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Secretary‑General’s Report to Ministers 2017

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Report to Ministers
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Table of Contents
Letter from the Secretary-General 4 Trade and Agriculture Directorate 92
2016: A Year in Review 8 Environment Directorate 94
Centre for Tax Policy and Administration 96
ABOUT THE OECD Statistics Directorate 98
The OECD at a glance 12 Directorate for Public Governance
Secretary-General’s Cabinet 14 and Territorial Development 100

Organisation chart 16 Public Affairs and Communications

Directorate 102
Financing the OECD 18
Development Co-operation Directorate 104

MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs,

Local Development and Tourism 106
Strategic Orientations 2017 20 Global Relations Secretariat 108

Ministerial Council Meeting 2016: Executive Directorate 110

Statement 42 Internal Audit and Evaluation 111
Ministerial Council Meeting 2016: Directorate for Legal Affairs 112
Chair’s summary 50
Council and Executive Committee
Global Strategy Group 2016: Secretariat 113
Chair’s summary 60
KEY ACTIVITIES Development Centre 116
Secretary-General’s Activity in 2016 66
International Energy Agency 117
Digital transformation 70
Nuclear Energy Agency 118
Migration 71
International Transport Forum 119
International co-operation 72
The OECD Better Life Initiative 73 SPECIAL ENTITIES
Financial Action Task Force 122
DIRECTORATES Multilateral Organisation Performance
Office of the Secretary-General 76 Assessment Network 123
Sherpa Office and Global Governance Unit 78 Partnership in Statistics for Development
in the 21st Century 124
New Approaches to Economic Challenges
(NAEC) and the Inclusive Growth Initiative 80 Sahel and West Africa Club 125
Economics Department 82
Directorate for Science, Technology
and Innovation 84 Business at OECD (BIAC) 128
Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Trade Union Advisory Committee 129
Affairs 86
Directorate for Employment, Labour
and Social Affairs 88
Directorate for Education and Skills 90
\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

Letter from the


Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Shinzō Abe, Prime Minister of Japan, at the presentation of the OECD Economic Survey of
Japan, April 2017

Over the past twelve months, the Throughout 2016, we began to environmental degradation and
OECD has continued delivering take stock of the need to urgently a loss of trust in democracy and
on its mandate to promote better address this backlash against its institutions, not to mention
policies for better lives. We have globalisation. This implies several global systemic risks. We
done so despite an increasingly drawing on the best in us, while need new, audacious solutions to
challenging context that puts addressing our shortcomings, tackle these challenges.
into question the raison d’être of taking bold steps moving forward,
our Organisation. While the past and fixing what does not work. Drawing on the unprecedented
year brought great achievements, Going back to “business as usual” transformation that the OECD
it also witnessed how the values is not an option: we need a new has undertaken in recent years
of international solidarity, co- narrative and new solutions to by putting people at the centre
operation and openness that we confront the challenges of our of its work – recognising that
stand for came under attack due time – stagnant growth and living economic growth and its drivers
to a resurgence of nationalism, standards, enduring poverty, are only means towards the
isolationism, populism and rising inequalities, growing end goal of better lives for all
protectionism. protectionism, climate and – throughout the year we took

4 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017

\ \ \ OVERVIEW / Letter from the Secretary-General

great strides towards renewing

and strengthening our analytical
frameworks and making a
“New Approaches to Economic
Challenges (NAEC) state of mind”
our Organisation’s new normal.
Our horizontal projects on
inclusive growth, digitalisation
and migration are also allowing
us to approach these major
themes from a multi-dimensional
perspective, better tailored to
their inherent complexity.

Our 2016 Ministerial Council

Meeting, chaired by Chile, focused
precisely on such interlinkages
between policy areas, by
highlighting how our policies to
foster productivity need to come Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany, at
hand in hand with our efforts to the presentation of the Economic Survey of Germany 2016, April 2016
ensure inclusiveness and reduce
inequalities – not just as a mere
palliative afterthought, but from lays out an agenda for further agenda with the launch of
their very onset and design. At the research. the OECD Global Forum on
Forum, we launched our study on Productivity and deepened our
the Productivity-Inclusiveness Nexus, During the year, we advanced our work on Global Value Chains
which deals with this issue and productivity and competitiveness (GVCs), including expanding and
developing our Services Trade
Restrictiveness Index (STRI) and
Trade in Value Added (TiVA)
databases. At the same time, the
OECD Centre for Opportunity
and Equality (COPE), our work on
gender, children and youth, the
new Inclusive Growth in Cities
campaign and the update of the
Better Life Index have deepened
our commitment towards
more inclusive economies and
societies. This includes progress
in areas such as the quality of
jobs, healthcare, education and
skills systems. We also rolled
out the latest Programme for
International Student Assessment
(PISA) results, with great impact,
and advanced our initiative on the
Alexander Böhmer, Head of Southeast Asia Division, OECD; Angel Gurría, OECD
Secretary-General; Joko Widodo, President of Indonesia; and Pratikno, Minister of State need for global competencies to
Secretariat of Indonesia (left to right), October 2016 form more tolerant citizens.

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 5

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

In 2016 we started “walking

the talk” by delivering on
the ambitious international
agenda set out in 2015. Through
the OECD Action Plan on the
Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs), presented at last year’s
Ministerial, we are gradually
integrating the SDGs into our
frameworks and advice. At the
same time, we are pioneering
the design of a new international
statistical standard on Official
Development Assistance,
the Total Official Support for Bilateral meeting between Pravin Gordhan, Minister of Finance of South Africa, and
Sustainable Development Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, during OECD Week, May 2016
(TOSSD), as well as leading
global efforts to improve
domestic resource mobilisation minimum standards. Over 100 many fields, particularly on
in developing countries (through countries and jurisdictions have innovation and the digital
our Tax Inspectors Without signed up to the new Automatic economy, trade and investment,
Borders initiative) and private Exchange of Information standard corporate governance and
financial flows into them (through and will begin automatically tax transparency, as well as
our updated Policy Framework exchanging tax information. the establishment of a Global
for Investment and Investment Following the refugee crisis and Forum on Steel Excess Capacity
Policy Reviews). With regard to hike in migration flows, we also to address problems in this
the implementation of the Paris made great contributions to the industry. We also supported
Agreement on Climate Change, United Nations Conference on the Japanese Presidency of the
we are helping countries achieve Migration last September through G7, which delivered remarkable
their commitments, particularly our 40th International Migration outcomes, and helped advance
by tracking private and public Outlook and its message on the the preparation of Germany’s
climate finance and by launching benefits of integration. We also and Italy’s 2017 G20 and G7
platforms like the new Centre on strengthened our role as an presidencies.
Green Finance and Investment, anti-corruption hub by launching
aimed at supporting the transition our first report on political party Our ability to impact the global
to a green, low-emissions funding and campaign financing, agenda is equally matched by
economy. and contributing to the United the targeted policy support that
Kingdom’s Anti-Corruption we provide to our members and
Another important breakthrough Summit, as well as by holding Key Partners, many of which
that 2015 left us was the major meetings on this issue. turn to us for advice and help in
extraordinary progress in advancing their specific reforms
international efforts to curb tax Few aspects better illustrate our and improving their public
evasion and avoidance. During capacity to contribute to global administration and governance.
the past year, we advanced the governance and address our The growing number of leaders
Base Erosion and Profit Shifting planet’s most pressing challenges who visit us shows this, as do the
Project, establishing an inclusive than our engagement with the landmark thematic ministerial
framework of over 100 countries G20 and G7. In close collaboration meetings that we hold on topics
and jurisdictions to work together with the Chinese Presidency, ranging from the future of work
on concluding a Multilateral we saw the advancement and agriculture to environmental
Convention to implement of our work with the G20 in policy, the digital economy and

6 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017

\ \ \ OVERVIEW / Letter from the Secretary-General

Bill Morneau, Finance Minister of Canada, with Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, at the presentation of the OECD Economic
Survey of Canada, June 2016

fighting corruption – all of which regions, including the launch Despite these many successes,
charted the way forward in their of the Latin America and the this year, more than ever, has
respective policy fields. This is Caribbean Regional Programme challenged our assumptions,
also reflected in the increasing and a joint programme of work tested our resolve, and reminded
global reach of our standards, with Indonesia. us of our shared values. We
instruments and bodies. Today, are living in a history-defining
the number of non-member Throughout 2016 we also moment that demands that we
partnerships in OECD bodies continued improving our capitalise on our value added to
stands at nearly 250. The number communications, visibility give the very best in us. I am sure
of non-member adherences to and impact, as well as our that, together, we will confront
OECD legal instruments was management and administrative these challenges during 2017 and
475 at the end of 2016. Over the practices to put the OECD at beyond, making globalisation
past year, we have continued the leading edge in this realm. work for all. 
enhancing our global character: Likewise, we consolidated
we welcomed Latvia as our a second OECD campus in
newest member moved forward Boulogne, allowing further
with the accession processes synergies between directorates
of Colombia, Costa Rica and that now enjoy a first-class Angel Gurría
Lithuania; and strengthened environment conducive to greater
our work with Key Partners and horizontal collaboration.

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 7

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

2016: A Year in Review

The 42nd G7 Leaders becomes
Summit takes place in a member
The OECD Ministerial and Policy Forum
Ise-Shima, Japan. of the OECD.
on the Future of Work is held in Paris.

Going for Growth Productivity-
Launch of the Inclusive
is launched at G20 Inclusiveness
Growth Initiative
25-27 February
14-15 January

Finance Ministers Nexus report

at the Ford Foundation
Meeting 26-27 May
29 March

1-2 June

1-2 June
in New York. is launched.
in Shanghai.

1 June

1 June
16 March

7-8 April

The OECD Regional

The Anti-Corruption The OECD Programme
Ministerial Meeting Agriculture for Latin America
is held in Paris. Ministerial is held and the Caribbean
in Paris. is launched
at the Ministerial
Council Meeting. Chilean
opens the

8 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017

\ \ \ OVERVIEW / 2016: A Year in Review

Launch of the
OECD Centre
on Green Finance
Environment and Investment
Ministers from OECD in Tokyo.
and selected non-
member countries
meets for the The Global Strategy
OECD Environment Group meets at the
Ministerial. OECD to discuss
28-29 September

The OECD Digital “Fixing Globalisation:

28 November
Achieving Better Lives
20-24 June

Economy Ministerial
13 October

is held in Cancún, for All”.

The Multilateral

6 December
1-2 June

4-5 September

24 November
7-8 July

Launch and first

The Better official meeting Convention to
Policies for of the OECD Global Implement Tax Related
2030: An OECD Forum on Measures to Prevent
Base Erosion and Profit Launch of 2015
Action Plan on Productivity
Shifting (BEPS) Treaty is results of the
the Sustainable in Lisbon.
adopted by more than OECD Programme
Development for International
Goals 100 jurisdictions.
The Hangzhou Summit Student Assessment
is launched. (PISA) in Paris.
is the 11th meeting
of the G20.

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 9

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

The OECD at a glance

The OECD provides a forum in as it seeks to fulfil its vision of of national experts and decision
which governments work together a stronger, cleaner, fairer world makers, and a high-quality
to seek solutions to common economy and society. permanent Secretariat.
problems, share experiences and
identify best practices to promote The OECD supports policy The OECD includes 35
better policies for better lives. makers in identifying challenges member countries and is in
and addressing them through accession talks with Colombia,
For more than 50 years, the appropriate policies. It is also Costa Rica, Lithuania and the
OECD has helped forge global a source of advice on almost Russian Federation1. Brazil,
standards, international all areas of policy making and the People’s Republic of China,
conventions, agreements and implementation, and one of India, Indonesia and South Africa
recommendations in areas such the world’s largest and most are OECD Key Partners. The
as governance and the fight trusted sources of comparable OECD also collaborates with
against bribery and corruption, statistical data on economics, more than 100 other economies,
corporate responsibility, trade, employment, education, many of which participate in
development, international health, social issues, migration, its committees and adhere to
investment, taxes, and the the environment and many its instruments. Additionally,
environment, to mention a few. other fields. It carries out its the OECD hosts the secretariat
Co-operation, dialogue, consensus mission thanks to more than 200 of several international
and peer review drive the OECD committees and working groups programmes.

1. The activities related to the accession process of the Russian Federation to the OECD are postponed for the time being.

12 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017

\ \ \ ABOUT THE OECD / The OECD at a glance

OECD member countries: Ambassadors2 and year of accession

Australia His Excellency Mr Brian Pontifex 1971

Austria Her Excellency Ms Marlies Stubits-Weidinger 1961
Belgium His Excellency Mr Jean-Joël Schittecatte 1961
Canada Her Excellency Ms Michelle d’Auray 1961
Chile Her Excellency Ms Claudia Serrano 2010
Czech Republic His Excellency Mr Petr Gandalovič 1995
Denmark His Excellency Mr Klavs A. Holm 1961
Estonia His Excellency Mr Alar Streimann 2010
Finland His Excellency Mr Pekka Puustinen 1969
France His Excellency Mr Pierre Duquesne 1961
Germany His Excellency Mr Matei Hoffmann 1961
Greece His Excellency Mr George Krimpas 1961
Hungary His Excellency Mr Zoltán Cséfalvay 1996
Iceland His Excellency Mr Kristjan Andri Stéfansson 1961
Ireland His Excellency Mr Dermot Nolan 1961
Israel His Excellency Mr Carmel Shama-Hacohen 2010
Italy His Excellency Mr Alessandro Busacca 1962
Japan His Excellency Mr Hiroshi Oe 1964
Korea His Excellency Mr Jong-Won Yoon 1996
Latvia Her Excellency Ms Ivita Burmistre 2016
Luxembourg His Excellency Mr Paul Dühr 1961
Mexico His Excellency Mr Dionisio Pérez-Jácome Friscione3 1994
Netherlands His Excellency Mr Noé van Hulst 1961
New Zealand His Excellency Mr James Kember 1973
Norway Her Excellency Ms Elin Østebø Johansen 1961
Poland His Excellency Mr Aleksander Surdej 1996
Portugal His Excellency Mr Paulo Vizeu Pinheiro 1961
Slovak Republic Mr Juraj Tomáš (Chargé d’affaires, a.i.) 2000
Slovenia Her Excellency Ms Irena Sodin 2010
Spain His Excellency Mr José Ignacio Wert 1961
Sweden Her Excellency Ms Annika Markovic 1961
Switzerland His Excellency Mr Ulrich Lehner 1961
Turkey His Excellency Mr Erdem Ba şçi 1961
United Kingdom His Excellency Mr Christopher Sharrock 1961
United States Mr Peter Haas (Chargé d’affaires, a.i.) 1961
European Union His Excellency Mr Rupert Schlegelmilch 1961

Candidates for accession Key Partners
Colombia Brazil
Costa Rica China, People’s Republic of
Lithuania India
Russian Federation4 Indonesia
South Africa
2. As of 11 May 2017.
3. His Excellency Mr Dionisio Pérez-Jácome Friscione was Ambassador until 28 May 2017.
4. The activities related to the accession process of the Russian Federation are postponed for the time being.

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 13

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017


As Secretary-General of the OECD since 2006,

Angel Gurría has led the transformation of the
OECD into the “go to” institution for policy reforms.
He has made the OECD count as a global “house
of best practices”, providing targeted support to
member and partner countries in addressing
current challenges and in designing, delivering
and implementing better policies for better lives. Gabriela Ramos is the OECD
Under his watch the OECD has become a trusted Chief of Staff and Sherpa
partner for the G20, G7, Asia-Pacific Economic to the G20. She supports
Cooperation, the Pacific Alliance and many other the Strategic Agenda of
international fora. He has led the Organisation the Secretary-General and
in the delivery of important structural reform ensures organisational
agendas and has overseen major results in the alignment and horizontal
areas of inclusive growth, gender, governance, tax, collaboration across
anti-corruption, green growth, water, migration, the Organisation. She
education, health, innovation and trade, to name is responsible for OECD
but a few. He has driven the effort to put people contributions to global
and their well-being at the centre of policy and governance, including
growth. He has scaled up the OECD contribution through the G20 and G7.
to the global agenda and to key multilateral She leads the initiatives on
agreements, including the important inputs made Inclusive Growth and New
by the Organisation to the Paris Agreement on Approaches to Economic
Climate Change and the Sustainable Development Challenges and also
Goals. He has increased the Organisation’s oversees work on education,
outreach and relevance, strengthening its links employment and social
with key emerging economies and steering the affairs, including gender.
accession process for new members, including She developed the OECD’s
the five countries which have joined under his Mexico Forum and edited
leadership: Chile, Estonia, Israel, Latvia and and launched the flagship
Slovenia. Getting it Right and the Better
Policies series. Previously,
she served as Head of the
OECD Office in Mexico and
Latin America.

14 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017

\ \ \ ABOUT THE OECD / Secretary-General’s Cabinet

Mr Rintaro Tamaki was Deputy Secretary-General Deputy Secretary-General

appointed Deputy Secretary- Mari Kiviniemi joined Douglas Frantz, former
General of the OECD in the OECD in August 2014. US Assistant Secretary of
August 2011. His portfolio She is responsible for the State for Public Affairs,
includes the strategic strategic oversight of the took up his duties in
direction of OECD policy OECD’s work on efficient November 2015. In this role,
on environment, green and effective governance, he actively contributes to
growth, taxation, financial territorial development, the strategic direction of
and enterprise affairs trade and agriculture, the OECD’s Development
and anti-corruption, as and statistics. She is also Agenda, notably in the
well as representing the responsible for advancing context of co-operation
OECD at Financial Stability the Better Life Initiative as with the United Nations
Board meetings. During well as entrepreneurship, toward the achievement
his prominent career, Mr small- and medium-sized of the Sustainable
Tamaki has worked on enterprises (SMEs), local Development Goals by 2030.
various budget, taxation, development and tourism. In addition to focusing
international finance and Mari Kiviniemi was on the OECD’s regional
development issues in the Finland’s Prime Minister initiatives in Southeast
OECD and at the World from 2010-2011 and a Asia, the Middle East and
Bank. He has previously member of parliament North Africa, Latin America
been Finance Minister at from 1995-2014. She had and Africa, he oversees
the Embassy of Japan in previously been Minister of the Organisation’s global
Washington, DC. Mr Tamaki Public Administration and relations portfolio. He
then became Deputy Local Government, Minister also oversees the OECD’s
Director-General before for Foreign Trade and activities on science,
becoming Director-General Development, and Minister technology and innovation.
and subsequently Vice- for European Affairs.
Minister for International
Affairs at the Ministry of

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 15

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

Organisation chart


Angel Gurría

Office of the Secretary-General DEPUTY SECRETARIES-GENERAL

Gabriela Ramos, OECD Chief of Staff
and G20 Sherpa, NAEC, Inclusive Growth Rintaro Tamaki
Environmental Sustainability and Green
Chief Economist and Head of the Growth, Financial and Fiscal Issues
Economics Department
Catherine Mann Mari Kiviniemi
Governance, Trade and Agriculture,
Statistics, Territorial Development
Global Relations Secretariat
Andreas Schaal, Director
Douglas Frantz
Development Agenda and Global Relations
Directorate for Legal Affairs
Nicola Bonucci, Director and
Accession Co-ordinator

Public Affairs and Communications

Anthony Gooch, Director

Internal Audit and Evaluation

Lucy Elliott, Director

Council and Executive Committee Secretariat

Patrick van Haute, Director


Development Centre International Energy Nuclear Energy International

Agency Agency Transport Forum
Mario Pezzini
Director Fatih Birol William Magwood José Viegas
Executive Director Director‑General Secretary-General

16 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017

\ \ \ ABOUT THE OECD / Organisation chart

June 2017


Development Co- Economics Directorate Directorate for Centre for

operation Directorate Department for Education Employment, Labour Entrepreneurship,
and Skills and Social Affairs SMEs and Local
Jorge Moreira Alvaro Pereira Development
da Silva Director of Country Andreas Schleicher Stefano Scarpetta
Director Studies Branch Director Director Lamia Kamal-Chaoui
Christian Kastrop Director
Director of Policy
Studies Branch

Environment Executive Directorate Directorate for Directorate for Directorate for

Directorate Financial and Public Governance Science, Technology
Anthony Rottier5 Enterprise Affairs and Territorial and Innovation
Simon Upton Director Development
Director Pierre Poret Andrew Wyckoff
Director Rolf Alter Director

Statistics Directorate Centre for Tax Policy Trade and

and Administration Agriculture
Martine Durand Directorate
Director Pascal Saint-Amans
Director Ken Ash


Financial Action Task Multilateral Partnership in Sahel and West

Force Organisation Statistics for Africa Club
Performance Development in
David Lewis Assessment Network the 21st Century Laurent Bossard
Executive Secretary Director, Sahel and
Chantal Verger - Acting Johannes Jütting West Africa Club
Head of Secretariat Secretariat Manager Secretariat

5. Shahin Lauritzen was appointed Director as of 1 June 2017.

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 17

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

Financing the OECD


The Organisation operates a are planned but variable, provided 54% of the overall budget of the
results-based approach to its mainly by governmental bodies Organisation. “Part II” outputs,
planning, budgeting and financial and institutions. of interest to a more limited
management, identifying the number of members or relating to
priority policy impacts its The OECD’s financial statements special policy sectors not covered
members are seeking; deploying are prepared in accordance by “Part I”, account for a further
resources flexibly to achieve these with International Public Sector 26%. Other budgets, including
outcomes through the evolving Accounting Standards (IPSAS) pensions and special budgets,
work programme; and evaluating and are audited by external account for the rest. Contributions
performance after the fact. auditors selected from OECD to “Part I” are based on both a
member country supreme audit proportion that is shared equally
The OECD budget and the institutions. The Organisation’s and a scale reflecting the relative
content of its work programme financial statements are published size of member countries (based
are established every two on the OECD website. on national income). “Part II”
years by the OECD’s governing programmes are funded by a scale
body, the Council, based on or other arrangements agreed
recommendations from the Members’ assessed among participating countries. 
Secretary-General. The budget contributions, 2017
for 2017 is EUR 374 million,
increased approximately by half All member countries contribute
from voluntary contributions, and to the outputs funded by “Part I”
extra-budgetary resources that of the budget, which accounts for

18 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

Strategic Orientations 2017
Better lives through better with global challenges which identifies how the OECD can best
policies and multilateral cannot be solely dealt with at the contribute to this endeavour,
co-operation national level. I also believe that based on its unique strengths
we should tap the unprecedented and value added. These Strategic
My Strategic Orientations, opportunities before us, especially Orientations identify specific
proposed to members at this 2017 technological and digital changes areas of work and actions that can
OECD Ministerial Council Meeting, – while recognising that these continue to promote better lives in
reflect my views on the critical entail risks too. Our goal is to open and increasingly digitalised
context that the world is facing continue delivering better lives societies, as well as helping to
and the urgent need to speed up for our citizens, and to do so restore public confidence in
the transformation of our policy we need a new narrative and governments and multilateral
responses to keep pace with the model for sustainable progress collaboration.
pressures of a rapidly changing and prosperity that puts
world, as well as the importance inclusiveness and well-being at The assessment: Where
of strengthening multilateral the centre of our work. We need are we today?
co-operation. I firmly believe a comprehensive roadmap to
that there is no other course make this a reality. Following the We are at a critical juncture.
of action if we are to address priorities laid out in the “21 for Societies in OECD countries seem
people’s concerns, manifested in 21” Agenda, and building on the increasingly sceptical about the
the calls for more fairness in our Programme of Work and Budget process of globalisation and
economies and societies, as well 2017-2018 that members approved the architecture and values of
as the need to collectively engage last December, this document multilateral co-operation and

Xi Jinping, President of the People’s Republic of China, welcomes Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, at the G20 Summit,
September 2016

20 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017

\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Strategic Orientations 2017

and the overall functioning

of societies; population and
migration trends that are altering
our economic, societal and labour
landscape; growing divides
within and across countries
that are fuelling a “geography of
discontent”; and the daunting
task of combating climate change
and preserving the planet and its
biodiversity for future generations.
All these trends feed a sense of
vulnerability, uncertainty, and
anxiety which translate into
distrust towards globalisation and
further global integration.

