULATORY BOARD OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING,
APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

GOALS OF COUNSELING

A. Minor goals

1. Insight
-understanding of the origins and development of emotional difficulties leading to an
increased capacity take rational control over feelings and actions.

2. Relating with others

-becoming better to form and maintain meaningful and satisfying relationships with other
people.

3. Self-awareness

-becoming more aware of thoughts and feelings that had been blocked off or denied, or
developing a more accurate sense of how self is perceived by others.

4. Self-acceptance

-the development of positive attitude.

5. Self-actualization

-moving in the direction of fulfilling potential or achieving an integration of previously


conflicting parts of self.

6. Enlightenment

-higher state of spiritual awakening.

7. Problem-solving

-Acquiring a general competence in problem-solving.

8. Psychological education

-helping clients to observe other behaviors.

9. Acquisition of social skills

-Learning and mastering social and interpersonal skills.

10. Cognitive change

-helping clients to think rationally

11. Behavior change

-the replacement of self-destructive patterns of behavior; building interpersonal


relationship.

12. Systematic Change

-introducing change

13. Empowerment

-working on skills, awareness, and knowledge that will enable the client to take control of
his or her own life.

14. Restitution

-helping the client to make amends for previous destructive behavior. To make peace and
healing.

15. Generativity

-the capacity to care for others.


B. Major Goals

1. Behavior change

2. Improving the client’s ability to establish and maintain relationships.

3. Enhancing the client’s effectiveness and ability to cope

4. Promoting the decision-making process.

5. Faciltating client potential and development.

COUNSELORS: WHO RE THEY?

Professionally trained individuals who help clients experiencing diffictulties by engagiong them
in the counseling process.

ROLES OF COUNSELOR:

1. Quasi-administrator

-Acts as administrator when the admin is absent.

2. Generalists

3. Specialist

-know how to handle clients

4. Agent for change.

5. Specialist in Psychological Educ.

-facilitating self-development

6. Applied behavioral Scientist

-making of theories.

7. Contingency Manager

-back-up plans

8. Consultant

9. Helping professionals

FUNCTIONS OF COUNSELOR
 Counseling

 Assessment

 Career Assistance

 Placement and follow-up

 Referral

 Evaluation and Accountability

 Prevention

COMPETENCIES OF COUNSELORS

 Knowledge

 Skills

 Attitudes

RIGHTS, RESPONSIBILITIES AND ACCOUNTABILITIES OF COUNSELORS

What makes a good counselor

1. Autonomy - respecting freedom choice and self-determination

2. Beneficence- doing good anad preventing harm

3. Fidelity- faithfulness or honoring commitments, confidentiality

4. Justice- define as fairness

5. Non maleficence- not inflicting harm.

UNETHICAL BEHAVIORS

1. Violation of confidentiality

2. Exceeding one’s level of professional competence

3. Negligent practice

4. Claiming expertise one does not possess

5. Imposing one’s value on a client

6. Sexual activity with the client

7. Dual relationship - professional not personal

8. Questionable financial arrangements

9. Improper advertising

10. Plagiarism when doing research.


CHARACTERISTICS AND NEEDS OF COUSELING CLIENTS

A. Principles of Emergence

 Rene Decartes

-clear and distinct goals

 Edmund Husserl

-phenomenological approach

-not forcing the clients to open-up

 Martin Heidegger

-revealing of hintsand clues

B. Principle of Divergence

-client’s problem is revealed

C. Principle of Convergence

-Problem + Client + Procedures

ROBERT J. HAVIGHURST’S DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS

-one way to understand the clients in counseling to look at the developmental tasks that
individual must learn and accomplish at a particular life stage.

-”Follow a pattern and are built uopn each other”

-development and learning of an individual is endless and no abrupt change

-may change from one culture to another and may change within a certain culture from time to
time.

1. Infancy and Early Childhood (0-6 yrs)- learning to walk, talk, take solid foods, getting ready to read.

2. Middle Childhood (6-12 yrs)- Learning to get along with age-mates.

3. Adolescence (13-18) - Achieving new and more mature relations with age-mates of both exes.

4. Early Adulthood (19-30)- selecting a mate

5. Middle Age (30-60) - establishing and maintaining an economic standard of living

6. Late Maturity (60 and above) -adjusting to decreasing and physical strength and health

ERIK ERICKSON’S PSYCHOLOGICAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT

- identify the crisis or challenges individuals overcome in each life stage.

Stages:

1. Basic trust vs. Mistrust


-infants solely depend on their parents or caregivers to satisfy their needs. The infants develop
trust and thus, when adults neglect to care for the infants they learn to develop mistrust.

2. Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt

-two to three years old.

-virtue of will is learned when parents and significant others are supportive as they start to do
things on their own. However, if parents refuse to encourage children to do things on their own, the
children may develop feelings of shame and self-doubt.

3. Initiative vs. Guilt

-3-5 yrs old.

-Initiative in doing tasks. Whatever the outcome of these tasks, adults encourage the children’s
efforts while assisting them. When adults are not encouraging enough, children develop things of
guilt over pursuing actions or projects.

-the virtue of purpose is learned.

4. Industry vs. Inferiority

-6-7 yrs old

-this is when children join groups which interest the. When children are supported and
commended in the performance of their activities may develop a sense of confidence, thus virtue of
competence is developed. On the other hand, children who are discouraged , criticized or punished
may feel inferior.

5. Identity vs. Role confusion

12-18 yrs old

When adolescents are able to adjust to the changes brought about by puberty this is when they
develop fidelity toward their character, values and purpose. Adolescents who are unable to make
sense of the various changes, on the other hand, experience role confusion.

6. Intimacy vs. Isolation

-19-40 yrs old

-Individuals at this stage are ready to establish long-term commitment to others: romantic and
friendship relationships.

-Virtue of love is developed.

-Those who are unable to establish intimate relationships experience isolation.

7. Generativity vs. Stagnation

-40 to mid 60 yrs old

-adults try to make their mark in the world which give them a sense of productivity, generativity
may result.

-Virtue of care is developed.

-Stagnation may result for adults who remain unproductive and uninvolved in society.

8. Ego Integrity vs. Despair


Individuals reflect on their lives. If they see that they are able to develop integrity, thus, the
virtue of wisdom. However, if they are dissatisfied, they may experience despair and hopelessness.

PRINCIPLE OF EMERGENCE, DIVERGENCE, CONVERGENCE

SETTINGS:

 School

 Industrial

 Clinical

TYPES OF COUNSELING:

1. Individual Counseling

2. Group Counseling - common concerns and goals

3. Multiple Counseling -more than one counselor

4. Couple Counseling-

5. Family Counseling

SERVICES OF COUNSELING

1. Addictions Counseling

2. Child and Adolescnt Counseling

3. Career Counseling

4. Community Counseling

5. Correctional Counseling - helping clients in various law and enforcement setting. (Female inmates)

6. Couple and Family Counseling

7. Crisis Counseling

8. Employment Counseling

9. Employment Counsleinng

10. Mental Health

11. Genontology Counseling - elders

STAGES OF COUNSELING by Nystul (1999)

1. Relationship Building

2. Assesment & Diagnosis

3. Formulation of Goals

4. Intervention and problem solving


5. Termination and follow up

6. Research and evaluation