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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1. The Background of the Study

English is a first foreign language taught as a compulsory subject from

primary level up to universities. In SMU, it is hoped that the students are able to

master English either spoken or written than from after they have finished study is

for certain period of times, because English is the most important language for as

English is used as first tool of communication in the world. Besides this, to get a

job. An applicant should master English, because a company needs the officer

who has competence in English.

Learning English is not only learning how to use language in

communication, but also it is important to learn about the language itself. We

have to know not only how to speak in English fluently, but also we have to be

able to speak accurately which means we have to use correct English and case

grammar.

Language is a tool of human relationship or human interaction to establish

communication between them. An act of communication is basically the

transmission of information of something to talk about and we can also give an

send information to other people Richard (1985:25) says that “Language is the

system of human communication by means of which structured arrangement of

sound”. In this case, the source and receiver are human, and the transmission

through the air and then marks on the paper. Without language the relationship
among people cannot run well. The problem of language are always discussed, not

only its roles and uses, but also in the way how to learn it’s as well.

Grammar is an important part in learning a language. By learning

grammar, we can use the language correctly. So than people who listen to us will

understand our English well.

2. The Identification of the problem

The study was identifiedas having relation to:

1. The students’ ability using determiners in sentence.

2. The difficultiesof the students using determiners in sentence.

3. The Scope and Limitation

This research investigated the students’ability using determiners and also

to investigate the students’ difficulties using determiners in sentence. Especially

to use articles.
4. The formulation of the problem

The problems of this research were formulatedas follows:

1. Are the students able using determiners in the sentence?

2. What difficulties do they have using determiners in sentence?

3. The objectivesof the study

The objectives of this research are:

1. To investigate the students’ ability using determiners in sentence.

2. To find out the students’ difficulties using determiners in the sentence.

3. The Signification of the Research

The finding of this research are useful for:

1. English teacher as advice for them in teaching the using of determiners to

their students.

2. The study would help and improve the quality of teaching and learning

achievement, especially using determiners in sentence.


CHAPTER II

Review of literature

1. Theoretical framework

1. The description of Ability

The ability in which achieved by the students then are realized in

the form of score so that it will be acknowledge the certain position of a

students in the class because the scores by have reflect their ability in the

learning process.

Slamento (1995:15) states that students’ ability is “certain proof if

success or the ability of a students in doing their learning activities which

based on their level of class”.

According to Richard (1992: 221) says that “Ability divided from

able, which means a quality of being able to do something. Physical,

mental or legal power to perform”. Ability related with power of capacity


to act physically, mentally, legally, morally, financially, etc. from the

discussion above “ability” can be defined that a person has an ability to

do something. It means that someone can do that right now, and this

research, the ability is referred to the capability in construction or using

the idiom and lexical meaning in context. In addition, ability is a present

poser to do something.

2. The Description of sentence

A sentence is used to express what is in our mind. Sentence are

recoded to convey thought and feeling. Some experts have their own

definition about sentence, such as:

Michael (2001 : 6) sentence is a complete idea in writing,

beginning with a capital letter and ending with a full stop.

Murthy (2003: 235) says that “A sentence is a group of words

which makes complete sense”. It start with capital letter and ends with a

full stop. A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete though. A

complete simple sentence must include both a subject and a predicate,

which is comprised of a verb for example: The Taj mahal is built by

shajahan.
3. The Description of Determiners

To understand determiners it is better to explain the definition of

determiners itself so that we have the same concept in understanding the terms

that are found in this study.

The definition of determiners is determiners are word (or word-

group) that can occur in the positions occupation by the words the, a/ an, my, our,

your, their in utterances like the, a/an, my etc.

It will be seen that several different types of words can be used as

determiners. In the above list we find words that have been defined inflectionally

as pronouns (my, our, their, your, her, his, its),as nouns (this, that, john’s), as

adjectives (few, many, little, much), and a number of uninflected words.