Globalisation has brought great

benefits to many people, including
Stefan Löfven, Prime Minister of Sweden, and Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, large segments of the population
August 2016
in emerging and developing
economies. OECD empirical
openness. The year 2015 saw of the income distribution. This, evidence shows the risks of
important breakthroughs for in turn, has led to an erosion of protectionism and the fact that
multilateralism, including the public trust in the institutions we economic openness, increased
adoption of the Sustainable have built over the past century. trade and investment, further
Development Goals (SDGs), the We are also confronting several integration in Global Value Chains
Paris Agreement on climate systemic changes: a digital and (GVCs), the diffusion of technology
change and critical international technological transformation and the movement of capital
steps to curb tax evasion and with positive and negative and people across borders create
avoidance led by the OECD and consequences for production, greater wealth. However, while
the G20. However, 2016 witnessed consumption, the world of work the size of the pie has grown, the
the emergence of new forms
of nationalism, isolationism,
populism and protectionism.
It is no coincidence that this
tectonic shift is unfolding in
an already difficult economic
context, marked by years of slow
global growth and sluggish trade
and investment flows despite
exceptional monetary stimulus
across the major economies.
While unemployment has
gradually decreased in many
countries, the crisis has left a large
number of people with stagnant
living standards and a sense of
unfairness created by increasing Ana Helena Chacon, Vice President of Costa Rica, and Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General,
concentration at the upper end at the signature ceremony of the Privilege and Immunities Agreement, May 2016

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\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

d’être — are increasingly being

questioned. As we look to the rest
of 2017 and beyond, we need to go
further; we need to do better. The
year 2016 was a powerful wake-up
call. Our traditional growth models
created wealth and opportunities,
but benefits were not evenly
distributed; they also overlooked
the sustainability and resilience
dimensions, as evidenced
by the environmental and
financial crises. These Strategic
Orientations set out a vision for
a new sustainable development
narrative and an ambitious
Official visit of José Maria Pereira Neves, Prime Minister of the Republic of Cabo Verde,
roadmap that, by acknowledging
and Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, February 2016
the specific circumstances of
each country and community,
slices going to the bottom deciles prospects in agriculture, and capitalises on our unique capacity
are not, and in some cases they are combating corruption; we worked and expertise to be more useful in
even getting smaller. Important on the implementation of the the current context.
segments of the middle classes 2015 landmark international
in OECD countries feel squeezed agreements on development, The vision: What needs
and fear that their children will climate change and taxes; and to be done?
experience lower living standards we advanced our contributions
and fewer opportunities. These in several areas with key policy In order to confront the
concerns are not unfounded. recommendations on economic challenges of our time, the
Aggregates and averages do not and financial stability, trade and OECD needs to support policy
tell the whole story: they do not investment, education and skills, implementation and strengthen
explain why many people feel employment, health, migration, both the adherence to, and the
disenfranchised, disconnected and gender, children and youth, ageing, enforcement of, global standards
underrepresented. What started innovation, entrepreneurship, that work for the benefit of all.
as an economic crisis in 2008 and the environment, agriculture and We need to close the gap between
evolved into a social crisis during industry, regulation, competition, “Technology 4.0” and “Policy
the past decade has most recently integrity, good public and private 1.0”, as well as between global
given rise to political and popular sector governance, regions problems and domestic tools.
discontent that threatens our and cities, statistics, energy, We also need to continually
social cohesion, our solidarity and transport, and others. The OECD re-examine our own policy
our sense of common purpose. has deepened its work in all prescriptions and tools to ensure
these fields, breaking down the they are fit for purpose in this new
In this rapidly changing context, silos between them to facilitate economic and social context. Only
the OECD has continued to cross-fertilisation while engaging by doing so can we help countries
deliver responses to these with relevant stakeholders in this and institutions reconnect with
challenges. The 2016 Ministerial pivotal dialogue. people who feel that the system
Council Meeting focused on has not delivered for them. To take
the Productivity-Inclusiveness However, this is not enough. advantage of the full potential of
Nexus, and we hosted important Expertise, evidence-based policy economic integration, openness
ministerial meetings on the future recommendations and global and technological progress, we
of work, the digital economy, standard-setting — our raison need to harness them better

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\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Strategic Orientations 2017

through reinforced international lives’ aspect of our inspiring factors that lie at the core of
co-operation, ensuring that they motto should guide all of the current dissatisfaction with
deliver for everyone and that all our work. We need to build globalisation and the system
citizens have a voice in shaping on the Inclusive Growth and that underpins it. This implies
the global policies that affect New Approaches to Economic relying on new economic
them. Challenges (NAEC) initiatives, thinking and innovative
moving from analysis to approaches.
The OECD’s strategic priority must action; from prescription to
be consistent with the vision implementation; from means The OECD needs to deepen its
set out in my “21 for 21” Agenda, to ends. Promoting better work on the multi-dimensional
albeit adjusting it to the changing lives cannot limit itself to nature of well-being, refining its
reality and challenges. During my providing basic services or instruments and frameworks
11 years as Secretary-General, setting minimum standards. It and taking concrete steps to
my goal has been to make our is not only about compensating improve metrics to capture
Organisation more useful to losers and creating safety the reality of people’s lives,
its members and partners by nets, but about empowering including through micro-data.
drawing on its interdisciplinary everyone to thrive in life and We need to take concrete steps
nature and renewing our fulfil their potential. It implies to move beyond GDP —as well
analytical frameworks to ensure understanding how growth- as to refine GDP measurement
that a focus on horizontality and enhancing and development itself— putting more emphasis
integrated systems thinking is policies impact real lives. on the quality of life in our
our new normal. We will not It also includes ensuring messages about growth and
improve the world with the same environmental quality and macroeconomic averages. This
rationale, the same theories and access to environmental implies refining our Multi-
the same concepts that got us into services. Better lives also refer dimensional Living Standards
the crisis. This also applies to how to the non-material dimensions (MDLS) framework, but also
we communicate and engage with of well-being: happiness, paying more attention to
our stakeholders and with people shared aspirations towards a subjective aspects by measuring
at large. common future and a sense and analysing expectations,
of identity and belonging – perceptions and values,
In order to ensure that everyone
benefits from the opportunities
offered by open economies and
societies, we need clarity on our
ultimate goal; we need to focus
on the main challenges we face;
and we need precision on the
policies that can help us overcome
such challenges and tap into

• Our goal is to improve people’s

well-being through evidence
underpinning better policies.
This means developing
further our productivity and
competitiveness agenda,
while putting people’s lives at
the centre of it by going more Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Rosen Plevneliev, President of the Republic
social in our work. The ‘better of Bulgaria, June 2016

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sustainability to the different

forms of inequality: income,
wealth, health, education
and opportunities. We will
also take into consideration
how technological change,
digitalisation and the transition
to a green, low-carbon
economy present both risks
and opportunities. We should
develop a full-fledged action
plan for inclusive growth with
actions that can be taken at
the sub-national, national and
international levels. This should
look at competition policies
Emmanuel Macron, Minister of the Economy, Industry and Digital Affairs of France, and
and the prevention of “winner
Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, at the International Economic Forum on Latin
America and the Caribbean, June 2016 takes most” dynamics across
borders. It should also pay
special attention to vulnerable
particularly those related to are contributing to this sense groups, devising tools and
perceptions of exclusion and of exclusion. We need to tackle strategies tailored to their
disenfranchisement. Our the multi-dimensional nature specific circumstances. In doing
research also needs to pay of exclusion and its diverse so, we should aim to prevent
more attention to consumption implications. This implies rather than heal; and provide
patterns and in particular acknowledging that income fresh thinking on the role of
to the relationship between inequality is only the tip of an governments in empowering
consumption, life satisfaction iceberg that includes wealth people to achieve their full
and intergenerational concentration; weak prospects potential, as well as on the
sustainability to enrich not of social mobility; and broader opportunity that the digital
only our understanding of feelings of broken identities transformation offers in this
individual well-being, but and disenfranchisement. We regard.
also that of communities. It is need to take a hard look at
also critical that we continue redistribution policies and • We should reinforce multilateral
extending this analysis beyond their effectiveness, and to ask co-operation to improve both
the OECD, including developing ourselves whether the focus domestic and international
and middle-income countries on equality of opportunity policies and outcomes. The
where realities, perceptions translates into results that interdependency of policies
and expectations may diverge adequately reflect differences undertaken at the sub-national,
from those in OECD member in merit and skills. national and international
countries. levels demands integrated
The OECD Inclusive Growth approaches that incorporate
• We have to address exclusion. Initiative will continue to be spill-over effects and potential
Exclusion is at the root of central to our efforts to combat synergies. The erosion of
alienation and isolation. exclusion, with a focus on the trust in our institutions
Exclusion implies the denial nexus between productivity is often a response to the
of the opportunities and and inequality. Our next step inability of different levels of
resources that should be should be to trace the link governance to work together
available to all members of of the different dimensions and to recognise that common
society. Rising inequality levels of growth, productivity and challenges can be addressed

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\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Strategic Orientations 2017

more effectively through co- economy increasingly integrated advantages, these Strategic
ordinated co-operation. by promoting co-operation Orientations propose priority
among countries and with other actions to advance our well-
The OECD must enhance its international organisations and being goal, prevent exclusion
policy advice to members and fora. A deeper reflection on the and ensure that domestic
partners by incorporating the governance of globalisation and international policies
sub-national dimension into and the distribution of its work together for greater
its work. We also need to help benefits is urgently needed. We effectiveness. These actions,
co-ordinate policy responses to should update and upgrade our which may be different from
global challenges and to help standards, making them truly place to place and from one
set global rules of the game global, and develop new ones situation to another, will
in order to ensure an open where necessary. help to ensure that the great
and transparent economy. transformation brought on by
Our priority should be to keep Drawing on the OECD’s globalisation and digitalisation
markets open and the global expertise and comparative leads to better lives for all.

Table 1: Conceptual framework: The Secretary-General’s Strategic Orientations 2017


GOAL Well-being • Beyond GDP Global reach and
• Sustainability engagement
OBSTACLE Exclusion • Inclusive Growth and the Productivity-
Inclusiveness Nexus Thinking, measuring
• Investing in economic, human, social and modelling
and natural capital
• Addressing wealth concentration Anticipation and
• Creating opportunities foresight
TOOLS AND Multilateral Domestic policies
ENABLERS co-operation • Integrated policy packages Horizontality
International policies Listening and
• Co-ordination and standards engaging

The Strategic Orientation: being, but in an interdependent cohesive policy packages that
Better domestic and world their success relies on the tackle both structural and social
international policies effectiveness of international challenges. We will explore the
through enhanced co-operation. This implies a creation of ad hoc “crack teams”
multilateral co-operation reflection on our approach to of experts from across different
policy making and the role of OECD directorates which could
These Strategic Orientations the state, business and global be rapidly deployed to support
propose that the OECD continues governance mechanisms. countries when needed. We
its “go national” agenda, but will also examine our existing
combined with a “go global” Domestic policies country and thematic reviews
drive. Domestic and global to support reforms and national
actions go hand in hand in order At the domestic level, the priority development objectives, and
to respond to globalisation and is upgrading the OECD’s targeted continue the increasing focus on
technological change. We need policy advice. We need to do so inclusiveness of our Going for
innovative domestic policies that by integrating our thematic and Growth work. Building on the
improve citizens’ lives and well- sectoral recommendations into Better Policies Series brochures

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and Leaders’ Programme, we the nexus between productivity fledged OECD digital strategy that
could develop a programme of and inclusiveness. We will also can then be applied, adjusted and
seminars to discuss governments’ advance new regulatory and tailored by individual countries,
priorities and how the OECD competition assessments that in a similar way to what we
can best support them. We will cut across different policy areas; have done with our national
also leverage further our Multi- support endeavours to improve skills strategies and their action
dimensional Country Reviews infrastructure; and redouble phases. This will draw on
(MDCRs) to better target our our efforts to confirm, yet again, our Going Digital project and
support to partner countries, that ‘green’ and ‘growth’ go well focus on the inclusiveness and
their development strategies and together by analysing how climate- sustainability dimensions of new
transformation efforts. friendly policies can provide a production models.
major boost to short-term growth
We also need to ensure that and long-term resilience. We will Bringing our Inclusive Growth
structural policies at the domestic also further develop our work Initiative and our research on
level feed into each other. This on adaption, resilience and risk the nexus between productivity
means understanding better the prevention, with special focus on and inclusiveness to the next
trade-offs across different policies vulnerable regions. level, we could document
and reforms: not only avoiding further the consequences of
negative spill-over effects, but We will help countries to seize “exclusive growth” with regard
also maximising how they the opportunities opened up by to inequalities of income and
can complement and reinforce the Next Production Revolution. opportunities, as well as the
each other. This is particularly Digitalisation, automation and concentration of wealth and
relevant for policies that cut other technological advances market power. The platform
across traditional ministerial offer great opportunities to provided by the OECD Centre for
boundaries. In this regard, it is promote growth, productivity Opportunity and Equality (COPE)
important that we reinforce our and competitiveness, but is contributing to broadening
productivity and competitiveness disruptions need to be addressed our research and policy dialogue
agenda, particularly through –especially with regard to jobs – in this area. The drivers behind
the recently established Global through policies tailored to each intergenerational transmission
Forum on Productivity and by economy. Special attention will of poverty should be more
linking it further to our work on be given to developing a full- carefully scrutinised, including
intergenerational social mobility.
Special attention should be paid
to vulnerable groups, within
given segments of society:
children, women, migrants,
single-parent households, the
long-term unemployed, workers
in non-standard jobs, the young
and the elderly, LGBT, sick and
disabled people. Our work
needs to focus on identifying
the specific obstacles they
confront and how to overcome
them. Concrete approaches
and instruments developed by
the OECD for specific groups
like the Gender Strategy and
Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Thabo Mbeki, Chair of the High Level Panel the Council Recommendations
on Illicit Financial Flows from Africa, April 2016 on Gender Equality in

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Education, Employment and

Entrepreneurship, as well as in
Public Life, may provide a model
for how to address the particular
and concrete challenges faced
by some of these vulnerable
groups. Attention should also
be paid to how the OECD can do
more to help address the growing
“geographies of discontent”.

We should redouble our efforts

to advance gender equality,
where progress has been very
slow. An emerging concern is
the continuous violence against
Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, interviewed by BFM News TV during OECD Week,
women, a debate from which the
May 2016
OECD cannot be absent having
championed the gender agenda
internationally. We should also wealth concentration, including effects of collective bargaining
continue to monitor the G20 income disparities, technological and minimum wages in reducing
gender target that the OECD divides, uneven access to finance, growing wage divergence. Our
contributed to set, as well as to and limited progressivity in innovative Job Quality Framework
support governments in their fiscal systems. We should also should support our efforts to
efforts to implement family- analyse how different drivers prevent job precariousness,
friendly policies and build labour of wealth concentration relate irregular practices and informality
markets that allow women and and reinforce each other, and in the labour market. We will work
men to live more fulfilling and translate into inequality of closely with countries to promote
balanced lives. Special attention opportunities and limited social a virtuous circle of better job
should be given to childcare mobility. Improving the data quality, health and productivity.
policies, but also to child well- is the first step to identifying Job quality will be one of the
being more broadly. Children policy options to address pillars of the New Jobs Strategy,
represent the future of our this phenomenon. We have which will identify how countries
societies and are often hardest advanced in documenting the can deliver more and better
hit by poverty and exclusion. precariousness and lack of jobs; an inclusive labour market;
We should further analyse and progress of lower income groups, and support the adaptability of
document the role that early as well as the impact of this on workers and the resilience of our
childhood interventions can growth, but we should also take a economies. We will increase our
have in child well-being and the hard look at the dynamics of the engagement with the Swedish
reduction in the intergenerational top 10% and 1%, including their Government and the International
transmission of inequalities. access to high-level jobs, finance Labour Organization in the
and international mobility. advancement of a new Global
We need to document and Deal between governments,
measure wealth concentration In the new intergenerational businesses, unions and other
in our economies with more social contract for inclusive relevant actors to enhance social
precision. This implies enhancing growth, respect for the rights and dialogue and promote decent
our metrics and filling knowledge dignity of workers will be crucial. work. We will also advance the
gaps through a full-fledged We need to strengthen labour analysis on how the decline in
research agenda that looks at the market institutions and assess the unionisation may have impacted
many interrelated factors behind potential positive and negative the living standards of workers.

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The other side of the coin relates directly affected by dislocations. services, and in particular on
to providing workers with the Drawing on its comparative the outcomes of both education
skills needed to thrive in a rapidly advantage and expertise on and health systems and the
changing context. Investing what works and what does not experiences of those who benefit
in skills is good policy, both in in a variety of contexts around from them. Our work on the
terms of productivity as well the world, the OECD is well drivers for success in these policy
as inclusiveness, helping both positioned to be the go-to source areas – for instance the quality
workers and businesses. But we on how countries can improve of teaching and the results and
need innovative solutions. This the design and delivery of social outcomes of education systems
implies redoubling our efforts programmes and services in – should be framed in a larger,
to ensure that education and view of their increasing financial whole-of-OECD reflection on
training systems prepare people burdens. We need to look at how the quality of public services
to meet the needs of labour we can improve social protection and their impact on people’s
markets that are themselves systems and make them more lives. The 2017 Meeting of OECD
evolving as a result of increased effective, including by increasing Health Ministers put this focus
globalisation and technological the efficiency and targeting of at the heart of its message, with
change. It also requires that existing measures; revising its call for people-centred care.
workplaces become learning eligibility criteria, entitlements The OECD will develop this
spaces where workers, who and access to benefits in theme over the coming years,
bear a central responsibility for light of the rise of long-term not least by developing new ways
their own continuous education unemployment; as well as the of measuring the performance
and professional development, portability of benefits from job to of health systems according to
can update and upgrade job and from country to country. whether they really improve
their skills and knowledge to The forthcoming Employment, people’s health, rather than
continuously adapt to new Labour and Social Affairs relying on simply measuring what
realities. For the OECD, one Committee (ELSAC) Ministerial health systems do. Delivering the
task ahead lies in reviewing meeting on “Social Protection for Patient-Reported Indicator System
our research, instruments and the 21st Century” will help identify (PaRIS) will support countries as
recommendations to move ways in which modern systems they transform health systems,
beyond technical and cognitive can respond to changing needs integrate care, and seek a better
skills and focus on how to in order to make social policy fit use of new technologies at
nurture the social and emotional for the future. Particular focus affordable prices.
skills needed for succeeding in a should be placed on ensuring
globalised world. We will support that the middle class feels that Governments also need to take
countries’ efforts to enhance it has a stake in social policy: in a hard look at the progressivity
lifelong learning by strengthening some countries, the increasing of social transfers and other
opportunities for adult learning, costs of housing, education redistributive mechanisms,
especially for those most at and healthcare are making the including cash-based support
risk of becoming marginalised middle classes feel that their programmes. This is an area
in the labour market. Of equal living standards are being eroded where the OECD can help
importance is to ensure that and that their children will have by identifying best practices
the skills that workers and a lower standard of living than and distilling practical
citizens already have are used their parents. Specific support recommendations, besides
appropriately in order to increase should also be provided to partner analysing the progressivity of
productivity and wages. countries in the design and systems. In light of the decline in
implementation of their nascent labour’s share in national income,
Social protection systems are social protection systems. we must undertake a deep
critical to ensure that domestic analysis of where capital income
policies tackle exclusion and Emphasis should be placed on goes and how it can be more
inequalities and help those more the equity and quality of social equally shared. In this regard, we

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\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Strategic Orientations 2017

can contribute rigorous and expert but also provide people with the on lower and middle incomes has
analysis on potential pros and capacity to seize them, focusing increased. Likewise, the OECD
cons in topical debates such as the on low-income and disadvantaged needs to analyse the increase
notion of a universal basic income groups. In practice, this means in the share of national income
(UBI) or the possibility of putting a taking a life-cycle perspective accruing to capital, as well as
tax on robots and machinery. We to preventing, mitigating and the use of tax expenditures
must, of course, focus on building coping with disadvantage. This and exemptions that tend to be
up or preserving good framework needs to start with high-quality regressive in nature and favour
conditions for the creation of jobs early education and care, and those with the means to exploit
and the preservation of work be followed with access to the loopholes and engage in tax
incentives. We should develop a comprehensive education and planning. We need to shed new
coherent strategy based on best training throughout life, and light on the discussion about the
practices of income support to job to income and skills that help taxation of capital income, wealth
losers and those on the margins support people as they transition and property, but also look further
of the labour market while they between jobs. In this endeavour, into the taxation of financial
find employment, coupled with it will be critical to devise, wealth vehicles (like collective
a parallel strategy to facilitate when possible, alliances and investment schemes and mutual
labour market adjustments. We partnerships with the private funds) and non-wage financial
would naturally draw on the sector that help empower people. compensation packages (bonuses,
valuable policy lessons from our This requires revaluing the role of stock options). We should also
country reviews of displaced the state in the economy, beyond continue assessing the potential
workers and on our labour market fixing market failures, in order of environmental taxes.
activation reviews. In our quest to to provide solid frameworks to
ensure that benefits reach those ensure better outcomes for all. To complete our analysis of
who need them most, we also domestic fiscal systems, we
need to look at the sustainability, If countries are to implement also need to look at government
progressivity and adequacy these policies, they will need to expenditure. The willingness to
of pension systems and their raise the necessary resources comply with tax obligations relies
implications on the rights of through tax revenues. Fostering to a great extent on the perception
pensioners. economic dynamism and that the money collected is well
productivity is the basic driver spent. Besides our work on public
Beyond social services and of resource mobilisation, and the budgeting and best practices, the
transfers, governments can play OECD will continue supporting OECD can draw on its comparative
a more proactive role to prevent governments and businesses advantage and undertake useful
exclusion and empower people in the pursuit of a pro-growth research on public perceptions
and communities. Rather than agenda. But we must also help about government expenditure
palliative approaches that just countries get their tax systems and budget composition.
focus on compensating those right, according to their own
in need, the focus should be on circumstances. We need to At the firm level, a renewed focus
preventing as much as possible strengthen the progressivity of on competition and addressing
that our economies create losers. the whole tax system, ensuring market concentration is critical.
To do so, we need an empowering that everyone pays their fair Beyond our traditional work on
state that ensures that wealth share while taking care to avoid fostering competition policies and
and income concentration does distortions and limit negative preventing collusive practices,
not translate into different effects on incentives. Both we need to better understand the
opportunities in life and statutory personal and corporate growing productivity divergence
intergenerational divides. Social income tax rates have declined across firms that may be putting
safety nets are vital, but not over the past 30 years, in part into question the competitive
enough. The state should not only related to international tax nature of markets and reinforcing
remove barriers to opportunities, competition, while the tax burden winner-take-most dynamics

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Sumedha Satyarthi; Kailash Satyarthi, Chairman, Kailash Satyarthi Children’s Foundation; Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General; and
Gabriela Ramos, OECD Chief of Staff and Sherpa, at the signing ceremony of the Memorandum of Understanding, May 2016

and market power accumulation OECD to develop a fully-fledged territories and communities
in several sectors. We need to SME strategy that taps into our of countries. The OECD’s rich
develop further our analysis Organisation’s vast analysis work on territorial issues
on firm dynamics and the and expertise in terms of SME needs to fully incorporate the
relationship between larger and creation, development, financing, inequality dimension, analysing
smaller firms, and in particular productivity, regulatory divergences between leading
how globalisation, technological environment and business and lagging regions as well as
change and intellectual property dynamics and statistics. Such the urban-rural divide and how
rights systems may be affecting a strategy could allow SMEs to megatrends may be exacerbating
knowledge diffusion and access in maximise their opportunities in them. While we will continue
certain markets. a global, interconnected digital working with countries on
economy, and their contribution regional comparative data as
We must foster policies which to growth, sustainable well as on rural and urban
support the development, development and social inclusion. development policies, we need
growth and competitiveness Special attention should be given to ensure that our inclusiveness
of small- and medium-sized to start-ups and innovative young and green growth metrics take
enterprises (SMEs), including the firms. into particular consideration the
creation of a conducive business spatial dimension and its role in
environment for them. The At the domestic level, the sub- exacerbating inequalities.
increasing integration of markets national dimension is critical.
and production processes and We need a better understanding The OECD should reinforce
the digital transformation of the of the effects of globalisation, its work on regional and local
economy and society call for the trade and digitalisation in the development policies, distilling

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\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Strategic Orientations 2017

best practices and developing for example regarding integrity cycle, and instilling a culture
toolkits on how regions and cities in large public infrastructure of monitoring and evaluation.
can maximise their comparative projects, having political The development of a Policy
advantages and overcome their leaders leading by example, and Framework on Sound Public
specific challenges. New metrics developing common standards Governance will support the
and data on urban and rural across all levels of government. design and implementation of
units can help us better track Deepening our work on political governance reforms to improve
their economic performance and finance, lobbying and the results for citizens as part of an
distributional challenges, as well prevention of political capture empowering state. It should also
as assess the effectiveness of by interest groups is equally help us advance our integrated
different targeted policies. Our critical, and should include policy support to countries,
reviews can also deal in more the development of adequate joining the dots across different
depth with how sub-national metrics and standards in policy areas.
governance arrangements these areas, building on the
can help promote inclusive work we are producing in the Finally, good governance also
and sustainable growth while field of trust and governance implies tackling concerns about
tackling inequalities, respecting with instruments like the people’s limited information
the environment and advancing forthcoming Guidelines on the about the public sector, their
well-being. Initiatives like Measurement of Trust. participation in policy making
Champion Mayors for Inclusive and, possibly, their access to
Growth can help us share We should also maximise the political power, all forms of
findings, spread best practices great potential of our work exclusion at the root of the loss
and identify concrete actions, with and our ability to convene of citizens’ trust in institutions.
and could be replicated at other the centres of governments, This often translates into
sub-national levels, including supporting efforts to strengthen indifference, disengagement
regions, smaller cities and internal co-ordination, and lack of participation in
villages. engaging in effective medium- political and civic processes,
and long-term strategic threatening our democracies.
We need to support governments planning, sustaining effective Building on its Trust Agenda, the
in their effort to improve public engagement with citizens and OECD needs to look at how the
governance and restore trust civil society across the policy various inequalities translate
in public policies. On the one
hand, this implies fostering good
practices, high quality services
and innovation in the public
sector, something that the OECD
Observatory of Public Sector
Innovation can help promote.
On the other hand, persistent
problems of corruption,
regulatory capture and other
signs of low respect for the rule
of law and for the independence
of public institutions need to be
addressed. The implementation
of the new OECD
Recommendation on Public
Integrity should provide policy
levers that are particularly Volodymyr Groysman, Prime Minister of Ukraine, and Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-
powerful in improving trust, General, October 2016

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adoption and implementation

of the new Action Plan on
Preventing Ageing Unequally
and the mainstreaming of issues
like gender, green growth, skills
or innovation. They all relate to
areas where international co-
ordination is critical. Moreover,
such co-operation is also crucial
in areas where policy decisions
transcend national boundaries
and demand co-ordinated
action: cross-border trade
and investment; international
tax competition; setting new
standards on due diligence,
Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Senator Ishaq Dar, Minister of Finance and
responsible business conduct and
Revenue of Pakistan, at the signing ceremony of the Convention on Mutual
Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, September 2016 environmental and human rights
protection; etc. Co-ordination
should result in larger benefits
into unequal access to power work mentioned in the previous for each country and therefore
and representation, with certain section can only succeed if they in a global policy optimum, as
segments of societies feeling are part of co-ordinated actions at opposed to a race to the bottom
that their voices and interests a global level, in light of the high that is costly for everybody.
are ignored or underrepresented, international mobility of both
while others are seen to have capital and labour. Improving We also need to continue
disproportionate access and the the outcomes of globalisation supporting the implementation
ability to bend public policies to and the capacity of domestic of the important agreements
their interests. As recommended policies to solve people’s problems reached by the international
by the latest OECD Report on involves, therefore, strengthening community in 2015, leveraging
Open Government, a greater international co-operation in our contribution to the
focus on strengthening the many areas. It implies a focus achievement of the Sustainable
transparency and accountability on levelling the playing field and Development Goals (SDGs)
of the public sector is indeed promoting global standards to through our SDG Action Plan. Our
crucial for government to regain ensure that everyone benefits work must take into account the
people’s confidence, as well as from global dynamics, including universal nature of the SDGs and
the implementation of inclusive the international movement the linkages between the different
participation mechanisms to of goods, services, capital and goals, focusing on providing
ensure that citizens’ needs are labour. It also demands that targeted support to member
properly communicated and we pay more attention to the and partner countries in their
addressed. cross-border distributional and national strategies and specific
environmental aspects of growth. plans, enhancing co-ordination
International policies across and between levels of
Our horizontal projects for the government, and promoting
Governments and national 2017-2018 biennium — Inclusive effective stakeholder engagement.
institutions can only address Growth, Ensuring the Effective Specific areas where we can
problems that are global in nature Integration of Vulnerable Migrant contribute to achieving the SDGs
through collaboration beyond Groups, Going Digital — will be include hunger and poverty
national borders. In addition, critical, as will be the New Jobs eradication, health, food security,
many of the proposals for further Strategy and Future of Work, the education, gender equality, energy

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\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Strategic Orientations 2017

access, ageing, health, the ocean chains, domestic resource to strengthen monitoring and
economy, water and sanitation, mobilisation and the transitioning evaluation mechanisms. Our work
anti-corruption and co-operation to higher income levels. We needs to look at both the negative
in science and technology. The should enhance our work on and positive environmental
consolidation of an office in New development policies through dimensions of international
York should help us achieve this our global, regional and thematic trade, evaluating its implications
by supporting the United Nations outlooks, as well as through our for sustainability. It also should
in several areas where the OECD MDCRs. The ongoing review of the highlight how policies in various
holds relevant expertise and can DAC, efforts to foster cohesion, jurisdictions can be mutually
promote integrated approaches. synergies and co-operation in supportive of environmental
the OECD development cluster, objectives, and signal the
In supporting the 2030 Agenda and further engagement with a transformations needed to
we should place special broader range of stakeholders make economies more resource-
emphasis on development — including the private sector, efficient and circular.
finance, including through foundations, civil society and
supporting the implementation academia — all point in this Particular attention should be
of the Addis Ababa Agenda for direction. paid to our work on international
Action, producing an OECD migration, the integration of
annual Outlook on Development We need to continue supporting migrants in receiving societies
Finance and completing the implementation of the Paris and the impact in their countries
the transformation in the Climate Agreement through of origin. In this regard, we need
measurement of development our work on climate finance to contribute to UN-led efforts
finance with the Total Official — in terms of measurement, to establish better functioning
Support for Sustainable monitoring and mobilisation — co-ordinating mechanisms,
Development (TOSSD). Our as well as on the alignment of supporting with our research,
development work should also policies to ensure a cost-effective evidence and expertise the
ensure our targeted support to transition to a low-carbon ongoing negotiations of a
developing countries seeking economy. We will help catalyse global compact for safe, orderly
innovative solutions to improve and support the transition to and regular migration, to be
the lives of their populations. To green, low-emissions and climate- adopted at an intergovernmental
this end, we must redouble our resilient economies through the conference on international
efforts to support the agenda development of effective policies, migration in 2018. We should
of the Global Partnership for institutions and instruments, continue building on the efforts of
Effective Development including through the OECD the Global Knowledge Partnership
Co-operation endorsed in Nairobi Centre for Green Finance and on Migration and Development
last December and build on Investment. The OECD must (KNOMAD) of which the OECD is
the respective memberships of help reinforce international a key partner, and on the ongoing
the Development Assistance co-operation around the green work on policies that foster a
Committee, the OECD agenda. This includes better positive contribution of migrants
Development Centre and the collaboration on adaptation and to development, both in origin
Sahel and West Africa Club risk prevention, especially with and destination countries. We
to exchange best practices regard to climate change, water should also advance our analysis
among countries at different resources, food security and and peer learning on refugee
levels of development. We biodiversity protection, as well as integration policies, and the
must also reinforce our role in particularly vulnerable regions broader integration of migrants,
fostering direct policy dialogue and ecosystems. A critical goal drawing on existing indicators to
with developing and emerging is to help design and enforce support policy making and ensure
economies on key issues, such as strong environmental standards a coherent approach. With its
extractive industries, integration and secure public participation expertise in fighting transnational
into global markets and value in defining them, as well as corruption and economic crime,

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 33

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

the OECD could also act together Transparency and Exchange of measurement and documentation
with national authorities and Information for Tax Purposes, of the costs of protectionism
other international actors to cut the OECD could improve access and isolation for our economies,
the financial lifeline of people to and effective use of beneficial including disaggregating data to
traffickers. ownership information for tax focus on the most burdensome
purposes. The OECD also needs to measures, and in particular their
We need to continue addressing advance its work on tax certainty, impact on the most vulnerable
tax avoidance and evasion, one discussing the tax challenges of segments of society.
of the greatest contributions that the digital economy, advancing
the OECD has provided to the the implementation of the In the specific area of trade,
international community in the international value added tax/ we need to refine our analysis
past decade. Our work on taxes goods and services tax (VAT/ of GVCs and our databases on
illustrates our ability to mobilise GST) guidelines, harnessing tax Trade in Value Added (TiVA), the
countries across the world policy for lower carbon growth, Services Trade Restrictiveness
towards a common goal so they and fostering international Index (STRI) and the Trade
can improve the global rules of collaboration on domestic Facilitation Indicators (TFIs),
the game while instilling fairness resource mobilisation through the increasing both their reach and
into the system and gradually expansion of the Tax Inspectors depth to better understand
restoring trust in institutions. Without Borders initiative to more the benefits and costs of open
We need to complete the work countries. markets, as well as the risks of
to make tax havens a thing of protectionism and the practical
the past. We need to consider We need a new trade and actions that can be taken to
the role of taxation in supporting investment narrative that focuses improve the functioning of
inclusive growth, especially on openness and fairness, markets. An important avenue
in a global environment with acknowledging that trade and is to continue further integrating
mobile factors of production. investment should be positive foreign direct investment (FDI)
While progress has been made drivers for inclusive growth and measurement into TiVA and
in dealing with tax avoidance, well-being. This will imply putting GVCs to better understand their
tax evasion, and the increased both producers and consumers interrelationship, as well as the
mobility of taxpayers and tax at the centre of our policies, specific role of multinational
bases, these continue to present shifting the focus to widespread, enterprises (MNEs) in global trade.
challenges for tax policy makers. long-term societal gains, working Given that GVCs are not static and
We need to continue to advance on governance frameworks to will shift depending on policies,
the implementation of the new ensure a level playing field, and relative prices and technology,
global standard on the Automatic increasing the transparency a better understanding of these
Exchange of Information (AEOI). of policies and policy making. dynamics will support better
To address tax avoidance by We need to continue further domestic and international
multinationals, we need to ensure integrating our trade, investment policies. On the trade policy
an effective implementation and domestic agendas, with agenda, we need to support
of the Base Erosion and Profit more and better research and government efforts to make
Shifting (BEPS) package through evidence on the gains and cost trade policy more open, allowing
the Inclusive Framework on of openness, including their people and communities to
BEPS, as well as to further interaction with related domestic inform and be informed by the
engage in the ongoing debate and international policies and the debate. The impact of embedding
about a destination country- final effect not just on growth, but labour, environmental and other
based corporate tax versus the on development outcomes and standards in more comprehensive
principles of source and residence. their distribution across society. trade and economic partnership
Complementing the work of the One important area where our agreements should be carefully
Financial Actions Task Force expertise could bring additional analysed to ensure that they have
(FATF) and the Global Forum on value would be the thorough the desired effect. We need to pay

34 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017

\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Strategic Orientations 2017

Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Peter Georgescu, Chairman Emeritus of Young & Rubicam, during a “Coffees of the
Secretary-General”, May 2016

special attention to the potential infrastructure investments up their capital account. We also
for trade opening in specific areas that are environmentally need to pay special attention
(services, agriculture) to generate sustainable and improve to the volatility of capital flows.
pro-poor growth. people’s lives. We will continue Efforts should be devoted to
to address issues related to completing the review of the
With regard to investment, we infrastructure financing, OECD Codes of Liberalisation
need to leverage existing OECD including the promotion of of Capital Movements and
instruments and consider new the role of private capital by encouraging the participation
ones to ensure that cross-border implementing and leveraging by non-members, particularly
activity and capital allocation the international instruments non-OECD G20 countries.
maximises opportunities while we developed and providing This would help to ensure
benefitting society at large. We further analysis and data. The transparency, accountability and
must refine the FDI Regulatory OECD can also assist countries proportionality in the monitoring
Restrictiveness Index, enrich our in carefully weighing the risks of capital flows. It would also
FDI analysis through linkages and benefits of unfettered bring new perspectives and a
to other data, and enhance the capital flows, and in particular better understanding of how best
use of the Policy Framework for to ensure that emerging and to sequence the liberalisation of
Investment (PFI) with a long- developing countries meet certain capital movements. We also need
term view to establish a coherent thresholds — which include to weigh in with our research
policy climate for investment. The the quality of their institutions and expertise on the debates on
PFI can also be better leveraged and policy making and their investment treaty making and
as a tool to mobilise public and level of domestic financial investor-state dispute settlement
private resources for high-impact development — before they open (ISDS) mechanisms.

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\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

We need to further analyse the Strengthening our global International Student Assessment
role of the financial system and standard-setting role by (PISA) and on the tax front
assess how it can best contribute upgrading both our standards and illustrates the importance of
to a healthy real economy. Further their adequate implementation creating a global agenda and an
work is needed to better assess will be critical in improving inclusive process in order to better
the linkage between the wider global co-operation. In line with leverage our assessments, tools
economy and the financial sector. last year’s Ministerial Council and standards. We also need to
Working with other institutions Meeting (MCM) Statement, we sharpen our ability to provide
like the International Monetary need to complete the ongoing legal assistance and support
Fund (IMF) and the Financial review of our standards, to national policy makers in the
Stability Board (FSB), the OECD ensure that they are fully up to implementation of standards,
can contribute towards better date and have maximum impact including through domestic
measuring financial transactions globally. Broadening adherence, legislation and regulation.
and developing standards and enhancing effectiveness and
rules that can help put the strengthening monitoring In terms of international
international financial system mechanisms are all critical to competition we need rules of the
on a more solid footing and this endeavour. Unfortunately, game that guarantee growth-
help prevent future crises. international standards are enhancing global markets
Among other areas, we need to lagging behind the enormous and prevent excessive income
consider biases towards debt economic, social, political and and wealth concentration.
finance in many of our countries technological transformation that International co-operation
and promote the development is taking place. To address this, is needed to limit anti-
of oversight over the shadow we should be a bold pathfinder competitive practices such as
banking system and cross- and help fill the gaps in emerging explicit or implicit subsidies
border trading of assets whose policy areas that require new or the formation of cartels
intermediaries and instruments global standards. This exercise whose impact extends beyond
are not subject to regulatory needs to be inclusive and national borders. There is a
mechanisms. The OECD needs engage all relevant stakeholders, need for national authorities
to stand for strong domestic ensuring an adequate discussion to share information, bridge
financial regulation as well on governance issues. Our uneven regulations and agree to
as for mechanisms that allow progress on the Programme for common principles to promote
international collaboration in this
realm and help update inadequate
regulations. Our research should
also deal with proposals to enact
financial transaction taxes,
assessing their costs, benefits
and viability. Attention should
be given to the role of finance in
income and wealth inequality,
including the role of executive
remuneration and its alignment
with long-term performance. We
also need to look at uneven access
to finance among individuals and
firms, and advance our work on
financial literacy and financial
consumer protection to deal with
the increasing complexity of Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Algirdas Butkevičius, Prime Minister of
instruments and products. Lithuania, at the presentation of the OECD Economic Assessment of Lithuania, March 2016

36 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017

\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Strategic Orientations 2017

competition. Cross-border legal benefits lead to societal gains and the OECD also needs to examine
enforcement capacity also needs not to barriers of entry. the role of export controls in
to be strengthened. Particular preventing terrorism and their
attention should be given to We need stronger standards vulnerability to bribery.
competition in the financial for companies in general,
sector, where institutions that and the OECD can be the Beyond corruption and crime,
are “too big to fail” may benefit international reference for the globalisation of supply
from implicit subsidies and make guidance on principles of good chains has led to concerns about
the market less contestable. corporate behaviour in a global responsible business conduct,
Attention should also be given to environment. We will develop our with some companies shifting
dangerous risk-taking behaviour work on corporate governance, production abroad to profit from
that has in the past resulted in a with a special focus on the lower human rights standards,
privatisation of benefits during implementation of the G20/ environmental protection and
upturns, and a socialisation of OECD Principles of Corporate health and safety standards. This
losses during downturns, with Governance. We will also help also weakens trust in business.
the costs being shouldered by the enforce the instruments we have We need to strengthen the OECD
taxpayers. In light of the nature already developed to combat MNE Guidelines, the OECD Due
and rapid internationalisation malpractice and wrongdoing, Diligence Guidance and the
of State Owned Enterprises such as the OECD Anti-Bribery National Contacts Points system.
(SOEs), we should further Convention, and focus on effective We also need to promote their
analyse their dynamics and implementation to prevent effective implementation and
role in the global economy, with corruption and enhance business advance adherence to them by
particular attention to enhancing integrity. The recently launched more countries, in particular G20
transparency about the benefits Phase 4 of country reviews economies, as well as support
they may enjoy and ensuring that will focus on enforcement and any initiative to strengthen
they play by the same rules. detection efforts, and corporate international standards.
liability. Globalisation and new
Our standards and best practices technologies increase both the But responsible business conduct
should continue giving due opportunities for corruption is about more than just basic
consideration to the specificities across multiple jurisdictions as ethical behaviour: we need strong
of MNEs and their role in the well as the chances of impunity; corporate standards that refer
global economy, with robust in turn, this is among the factors not only to good governance and
principles that ensure a level contributing to public distrust abiding by the law, but also to
playing field. We should ensure toward international business. By the economic, environmental
that MNEs do not hamper fair developing a single and consistent and social impact of companies
international competition and anti-corruption framework, as key actors in our societies.
efficient capital allocation, and the OECD can help tackle these This implies taking a strong
that they remain an active source unprecedented opportunities approach to long-term social
of long-term investment. In for corruption, illicit trade and investment and moving towards a
this regard, we need to tackle organised crime, reinforcing also stronger corporate accountability
“winner-take-most” dynamics, its research and policy leverage framework, including the
which will require enhanced co- in this area. Paradoxically, possibility of providing companies
operation between competition globalisation, digitalisation and with a “social license to operate”
agencies. We also need to look financialisation can actually based not only on the benefits
at Intellectual Property Rights be drivers for enhanced global that they provide to shareholders,
(IPR) and how we can strike the co-operation to combat these but also to society stakeholders at
right balance between fostering problems. The OECD also needs large. The OECD has been working
innovation and protecting to look at how technology can with different stakeholders, but
creativity while ensuring that IPR be an ally in this endeavour. In a needs to go to the next frontier
context of global security threats, and promote comprehensive

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 37

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

standards that hold companies and cutting-edge activities that I propose to reinforce our work
accountable towards the future of raise new governance and even on International Regulatory
the planet and the communities ethical dilemmas, including Co-operation, in particular by
they operate in. The state can bio and neurotechnologies, supporting the efforts of the
play a facilitating role, not only artificial intelligence, the Internet Partnership among International
promoting policies that enable the of Things and big data. The Organisations on Effectiveness
implementation of responsible potential of developing guidelines in International Rule-Making,
business conduct, but also with in some of these areas should established under OECD
new forms of coalitions and be assessed. We should also leadership. The OECD will also
Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) closely monitor the functioning promote further coordination
that could help business become a of new financial instruments among IOs, and specifically
true lever of positive change and and technologies like blockchain, with other leading International
an active contributor to inclusive including possible ways of Financial Institutions (IFIs), to
growth, reduced inequalities and improving transparency and ensure that we better complement
shared well-being. The OECD regulation. each other. We should create a
could help identify and distil broader and deeper mechanism
better policies in this regard, as Enhanced multilateral co- for co-operation among IOs,
well as develop refined metrics to operation with regular meetings among
measure the impact of business in the senior leadership of those
terms of societal well-being. A key dimension of our ability to institutions involved in the G20
reinforce the global governance (IMF, World Bank, FSB, ILO, WTO
Our global agenda should architecture in these and and OECD) as well as the UN
also focus on addressing other areas will be determined Secretary General. By doing so, we
sector-specific problems. The by the strengthening of our can foster consistency between
establishment by OECD and contributions to the G7 and G20, our respective programmes
G20 members of a Global Forum as well as our collaboration with of work, the 2030 Agenda, the
on Steel Excess Capacity will several regional organisations climate agenda and the tax
help us assess the significant and multilateral development agenda.
challenge of excess capacity in banks. We will work with them
this area and how to address in promoting strong, sustainable, We need to better measure
related distortions. Long- balanced and inclusive growth, attitudes towards globalisation,
standing work in the areas of while enhancing economic and and in order to do so, we should
food, agriculture and fisheries financial resilience and creating establish a platform with other
can be further exploited to opportunities for citizens. We partners that can help us capture
inform government efforts to will give prominence to bringing and assess perceptions but,
move further away from trade- inclusive growth to the core most importantly, the drivers
distorting support to targeted of the G7 and G20 agendas, behind them and the different
investments in improving sector and collaborate closely with “geographies of discontent” – as
productivity, sustainability and these fora and institutions in attitudes vary across countries,
resilience. We will also explore advancing global rules, including regions, socioeconomic groups
the development of standards by leveraging our standards to and even across time. In this
in fields such as maritime improve global co-operation. regard, we also need to advance
transport, fossil fuel subsidies, our work on global values
export restrictions on raw By reinforcing our collaboration and how they relate to our
materials, and supply chains and with other International education systems. The Global
due diligence in several sectors. Organisations (IOs), we can Competencies Framework, which
Special attention should be strengthen effectiveness in will be included in the 2018 PISA,
given to deepening our analysis international rule-making in is a positive step in this direction
and understanding of frontier support of a sustainable world as it aims to assess young people’s
technologies, advanced research economy and shared well-being. understanding of global issues

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and attitudes toward cultural can bring value added to the view to possible membership.
diversity and tolerance. Organisation and can provide We will update our joint
regional beacons for stability and programmes of work with Brazil
good practices, while bearing and China and implement the
Improving the OECD’s in mind that the OECD does recently renewed programme
DNA and the work needed not aim to become a universal with Indonesia to make the
to rise to the challenges organisation in terms of its size best use of OECD expertise,
and expectations and membership, but rather one instruments and standards for
with global impact. We will also their reform agendas and lay
Building a more open, global and use all our outreach instruments, out the conditions for possible
inclusive OECD policy network bodies and programmes to membership considerations. We
is critical in order to expand broaden take-up by non- need to scale up our relationship
the impact of our standards members – with a special focus with India and South Africa
and our work. In this regard, on large emerging economies to encourage a similar level of
completing the accession and relevant global and strategic and comprehensive
processes of Colombia, Costa regional players – by explaining engagement and collaboration,
Rica and Lithuania will bring the better how participation and prioritising the development
total number of OECD members engagement can help them of joint programmes of work.
to 38. Drawing on the report meet their specific challenges. Capitalising on the experiences
by the Council Working Group We should continue building on with Morocco, Kazakhstan and
on Membership, we hope to be the OECD Development Centre’s Peru, we will launch a country
able to respond promptly to the membership in our outreach programme with Thailand and
formal requests for membership efforts to partner countries. build the foundations for a more
received from Argentina, Bulgaria, structured cooperation with
Croatia, Kazakhstan, Malta, Peru, We will enhance our work Africa focusing in particular on
Romania and Sri Lanka, and with Key Partners, consistent Sub-Saharan Africa, as mandated
consider other expressions of with our global relations by the MCM 2016. We will also
interest. We will work closely with strategy, promoting a more continue advancing our Southeast
members on further engaging active engagement with OECD Asia, Latin America and the
with prospective candidates who substantive committees with a Caribbean, South East Europe,
Eurasia (Central and Eastern
Europe, the Caucasus and Central
Asia) and Middle East and North
Africa regional programmes.