4. The Definition of Determiners

(Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) A determiners is a noun-

modifier that expresses the reference of a noun or noun-phrase in the context,

rather than attributes expressed by adjectives. This function is usually performed

by articles, demonstrative, possessive determiners, or quantifiers.

G.David morley (2000: 127) the determiners is that element of the

phrase. Which specifies that subject of the headword being referred to. Selection
is generally interpreted as being based on criteria of deices and quantification

numeration.

Slamet Riyanto (2009: 288) these words are used as specify,

determiners limit the meaning or describe the noun which is placed in front of the

noun.

5. The Types of Determiners

1. Articles

An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type

of reference being made by the noun. Articles specify the grammatical

definiteness of the noun, in some languages extending to volume or

numerical scope. The articles in the English language are the and a/ an,

and (in some contexts) some. ‘An’ and ‘a’ are modern forms of the Old

English ‘an’, which in Anglian dialects was the number ‘one’

(compare ‘on’, in saxon dialects) and survived into Modern Scots as

the number ‘one’. Both ‘on’ (respelled ‘one’ by the Normans) and ‘an’

survived into Modern English, with ‘one’ used as the number and ‘an’

(‘a’, before nouns that begin with a consonant sound) as an indefinite

article.

1. Kinds of articles: there are two types of articles.

1. Indefinite articles:
Indefinite articles indicates that its noun is not a particular

one (or ones) identifiable to the listener. It may be something that

the speaker is mentioning for the first time, or its precise identity

may be irrelevant or hypothetical, or the speaker may be making a

general statement about any such thing. English uses a/an, from the

Old English forms of the number ‘one’, as its primary indefinite

article. The form an is used before words that begin with a vowel

sounds (even if spelled with an initial consonant, as in an hour),

and a before words that begin with a consonant sound (even if

spelled with a vowel, as in a European).

Ex: a, an

We use ‘A’

1. Before a word beginning with a consonant sound, for example:

A book

A pen

A teacher

A DPR member

A job

2. For things we can count, for example:

A boy
A bag

A cat

A tall girl

A nice day

A house

3. In certain expressions of quantity

A lot of

A great deal of

A couple

A dozen

4. With certain numbers

A hundred

A thousand

5. A can be placed before Mr/Mrs/Miss + surname:

A Mr Smith

A Mrs Smith

A Miss Smith

We use ‘AN’
1. Before a words beginning with vowel sound (a,i,u,e,o), for example:

An apple

An old house

An exam

An egg

An umbrella

2. Before a word beginning with a silent ‘h’, for example:

An hour (read: en auer)

An honest boy (read: en anes boi)

An honor (read: en aner)

3. For things we can count, for example:

An apple

An egg

The usual meaning of ‘A or An’

4. A = one, for example:

She works in an office

I bought a newspaper

5. A = each/ for each, for example:


This room is five dollars a week

He got Rp25,000 a day

6. A / An

I am a teacher

Rano karno is an actor

You are student

A cat is a animal

Mike Tyson is a boxer

This is an apple

Hasnah is an engineer

There is a bird

7. Definite articles:

Definite articles indicates its noun is a particular one (or

ones) identifiable to the listener. It may be something that the

speaker has already mentioned, or it may be something uniquely

specified. The definite articles in English, for both singular and

plural nouns, is the

We Use ‘The’

1. The is the same for singular and plural and for all genders.
Ex: the boy

The girl

The day

The boys

The girls

The days

2. ‘The’ is used with unique things in nature.

Ex: the sun

The sea

The sky

The moon

The earth

The sun rises in the east

The earth moves round the sun

3. ‘The’ is used to talk about particular persons or things.

Ex: The man you met yesterday is my uncle.

4. ‘The’ is used to talk about persons or things mentioned for the second

time.
Ex: I met a girl. The girl is very beautiful

I went to a hotel. The hotel is very neat.

5. ‘The’ is used with the persons or things understood from the context.