Through the mainstreaming

of the NAEC initiative we will
continue underpinning fresh
thinking, experimentation and
discussion of new policy models,
analytical approaches and
narratives that can help enrich
the work of the OECD. Building
on the insights gained through
NAEC, the OECD will be at the
forefront of economic analysis
and policy-making, advancing
thinking about the economy
Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Tiago Brandão Rodrigues, Minister of by considering feedbacks,
Education of Portugal, May 2016 systemic stability, interactions

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 39

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and María del Pilar Arosemena de Alemán, Ambassador of Panama to France, at the signing of
the Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters, October 2016

and risks, and policy trade-offs. foresight capacity, as megatrends national governments and leading
This approach will contribute to and rapid technological change foresight practitioners worldwide
bringing down the traditional transform our world. Reinforcing to explore a range of plausible
barriers between different our strategic foresight capacity future scenarios and their
disciplines and policy silos, is fundamental to stay ahead of implications for policy decisions
relying more on findings from the curve in order to anticipate today.
the hard sciences, behavioural new and emerging challenges.
and social sciences as well as The mainstreaming of strategic With regard to internal
the humanities, and providing foresight throughout our work management and improving our
new tools (including agent-based areas, including the use of way of working, we will promote
models, network analysis, big the latest methodologies and further horizontal collaboration
data, machine learning and analytical tools, will allow the to break down silos and ensure
decision analysis) to understand OECD to lead policy debates timely corporate responses to
and analyse a range of challenges on emerging challenges and new and emerging needs. This
from financial crises and opportunities, and reinforce implies consolidating a corporate
inequality to sustainability and its capacity to provide robust identity that goes beyond
complex governance systems. responses in a time of rapid individual directorates, by making
It will aim to challenge our change and uncertainty. We horizontality the new normal of
prevailing assumptions and must also strengthen our our Organisation. Special attention
stimulate unprejudiced dialogue. efforts to identify early signs will be given to improving
of disruptive change, fostering horizontal collaboration with
Going forward we will rely more anticipatory capacity across the “Part II” bodies. We will develop
systematically on our strategic Organisation and working with more synergies and cohesion

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\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Strategic Orientations 2017

to reduce the transaction costs while assessing how the digital which will allow the time for
that we currently face when revolution will impact our core messages to take root and
promoting collaboration between business model and how we can help shape global conversations
different units, with a focus on best adapt our content creation, around the critical issues of our
strengthening organisational packaging and delivery to new time. In this endeavour, we will
coherence and emphasising platforms of consumption and invest more in identifying and
greater agility to be more dissemination, making them understanding our audiences,
responsive to change. This more demand driven. Particular their needs and their reactions.
will take place through actions focus will be given to the role This will include adapting content
arising from the Value for Money of big and smart data and how to our stakeholders through
(V4M) initiative and our drive our tools and instruments can shorter, more accessible and
towards continuous performance help us collect and analyse it. visual formats and devoting
improvement, so that members The release of the new OECD greater attention to analytics
get maximum value for the Network Environment (O.N.E.) and measuring the impact of our
resources they provide and the will reinforce our collaboration communications.
OECD remains at the leading edge with OECD members’ Delegations
among international organisations and help us communicate and ***
in terms of impact, efficiency and share information with them and
transparency. Along these lines, capitals in a timelier manner. We are at a challenging, critical
we will foster staff diversity. We moment, but I sincerely think that
must also reinforce our work We will also complete the shift the OECD can make a difference.
with committees, which are the in our public communications, Increased international integration
pillars of our Organisation and ensuring greater coherence has made our societies better off,
give the OECD a leading edge over and corporate consistency. freer and more dynamic. But we
other international organisations. Our communications strategy risk losing such gains if we fail
In this regard, we will favour will place greater emphasis to distribute more evenly those
further collaboration, information on listening and engagement, benefits and address some negative
sharing and even joint work across reaching out to new audiences externalities. We can do so through
committees, especially around and stakeholders to avoid “echo mutually reinforcing domestic and
horizontal projects, but also in chambers” and talking solely to international policies that ensure
areas where cross-fertilisation “people like us”. I count on OECD that the benefits of the international
can be particularly fruitful to Delegations to help us engage in movement of goods, services, capital,
help break the silos that also a broader conversation with non- labour, technology, ideas and culture
operate in national governments. traditional audiences back home, are seized and widely shared. Our
We will establish a task force to with a particular focus on social 50th Anniversary Vision Statement
assess how the OECD can best partners and civil society, as well underscored our members’ resolve
tap into the huge potential of its as improving outreach at national, to make the OECD a more effective
committees. regional and local levels. While and inclusive global policy network,
continuing to value, promote drawing on our uniqueness and
Drawing on the comprehensive and focus on our specific reports comparative advantages. These
OECD internal Digital Strategy and products, we will place less Strategic Orientations propose a
underway, we will redouble emphasis on individual outputs way in which we can sharpen our
our efforts to take advantage and deliverables, and move contribution to governments’ efforts
of new digital technologies in towards thematic communication to put the forces of globalisation to
terms of mobility, accessibility campaigns built around our work for all. 
and horizontal collaboration, major horizontal priorities,

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 41

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

Ministerial Council Meeting 2016


Official Family Photo of the OECD Ministerial Council Meeting 2016

Enhancing productivity for inclusive growth

On the occasion of the 2016 accession process. We now look development, the World Trade
OECD Ministerial Council forward to welcoming Latvia as a Organization’s 10th Ministerial
Meeting (MCM), we1 have full member of the Organisation Conference in Nairobi and
assembled under the for Economic Co-operation and the Paris Agreement on
Chairmanship of Chile, and the Development (OECD). Climate Change have laid the
Vice-Chairmanship of Finland, foundations for future collective
Hungary and Japan on 1-2 June action to achieve our common
to discuss how to enhance Setting out the challenges goals. We welcome the adoption
productivity and inclusive of the initiative on strengthening
growth in mutually reinforcing Over the past year, major the international tax system
ways, as key drivers to increase international agreements such under the Base Erosion and Profit
people’s well-being. as the United Nations (UN) Shifting project (BEPS), endorsed
2030 Agenda for Sustainable by G20 leaders, and further work
We congratulate Latvia for the Development, the Addis Ababa on the Automatic Exchange of
successful conclusion of its Action Agenda on financing for Information for tax purposes

1. Ministers and Representatives of Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

42 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017


Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Michelle Bachelet, President of Chile, during OECD Week, June 2016

(AEOI). We encourage the monetary policy tools and Enhancing productivity

OECD, with other international by accelerating the pace of for inclusive growth
and regional organisations, structural reforms, which has
to help members design and stalled in many countries. We We agree that there are several
implement policies to meet their also need to enhance action to possible drivers behind the
commitments. support trade and investment. observed trends in productivity
growth, including weakness
World economic growth Geopolitical risks, conflict and in investment and financial
remains too slow, with weak insecurity have drawn many market conditions, a slow
global trade and investment, OECD countries into the centre diffusion of new technologies,
low commodity prices, below of the recent refugee crises, the possible growing market
target inflation in most major posing challenges to their power of incumbent firms
economies, persistent high integration systems. We support and unnecessary or inefficient
unemployment, high debt the global call for an effective regulation. We recognise that
levels in many countries and response to humanitarian disparities in skills, quality
downside risks, especially in challenges stressed at the of education, and health and
emerging market economies. World Humanitarian Summit in social services can undermine
We are concerned by the Istanbul. aggregate productivity and
productivity slowdown, the increase inequalities. We agree
longer-term rise in inequalities Widely publicised cases of on the need to promote a positive
and the erosion of job quality. possible fraud and tax evasion cycle between economic growth
The problem of global excess highlight the urgent need to and enhanced opportunities
capacity in certain sectors is implement OECD standards to and income. The OECD should
a serious bottleneck for world strengthen the international deepen its understanding of
economic growth. We recognise tax system and to address the productivity challenge and
the need to strengthen other major challenges such as its possible links to inequality
economic growth through the international corruption and trends to explore policy solutions
appropriate use of fiscal and money laundering. for enhancing productivity while

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 43

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

fostering inclusive growth. support the OECD’s efforts to agendas. We encourage the OECD
A coherent approach is needed enhance its analytical methods to deepen its analysis on lifelong
to ensure that vulnerable groups and to anticipate global learning and on what students
participate in the labour market, developments. We encourage may need to learn to succeed
firms have an equal opportunity it to remain at the cutting edge in an uncertain, digitalised
to contribute to a dynamic of evidence-based economic and complex world. We stress
economy and lagging regions thinking and prioritise its work the importance of developing
fulfil their productive potential. in accordance with its core transferable, transversal, digital
We appreciate the contribution of competences. and entrepreneurial skills and
promoting interdisciplinary
education and research. An
effective co-ordination between
education, training policies and
labour market demands is needed,
including the strengthening
of vocational education. We
welcome the OECD’s new work
on “getting skills right” and look
forward to the outcomes of the
work on broadening the notion of

We echo the call of the

Employment and Labour
Ministerial Meeting this year to
update the OECD Jobs Strategy,
to advise on policies to make
Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Luis Guillermo Solís, President of Costa Rica,
labour markets more inclusive
February 2016
and resilient, improving youth
employment, gender equality
the Productivity-Inclusiveness Nexus Policy action across and job quality. We welcome the
report to this important issue. the board to foster 2015 OECD Recommendations on
The Declaration on Enhancing productivity and inclusive Ageing and Employment Policies;
Productivity for Inclusive Growth growth on Integrated Mental Health,
aims to identify ways forward on Skills and Work Policy; and on
these issues. We support further Skills, jobs and social Gender Equality in Public Life, the
work within the Organisation, as policies to support latter presented at the Ministerial
well as through the Global Forum productivity and inclusive Meeting on Public Governance for
on Productivity. growth Inclusive Growth in Helsinki.

We welcome the OECD’s We recognise the importance of We recognise the importance

broader work on well-being skills, quality of education, and of fighting inequalities and
and its cross-disciplinary broader social policies, including promoting inclusive growth from
approach to policy analysis, active labour market policies, early stages in individuals’ lives.
as promoted by the New to support productivity growth, We welcome the OECD’s current
Approaches to Economic foster social inclusion and reap work on children, in the areas
Challenges (NAEC) Initiative, the full benefits of innovation. of education, health and social
currently being mainstreamed We also recognise the benefits of policies and encourage further
within the Organisation. We social dialogue to advance these co-ordinated analysis.

44 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017


We need to strengthen our

integration policies to better
benefit from migrants’ skills and
promote cohesive societies. We
encourage the OECD to enhance
its work of migrants’ integration
and related policies to support
members’ efforts, as well as
continue its analysis on migration
trends and on the migration and
development nexus.

Reaping the benefits of

digitalisation and innovation

We recognise that a coherent

and holistic policy approach
is necessary to fully harness
and leverage the benefits of
Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Daniel Duncan, Prime Minister of Côte
innovation and digitalisation for d’Ivoire, at the Millennium Challenge Corporation-OECD Investor event: Joining Forces
increased productivity, quality to Catalyse Investments in the Developing World, October 2016
jobs and inclusive growth. We
should promote and protect the
global free flow of information, in and Digital Age. In particular, we sound and easily manageable
accordance with OECD Principles call on the OECD to bring together regulation and institutional
for Internet Policy Making. To its policy and analytical expertise, arrangements to ensure a level-
this end, we look forward to the including the ongoing work on playing field for incumbents
Ministerial Meeting on Digital the Next Production Revolution, and new entrants, including on
Economy, Innovation, Growth and the digital economy, the future market openness, competition,
Social Prosperity that will be held of work, skills and education. and access to finance, especially
in Cancún, Mexico on 21-23 June. We also call on the Organisation for SMEs, and in particular
to further its analysis on how young and innovative firms.
We also underline the need to reap the benefits of new and We need to remove distorting
to enable innovation and fast-developing areas such policies that inhibit the growth
experimentation at the firm level, as biotechnology, artificial of innovative firms and hinder
including small- and medium- intelligence, the sharing and the restructuring or exit of
sized enterprises (SMEs), fostering circular economy as well as poorly-performing ones. We call
technology and knowledge platform markets. We encourage on the Organisation to further
diffusion by strengthening the OECD to develop a horizontal develop appropriate indicators on
collaboration between public policy strategy on digitalisation, competition, regulation and trade
research institutions and its opportunities and challenges. for OECD members and partners.
industry, and facilitating
investment in R&D and other Enabling firms to thrive We note the importance of the
forms of knowledge-based capital. regional and local dimensions in
We recognise the need to promote creating an environment that is
We reaffirm the commitments an enabling environment to allow supportive of productivity growth
of the 2015 Daejeon Declaration firms to thrive and innovate, in firms, which can be reinforced
on Science, Technology and particularly small, young firms through urban-rural linkages as
Innovation policies for the Global and start-ups. We need to foster well as effective collaboration

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between national and sub- of 2016. We note the priorities Liberalisation. We celebrate the
national levels of government. for urgent attention of the OECD 40th anniversary of the OECD
We call on the Organisation to identified in the Agricultural Declaration on International
provide guidance for territorial Ministerial Declaration adopted Investment and Multinational
strategies that enhance firm-level last April. Enterprises. We call on the OECD
and local productivity, including to continue promoting strong
national-local and public-private Following the Nairobi Ministerial Responsible Business Conduct
partnerships. We look forward Conference, there remains a (RBC), notably the Guidelines for
to the OECD’s contributions to strong commitment to advance Multinational Enterprises (MNEs),
the United Nations Conference negotiations on the pending strengthening the functioning of
on Housing and Sustainable Doha issues. We agree that a the National Contact Points, and
Urban Development (Habitat III) range of issues of importance fostering work on due diligence
in October which will set out the to today’s global economy, that in relevant sectors, such as
New Urban Agenda for years to are currently subject of trade agricultural supply chains, to
come. rulemaking in Regional Trade encourage inclusive, responsible
Agreements, are highly relevant and sustainable growth.
issues for consideration in the
Fostering trade WTO. We reaffirm our standstill
and investment for and rollback commitments to Living up to our
productivity and inclusive resist all forms of protectionism. international
growth We also recognise the negative commitments
impact on trade of global excess
We recognise the need to boost capacity in sectors such as steel We recognise the OECD’s role
trade and investment to both and shipbuilding and stress the in supporting the members’
foster productivity, and inclusive need to avoid market distorting and international community’s
and sustainable growth. Our measures and enhance the implementation of the 2030
priority is to reinforce an open, well-functioning of markets. Agenda and the achievement of
rules-based multilateral trading We encourage the Organisation the Sustainable Development
system that remains relevant to continue and deepen its Goals (SDGs), building on its core
to today’s global economy work on the Trade in Value strengths and expertise. In this
given the rapid development of Added (TiVA), Trade Facilitation regard, we appreciate the vision
e-commerce and Global Value Indicators (TFIs), and Services set out in the proposed OECD
Chains (GVCs). We also welcome Trade Restrictiveness Index Action Plan on the Sustainable
World Trade Organization (STRI), in order to clarify how Development Goals, and the
(WTO)-complementary bilateral, trade openness can contribute to role that the OECD can play
regional and plurilateral increasing productivity, growth in providing high quality and
initiatives aimed at promoting and inclusiveness. coherent public policy advice
trade and productivity growth. grounded in evidence. We
We call for the implementation We encourage the OECD to welcome the OECD’s continued
of the expanded Information continue analysing investment work, in co-ordination with
Technology Agreement (ITA) as trends and enhancing its work members, to strengthen
agreed, the entry into force of to promote investment policies collaboration with the
the Trade Facilitation Agreement that foster an open, transparent UN system and other
(TFA) by the end of this year, the and rules-based domestic international organisations so
conclusion of the Environmental and international investment as to maximise synergies and
Goods Agreement (EGA) by the environment, including through complementarities of efforts.
G20 Summit in September, and the Freedom of Investment
the conclusion of the Trade Roundtable, the Annual Within the vision set out in the
in Services Agreement (TiSA) Conferences on Investment 2030 Agenda, and the Addis
negotiations possibly by the end Treaties and the OECD Codes of Ababa Action Agenda, the

46 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017


Horacio Cartes, President of the Republic of Paraguay, and Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, December 2016

effective use of all means of expertise. We encourage the should continue advising on the
implementation for financing OECD to continue its efforts to implementation of climate policy
development, including domestic modernise the measurement action for macroeconomic and
resources, will be critical to its and coherence of development structural policy settings, and
achievement. We support OECD finance, in particular, its specific how these policies interact both
work carried out with developing work with others to clarify the domestically and internationally,
countries on the use of the new concept of Total Official Support as well as promoting renewable
Policy Framework for Investment for Sustainable Development energies and market-based
and the Tax Inspectors Without (TOSSD), which will complement, approaches to tackle climate
Borders initiative. We reaffirm and not replace, ODA. change. We welcome the progress
the importance of Official made in preparation of the
Development Assistance (ODA) to We call on the OECD to contribute Environment Policy Committee
promote development, prioritising to the effective implementation of meeting at Ministerial level to be
those countries most in need the Paris Agreement on Climate held in Paris in September 2016.
or facing fragile situations. We Change, particularly on improving
stress that the strategic use of transparency of action and We strongly support the OECD’s
ODA to catalyse private capital support, phasing out inefficient focus on the full implementation
is a growing priority for many fossil fuel subsidies, increasing of BEPS, including its proposed
members’ development co- investments in renewables and inclusive framework, and we call
operation efforts. We recognise energy efficiency, implementing on the Organisation to develop
that middle-income countries effective emissions reduction the tools necessary to support all
continue facing development policies and tracking climate jurisdictions to meet their AEOI
challenges in specific areas finance, working together with commitments, and to develop a
and we acknowledge the the International Energy Agency common transmission system.
increasing importance of South- (IEA), the Nuclear Energy Agency
South initiatives as a source (NEA) and the International We congratulate the OECD
of development finance and Transport Forum (ITF). The OECD on a successful Anti-Bribery

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 47

\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

H.E. Ibrahim Abdelaziz Al-Assaf, Minister of Finance of Saudia Arabia; Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General; and H.E. Majed bin
Abdullah bin Hamad Al-Hogail, Minister of Housing of Saudi Arabia, June 2016

Ministerial meeting and look reinforce its role in establishing operation with regional partners.
forward to the follow-up on and promoting high standards We also welcome progress made
its Ministerial Declaration. We in its fields of expertise, while by the Southeast Asia Regional
call on the OECD to adopt a addressing new challenges as Programme which should
more coherent approach to its they arise. We call for a strategic continue to be strengthened,
anti-corruption work within its reflection by members on the including by enhancing co-
existing mandate and structures future size and membership of operation with the Economic
so as to improve co-ordination the Organisation and for a report Research Institute for the
and information sharing and to the 2017 MCM. We welcome the Association of Southeast Asian
maximise the impact of its OECD’s role and contributions in Nations (ASEAN) and East
expertise, convening power and the G20/G7, Asia-Pacific Economic Asia (ERIA). At the same time,
tools. We invite the Organisation Cooperation (APEC), the Pacific we commend the Middle East
to also engage emerging and Alliance and other international and North Africa, Eurasia and
developing countries in this dialogue processes. South East Europe Regional
agenda. Programmes and support
We welcome the launch of the their continuous efforts in
OECD Latin America and the disseminating OECD standards
Promoting the OECD’s Caribbean Regional Programme as and good practices through close
global reach a central reference for future work dialogue with these partners.
on productivity, inclusion and We encourage the Organisation
We stress the importance of governance in the region. We call to look for ways to enhance
the OECD strategy to continue on the OECD to take further steps its engagement with the
strengthening its global reach and on its implementation in close co- sub-Saharan region according to

48 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017


the Committees’ global relations country programmes and the further consideration by the
priorities. continuation of the OECD’s co- Council.
operation with Ukraine.
We also welcome the progress We welcome the Secretary-
made by Colombia, Costa Rica, General’s efforts to manage the
and Lithuania in their ongoing Leadership and Organisation most effectively,
accession processes. We support management including by increasing staff
the progress achieved with the diversity and gender balance,
Key Partners (Brazil, the People’s We commend the Secretary- and the recent advancements
Republic of China, hereafter General on his efforts to on evaluation, value-for-money,
‘China’, Indonesia, India and enhance the relevance and audit and horizontal projects. We
South Africa), in particular the impact of the OECD, and look encourage the Secretary-General
work programmes with China forward to continuing our work to maintain the drive towards
and Brazil. We also welcome together on delivering “Better continuous improvements in the
Japan’s return to the Development Policies for Better Lives”. We transparency, management and
Centre and the other recent acknowledge the role of the operations of the Organisation so
memberships. We look forward Secretary-General in proposing that the OECD is recognised as
to a successful conclusion and new initiatives, including in being at the leading edge in these
evaluation of the two-year his Strategic Orientations, for fields. 

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Ministerial Council Meeting 2016

Chair’s Summary
Ministers from OECD countries in order to achieve productivity Ministers noted that population
met under the Chairmanship and inclusion goals in mutually ageing is also slowing growth.
of Chile, and the Vice- reinforcing ways. She also Views on the overall economic
Chairmanship of Finland, highlighted the importance of outlook were mixed.
Hungary and Japan on 1-2 June, addressing gender inequalities.
for the 2016 Ministerial Council Concerns over slowing
Meeting (MCM): Enhancing productivity, rising inequality,
Productivity for Inclusive Growth. Economic outlook and declining job quality in
The 2016 MCM benefited from many countries was discussed
the participation of Ministers Ministers exchanged views on extensively. Ministers noted
and representatives from recent economic developments, that persistent low-growth
Colombia, Latvia, Costa Rica noting that trade and investment reflects legacies from the crisis
and Lithuania, as well as from remain subdued, financial and past policy mistakes. They
Brazil, the People’s Republic of conditions have tightened, debt maintained that we are in a
China (hereafter ‘China’), India, levels are high, and commodity low- (or middle-) growth trap
Indonesia and South Africa. In prices remain low. They that is both an economic and
addition, Kazakhstan, Morocco, observed that sluggish demand political phenomenon, which
and Peru participated in Sessions is contributing to low inflation calls for strong action. Ministers
6 and 7, and Argentina and Hong and investment, and inadequate mentioned that downside risks
Kong (China) attended Session 7. wage and employment growth. to the global economy have

After welcoming remarks by

the Secretary-General, the
President of Chile, Ms Michelle
Bachelet, delivered a keynote
address highlighting the need
to raise productivity to improve
living standards and well-being
and to place inclusiveness
considerations at the core of
policy making. She called for
more and better opportunities
to increase the contributions
of all to make economies more
productive and reap the benefits
of better economic outcomes.
President Bachelet stressed
the importance of preparing
citizens for the future of work,
ensuring a level-playing field and
building cities as a platform of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski, President of Peru, and Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the
innovation and social inclusion, OECD, October 2016

50 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017


Nirmala Sitharaman, Minister of Commerce and Industry of India, and Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, during OECD Week, June

increased and that pre-existing macroeconomic policy actions possible growing market power
risks have intensified markedly, needed to support demand of incumbent firms. Ministers
driven by rising geopolitical and provide a more favourable mentioned that the digital
pressures and conflict. Ministers environment for growth- economy can be a major driver
observed that many emerging enhancing structural policies, of productivity, pointing to the
market economies (EMEs) have including through public potential benefits of new business
lost momentum, especially investment and stepping up models and the opportunities
commodity-exporting countries, skills and active labour market of big data. However, they noted
where lower commodity prices policies. They discussed the that security risks and the
have constrained investment and need for a more balanced digital divide must be properly
confidence. monetary and fiscal policy mix addressed.
and an acceleration of structural
Ministers urged the OECD to reforms to strengthen growth. Ministers observed that slowing
step up its efforts to strengthen They also called for decisive productivity may be feeding
the international tax system, action to boost trade and into rising or persistently high
building on the success of the investment. inequalities of income, wealth
OECD-G20 Base Erosion and and opportunity. Ministers
Profit Shifting (BEPS) Project During the second high-level also noted that long-term
and the Automatic Exchange of panel, Ministers shared views on unemployment, insufficient
Information initiative in response the causes of slowing productivity, access to work-based training,
to recent high-profile cases of including weakening investment the digital divide, skills gaps,
fraud and tax evasion. in knowledge-based capital, and ‘‘winner-takes-all’’ market
challenging financial market dynamics are possible factors
In the first high-level panel, conditions, the slow diffusion driving further inequality and
Ministers outlined the collective of new technologies, and the undermining productivity

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Dacian Ciolos, Prime Minister of Romania, and Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, June 2016

growth. They looked at possible Strategic orientations tackling persistent inequalities,

policies to enhance productivity and anticipating future trends,
growth in an inclusive way. Ministers welcomed the start of including harnessing the
Ministers underlined the need the third mandate of Mr Angel benefits of the Next Production
for a new narrative that includes Gurría as Secretary-General. Revolution and the digital
measures to support people, They expressed appreciation economy. They also voiced
firms and regions to fulfil their for his leadership and efforts support for the OECD’s work on
potential. to strengthen the relevance antimicrobial resistance and anti-
and impact of the OECD. They corruption. They highlighted the
Specific measures to strengthen welcomed his role in proposing importance of the OECD’s work
youth engagement in the new initiatives, including in at the national level to support
labour market were mentioned, his Strategic Orientations, and national reform agendas,
including higher financial updating on the findings and as well as the need to build
resources for education, support progress of OECD horizontal on its successes on topics related
for youth entrepreneurship, projects and cross-cutting to the international taxation
and enhanced efforts to match initiatives. They exchanged views system and to strengthen its
the skills taught in education on how the Strategic Orientations efforts on global priorities,
systems with those in demand by were aligned with national including anti-corruption,
firms, with a particular emphasis agendas. Ministers underlined the illicit trade, climate, and the
on Science, Technology, importance of the OECD agendas Sustainable Development Goals
Engineering and Mathematics on better understanding the (SDGs). They welcomed the
(STEM) and gender. productivity-inclusiveness nexus, progress made by the OECD

52 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017


with its multidisciplinary policies that position lagging Anticipating trends –

approach, notably through the regions and firms to realise their education, skills and
New Approaches to Economic productive potential, as well quality jobs
Challenges (NAEC) Initiative. as greater focus on facilitating
market access and promoting Ministers discussed the future of
competition, especially in new work in response to digitalisation
Enhancing productivity for technology sectors – could be the and rapid technological change, as
inclusive growth key to strengthening productivity well as the risks on employment
growth for the benefit of all creation and job quality. They
Ministers discussed the twin segments of society. They called noted that the risks of job losses
challenges of slow productivity on the OECD to further explore from automation are relatively
growth and rising inequality, as policies that enhance productivity modest. Ministers agreed that
well as possible interlinkages while fostering inclusive growth countries must invest in the right
between these trends. Ministers by deepening its understanding skills, promote job quality, and
welcomed the OECD’s report of the micro and macroeconomic adapt labour market institutions
on the Productivity-Inclusiveness underpinnings of aggregate and social protection systems
to harness the benefits of
digitalisation for productivity and
growth, taking into consideration
the challenges arising from the
platform economy.

Several policy priorities emerged

from their discussions: promoting
access to quality education and
training for all, particularly
those from disadvantaged
backgrounds; encouraging lifelong
learning; removing barriers to the
employment of youth, women, and
vulnerable groups to capitalise on
and further develop their digital
skills; creating better incentives
for workers and firms to upskill;
developing well-targeted labour
market programmes to reduce
Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, and Māris Kučinskis, Prime Minister of Latvia, the effects of displacement,
during OECD Week, June 2016
limit skills loss, and facilitate
the transition to new jobs and
Nexus and exchanged views on productivity growth careers; and providing adequate
the report’s key findings. They and potential links between work-related benefits and social
noted that productivity is a multi- firm-level productivity, the protection. They also observed
dimensional concept that requires allocation of resources, and that institutional conditions
better measurement tools and increased inequality. Ministers that facilitate the adoption and
data collection and analysis. They encouraged the OECD to leverage diffusion of new technologies
also agreed that a broader, more the Inclusive Growth Initiative are important, and noted that
inclusive approach to productivity and the Global Forum on traditional models of worker
growth – grounded in investments Productivity to build the evidence protection may not be calibrated to
in education, skills, health, and base for productivity analysis and the new world of work. Ministers
quality jobs for individuals, and measurement. noted the need for policies to

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 53

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to capitalise on the digital

revolution. They called on the
OECD to deepen its analysis on the
impact of emerging technologies,
including biotechnology, artificial
intelligence, the sharing and
circular economy, and platform

Ministers recognised the capacity

of digitalisation to address global
challenges, including climate
change and wider environmental
concerns, development, and
ageing populations. Ministers
noted that these issues will be
explored further in the 2016
Ministerial Meeting on the Digital
Economy, Innovation, Growth and
Social Prosperity.
Anne Hidalgo, Mayor of Paris, and Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, at the Second
Meeting of the Champion Mayors for Inclusive Growth, November 2016
Enabling environment
(regulatory policy and
support people over the life cycle, and development (R&D) and competition, finance and
from early childhood to the elderly. other forms of knowledge-based corporate Issues) for
capital. They called for specific dynamic and inclusive
Ministers noted the importance support to small- and medium- economies
of broadening the definition sized enterprises (SMEs), given
of skills to include social and observed lags in the diffusion Ministers debated the conditions
emotional dimensions and global of digital technologies to small necessary for firms to thrive and
competencies, and supporting businesses that have hampered innovate, with an emphasis on
policy makers in assessing and their productivity performance. small, young firms and start-ups.
anticipating changing skills needs. Ministers noted the importance of They agreed on the need to foster
supporting digital infrastructure sound regulation and institutional
to address the digital divide arrangements to deliver a level-
Preparing for the and fostering social dialogue to playing field for incumbents and
Next Production adapt our economies, including new entrants, including on market
Revolution (innovation, regulatory frameworks, to the access, competition and financing,
entrepreneurship and the technological revolution. particularly for SMEs. They
digital economy) called on the OECD to develop
Horizontal work exploring the further indicators on competition,
Ministers underscored the opportunities and challenges regulation and trade for OECD
need to facilitate technological of digitalisation received strong members and Key Partners.
diffusion in lagging firms by support. Ministers encouraged the
stimulating innovation and OECD to leverage its wide-ranging Ministers stressed the
experimentation at the firm policy and analytical expertise importance of implementing
level, fostering technology and to develop an integrated and policies that enable innovative
knowledge diffusion, investment coherent strategy that positions firms to grow and facilitate
in digital infrastructure, research members and Key Partners the restructuring or exit of

54 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017


poorly-performing firms. They United Nations (UN) Conference stressing the important role
agreed that the public sector on Housing and Sustainable that the Organisation can play
can contribute to aggregate Urban Development (Habitat III) to support the achievement of
productivity by improving the in October 2016, which will set out the SDGs, based on its analytical
efficiency of public services the New Urban Agenda for years capabilities and core strengths, in
and reducing administrative to come. collaboration with the UN system.
burdens and recognised that Ministers emphasised that policy
public sector productivity is coherence will be central in this
difficult to measure. They also All on Board for 2030: agenda and that the OECD can
called on the OECD to provide a universal agenda for help to bridge institutional silos
guidance for effective territorial inclusive and sustainable and bring evidence to bear on
strategies, recognising that development synergies and trade-offs in public
strong urban-rural linkages and policy making.
effective collaboration between Ministers discussed the
all levels of government can OECD’s efforts to support Ministers underscored the
foster productivity growth among the implementation of the importance of high quality data
firms. 2030 Agenda for Sustainable and analysis. Some countries
Development. They welcomed welcomed the idea of embedding
Ministers looked forward to the OECD Action Plan on the SDG analytics into existing
the OECD’s contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals, OECD review processes, such as

Macky Sall, President of Senegal, and Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, during OECD Week, June 2016

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 55

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Darren Walker, President of the Ford Foundation, and Angel Gurría, OECD Secretary-General, November 2016

Economic Surveys and Multi- support for private sector – working in partnership with
Dimensional Country Reviews. investment through initiatives the International Energy Agency
They highlighted the universal such as the Policy Framework for (IEA), Nuclear Energy Agency
nature of the SDGs throughout the Investment (PFI). (NEA) and International Transport
discussions. They also identified Forum (ITF) – by generating the
gender equality as a pressing The continued prevalence of necessary resources and support
challenge facing countries at all corruption was identified as for phasing out inefficient fossil
levels of development. a key obstacle to inclusive fuel subsidies, implementing
growth, productivity, and effective emissions reduction
Ministers observed that the sustainable development. policies, and tracking climate
success of the 2030 Agenda is Ministers congratulated the finance. Ministers welcomed the
closely linked to the effective OECD for hosting the 2016 Anti- report Towards a Recommendation
mobilisation of development Bribery Ministerial, and for its on Water: Progress Report and
finance, including domestic contribution to the UK Anti- encouraged further work with
resources. They stressed Corruption Summit. Members the aim of developing an OECD
the importance of Official called on the OECD to strengthen Recommendation that builds on
Development Assistance (ODA), its anti-corruption work within the existing OECD acquis on water
particularly for countries most its existing mandate. Ministers and recent policy analysis from
in need, recognising that middle- called for greater efforts to OECD bodies.
income countries may continue strengthen outreach and improve
facing development challenges in co-ordination with emerging and Ministers noted the global call
specific areas. Discussions also developing economies to enhance for an effective response to
underscored the importance of the impact and outcomes of the the current refugee crisis and
finance beyond ODA, considering OECD’s anti-corruption analysis, humanitarian challenges at the
in particular the OECD’s tools and standards. World Humanitarian Summit
contribution to domestic revenue in Istanbul. They welcomed the
mobilisation in developing Ministers encouraged the OECD efforts made by the OECD in
countries, international tax to support countries’ individual order to better measure migration
reforms (e.g. BEPS, Tax Inspectors efforts to meet their Paris trends and to promote effective
Without Borders), as well as Agreement (COP21) commitments integration policies.

56 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017


Strengthening the (TFIs), to better understand Enterprises, within the framework

contribution of trade and developments in the global of the OECD Declaration on
investment to productivity trading system. Investment, was noted by
and inclusiveness Ministers. They called on the OECD
They supported the advances in to strengthen the functioning of
Ministers recognised the need the negotiation on outstanding the National Contact Points and
to boost trade and investment to issues building on the outcomes foster work on due diligence.
foster productivity and achieve of the Nairobi Ministerial
inclusive and sustainable Conference. Ministers encouraged Ministers underlined the
growth. They concluded that an the integration of new and importance of RBC and
open, rules-based multilateral emerging issues, such as digital noted good progress in the
trading system that is calibrated trade, regulatory coherence, implementation of RBC standards.
to the rapidly-evolving global competition and investment, They called on the OECD to:
economy is critical for this in the post-Nairobi multilateral facilitate further knowledge-
purpose. Ministers encouraged negotiating agenda. sharing and dialogue on the
greater co-ordination between challenges of designing and
trade and investment policies to Ministers urged the OECD to implementing effective RBC
increase their coherence in an deepen its analytical work on policies; deepen analytical
environment characterised by the provisions of regional trade work on the link between trade,
global value chains. They also agreements to better understand investment and RBC standards;
stressed that ‘flanking’ policies them and their impact. They also reinforce outreach activities
– covering labour markets, underscored the importance of on RBC; continue efforts to
education, responsible business resisting protectionist measures, develop due diligence guidance
conduct (RBC), and social with a particular emphasis on for companies; and improve the
protection – are necessary to phasing out WTO-inconsistent system of National Contact Points
ensure that benefits of trade and measures in the agriculture and through peer reviews, training,
investment are widely shared. services sectors. learning events, and tools to
Ministers also discussed the help adhering governments
role of trade and investment The 40th anniversary of the OECD implement the OECD Guidelines
for raising productivity in the Guidelines for Multinational for Multinational Enterprises.
agricultural sector.

Ministers welcomed recent World

Trade Organization (WTO)-
complementary bilateral, regional
and plurilateral initiatives
aimed at promoting trade
and productivity growth, and
encouraged rapid implementation
of the expanded Information
Technology Agreement (ITA),
the entry into force of the Trade
Facilitation Agreement (TFA), and
the conclusion of negotiations
on the Environmental Goods
Agreement (EGA) and the Trade in
Services Agreement (TiSA). They
called on the OECD to deepen its
work on the OECD Services Trade
Restrictiveness Index (STRI),
Allen Michael Chastanet, Prime Minister and Minister for Finance, Economic Growth, Job
Trade in Value Added (TiVA) Creation, External Affairs and Public Service of Saint Lucia, and Angel Gurría, Secretary-
and Trade Facilitation Indicators General of the OECD, October 2016

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Christian Kern, Federal Chancellor of Austria, and Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD, November 2016

Ministers recognised that the longstanding advice and support Accession of Latvia
contribution of international on the region’s main challenges
investment to productivity, and shape strategic responses Ministers congratulated Latvia
innovation, and technology related to increasing productivity, for successfully concluding
transfers depends on open, advancing social inclusion, the accession process. They
transparent, and rules-based and strengthening institutions acknowledged Latvia’s
investment policies. They and governance. They also longstanding efforts to make
called on the OECD to continue noted that addressing these progress on structural reforms
analysing investment trends, issues is central to achieving and noted that many of its
broaden its analytical work on the SDGs and the 2030 Agenda core priorities – reducing
current and emerging areas of for Sustainable Development. inequalities, maximising trade
investment treaty policy and Ministers called on the OECD and investment, fostering
consolidate its co-operation with to take further steps to support innovation, fighting corruption,
international organisations and implementation of the LAC and optimising the effectiveness
the G20’s Trade and Investment Regional Programme, including of education, health and labour
Working Group. through the establishment of market policies – are aligned with
the Steering Committee, co- the OECD’s agenda. Ministers
chaired by Chile and Peru, and wholeheartedly expressed their
Launch of the OECD the Advisory Board, and also by support for Latvia’s membership
Latin America and the mobilising expertise and support to the OECD.
Caribbean (LAC) Regional from regional organisations, such
Programme as the Economic Commission for
Latin America and the Caribbean OECD’s global reach
Ministers welcomed the (ELCAC), the Inter-American
formal launch of the LAC Development Bank (IDB) and Ministers commended the
Regional Programme, noting the Development Bank of Latin progress made by Colombia,
it will consolidate the OECD’s America (CAF). Costa Rica and Lithuania in their

58 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017


ongoing accession processes. developing countries, to raise the Ministerial Council Meeting
Ministers agreed on the value global visibility and impact of Statement. Ministers welcomed
of the OECD’s global reach and the OECD’s work and standards. the decision of Colombia,
called for a strategic reflection Ministers discussed the OECD’s Costa Rica, Latvia and Lithuania
by the OECD on its future size core regional initiatives, including to adopt the Declaration and join
and membership. Ministers the Southeast Asia Regional the Statement.
acknowledged the OECD’s Programme, the new LAC
continued efforts to advance Regional Programme, the Eurasia Ministers welcomed the extensive
engagement with its Key Partners Competitiveness Programme, use of breakout groups in this
(Brazil, China, Indonesia, India and the Regional Programme Ministerial meeting chaired by
and South Africa) and noted for South East Europe. Some Chile, noting they facilitated
the progress on the country mentioned that expanding more engaging discussions and
programmes (Peru, Morocco and regional work to sub-Saharan supported an in-depth analysis.
Kazakhstan). Africa would complement these They also appreciated previous
initiatives. consultations with the Trade
Ministers welcomed the OECD’s Union Advisory Committee
strong collaboration with the (TUAC) and the Business and
G7, G20, Asia-Pacific Economic Closing session Industry Advisory Committee
Cooperation (APEC), and the and outcomes (BIAC) held in Santiago, and the
Pacific Alliance. They called on discussions at the 2016 OECD
the OECD to advance further During the closing session, Forum Productive Economies,
its work on the international Ministers adopted the Declaration Inclusive Societies. 
governance architecture, and on Enhancing Productivity for
its work with emerging and Inclusive Growth and the 2016

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Global Strategy Group 2016

Chair’s summary
The Global Strategy Group (GSG) is the OECD’s high-level forum on global and strategic issues.
It brings together senior officials from member and Key Partner countries to discuss global
megatrends and how the Organisation can support countries in dealing with future challenges and
opportunities. It meets once a year and also serves to support preparations of the forthcoming OECD
Ministerial Council Meeting (MCM). The 2016 GSG meeting took place in Paris on 28-29 November
to discuss “Fixing Globalisation: Achieving Better Lives for All”.

Participants welcomed the fourth emphasised that there is an recognised the need for the
meeting of the Global Strategy urgent need for bold action OECD and member countries to
Group (GSG) and the crucial to improve the outcomes and listen more carefully to people’s
importance of this year’s topic on processes of globalisation, so its perceptions and to communicate
the future of globalisation.2 While benefits are more equally shared. more effectively in a ‘post-fact’
acknowledging the enormous world. The growth narrative
benefits of globalisation, Member countries agreed that should put people’s well-being
which has provided higher the OECD has an important role and sustainability at the centre.
standards of living to many to play in helping countries tackle Participants underlined the OECD’s
people around the world, lifted inequality in an integrated world role in setting global standards
a billion people out of poverty, and promote better distribution that should not only level the
allowed increased cultural and of wealth in societies – including, global playing field but also make
information exchanges, and amongst others, by addressing it fairer, more inclusive and
advanced international responses inequalities of income, access transparent. Members urged the
to some of the most pressing to quality services, and skills OECD to build the statistical case
global challenges of our time, improvement. They urged the for and enhance its analytical work
participants also recognised OECD to continue and deepen its on the benefits and shortcomings
that shortcomings, unmet work on inclusive growth to that of globalisation. It was also noted
expectations and misperceptions end. Participants also stressed that communication is not enough
have created a resentment against the importance of rethinking to influence people’s perceptions
globalisation that is threatening how the social contract between of globalisation – ultimately,
economic openness and creating the people and governments can delivering results is what matters.
a lack of trust towards both be strengthened. In view of the
national political systems and forthcoming Ministerial Council Five main areas of action were put
multilateral co-operation. They Meeting in June, participants forward by participants.

2. Over a day and a half, seven key interventions set the tone for discussions. The Chair of the GSG, Mr Ulrik Vestergaard Knudsen (Denmark) and the OECD
Secretary-General, Mr Angel Gurría, delivered keynote speeches to introduce the discussions. Mr Ian Goldin, Senior Fellow and Professor of Globalisation
and Development at Oxford University, and Mr Frédéric Mazzella, Founding CEO of BlaBlaCar, developed further on the opportunities and challenges of
globalisation. Mr Roberto Azevêdo, Director-General of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and Mr Bruce Stokes, Director of Global Economic Attitudes
at Pew Research Center, gave their insights on the future of trade and investment. Addressing the OECD’s role in advancing the implementation of
the Sustainable Development Goals, Mr Lenni Montiel, United Nations Assistant Secretary-General for Economic Development, set a clear path for the
Organisation to move forward. Finally, to address the OECD’s role in global governance, Ms Gesa Miehe-Nordmeyer, G7/G20 German sous-Sherpa, Ms
Gabriela Ramos, OECD Chief of Staff and Sherpa, and Ms Saskia Sassen, Professor of Sociology at Columbia University, assessed how global standards can
be strengthened. Over 50 delegates from OECD member countries, Key Partners and Accession countries participated in the discussions.

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\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Global Strategy Group 2016

Family photo of the Global Strategy Group, November 2016

First, participants emphasised OECD is well positioned to addressing the concentration of

the need to better understand give policy advice on domestic income, wealth and profits in
the advantages and drawbacks of policies that will incorporate new network industries, strengthening
globalisation and the importance technologies to reap the benefits financial regulations, reversing
of identifying more precisely of globalisation and make it more the erosion of trust, promoting
who is affected negatively both inclusive. Some also suggested more inclusive growth, tackling
in terms of individuals and that domestic policies will also climate change, improving
businesses at the national and be central in creating a better cyber security, supporting good
regional levels. They suggested environment for companies. governance – including in the
that globalisation is not a goal in private sector – and incorporating
itself and that environmental and Participants emphasised that NAEC perspectives in policy
social sustainability must be at governments should provide making where appropriate.
the centre of a new narrative on flanking policies to ensure
globalisation, and participants globalisation drives improved Some also underscored the need
agreed that the OECD has a well-being, and strengthens to understand trade better and
key role and a comparative social safety nets, education and connect it to national policies.
advantage among international skills, social dialogue, active They called for the policy-making
organisations in informing labour market policies, and process to be more inclusive
the discussion through its responsible business conduct. – reflected in regular public
multidisciplinary analysis, data, They stressed the need to review dialogue and consultation with
knowledge and tools. how increased inequalities in non-governmental organisations
the context of globalisation may (NGOs) and trade unions.
Several participants stressed have disempowered certain
the importance of assessing groups of people and to find Second, participants took stock of
the interplay between the mechanisms to better involve the importance of digitalisation
international phenomenon of those people in decision making. and the profound revolution it
‘globalisation’ and domestic Key policy areas for government entails for every economic sector
policies and found that the action were identified, including and society in general. They

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noted how globalisation and economy in the context of the should be fully integrated into
digitalisation are intrinsically German Presidency of the G20, the domestic policies agenda in
linked and underscored the need including on the issue of digital order to ensure inclusive growth
to make digitalisation a global trade. in an open markets environment,
opportunity. Participants called and that the full range of
on the OECD to enhance its work Participants emphasised also structural policies – from social
and help countries put in place the role that governments have protection and flexible labour
the necessary policy environment to play in providing digital markets to strategic investments
to fully reap the benefits of infrastructure, establishing the in education, skills, innovation
digitalisation and avoid deepening rules of the game and a regulatory and physical infrastructure –
the digital divide. They added framework for competition in is needed to ensure that the
that the OECD’s Horizontal Project a digital world, creating the benefits of trade and investment
on digitalisation can provide a appropriate environment for are more widely and more
roadmap for members to channel innovation and in ensuring that equally distributed. Delegates
digitalisation for better education, people – the most important were reminded that already
better health, better skills policies resource – have access to the some member countries have
and a more multi-dimensional right education and skills. Some taken enlightened approaches to
understanding of the challenges noted that governments can broadening the benefits associated
presented by digitalisation. help provide the conditions with international trade and
Members stressed the OECD’s to finance experimentation investment by combining such
comparative advantages and young innovative firms. labour market flexibility with
regarding the need to focus on Alternative financing instruments social security and that the OECD
skills to allow for people to take and channels – venture capital, is well placed to disseminate the
full advantage of technological crowd-sourcing, equity finance – successful experience as well as
progress; to anticipate the future will be needed. to learn from possible failures.
of work, and the future of labour They also noted the need to
markets; to ensure that there is Third, participants noted favour international trade and
no new divide in digital access, that the continued weakness investment agreements that
including for people, regions of international trade and better help the inclusive and
and small- and medium-sized international investment was sustainable growth agendas.
enterprises (SMEs); and to linked to the unsatisfactory
address privacy, security, and performance of the global Participants noted that critical
intellectual property rights issues. economy, as noted in the latest sentiments towards trade
Furthermore, members called on OECD Economic Outlook. were least common among the
the Organisation to continue work Reference was made to the risk of younger generation. Although
on providing better understanding sliding into protectionism and the anti-globalisation protest have
regarding how digitalisation is related anti-globalisation backlash so far not been anti-trade
reshaping the future of work, this could imply. Delegates manifestations as such it was
including wages and the demand recognised the potential risk considered important that the
for particular competencies; of additional job loss because negotiations of regional and
its effect on social security of increased automation that bilateral trade agreements
systems and social dialogue; could lead to possible disruption included sufficient engagement of
the impact and implications of for service workers in member stakeholders in an atmosphere of
the digital economy on trade countries’ economies similar transparency.
and investment; and how global to what has already been
standards on digitalisation can experienced by manufacturing Fourth, building on the
promote change while ensuring workers. opportunity presented by the
that it benefits all equally. They Sustainable Development Goals,
underlined the importance Participants emphasised that the there was consensus that the
of OECD work on the digital trade and investment agenda OECD can and should put its