Ex: I sat in the garden. (in my house)

I spoke to the doctor. (my family doctor)

Give me the book. (on the table)

He returned the bike. (I give them)

I talked to the manager, (in my office)

I left the language (I had with me) at the railway station.

6. Singular noun representing the whole class

Ex: The rose is a lovely flower. (All or any rose or roses)

The scientist should love mankind. (Every or all scientists)

The teacher should know the psychology of the students. (all or

any or every teacher).

7. ‘The’ is used with the names of rivers, gulf, seas, group of island. Chains

of mountains.

Ex: the Ganges

The Mississippi

The Persian Gulf


The Pacific Ocean

8. ‘The’ is used with the names of well known books.

Ex: the Bible

The Vedas

The Bhagavath Gita

The Ramayana

The Koran

9. ‘The’ is used before a proper noun used as a common noun.

Ex: Bombay is the Manchester of india.

Ghandhi is the Jesus of India

10. ‘The’ is used before superlative adjectives

Ex: the tallest

The larges

The biggest

The longest

11. ‘The’ is used before adjectives used as nouns.

Ex: the rich

The poor
The strong

The weak

The bad

12. ‘The’ is used with double comparatives

Ex: The more I read, the more I like

The more I earn, the more I spend

13. ‘The’ is used with directions

Ex: the north

The east

The south

The west

14. ‘The’ is used with historical buildings

Ex: the Taj Mahal

The Qutab Minar

The Charminar

15. Newspapers and magazines

Ex: the Hindu

The times of India


The illustrated weekly

16. ‘The’ is used with the names of certain countries and provinces.

Ex: the Punjab

The united state

The kingdom

17. ‘The’ is used with historical events

Ex: the Republic day

The Renaissance

The Independent day

18. ‘The’ is used with the names of nationalities, sects and communities

Ex: the French

The British

The Indians

The Muslims

19. ‘The’ is used with the names of train, ships and aero planes

Ex: the Kastimir Mail

The Rajadhani Express


The Victoria

20. ‘The’ is used before a common used as an abstract noun

Ex: the poet in me raised his voice against injustice

The mother in her took pity on the child

21. ‘The’ is used before proper noun qualified by adjectives

Ex: the great Mahatma Gandhi

The well-know Indian philosopher Vivekananda

The saintly woman Mother Teresa

22. ‘The’ is used with ordinals

Ex: the first

The last

The third

The next

23. ‘The’ is used with musical instruments

Ex: the violin

The veena

The flute
The sitar

24. ‘The’ is used to give the force of superlative to a word

Ex: he is the maker of modern Indian.

She is the bread winner in the family

The is the place I met her

25. ‘The’ is used in comparative degree in selective sense

Ex: She is the darker of the two girls

Padma is the wiser of the two sisters

Note : The words man and women are not used with’the’

Ex: Man is a social animal

Woman has greater abilities

1. Demonstrative

Demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that point to specific

things, “this, that, these, those, none and neither” are Demonstrative

Pronouns that substitute nouns when the nouns they replace can be

understood from the context. At the same time, to indicate whether

they are close or far, in space or time, from the speaker in the moment

of speaking. They also indicate whether they are replacing singular or

plural words. Some grammars describe them as members of the class


of function word called “determiners”, since they identify nouns and

other nominal.

There are 4 demonstratives that, this, these and those.

The grammatical difference between that, this, these, those.

The difference between the demonstratives distance (near and far)

and singular and plural.

“This” is used for singular nouns that are close to the speaker.

“That” is used for singular nouns that are far from the speaker.

“These” is used for plural nouns that are close to the speaker.

“Those” is used for plural nouns that are far from the speaker.

Here are some example:

1. This is used to point out the singular noun that is near to us, for example:

This is a new hand phone

This is a nice bag

This album is good

2. These is used to point out the plural noun that is near to us, for example:

These are new hand phone

These are nice bag

These albums are good


3. That is used to point out the singular noun that is far to us, for example:

That is an old car

That is my favorite album

That problem is very serious

4. Those is used to point out the plural noun that is far to us, for example:

Those are old cars

Those are my favorite albums

Those problems are very serious

Do not confuse demonstrative pronouns with demonstrative adjective.