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\ \ \ MINISTERIAL COUNCIL MEETING / Global Strategy Group 2016

expertise and evidence at the agreement at the national level, members stressed the role of the
disposal of both member and carbon pricing, monitoring and OECD in global standard-setting
partner countries. The United the sharing of best practices. The and more broadly on international
Nations’ call for more co- further integration of climate regulatory co-operation as well
operation with the OECD as well and sustainable development as the need for mechanisms to
as the common desire to work perspectives across the OECD’s ensure that the benefits are more
closer with the G20 in this area work was also encouraged and equally shared. In this regard the
were welcomed. reference was made to the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting
hopefully soon conclusion of the project (BEPS), the Anti-Bribery
In many respects, countries ongoing work regarding the SDG Convention and the Guidelines for
are still coming to terms with Action Plan. Multinational Enterprises (MNEs)
the implications of a universal, were mentioned as examples of
integrated set of goals and targets Finally, members stressed the instruments with substantial
for domestic policy making and urgent need for more ambitious legal and economic impact that
governance. Members highlighted and enforceable international together with other standard
some specific examples of OECD rules and standards – setting instruments contribute
tools and evidence that are economically, socially, politically to establishing or re-establishing
evolving to meet new challenges, and environmentally. Participants credibility in international
including those presented by the recognised the growing numbers institutions and perhaps even
2030 Agenda (e.g. development of issues in the OECD/G20 nexus in globalisation itself. The Chair
finance measurement work, and re-affirmed the importance thanked the Secretary-General
building on the OECD’s track of strengthening OECD/G20 and the Secretariat for having
record on multi-dimensional co-operation as well as the key made the OECD an increasingly
well-being; work in support of the contribution that partnership credible and useful partner
greening of finance) as well as the with other global fora such as of the G20.
role that the Organisation could the G7 and Asia-Pacific Economic
play in identifying and sharing Cooperation (APEC) can make in Participants welcomed the fact
best practices in this regard and promulgating OECD-standards that the 2016 GSG meeting will
how it can contribute to ongoing more widely. inform the preparations for the
international efforts. next OECD Ministerial Council
Because people’s resentment Meeting to be held on 7-8 June,
The OECD’s work regarding against globalisation may 2017. They agreed that the Global
the implementation of the be linked to the fact that the Strategy Group should meet again
Paris Climate Agreement was existing process of openness before the end of 2017 under
encouraged for instance regarding and liberalisation may not the chairmanship of Mr Ulrik
climate financing (including funds have been accompanied by Vestergaard Knudsen. 
supplemented by the private enough globalisation in terms
sector), implementation of the of rule making and governance,

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Activity in 2016
Overview productivity-inclusiveness nexus, trade and
global value chains, the integration of migrants,
During 2016, the OECD Secretary-General carried and skills, while continuing to seek a more open,
out a very intense official agenda in order to innovative, multi-disciplinary and horizontal
advance the relevance, impact and visibility of approach to addressing policy challenges, as part
the Organisation. In addition to chairing Council, of the New Approaches to Economic Challenges
interacting with delegations, and participating (NAEC) Initiative. He also launched a new
in the Ministerial Council Meeting (MCM) and initiative to strengthen the relevance and impact
Global Strategy Group, he carried out numerous of OECD standards, launching a review by OECD
official visits to member and partner countries, substantive Committees.
and engaged through hundreds of formal and
informal meetings with many leaders and key The Secretary-General made 55 trips abroad
stakeholders. Through his bilateral activities in in 2016. This included his participation in the
Paris and abroad, he continued to provide support main international summits that took place
and timely and targeted policy advice to OECD throughout the year. In the course of 2016, the
member and partner countries in their reform Secretary-General held 59 formal meetings with
efforts. Through his participation at international Heads of State and Government, 20 meetings
summits, such as the G7 Summit in Ise-Shima, with heads of international organisations
the G20 Summit in Hangzhou and the United and 208 meetings with ministers, as well as
Nations Summit for Refugees and Migrants in numerous informal interactions with high level
New York, the Organisation was able to advance officials and senior stakeholders, including
key global agendas on issues such as the Base regular phone calls. In total, he conducted over
Erosion Profit Shifting (BEPS) package (endorsed 590 formal bilateral meetings over the course of
by G20 leaders in November 2015) and the BEPS the year.
Inclusive Framework, Automatic Exchange of
Tax Information, and the 2015 Paris agreement The Leaders’ Programme brought 16 Heads
on climate (which benefited from OECD work of State or Government to the OECD. The
on climate finance and on aligning policies for Secretariat and delegations have also benefited
a low-carbon transition). The Secretary-General from these visits through a programme of
also strengthened the OECD’s contribution to public lectures, including leading thinkers and
the G20, G7, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation innovators who participated in NAEC seminars
(APEC) and its collaboration with Association of and the Coffees of the Secretary-General
Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and helped series. Many of the activities undertaken by the
broker a stronger partnership with Brazil, the Secretary-General in Paris during 2016 were
People’s Republic of China (hereafter ‘China’) and also related to his regular management of the
Indonesia, with new joint programmes of work. OECD Secretariat and the governance of the
During the year, the Secretary-General led the
Secretariat’s efforts to deliver new, ground- The Organisation’s media presence and coverage
breaking analysis on issues such as the also remained consistently high.

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\ \ \ KEY ACTIVITIES / Secretary-General’s Activity in 2016

Activity abroad

In 2016, 75% of the Secretary-General’s visits

abroad were to OECD member countries (41 of 55).
The rest included 3 visits to Accession countries,
6 to Key Partner countries and 5 to other non-
member countries. Since 2007, the Secretary-
General has completed a total of nearly 500 trips
abroad (493).

Throughout the year, the Secretary-General visited

25 of the 35 OECD member countries. He made
five visits to the United States, four to Mexico,
three each to Germany, Japan, and the United The Secretary-General also represented the OECD
Kingdom, two each to Belgium and the Slovak and presented the Organisation’s latest work at
Republic, and one visit to Austria, Canada, Chile, important international events. These included
the Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Israel, the annual World Economic Forum in Davos,
Korea, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, the International Monetary Fund/World Bank
Switzerland, and the Netherlands. meetings held in Washington, the G7 Summit
in Ise-Shima, the G20 Summit in Hangzhou,
During every visit, the Secretary-General and the UN Summit for Refugees and Migrants
presented relevant OECD work and was regularly in New York. He also participated at important
received by the Leaders and key members of the OECD ministerial meetings and conferences
government. The main purpose of these trips taking place abroad, like the Launch of the
was to advance the OECD’s advisory role in the Champion Mayor Initiative in New York, the
respective countries, present relevant OECD Anti-Corruption Summit in London, the Digital
work linked to the country’s reform agenda, and Economy Ministerial Meeting organised by the
raise the Organisation’s profile. Nine OECD Better OECD’s Science, Technology and Innovation
Policies Series reports produced by the Cabinet Directorate in Cancún, the 2016 Skills Summit
were presented by the Secretary-General in 2016, organised by the OECD’s Education Directorate in
coinciding with his visits and meetings with Bergen, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)-
Leaders. OECD Ministerial Conference organised by the
OECD’s Governance and Territorial Development
Figure 1. Secretary-General’s visits abroad Directorate and Global Relations Secretariat in
Tunis, the World Summit of Local and Regional
Leaders, the UN Habitat III Conference in
Quito, and the Global Partnership for Effective
Development Co-operation Ministerial in Nairobi.

During his visits, the Secretary-General met

with key ministers of all member countries,
as well as with Leaders, including: Austrian
Federal Chancellor, Christian Kern; Brazilian
President, Michel Temer; Bulgarian President,
Rosen Plevneliev; Canadian Prime Minister,
Justin Trudeau; Cape Verdean Prime Minister,
José Maria Neves and Prime Minister, Ulisses
Correia e Silva; Chilean President, Michelle
Bachelet; Colombian President, Juan Manuel

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\ \ \ OECD / Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017

Santos; Costa Rican President, Luis Guillermo In 2016, the OECD further strengthened its ties
Solís; Croatian Prime Minister, Tihomir Orešković; with the G20. The Secretary-General was invited
Czech Prime Minister, Bohuslav Sobotka; French to participate in all high-level G20 meetings of the
President, François Hollande; German Federal Chinese Presidency, including several thematic
Chancellor, Angela Merkel; Greek Prime Minister, meetings including: the Finance Ministers and
Alexis Tsipras; Guatemalan President, Jimmy Central Bank Governors meetings and the G20
Morales; Hungarian Prime Minister, Viktor Orbán Hangzhou Summit. He also attended major
and President János Áder; Indian Prime Minister, meetings of the G7 in Japan, APEC and other fora.
Narendra Modi and President Pranab Mukherjee;
Indonesian President, Joko Widodo; Israeli Prime During 2016, the Secretary-General made 6 trips to
Minister, Benjamin Netanyahu; Italian Prime Key Partner countries including, India, Indonesia
Minister, Matteo Renzi; Ivorian Prime Minister, and four visits to China. During his visits, the
Daniel Kablan Duncan; Japanese Prime Minister, Secretary-General presented specific work carried
Shinzō Abe; Kazakh Prime Minister, Karim out by the OECD on these economies, including
Massimov; Kenyan President, Uhuru Kenyatta; Economic Surveys, Policy Briefs and Better Policies
Korean President, Park Geun-hye; Latvian Prime series documents. He also visited Colombia,
Minister, Māris Kučinskis; Lithuanian President, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, Lithuania, Peru,
Dalia Grybauskaitė and Prime Minister Algirdas Tunisia and the United Arab Emirates. To support
Butkevičius; Luxembourg Prime Minister, Xavier
the Secretary-General’s activities, the Deputy
Bettel; Dutch Queen Maxima; Norwegian Prime
Secretaries-General also visited the Key Partner
Minister, Erna Solberg; Paraguayan President,
countries on a number of occasions.
Horacio Cartes; Chinese President, Xi Jinping;
Peruvian Presidents Ollanta Humala and Pedro
Pablo Kuczynski; Polish Prime Minister, Beata
Activity in Paris
Szydło; Portuguese President, Marcelo Rebelo de
Sousa; Romanian Prime Minister, Dacian Cioloş;
During 2016, the Secretary-General received
Saint Lucian Prime Minister, Allen Chastanet;
16 Leaders in Paris. During OECD Week alone,
Senegalese President, Macky Sall; Slovak Prime
five Heads of State or Government (Chile, Croatia,
Minister, Roberto Fico; South African President,
Latvia, Peru, and Senegal), six Deputy Prime
Jacob Zuma; Swedish Prime Minister, Stefan
Ministers or Vice-Presidents (Belgium, Costa Rica,
Löfven; Tunisian President, Beji Caid el Sebsi;
Korea, Poland, Slovenia, and Turkey), 59 Ministers,
Ukrainian Prime Minister, Volodymyr Hroïsman;
United Arab Emirates Prime Minister, Sheikh 24 Vice-Ministers and hundreds of other high level
Mohammed bin Rashid Al-Maktoum; United officials visited the Organisation. The Secretary-
Kingdom Prime Minister, Theresa May; American General also participated in the annual meeting
President, Barack Obama; and Vietnamese Prime of the OECD Global Strategy Group on
Minister, Nguyê˜n Xuân Phúc . 28-29 November.

The Secretary-General met regularly with Throughout the year, the Secretary-General also
members of Parliament in the countries he visited delivered keynote remarks and participated
and addressed the U.S. Congress on some of his in other important events hosted at the OECD,
visits. He participated in the On the Road meeting including various conferences, global fora and
of the OECD Global Parliamentary Network held high-level committee meetings such as, the
in Tokyo in April. The Secretary-General also Labour Ministerial and Policy Forum, the OECD
met with representatives from the private sector, Global Parliamentary Network (GPN) Meeting,
trade unions, and civil society during his trips the OECD Anti-corruption Ministerial meeting,
abroad. Most of his visits featured public events in the Ministerial Meeting on Agriculture, the OECD
which he had an opportunity to address broader Integrity Forum, the Committee Chairs Lunch
audiences and share the OECD’s main messages ahead of the MCM, the Ministerial meeting of the
with the general public. Environment Policy Committee (EPOC), the OECD

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\ \ \ KEY ACTIVITIES / Secretary-General’s Activity in 2016

Eurasia Week 2016 and the Fora on Africa and ad hoc interviews and press points. He launched
Latin America, to mention just a few. 49 Outlooks, flagship publications and reports in
24 different countries, namely: Austria, Belgium,
Figure 2. Secretary-General’s bilateral meetings Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica,
Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece,
Hungary, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania,
Mexico, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey,
the United Kingdom and the United States.

The Secretary-General also delivered 341

speeches, was quoted 5 057 times in the media
and in more than 880 original articles. Social
media use and presence also increased, allowing
the Organisation to reach broader audiences
and join global conversations on key issues. The
Secretary-General’s Twitter account and a new
series of contributions on LinkedIn provided him
the opportunity to take innovative approaches in
A great part of the Secretary-General’s activities promoting the work of the Organisation. 
in 2016 was also devoted to the regular exercise
of his management duties, as well as his chairing Figure 3. Secretary-General’s speeches
of the OECD Council and interaction with and media coverage
delegations. Over the course of the year, the
Secretary-General held 66 bilateral meetings with
OECD Ambassadors, chaired 17 sessions of the
OECD Council, 3 Heads of Delegation meetings,
8 meetings of the MCM Bureau, 9 regular meetings
with Chairs of Standing Committees and 11
meetings of the Group of Directors. He also held
62 preparatory meetings on substance and
activities with different units of the Organisation
had 77 regular meetings with OECD Directors and
held 77 regular senior management meetings, as
well as hundreds of management meetings on
OECD housekeeping issues.

Communication and visibility

During 2016, the OECD continued consolidating

its impact and visibility. Outreach and
communication activities by the Secretary-General
played a critical role in achieving this goal.

The Secretary-General gave 184 sit-down

interviews, 59 in Paris (43 from the OECD studio)
and 125 while on mission, not counting several

Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017 69

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Digital transformation
January 2017 saw the launch of the OECD’s cross-cutting project on the digital transformation - Going Digital: Making
the Transformation Work for Growth and Well-being. This project is the largest horizontal effort to date at the OECD,
bringing together the expertise of 14 policy committees to explore how countries can make digitalisation work.

The time is right for this project. Although the transition to a digital economy has been underway for nearly half
a century, the pace of change has quickened. Digital infrastructures are now nearly fully deployed across OECD
countries, and powerful devices such as smartphones provide ubiquitous computing and access. However, the use
of digital tools still differs greatly across countries, firms and households, even in the most advanced economies.
As digital transformation unleashes its potential for growth and well-being, it also poses challenges to the current
nature and structure of organisations, markets and social interactions.

It is increasingly clear that the gap between “Technology 4.0” and “Policy 1.0” needs to be closed. Many public
policies are a legacy of the analogue era and are simply ill-adapted for digital times. Policy makers sometimes lack
an understanding of the changes underway and tinker with existing policies rather than proactively developing
new approaches.

The 2016 Ministerial Council Statement acknowledged this, recognising that “a coherent and holistic policy approach
is necessary to fully harness and leverage the benefits of innovation and digitalisation for increased productivity,
quality jobs and inclusive growth”. Their call for the OECD “to develop a horizontal policy strategy on digitalisation,
its opportunities and challenges” was mirrored in a range of sectoral Ministerial meetings, notably on science and
technology, employment, skills and the digital economy.

The OECD brings three key strengths to this project:

• Its breadth of expertise from specialised policy communities and their supporting Secretariat, enabling a whole-
of-government perspective.

• An ability to work transversally both internally and across different communities, with experience honed over
decades of practice.

• Direct access to policy makers and stakeholders from a wide range of countries, many of which are pioneers in
digital transformation.

By providing a holistic framework and cutting edge analysis into policy issues straddling the boundaries of traditional
policy silos, the Going Digital project will provide policy makers with pro-active solutions to drive greater growth
and societal well-being and help address the productivity, unemployment and inequality challenges faced by
many countries.

For more information see:

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The global economy is undergoing major economic, geopolitical and demographic changes that have significant
consequences on the composition and size of migration flows, and can be expected to affect future flows even more.
In many respects international migration is at a crossroads. Whether it becomes a source of shared prosperity and
inclusive growth or of tensions – both domestically and internationally – will depend on the design and effectiveness
of migration and integration policies. OECD work on migration helps member and partner countries get the most
out of migration. It focuses on three main areas:

A permanent monitoring system. The monitoring of migration trends and policies, notably through the International
Migration Outlook, is one of the OECD’s core activities on migration. Over the past years, this monitoring has been
extended to a number of non-OECD countries, notably in Asia and Latin America, through co-operation with other
international organisations. The monitoring of integration outcomes of immigrants and their children, through
the flagship publication Settling In: Indicators of Immigrant Integration, is also a key building block of OECD work on
migration. In 2018 the OECD will organise, with other international organisations, the first International Forum
on Migration Statistics.

More efficient integration systems. The labour market and social integration of immigrants and their children remains
an area of concern and of intense policy activity in OECD countries. As migrant populations increase and grow
more diverse in most countries, integration policy instruments must be increasingly customised. For example, the
challenge of providing adequate support to the many asylum seekers and refugees in host countries will require
significant efforts, notably in Europe. These issues will also be at the heart of a new horizontal project launched
by the OECD on ensuring the effective integration of vulnerable migrant groups.

More adaptable immigration policies. As skills mobility is gaining importance, notably at the regional level, the capacity
to retain and attract talent is gaining importance. Attractiveness of individual countries as well as of main economic
areas will depend not only on their migration policies, but also on their capacity to recognise and value skills. At
the same time, there are concerns regarding the possible impact of migration on specific segments of the labour
market. Striking the right balance between attractiveness, responsiveness and control may become increasingly
challenging, particularly regarding temporary migration. With this objective in mind, the OECD focuses on the
need to better understand interactions between different policy instruments and policy trade-offs.

For more information see: ;

2015-settling-in-9789264234024-en.htm ; or

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International co-operation
The year 2016 was dubbed “the year of implementation” at the OECD for major international initiatives on
development, the climate, and taxation signed in 2015. As part of our commitment to COP21, we launched the OECD
Centre on Green Finance and Investment, to develop effective policies, institutions, and instruments to catalyse the
transition to a green, low-emissions, climate-resilient global economy. The OECD Council endorsed in December
2016 Better Policies for 2030: An OECD Action Plan on the Sustainable Development Goals, showing how the Organisation
will support the achievement of the 2030 Agenda. The study Measuring Distance to the SDGs Targets: A pilot assessment
of where OECD countries stand, piloted in selected OECD countries, leverages OECD work on well-being and the wealth
of its data, and is a first attempt at estimating the distance that OECD countries have to travel to achieve the target
levels set for 2030. The inclusive framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) developed in response to
a call by the G20 Leaders, allows interested countries and jurisdictions to work with OECD and G20 members on
developing standards on BEPS-related issues and reviewing and monitoring the implementation of the whole BEPS
package. The framework also supports the development of the toolkits for low-capacity developing countries.

The OECD also participates in G20 meetings at the highest political level (Leaders, Ministers, Sherpas, Finance
Deputies) as well as at the technical level (Working Groups). The Sherpa Unit, headed by Chief of Staff and Sherpa
to the G20, Gabriela Ramos, contributes to virtually all of the Group’s strands of work and most G20 working
groups with data, analytical reports, policy recommendations and standards, often in collaboration with other
international organisations. At their Summit in Hangzhou, China, in 2016, Leaders of the G20 countries called on
the OECD to help develop an agenda to build a stronger, more innovative and inclusive world economy. The OECD
has contributed ideas, analysis and data in support of the Presidency’s goal to integrate an Innovation Action
Plan to support investment in science and technology, improve skills and encourage the exchange of knowledge.
The OECD will facilitate the new G20 Task Force on Innovative Growth; provide a venue to discuss issues such as
steel over-capacity; and contribute to other important areas such as the role of skills and training, investment in
infrastructure, and support to small- and medium-sized enterprises.

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The OECD Better Life Initiative

For many decades, gross domestic product (GDP) has been the main indicator used by national and international
institutions to define and measure progress. But this focus on economic growth fails to capture many factors
which affect people’s lives. Launched in 2011 and part of international efforts to go beyond GDP, the OECD Better
Life Initiative introduces an OECD framework to analyse well-being and societal progress.

The How’s Life? report brings together international comparable measures of well-being based on people’s material
conditions and quality of life in eleven dimensions: income and wealth, jobs and earnings, housing conditions,
health status, work and life balance, education and skills, social connections, civic engagement and governance,
environmental quality, personal security and subjective well-being. The fourth edition of How’s Life? will be launched
in 2017 focusing on well-being for migrants, governance and trust, and the treatment of inequalities.

The OECD Better Life Index (BLI) is an interactive online platform that invites the public to visualise well-being
outcomes in OECD countries and beyond according to criteria that are most important to them. The platform has
so far attracted nearly 10 million visits from over 180 countries. The top five countries by number of visits are the
United States, Mexico, France, Canada and the United Kingdom. New features have been gradually added, allowing
users to compare and share their index with other people who have created indexes, as well as see the number of
responses by country, age and gender, and what topics people think are most important. Over 122 000 people have
shared their views on what makes for a better life, with life satisfaction, health and education topping the list. The
OECD Better Life Index is now available in seven languages: English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Russian
and Spanish. Latvia and South Africa were added to the Index in 2016.

The work on measuring well-being is led by the Statistics Directorate.

For more information see:

The OECD Better Life Index is co-ordinated by the Directorate for Public Affairs and Communication. For more
information on the Index see:

To compare BLI responses from around the world see:

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Office of the Secretary-General

The Office of the Secretary-General (OSG) supports the Secretary-General

in delivering his strategic vision for the Organisation. Led by the Chief of
Staff and Sherpa to the G20, Gabriela Ramos, and the Deputy Chief of Staff,
Juan Yermo, and with the support of the OSG Counsellor, Elsa Pilichowski,
the Head of Management and Communications, Ángel Alonso Arroba, the
Speech Writing and Intelligence Unit Head, Mario López-Roldán, Senior
Advisor, Isabell Koske, and a talented group of advisors and assistants, OSG
Office of the Secretary-General works to increase the relevance, visibility and impact of the Organisation.
OSG ensures that the OECD remains at the cutting edge of policy analysis
and delivers timely and targeted policy advice to support reform processes
“ The Office of the Secretary-
General (OSG) ensures
in member and Key Partner countries, in line with the “21 for 21”
commitment of the Secretary-General. It does so by supervising and
strategic alignment for the advancing the Secretariat’s strategic objectives, including the efforts
Secretary-General in leading and contributions of the Deputy Secretaries-General. OSG supports the
the Organisation and advancing Secretary-General in co-ordinating the work carried out by directorates,
bodies, agencies and committees to create synergies and respond promptly
his vision for inclusive and
and adequately to emerging needs and demands derived from a rapidly
sustainable growth. OSG keeps
changing context. As Head of OSG, the Chief of Staff and the Deputy Chief
the OECD at the leading edge of Staff directly oversees the New Approaches to Economic Challenges
of policy thinking to maximise (NAEC) and Inclusive Growth initiatives; and houses the G20/G7 Sherpa
its impact on the international unit, the Strategic Foresight unit, the Policy Coherence for Development
governance architecture, unit and the Roundtable on Sustainable Development. OSG and the
particularly the G20 and G7. Deputy Secretaries-General also provide general oversight to horizontal
In this period of profound projects and the mainstreaming of horizontal themes throughout the
OECD Secretariat.
change, OSG enables the OECD
to respond to new and growing
By supervising the work of the Global Relations Secretariat and the Legal
demands from our members Directorate, OSG is at the forefront of the Organisation’s outreach strategy,
and partner countries.
” leading and monitoring accession processes as well as co-operation
with Key Partners and non-members. OSG also works closely with the
Gabriela Ramos, Council and Executive Committee Secretariat in order to manage the
OECD Chief of Staff regular interaction with Ambassadors to the OECD and to prepare Council
and G20 Sherpa meetings, as well as the annual Ministerial Council Meeting and Global
Strategy Group. OSG collaborates with the Internal Audit and Evaluation

76 Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017 – © OECD 2017


unit to ensure that the Organisation maintains its good management. Likewise, OSG co-ordinates closely
with the Executive Directorate on the general management of OECD operations, corporate services and
housekeeping issues, as well as with the Public Affairs and Communications Directorate to guarantee
consistency and impact in the Organisation’s messages, external communications and outreach to different
stakeholders. In summary, through its oversight of directorates, OSG ensures strategic direction and
coherence in the Secretariat’s work.

In 2016, OSG supported the Secretary-General’s 55 foreign missions, plus 137 more for the Chiefs of Staff
and Deputy Secretaries-General. OSG prepared 340 speeches, 1 500 briefing notes, and organised 600 full-
fledged bilateral meetings for the Secretary-General, including his meetings with 60 Leaders, 17 of whom
visited the OECD. He also met 200 ministers, conducted 320 internal meetings, and responded to an average
of 500 emails every day.

During the year, OSG produced important substantive reports including The Productivity-Inclusiveness Nexus,
which was a cornerstone of the 2016 Ministerial Council Meeting. It also delivered members and partners
10 Better Policies Series reports and 29 country-specific Policy Briefs. OSG also contributed actively to the
substantive preparation of major OECD meetings, including guidance and review of several Ministerial
declarations and other key documents. In particular, OSG prepared the Key Issues Paper of the Ministerial
Council Meeting and the Discussion Notes of the Global Strategy Group. It also organised numerous events
at OECD headquarters at the highest political level, including 17 visits by Heads of State, Government and
International Organisations under the Leaders’ Programme, several NAEC seminars, and many encounters
with leading “out-of-the-box” thinkers that participated in the Coffees of the Secretary-General series. 

Key publications
• Update on the Mainstreaming of the New Approaches to Economic Challenges (NAEC) initiative
• The Productivity-Inclusiveness Nexus

Better Policies series:

• Latin America: Promoting productivity for inclusive growth in Latin America
• China (People’s Republic of): Policies for sound and effective investment in China
• China (People’s Republic of): Enabling China’s transition towards a knowledge-based economy
• Japan: Boosting growth and well-being in an ageing society
• Middle East and North Africa: Better policies for inclusive growth and economic integration in the MENA Region
• Poland: Policy priorities for making Poland a more inclusive and knowledge-based economy
• Sweden: Promoting well-being and inclusiveness in Sweden
• Putting an end to corruption

The 29 country-specific Policy Briefs produced in 2016 include: Costa Rica, the Czech Republic, Germany,
Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Israel, Korea and Lithuania.

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Sherpa Office and

Global Governance Unit
The OECD has become a trusted partner of the G20, which was confirmed this year by the close co-operation and
support it provided to the Chinese Presidency of the G20. With OECD contributions developed all across the house,
and co-ordinated by the Sherpa and the Global Governance Unit, the OECD delivered substantive support for the
development of major outcomes of the Hangzhou Summit, enhancing substantially its relationship with the People’s
Republic of China, hereafter ‘China’. This resulted in the first ever visit of the Prime Minister of China to the OECD
and the signature of several major commitments and a programme of work, and the Skills Development Programme.

Particularly relevant was the support to the Chinese Presidency to develop the G20 Blueprint for Innovative Long-term Growth,
an initiative to harness new sources of growth to escape the low-growth trap and advance an agenda for enhanced
structural reform, including a quantitative framework. The backlash against globalisation prompted the G20 to take
a leadership role in identifying ways to regain trust in open markets and global economic integration. OECD support
includes work on a more transparent, effective and fair international tax architecture. Under the Chinese Presidency,
the G20/OECD Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) was established, with OECD and non-
OECD countries on an equal footing. Additionally, the OECD made substantive contributions to China’s priorities in
trade and investment, green finance, anti-corruption, and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. The OECD also
helped the Chinese Presidency to advance the anti-corruption agenda by finalising the new G20 Anti-corruption Action
Plan, and drafting reports for the G20 on best practices in budget transparency and open data.

To help safeguard “interconnected economies” against the globalisation backlash, the 2017 German Presidency’s
priorities include resilience, sustainability and responsibility. The OECD is contributing to priority issues including
digital transformation; digital trade; the transition to a low-carbon economy; anti-microbial resistance; the integration
of migrants; quality female employment; tax certainty; and responsible business conduct. Other OECD contributions to
the 2017 German G20 Presidency include the report Key Issues for Digital Transformation, as well as developing a roadmap
identifying key policy directions towards digital transformation.

The OECD is also engaged with the G7. Under the 2016 Japanese Presidency, the OECD promoted gender equality
including in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines; policies to help reignite growth by
boosting trade and investment; improved healthcare; and implementation of the Automatic Exchange of Information
Common Reporting Standard and the G20/OECD BEPS package. The OECD is supporting the 2017 Italian G7 Presidency
on inclusive growth and inequality; gender, the Next Production Revolution; and implementing the COP21 Paris
Agreement and Agenda 2030.

The OECD supports structural reforms in Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries in the context of the G7
Deauville Partnership and is leading co-operation with MENA countries in developing country-tailored reform plans
under the Compact for Economic Governance and 20 technical co-operation projects on implementation financed by
the MENA Transition Fund.

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The OECD’s engagement with Key Partners has been strengthened through co-operation with regional fora
such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). The OECD supported the 2016 Peruvian Presidency
and started to deliver on its mandates in the Cebu Action Plan drawn up under the Philippines’ APEC
Presidency. The Organisation is working closely with the 2016 Vietnamese APEC Presidency across policy
areas including small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) competitiveness and innovation; inclusive
growth; connectivity; food security; and finance-related issues, including financial literacy, disaster risk
financing, long-term investment and BEPS. 

For more information contact:

Key publications
• OECD Contribution to the Chinese G20 Presidency
• G20 Innovation Report 2016
• OECD Secretary-General’s Tax Report to the G20 Leaders
• Quantifying the Implementation of G20 Members’ Growth Strategies, OECD-IMF Note
• Inter-Relationship between Trade and Investment: Strengthening Policy Coherence, WTO, UNCTAD, OECD and
World Bank
• OECD Report to G7 Leaders on Women and Entrepreneurship: A summary of recent data and policy developments
in G7 countries
• OECD Report to G7 Leaders on Responsible Business Conduct

Key events
• G20 Seminar on Corruption and Economic Growth, Paris, France, October 2016
• G20 Leaders Summit, Hangzhou, China, September 2016
• G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meetings, February/April/ July/ October 2016
• G20 Sherpa meetings, January/April/June/September/October 2016
• Deauville Partnership Senior Officials’ Meetings: Tokyo, Japan, March 2016 and Barcelona, Spain, November
• G20/OECD Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Conference, Kyoto, Japan, July 2016
• G7 Leaders Summit, Ise-Shima, Japan, May 2016
• G7 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting, May 2016

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New Approaches to Economic

Challenges (NAEC) and
the Inclusive Growth Initiative
Under the leadership of the Chief of Staff, the New Approaches to Economic Challenges (NAEC) Initiative was launched
at the 2012 Ministerial Council Meeting (MCM) to catalyse a process of continuous improvement of OECD analytical
frameworks and policy advice. The initiative is overseen by OSG, with strong support from the Secretary-General, and
all directorates pursue NAEC approaches.

The 2016 update on the NAEC mainstreaming report indicated that many lessons emerging from NAEC are being acted
upon across the OECD Secretariat and Committees, notably the need to develop a new narrative for growth that puts
people and well-being at the centre. Per capita GDP should be seen as a means, not an end in itself. We must get away
from an overemphasis on efficiency, and stop neglecting the distributional impacts of policies and their consequences
for sustainability. Trade-offs and complementarities need to be considered through integrated approaches that break
down silos, like the Productivity-Inclusiveness Nexus.

Quantitative integrated analysis has been upgraded with new policy tools and measures such as the Job Quality
and Multi-dimensional Living Standard frameworks. The mainstreaming of well-being and inclusive, resilient and
sustainable growth is continuing through enhanced dialogue on NAEC at the Committee level. Efforts are also being
made to develop new data, policy tools and analytical approaches including behavioural insights and exploiting the
opportunities of big data.

With a stronger linkage with the Strategic Foresight unit, the focus of NAEC is being sharpened to forward-looking,
interconnected and complex challenges. NAEC and the OECD’s willingness to consider a complexity approach, in the
words of Bank of England Chief Economist Andy Haldane, “puts the Organisation at the forefront of bringing economic
analysis and policy-making into the 21st century”.  

The Inclusive Growth Initiative was set up in 2014 in response to the Ministerial mandate for the NAEC Initiative to
“develop a strategic policy agenda for Inclusive Growth”. The Initiative has methodological, sectoral, national and
regional pillars.

The Productivity-Inclusiveness Nexus report analyses linkages between productivity and multi-dimensional inequalities,
framing a policy agenda to reinvigorate productivity growth by fostering inclusion. The Initiative argues that economies
can become more productive if they invest in low income groups, regions and laggard firms to help them fulfil their
potential. It goes against the current thinking of growing first and distributing later, to advance equity considerations
in the development of policy options. It also calls for a growth path that does not leave it up to social policy to correct
and compensate for the human costs of the economic path we choose. In the context of the geography of discontent,
it underlines the need to develop policies to enable low-income and poorly educated people, young firms, small- and
medium-sized enterprises, and lagging regions to benefit from and contribute to more productive and sustainable
economies and societies.

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Following a 2016 MCM Declaration, the Initiative is identifying obstacles to innovation diffusion among
firms, examining rent-seeking behaviour and its implications for competition policies, and considering the
role of the financial sector in promoting inclusiveness and ensuring efficient allocation of capital. The role
of skills and education of the bottom 40% of the population to improving productivity and inclusiveness;
building more resilient and inclusive labour markets (including for youth and immigrants); and engaging
employers in skills development in the context of rapid technological change are also being analysed.

A Group of Friends of Inclusive Growth was established in 2015 under the leadership of the Permanent
Representative for the United States, and is now being headed by the Ambassador of Chile. In November
2016, the Group launched a dialogue with business on inclusive growth to compile best practices for inclusive
growth in the private sector. The Group also led to the launch of the extremely successful Champion Mayors
for Inclusive Growth Initiative, where 50 Champion Mayors share their perspectives and experiences with
national governments and stakeholders. In November 2016, the Mayors pledged to fight inequalities through
the Paris Action Plan for Inclusive Growth in Cities. 

For more information on NAEC see: ; Twitter: @gabramosp

For more information on the Inclusive Growth Initiative see: w w grow th ;
Twitter: @gabramosp

Key publications and events

• Debate the Issues: New Approaches to Economic Challenges
• China-OECD Policy Dialogue on New Approaches to Economic Challenges, Chengdu, China, 23 July 2016
• OECD, European Commission, Institute for New Economic Thinking (INET) Oxford “Complexity and
Policymaking Workshop”, Paris, France, September 29-30 2016
• First NAEC Roundtable, Paris, France, 14 December 2016

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Economics Department

The Economics Department (ECO) carries out cross-country, country-

specific and macroeconomic and structural policy surveillance and
research on OECD member countries as well as the Accession and Key
Partner countries.

As global growth has remained weak and is facing higher inequality, ECO
focusses its policy advice on achieving stronger and inclusive growth
Catherine L. Mann through effective policy packages built on demand policies including
Chief Economist, Head of the effective fiscal initiatives and structural policies aimed at boosting
Economics Department and long-term growth and well-being. In the context of mainstreaming
Counsellor to the Secretary-General, New Approaches to Economic Challenges (NAEC) and Inclusive Growth,
G20 Finance Deputy ECO has continued to undertake new work on productivity, as well as
E-mail: understanding the complementarities and trade-offs between structural
policies, demand and inequality.

Deepening global integration,
the changing nature
Over the past 12 months, ECO published 20 country surveys. The launch of
Economic Policy Reforms 2017: Going for Growth at the G20 meeting in Germany
of global value chains and in March 2017 continues to place the OECD’s structural reform message
financial markets as well as at the centre of the G20 agenda. The policy papers series saw four new
new technologies, creates releases on the following topics: the economic consequences of Brexit, fiscal
decentralisation and trade, and economic resilience. In an effort to increase
opportunities to promote
dissemination ECO launched the Ecoscope blog, publishing 68 posts and
inclusive growth. They also call
receiving 258 481 visitors to the new platform over 2016. The Global Forum for
for deeper insights into policy Productivity website was also launched in 2016 and received 14 036 visitors.
coherence – the integration of The Economics Department published another 92 working papers in 2016. 
macroeconomic and structural
policies – taking into account
trade-offs and synergies,
and the potential gains from
collective action.

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Areas of focus
• Cross-country structural policy analysis and advice:
• Productivity and long term growth: finance and fiscal policy:
eco/public-financeLabour markets, human capital and inequality: policies to
foster green growth:
• Monetary and financial issues:
• Why is world trade so weak, what can policy do about it?
• Does Fiscal Decentralisation Foster Regional Convergence?:
• The Economic Consequences of Brexit: A Taxing Decision:
• Economics Department policy papers:
• Economics Department working papers:

Key publications
• OECD Economic Outlook
• OECD Economic Outlook Interim Reports, September 2016 and March 2017
• OECD Economic Surveys (member countries and selected non-member economies)
• Journal: Economic Studies

Key events
• Launch of OECD Interim Economic Outlook for major world economies, Paris, France, 21 September 2016 and
7 March 2017
• Launch of Strengthening Economic Resilience, Brussels, Belgium, 14 December 2016
• Promotion of Enhancing Economic Flexibility: What is in it for workers?, Berlin, Germany, 30 November 2016
• Launch of OECD Economic Outlook, Paris, France, 1 June and 28 November 2016
• Launch of The Economic Consequences of Brexit: A Taxing Decision, London, United Kingdom, 27 April 2016

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Directorate for Science,

Technology and Innovation

The Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) develops

evidence-based policy advice on the contribution of science, technology
and innovation to our economies and societies. From business dynamics
and productivity to the digital economy, from innovation for social
challenges to alleviating excess capacity in heavy industries, STI provides
new insights for policy makers.

Andrew Wyckoff Among many highlights in 2016, STI released its latest Science, Technology
Director and Innovation Outlook, focused on global megatrends and technology
E-mail: trends, and their implications for science systems and international
co-ordination in innovation. Work continued on the Next Production
Revolution, exploring how digital technologies, new materials and new
is part of the DNA of STI
look for ways of
processes may transform the production and distribution of goods and
services. STI organised a Ministerial-level meeting on the Digital Economy,
better understanding where in Cancún, which covered a range of issues including the impact on work,
our economies and societies consumers and maintaining an open Internet.
are today, and where they
A key focus for STI over 2017 is the OECD’s cross-cutting project on
are going. We pride ourselves
digital transformation - Going Digital. This will help policy makers better
on tackling topics at the
understand and pro-actively steer their economies and societies in a world
boundaries of our scientific and that is increasingly digital and data-driven. Mandated by Ministers at the
technological understanding 2016 Ministerial Council Meeting, the strength of this project is the OECD’s
such as using bio- and unique capacity to provide a whole of economy and society perspective,
nanotechnology to alter modes coupled with the long history of digital economy policy analysis in STI.
of production, a granular view As well as a holistic framework for analysing the digital transformation,
on productivity, and how digital the work will take “deep dives” into issues residing at the intersection of
multiple policy areas, providing coherent solutions to policy makers.  
shifts like “big data” and digital
platforms are changing our

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Areas of focus
• Big data:
• Broadband and telecom:
• Digital economy:
• Firm dynamics:
• Global value chains (GVCs):
• Inclusive Innovation:
• Industry:
• Innovation:
• Science and technology:
• Trade in Value Added (TiVA):

Key publications
• The Next Production Revolution
• Key Issues for Digital Transformation in the G20, Report prepared for a joint G20 German Presidency/OECD
conference, Berlin, 12 January 2017
• OECD Science, Technology and Innovation Outlook 2016
• Broadband Policies for Latin America and the Caribbean: A Digital Economy Toolkit
• The Ocean Economy in 2030

Key events
• Technology Foresight Forum on Artificial Intelligence, Paris, France, 17 November 2016:
• Final conference on the Next Production Revolution: Smart Industry: Enabling the Next Production
Revolution - Implications and Strategies for Industry and Policy, Stockholm, Sweden, 17-18 November
• IP Statistics for Decision Makers, Sydney, Australia, 15-16 November 2016:
• Conference of the Global Forum on Productivity: Structural Reforms for Productivity Growth, Lisbon,
Portugal, 7-8 July 2016:
• Ministerial Meeting on the Digital Economy: Innovation, Growth and Social Prosperity, Cancún, Mexico,
21-23 June 2016:

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Directorate for Financial

and Enterprise Affairs

The Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs (DAF) helps

governments improve domestic policies and global rules that shape
markets and business conduct. It works in the fields of anti-corruption,
corporate governance, competition, investment, financial markets,
insurance, private pensions and responsible business conduct.

The OECD published implementation methodology for the new G20/OECD

Pierre Poret Principles of Corporate Governance and Core Principles on Private Pension
Director Regulation. New tailored guidance supporting the implementation of the
E-mail: OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises has been released to help
enterprises build responsible supply chains in the agriculture; extractives;
garment and footwear; and finance sectors.
“ Our mission is to help
governments and companies The OECD reinforced its role as a leader in the international fight against
adopt and implement policies corruption with the 2016 Anti-Bribery Ministerial and launch of the fourth
and co-operative approaches phase of monitoring implementation of the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
that foster open markets and Contributions to COP21 on investment in clean energy, corporate climate
change disclosure, and fiduciary duty were followed-up in 2016. Targeted
responsible business conduct
work with Greece, Mexico and Portugal is identifying and implementing
and make globalisation work for
pro-competitive policy reforms.

The 2016 OECD Business and Finance Outlook focused on doing business in
a fragmented world. In 2017, the Outlook will address the international
governance issues key to achieving a level playing field and making
globalisation beneficial to all.

The Directorate contributes to G20 work on international financial

architecture and the OECD Code of Liberalisation of Capital Movements,
anti-corruption, corporate governance and responsible business conduct,
global investment policy making, long-term institutional investment and
infrastructure, financial literacy and consumer protection, small- and
medium-sized enterprise financing, green finance and clean energy.

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Areas of focus
• Bribery in international business:
• Competition:
• Corporate affairs:
• Financial markets, insurance and pensions:
• International investment:

Key publications
• OECD Business and Finance Outlook
• OECD Pensions Outlook
• OECD Sovereign Borrowing Outlook
• OECD Corporate Governance Factbook
• OECD PISA 2015 Results: Students and Money
• OECD Competition Assessment Review of Greece
• OECD Investment Policy Reviews: Cambodia, Lao PDR, Viet Nam, Ukraine
• OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains in the Garment and Footwear Sector
• OECD Due Diligence Guidance for Meaningful Stakeholder Engagement in the Extractive Sector

Key events
• OECD Global Forum on Competition, Paris, France, December 2017
• OECD Global Forum on Responsible Business Conduct, Paris, France, 29-30 June 2017
• Forum on Responsible Mineral Supply Chains, Paris, France, 2-4 May 2017
• Global Anti-Corruption and Integrity Forum, Paris, France, 30-31 March 2017
• OECD Conference on Business, Finance and Gender, Paris, France, 8 March 2017
• Global Forum on International Investment, Paris, France, 6 March 2017

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Directorate for Employment,

Labour and Social Affairs

The Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs (ELS) leads the
OECD’s work on employment, social policies, international migration and
health. It oversees work on interrelated policy areas that help countries
boost employment and skills, and improve social welfare and health
outcomes in a context of population ageing, globalisation and rapid
technological change.

Stefano Scarpetta We launched the Future of Work project to help countries adapt their
Director labour market, skills and social institutions and policies to the new world
E-mail: of work and to the challenges of digitalisation, globalisation, and rapid
population ageing. This work is part of the revision of the OECD Jobs
Strategy and the OECD Going Digital Horizontal Project; it will also inform
Rapid demographic change,
progress and
the 2018 Social Policy Ministerial on Social Protection for the 21st Century.

digitalisation, and globalisation The challenges and opportunities of technological change were at the core
are creating many opportunities of the 2017 Health Ministerial Meeting on the Next Generation of Health
but concerns are growing about Reforms which discussed the need to build a patient-centred approach
to healthcare. Ministers asked the OECD to develop the Patient-Reported
people’s ability to cope with
Indicators Survey (PaRIS) to monitor health systems on healthcare
the rapid changes in work and
outcomes from patients’ perspectives.
society. This is often fuelling
anxiety and uncertainty about We lead the organisation’s project on Ensuring the Effective Integration
the future. We need to help of Vulnerable Migrants, focussing on how to enhance the integration of
governments develop forward- migrants and refugees who have little prospect of returning home.
looking skills, labour, health
and social policies that help As part of the Inclusive Growth agenda, we finalised the Preventing
Ageing Unequally Action Plan as well as the report on progress on
people seize the opportunities
implementation of the OECD Gender Recommendation, both presented
while enabling them to face the
at the 2017 Ministerial Council Meeting. 
challenges of a more dynamic
and competitive environment.

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Areas of focus
• Employment policies and data:
• Families and children:
• Health policies and data:
• International migration policies and data:
• Pension systems:
• Social policies and data: ; Twitter:

Key publications
• OECD Employment Outlook 2016
• Health at a Glance: Europe 2016 and Asia Pacific 2016
• Society at a Glance 2016
• OECD International Migration Outlook 2016
• Getting Skills Right: Assessing and Anticipating Changing Skill Needs
• Recruiting Immigrant Workers: Europe 2016
• Report on the Implementation of the OECD Gender Recommendations - Some progress on gender equality but much
left to do (forthcoming)
• Tackling Wasteful Spending on Health
• Health Workforce Policies in OECD Countries: Right Jobs, Right Skills, Right Places
• OECD Affordable Housing Database:

Key events
• OECD Health Ministerial Meeting, Paris, France, 16-17 January 2017
• COPE conference “The squeezed middle class in OECD and emerging countries – Myth and reality”, Paris,
France, 1-2 December, 2016
• High-level conference on the Labour Market Integration of Refugees (OECD-BMAS), Paris, France,
28 January 2016

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Directorate for Education and Skills

The Directorate for Education and Skills (EDU) helps countries achieve
two overarching goals: strengthen equal educational and employment
opportunities and social participation, and improve the effectiveness and
efficiency of institutions to make reform happen.

Initial results from the 2015 PISA assessment were released in December,
2016. Volume I, PISA 2015: Excellence and Equity in Education, analyses how
Andreas Schleicher performance and equity have evolved over recent years across countries
Director and Special Advisor on and Volume II, Policies and Practices for Successful Schools, examines school
Education Policy to the Secretary- and systems policies and practices that explain performance differences
General among schools and education systems. Three additional PISA volumes will
E-mail: be published in 2017. Volume III will address students’ well-being; Volume
IV will look at students’ financial literacy, and Volume V will explore PISA’s
innovative domain: collaborative problem solving.
“ Our aspiration is to help every
learner, every parent, every Forthcoming titles in 2017 examine the transition to primary school;
teacher and every policy maker a comparative review on school funding; higher education and how
see that only the sky is the limit technology is challenging and transforming institutions; and vocational
to improving education – and education.
that improving education is
The Directorate will contribute to the OECD’s Inclusive Growth agenda
the key to a better and fairer
by providing policy recommendations based on best practices for equal
” educational opportunities for all; a study on closing the achievement gap
for indigenous students; and publications examining the skills of migrants
and the resilience of migrant students, drawing on data from the Survey
of Adult Skills and PISA.

The Directorate will continue to help governments with national skills

strategies. The 2017 edition of the Skills Outlook will focus on how stronger
skills and better education can translate into better jobs, improving global
value chains.

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Areas of focus
• Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI):
• Education GPS (interactive data visualisation website):
• Education at Glance: OECD indicators:
• Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC):
• OECD Skills Strategy:
• Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA): www.pisa.oecd.orgTeaching and Learning
International Survey (TALIS):

Key publications
• Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2017
• PISA 2015 Results: Students’ Well-Being; Students’ Financial Literacy; Collaborative Problem Solving
• OECD Skills Outlook 2017
• Higher Education 2030 (Volume III): Technology
• Starting Strong (Volume V): The transition from Early Childhood Education and Care to Primary Schooling
• Pedagogical Knowledge and the Changing Nature of the Teaching Profession
• Thematic Comparative Report on the Funding of School Education
• Opportunity for All: Overcoming Educational Inequalities

Key events
• Launch of the PISA 2015 Results on Collaborative Problem Solving, Singapore, 21 November 2017
• International launch of Education at a Glance: 2017 Indicators, 12 September, 2017
• Launch of the PISA 2015 Results on Financial Literacy, Paris, France, 24 May 2017
• International launch of the PISA 2015 Results: on Students’ Well-Being, Paris, France, 24 April 2017

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Trade and Agriculture Directorate

The Trade and Agriculture Directorate provides policy analysis and advice
aimed at helping government develop trade, agriculture, and fisheries
policies that can contribute to more inclusive and sustainable growth.
We also manage programmes covering officially supported export credits,
agricultural product standards, and co-operative research for sustainable
agricultural systems.