They are identical, but a demonstrative pronoun stands alone, while a

demonstrative adjective qualifies a noun.

1. That smells (demonstrative pronoun)

2. That book is good (demonstrative adjective + noun)

Normally we use demonstrative pronouns for things only. But we can

use them for people when the person is identified. Look at these

examples:

1. This is Josep speaking. Is tha mary?

2. That sounds like john.

5.3 Possessive Noun/ pronoun


Possessive nouns

A possessive nouns is a noun that names who or what has something.

1. Singular noun possessive form

The girl the girl’s

Tom Tom’s

My wife my wife’s

A lady a lady’s

Thomas Thomas’s/ Thomas

To show possessions, add an apostrophe (‘) and –s to a

singular. The girl’s book is on the table.

If a singular noun ends in-s, there are two possible form:

1. Add an apostrophe and –s: Thomas’s book.

2. Add only an apostrophe: Thomas’ book.

3. Plural noun possessive form

The girls the girl’

Their wives their wives’

The ladies the ladies’

The men the men’s


My children my children’s

Add only an apostrophe to a plural noun that ends in –s: The

girls’ books are on the table.

Add an apostrophe and –s ton plural nouns that do not end in

–s: The men’s books are on the table.

Possessive pronoun

Possessive pronoun are words that are used to express

possessions. They can stand alone. they are not followed by noun.

Example:

This is my car. Mine is made in Japan.

That is your bag. Yours is black and mine is blue

Rina has a handphone. Hers is NOKIA

Laura is my wife. She is mine

1. Numbers

Numbers can be divided into two, cardinal number and ordinal number

see example below:

Cardinal numbers
A cardinal number tells “how many.” Cardinal

numbers are also known as “counting number,” because

they show quantity.

0 (zero) 11 (eleven) 30 (thirty)

1 (one) 12 (twelve) 40 (forty)

2 (two) 13 (thirteen) 50 (fifty)

3 (three) 14 (fourteen) 60 (sixty)

4 (four) 15 (fifteen) 70 (seventy)

5 (five) 16 (sixteen) 80 (eighty)

6 (six) 17 (seventeen)

7 (seven) 18 (eighteen)

8 (eight) 19 (nineteen)

9 (ninety) 20 (twenty)

10 (ten) 21 (twenty-one)

90 (ninety)

100 (a hundred/ one hundred)

1000 (a thousand/ one thousand)

1.000.000 (a million/one million)

1.000.000.00 (a billion/ one billion)


Separation between hundreds and tens

Hundreds and tens are usually separated by ‘and’ (in American English

‘and’ is not necessary).

110 - one hundred and ten

1.250 - one thousand, two hundred and fifty

2.001 - two thousand and one

Hundreds

Use 100 always with ’a’ or ‘one’.

100 - a hundred/ one hundred

‘a’ can only stand at the beginning of a number.

100 - a hundred/ one hundred

2.100 - two thousand, one hundred

Thousands and Millions

Use 1.000 and 1.000.000 always with ‘a’ or ‘one’.

1.000 - a thousand/ one thousand

201.000 - two hundred and one thousand

Use commas as a separator.

57,458,302

1. Ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers tell the order of things in a set-first,


second.
Third, etc. Ordinal numbers do not show quantity. They
only show rank or position.

First eleventh twenty-first

Second twelfth twenty-second

Third thirteenth twenty-third

Fourth fourteenth

1. Indefinite Pronoun

Indefinite pronoun are words that are always considered

singular and require a verb in a singular form. For example:

Singular

Another – Thanks, I’ll have another

Anybody – Anybody can see the truth

Anyone – Anyone can see this

Anything – Anything can happen if you just believe

Either – Either will do

Everybody – Everybody was invited

plural

Both – Both are guilty

Few – few were chosen


Fewer – fewer are going to church these days

Many – many were chosen