Ken Ash In response to growing anti-globalisation sentiments, our ongoing efforts

Director of Trade and Agriculture aim to identify policy packages that would make trade work for all. Better
E-mail: evidence and communications on the benefits of trade are necessary, but
insufficient. Comprehensive policy action is needed both to create an
environment where expected benefits can materialise, for more people,
“ Our priority today is to
clarify practical actions that
and to harness available tools for international economic co-operation.
The OECD is working across policy communities to clarify the full range
governments can take to make of appropriate policy responses.
trade work better for more
people. This will require well- In terms of trade policy, a priority is to reduce unnecessary costs
that policies can unintentionally impose on individuals and firms.
integrated international trade
Improving inefficient customs procedures and reducing regulatory
policies and agreements, but
inefficiencies, including on service suppliers that underpin efficient
it will also require policies at manufacturing sectors, can be particularly beneficial. The OECD Trade
home that support investments Facilitation Indicators and our Services Trade Restrictiveness Index allow
in needed physical and digital governments to benchmark their performance in both these areas and to
infrastructure, education and prioritise needed reforms.
skills, and social protection.
For many countries, food, The OECD provides analysis and advice to help governments improve
food, farm and fisheries policies, including through our annual OECD
agriculture and fisheries policy
Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation Report, OECD-FAO Agricultural
reforms matter a lot.
” Outlook, and ongoing efforts to identify fisheries subsidies that can
contribute to overfishing. The OECD Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil
Fuels underpins our work with individual countries, including as chair of
recent G20 fossil-fuel subsidy peer-review processes.

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Areas of focus
• Agricultural policies and support:
• Agricultural trade:
• Benefits of trade liberalisation:
• Export credits:
• Fisheries:
• Services trade:
• Trade facilitation:
• Trade and development:

Key publications
• Services Trade Policies and the Global Economy (forthcoming; provisional title)
• OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026 (forthcoming)
• Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation 2017 (forthcoming)
• Services and Performance of the Indian Economy: Analysis and Policy Options, OECD Trade Policy Papers 196
• Global Value Chains and Trade in Value-Added: An Initial Assessment of the Impact on Jobs and Productivity, OECD
Trade Policy Papers 190
• Water Risk Hotspots in Agriculture (forthcoming)
• OECD Food and Agricultural Reviews: Agricultural Policies in the Philippines
• Building Food Security and Managing Risks: A Focus on Southeast Asia

Key events
• G20 Trade Conference, Distributing the gains from trade, Paris, France, 8-9 June 2017
• OECD Global Forum on Agriculture 2017, Paris, France, 3 May 2017
• OECD-World Bank workshop on Trade Facilitation in Asia, Singapore, May 2017
• OECD Trade Conference, Integration versus isolation: Strengthening communication on the costs and the
benefits of trade, Paris, France, 25-26 April 2017

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Environment Directorate

The Environment Directorate helps countries design and implement

effective policies to address environmental problems and sustainably
manage natural resources. It examines the linkages between the
environment and economic, sectoral or social concerns in areas such as:
climate change; biodiversity; water; waste; environmental taxes; chemical,
nanomaterial and genetically modified crop safety; agriculture; transport;
trade; investment; and development.
Simon Upton
Director Following the 2016 MCM mandate to “contribute to the effective
E-mail: implementation of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change”, the OECD
examined the interface of climate change and economics to support
countries’ action on climate change. Key reports include Investing in
“whoEnvironment Ministers,
gathered at the OECD
Climate, Investing in Growth, advising governments on an integrated set of
structural policy measures to both spur growth and trigger the structural
last September for their four- transformations needed to implement the Paris Agreement, as well as
yearly meeting, face systemic 2020 Projections of Climate Finance Towards the USD 100 Billion Goal. Another
challenges in addressing milestone was the launch of the OECD Centre on Green Finance and
Investment, which provides a global platform to identify reforms needed
climate change and moving to a
to steer investment away from fossil fuels. The work of the OECD/IEA’s
more resource-efficient, circular
Climate Change Expert Group contributed to enhanced transparency of
economy. These challenges can mitigation, adaptation and climate finance under the Paris Agreement.
only be tackled when they can
enlist the active co-operation Environment Ministers gathered at the OECD in September 2016 to discuss
of Ministers of Finance, the how to address environmental challenges in light of growth objectives.
economy and many key sectors. The year 2016 also saw the adoption of the Recommendation of the Council
Unsurprisingly the Environment on Water, the first in 25 years, which updates OECD policy guidance on
water quantity, quality, risks and disasters, governance and financing.
Directorate is one of the most
Reports on Green Growth Indicators and on Biodiversity and Development
horizontally integrated at the
are forthcoming. 
OECD and will continue, in
2017, to identify and promote
economy-wide action to reduce
environmental pressure.

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Areas of focus
• Climate change:
• Environment in emerging and transition economies:
• Environmental modelling and outlooks:
• Environmental policies tools and evaluation:
• Green growth:
• Safety of chemicals, pesticides, biotechnology and nanomaterials:
• Mainstreaming biodiversity:
• Water:

Key publications
• Diffuse Pollution, Degraded Waters: Emerging Policy Solutions
• Marine Protected Areas: Economics, Management and Effective Policy Mixes
• Investing in Climate, Investing in Growth (G20 support)
• Green Growth Indicators 2017
• Biodiversity and Development: Mainstreaming and Managing for Results
• Managing the Human Impacts on the Nitrogen Cycle
• The Assessment of Nanomaterials: Human Health and Environmental SafetyOECD 2017 Environmental Performance
Reviews: Canada, Estonia, Korea, New Zealand, Switzerland

Key events
• Roundtable on Financing Water, Paris, France, 12-14 April 2017
• Launch of Investing in Climate, Investing in Growth at the Petersberg Climate Dialogue and related OECD
International Conference, Berlin, Germany, 23 May 2017
• Global Forum on Environment: Mainstreaming Biodiversity, Southeast Asia, September 2017
• 4th Green Investment Financing Forum, Paris, France, 10-11 October 2017
• Green Growth and Sustainable Development Forum: Ocean Economy and Green Growth, Paris, France,
21-22 November 2017

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Centre for Tax Policy

and Administration

The Centre for Tax Policy and Administration (CTPA) supports the
Committee on Fiscal Affairs, covering international and domestic issues,
across direct and indirect taxes. For more than 50 years, the OECD has led
the development of the international tax rules – addressing tax barriers
to trade and investment while also tackling tax evasion and avoidance.
Today, the OECD’s work on tax issues has a global reach, with more than
100 jurisdictions participating on an equal-footing, and we also have an
Pascal Saint-Amans active engagement with business, labour and civil society.
E-mail: The Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Project
now has over 90 committed members working to curtail opportunities
for aggressive tax planning, including through the recently adopted
“of With the successful launch
the Inclusive Framework on
Multilateral Convention to Implement Tax Treaty Related Measures to
Prevent BEPS. On tax transparency, we’re developing new tools to support
BEPS in 2016, countries and implementation of our global standard for automatic exchange of financial
jurisdictions can now work account information, while the more than 135 members of the Global
together on an equal footing Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes
continue to closely monitor implementation of the tax transparency
to tackle tax avoidance and
standards. Further, with strong tax systems now widely recognised as
level the playing field. In 2017,
key to sustainable domestic resource mobilisation, the OECD-UNDP
we need to support consistent partnership to expand our Tax Inspectors Without Borders initiative is
global implementation, adapted making a concrete impact on the ground in developing countries. 
to take into account each
country’s level of capacity. In a
rapidly changing environment,
enhancing certainty and
predictability for both tax
administrations and taxpayers
is critical as we work to secure
more inclusive growth.

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Areas of focus
• Automatic Exchange of Information:
• Base Erosion and Profit Shifting:
• Consumption tax:
• Forum on Tax Administration:
• Global Forum on Tax Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes:
• Tax and crime:
• Tax and development:
• Tax and environment:
• Tax policy and statistics:
• Tax Inspectors Without Borders:
• Tax treaties:
• Transfer pricing:

Key publications
• Effective Carbon Rates: Pricing CO2 through Taxes and Emissions Trading Systems
• Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes: Peer Reviews
• OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Profit Shifting Project reports
• OECD International VAT/GST Guidelines
• OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administrations 2017
• Revenue Statistics 2017 covering OECD, LAC, Asian and African countries
• Tax Administration 2017
• Tax Policy Reforms in the OECD 2017
• Taxing Wages 2017

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Statistics Directorate

The Statistics Directorates (STD) collects, analyses and harmonises

statistics on national accounts, prices, trade, entrepreneurship, labour,
productivity and well-being. We are developing new measures of
inequalities, trust, job quality, trade flows and green growth, and provide
a monthly assessment of the economic cycle with our composite leading
indicators. STD co-ordinates all OECD statistical activities and the
development of OECD statistical information systems.
Martine Durand
Chief Statistician and Director of Drawing on its experience in measuring multi-dimensional well-being,
Statistics STD has developed a methodology to help interested countries measure
E-mail: the distance they have to travel to meet the Sustainable Development
Goals by establishing their national and global priorities and designing
the policies needed to bridge the gaps.
With globalisation and the
of Uber, AirBnB and STD has collaborated with Facebook and the World Bank to develop an
other web-based platforms, online monthly business survey (the Future of Business Survey) that
we need to look more closely provides insights on challenges faced by small- and medium-sized
at whether the statistics we enterprises (SMEs), their outlook and how they capitalise on digital tools,
and address new issues.
are using today to measure
economic activity are adequate.
The OECD’s Trade in Value Added database provides insights on global
Capitalising on its networks value chains (GVCs) and is developing more timely estimates and new
and expertise, the OECD indicators that describe the role of SMEs and multinational enterprises
Statistics Directorate continues in GVCs, telling us more on “inclusive globalisation”.
to be at the forefront of many
of the innovations needed to Efforts are being made to address measurement challenges presented
address these measurement by globalisation and digitalisation, particularly concerning the validity
of accounting concepts, unrecorded cross-border flows of intellectual
” property, and price measurement.

STD is at the forefront of linking more granular data with traditional macro
statistics, to support research and policy analysis. This includes bringing
in more detailed information on enterprises and on the distribution of
household income, consumption and wealth.

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Areas of focus
• Composite leading indicators and business tendency surveys:
• Entrepreneurship indicators and business statistics:
• Productivity statistics:
• OECD Better Life Initiative:
• Measuring well-being and progress:
• Inclusive growth:
• Gender equality:
• Green growth:
• Labour statistics:
• International trade and balance of payments:
• Measuring Trade in Value Added (TiVA):
• National accounts and financial statistics: ;
• Prices and purchasing power parities:

Key publications
• OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators 2017
• Nordic Countries in Global Value Chains 2017
• Measuring the Distance to the SDG Targets: A pilot assessment of where OECD countries stand 2016
• Entrepreneurship at a Glance 2016

Key events
• G20 Thematic Workshop on Institutional Sector Accounts, Paris, France, 10-12 April 2017
• Measuring business impacts on people’s well-being, Paris, France, 23-24 February 2017
• Subjective well-being over the life course: Evidence and policy implications, London, United Kingdom,
12-13 December 2016

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Directorate for Public Governance

and Territorial Development

The Directorate for Public Governance and Territorial Development (GOV)

provides data, analysis and good practice for improving public policy
making and strengthening citizens’ trust in government. An effective
and accountable public service is essential to support the businesses that
create jobs, equip young people with the skills they need for fulfilling
careers, and provide the health and social services that citizens expect
throughout their lives.
Rolf Alter
Director Work in 2016 explored the role of public governance in supporting
E-mail: productivity growth and inclusiveness, both directly, through efficient
public procurement and infrastructure investment, and indirectly,
through good regulatory practice and policies to unlock growth in regions
“ Good governance, based on
transparent and inclusive rules
and cities. Reports on fostering innovation in the public sector and on
behavioural insights emphasised the importance of new approaches to
and trustworthy institutions, policy making, while a new OECD instrument on public sector integrity
is more important than ever. along with publications on trust and public policy and on open government
Citizens are increasingly underlined the ongoing need to promote core public sector values.
questioning established
Looking ahead, the OECD is supporting international regulatory co-
institutions, both nationally
operation as a means to ensure that globalisation is inclusive and brings
and internationally. We need economic benefits for all. At the same time, work on the governance of
to reflect on the reasons for critical risks, including illicit trade, will help governments anticipate and
dissatisfaction and provide manage crises in an increasingly interconnected world.
guidance for governments on
how they can make public OECD governance principles and experience continue to be in high demand
policies more effective and among non-member countries. Public governance is a key dimension of
OECD regional programmes in Southeast Asia, Latin America and the
strengthen the institutions that
Middle East and North Africa. The OECD collaborates on public governance
deliver them.
” issues with UN Habitat, the European Commission, the World Bank, the
Inter-American Development Bank and many other international bodies.

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Areas of focus
• Budgeting and public expenditures:
• Observatory of Public Sector Innovation:
• Public employment and management:
• Regional, urban and rural development:
• SIGMA (Support for Improvement in Governance and Management):
• Water Governance:
• Sustainable Development Goals and Public Governance:
• Digital Government Toolkit:
• Effective Public Investment Toolkit:

Key publications
• OECD Regional Outlook 2016: Productive Regions for Inclusive Societies
• The Governance of Inclusive Growth (November 2016)
• Making Cities Work For All
• Government at a Glance: Latin America and the Caribbean 2017
• Trafficking in Persons and Corruption: Breaking the Chain

Key events
• 2nd International Conference on Urban Policies, Paris, France, 15-16 May 2017
• OECD Global Anti-Corruption and Integrity Forum - In the Public Interest: Taking Integrity to Higher
Standards, Paris, France, 30-31 March 2017
• OECD Infrastructure Forum, Paris, France, 20-21 March 2017
• Towards Gender Equality Before the Law, Paris, France, 10 March 2017
• Roundtable for Ministers on Open Government, Paris, France, 8 December 2016
• Public Procurement Week, Paris, France, 4-10 October 2016

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Public Affairs and Communications


The Public Affairs and Communications Directorate (PAC) enhances the

OECD’s dialogue and engagement with stakeholders on public policy. It
orchestrates external communications in line with the Secretary-General’s
orientations, sets standards and provides guidance, support and advice
on communication issues.

In 2016, as Chair of the Senior Communications Board, PAC led the

Anthony Gooch development of the OECD corporate communications narrative. It
Director spearheaded communications campaigns around inclusive growth,
E-mail: migration, digitalisation and implementation.

The OECD continued to feature prominently in major global media.

“ Engaging a global audience of
policy makers, policy shapers
Visits to, Data Portal, and data visualisation, video and social
media platforms increased. The OECD iLibrary received over 10.5 million
and citizens, PAC works downloads, while the Better Life Index, a key civic engagement platform,
to maximise the impact of received nearly 2 million visits in 2016, bringing the total to almost
OECD work through listening, 9 million.
dialogue and dissemination.
” The 2016 OECD Forum on Productive Economies, Inclusive Societies
gathered over 3 000 speakers and participants. The OECD Global
Parliamentary Network (GPN) expanded engagement with legislators,
including through Parliamentary Days and its first meeting in Asia,
attracting parliamentarians representing 22 countries.

PAC also continued to engage strongly regionally and locally through its
centres in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean,
Asia and North America.

Throughout 2016, PAC helped the OECD navigate a new “post-truth,

post-fact” communications environment by adjusting communications
priorities to: adopt a campaigns approach; listen to key audiences;
increase public engagement; respond to the “geography of discontent”;
move from books to tweets, videos and visuals; use language people
understand; improve the findability of OECD material; and analytics and
impact assessment.

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Areas of focus
• Centres abroad: ; Berlin: and
OECDStatistik ; Mexico: ; Tokyo: and www. ; Washington: and
• Civil society:
• OECD iLibrary, dissemination and knowledge:
• Images and videos: ;
• The OECD Data Portal:
• Media relations:
• OECD Forum:
• Parliamentary relations:
• Publishing activities:
• Social media: ; ;
• Better Life Index:

Key publications
• OECD Observer, quarterly:
• OECD Yearbook 2016:
• OECD Insights series: ; OECD Insights Blog:
• OECD Factbook:
• Secretary-General’s Report to Ministers 2017
• OECD Civil Society Newsletter

Key events
• OECD Forum 2016: Enhancing Productivity for Inclusive Growth, Paris, France, 31 May-1 June 2016
• Journées européennes du patrimoine, Paris, France, 17-18 September 2016
• OECD Parliamentary Days, Paris, France, 3-5 February 2016

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Development Co-operation

The Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD) tracks and analyses

data to inform the smart use of development finance; influences policies
to advance sustainable development; and shapes practices to improve
the effectiveness of providers, as well as to improve capacity and the
enabling environment in developing countries. DCD supports the OECD
Development Assistance Committee (DAC).

Jorge Moreira Da Silva DCD helps the international community deliver on the 2030 Agenda for
Director Sustainable Development. It adapted its peer review methodology to
E-mail: help members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee align
their policies and programmes with the Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) and modernised the framework for measuring official development
“itsDCD is updating and adapting
tools and measurement
assistance, which reached its highest level ever in 2016. DCD is developing
consensus for the total official support for sustainable development
frameworks to ensure their measurement framework that will track public and private finance for
maximum contribution to sustainable development. The Development Co-operation Report 2016 explored
the implementation of the ways of optimising private sector contributions to the SDGs.
Sustainable Development Goals.
DCD also reviewed the policy markers that measure environmental
These updated instruments
objectives associated with development co-operation flows. The Rio
– including new measures Markers measure resources targeting climate change mitigation and
of development finance, adaptation, helping to identify synergies and gaps. To support OECD
accountability mechanisms, and members in dealing with the refugee crisis, DCD established a Temporary
updated rules for reporting ODA Working Group on Refugees and Migration.
– will help us hold our members
to account for delivering on their DCD and the United Nations Development Programme support the Global
Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation, monitoring progress
commitments to development
on internationally agreed aid effectiveness targets. The results of the 2016
” report, based on data provided by 81 developing countries, were reviewed
by over 5 000 development partners at a High Level Meeting in Nairobi.

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Areas of focus
• Accountable and effective institutions:
• Aid for trade:
• Conflict, fragility and resilience
• DAC global relations:
• Effective development co-operation:
• Environment and development:
• Evaluation of development programmes:
• Financing sustainable development:
• Gender equality and development:
• Peer reviews of DAC members:

Key publications
• Development Co-operation Report 2016: The Sustainable Development Goals as Business Opportunities
• Making Development Co-operation More Effective: 2016 Progress Report
• States of Fragility: Understanding Violence
• Private Sector Engagement for Sustainable Development: Lessons from the DAC
• Climate and Disaster Resilience Financing in Small Island Developing States

Key events
• OECD Global Forum on Development, Paris, France, 5 April 2017
• Second High-Level Meeting of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation, Nairobi,
Kenya, 28 November-1 December 2016

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Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs,

Local Development and Tourism

The Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs, Local Development and Tourism

(CFE) provides targeted guidance, comparative statistics, and capacity
building support to local and national actors to help them unleash the
potential of entrepreneurs and small- and medium-sized enterprises
(SMEs), boost local job creation, and maximise tourism’s contributions
to inclusive growth.

Lamia Kamal-Chaoui CFE is now identifying effective approaches to implementing the G20/
Director OECD High-Level Principles on SME Financing adopted in 2015. The
E-mail: Working Party on SMEs and Entrepreneurship developed a new tool for
multi-dimensional assessment of SME performance and the business
environment, which be released with the new publication Small, Medium,
“ Too many people, places and
firms feel that globalisation has
Strong. Trends in SME Performance and Business Conditions.

created a relatively short list of The Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Programme’s
winners and a relatively long Job Creation and Local Economic Development 2016 highlights risks posed
list of losers. Through its work by widening gaps in jobs and skills across local communities. It also
launched a new series of reviews on local approaches to social inclusion,
on SMEs, entrepreneurship,
published a compendium of best practices for inclusive business creation,
local development, and tourism,
and extended OECD Reviews on Local Job Creation to reach 16 countries.
CFE is giving national and local
governments the tools to ensure The OECD coalition of Champion Mayors for Inclusive Growth was
this ‘silent majority’ can better launched, gathering 50 mayors from around the world. They committed to
contribute to and benefit from the concrete actions in the New York Proposal and the Paris Action Plan.
inclusive growth.
” Their third meeting will be hosted by Seoul in October 2017.

The 2016 edition of OECD Tourism Trends and Policies covers 50 countries
and includes a chapter on the sharing economy. The Tourism Committee
meets for the 100th time in 2017, marked by High Level Meeting on Tourism
Policies for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth.

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Areas of focus
• Local economic and employment development (LEED):
• SMEs and entrepreneurship:
• Tourism:
• Champion Mayors for Inclusive Growth:

Key publications
• Financing SMEs and Entrepreneurs 2016: An OECD Scoreboard (2017 forthcoming)
• OECD Studies on SMEs and Entrepreneurship: SME and Entrepreneurship Policy in Israel 2016
• Job Creation and Local Economic Development 2016
• OECD Reviews on Local Job Creation: Employment and Skills Strategies (Canada and Poland)
• Weaving Together Policies for Social Inclusion in Ireland
• Inclusive Business Creation: Good Practice Compendium
• OECD Tourism Trends and Policies 2016
• Tourism Policy Review of Mexico
• The Missing Entrepreneurs 2017 (forthcoming)

Key events
• 13th Annual Meeting of the OECD LEED Forum on Partnerships and Local Development, Prague, Czech
Republic, 10-11 April 2017
• Meetings of the OECD Champion Mayors for Inclusive Growth Initiative: Launch, New York, United States,
29 March 2016; 2nd Meeting, Paris, France, 21 November 2016; 3rd Meeting, Seoul, Korea, 23-24 October 2017
• 14th Global Forum on Tourism Statistics, Venice, Italy, 23-25 November 2016
• High Level Meeting on Tourism Policies for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth to commemorate 100th Meeting
of the Tourism Committee, Paris, France 2-3 October 2017,
• 8th Annual Expert Meeting of the Employment and Skills Strategies in Southeast Asia Initiative, OECD and
Southeast Asia Regional Policy Network on Education and Skills, Cebu, Philippines, 11-12 October 2016
• Workshop on policies for upgrading productivity in small traditional enterprises, Puerto Vallarta (Jalisco),
Mexico, 3-4 November 2016; two follow-up workshops planned for 2017-2018

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Global Relations Secretariat

The Global Relations Secretariat supports the Secretary-General’s strategic

objectives for an open and inclusive organisation and strengthens
engagement with emerging and developing countries through regional
programmes in Southeast Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, the
Middle East and North Africa (MENA), Eurasia and South East Europe. It
fosters the active involvement of the Key Partners – Brazil, China, India,
Indonesia and South Africa – as well as other important partners, in the
Andreas Schaal OECD’s work programme.
E-mail: Global Relations activities increasingly focus on using the G20 and
other fora to leverage OECD standards and policies; strengthening the
Organisation’s relationship with Key Partners; and deepening support to
“ The OECD is developing
towards a global policy network
partner countries’ reforms through regional and country programmes.

of 35 OECD countries and over OECD support to the Chinese G20 Presidency culminated with the Hangzhou
100 partner countries to identify Summit and resulted in: the G20 Blueprint for Innovative Growth; OECD
challenges and implement inputs to G20 members’ growth strategies; the implementation of the full
Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) package; and the establishment of a
common solutions. We support
Global Forum on Excess Capacity in the Steel Industry. The Latin America
partners’ policy reforms to
and the Caribbean Regional Programme held a Ministerial Meeting on
unleash inclusive growth and to Productivity and Inclusive Growth in Chile. The MENA-OECD Ministerial
align with globally recognised Conference held in Tunis will help the OECD reinforce its contribution to
standards. We benefit from the MENA countries’ transition. A new programme of work with Indonesia
partners’ perspectives to enrich for 2017-2018 was also launched during the Secretary-General’s mission
these standards to level the in Jakarta in October. In addition, country programmes in Kazakhstan,
global playing field and make Morocco and Peru are being successfully completed and a new country
programme is about to be launched in Thailand. The OECD has elaborated
globalisation more inclusive.
” a Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Action Plan and is strengthening
its co-ordination with the United Nations to support the delivery and
implementation of the SDGs.

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Areas of focus
• OECD Global Relations, Key Partners, regional programmes and Global Fora:
• Africa:
• Brazil: ;
• China (People’s Republic of):
• Eurasia:
• India:
• Indonesia:
• Latin America:
• Middle East and North Africa:
• South Africa:
• Southeast Asia:
• South East Europe:

Key publications
• Competitiveness in South East Europe 2016: A Policy Outlook
• SME Policy Index series
• Women’s Economic Empowerment in Selected MENA Countries
• Industrial Upgrading for Green Growth in China
• OECD “Active with…” country and regional brochures

Key events
• Latin America and the Caribbean High Level Meeting on Social Inclusion, November 2017
• Eurasia Week, October 2017,
• Southeast Asia Forum, July 2017,
• Fostering Investment for Competitiveness in South East Europe, April 2017

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Executive Directorate

The Executive Directorate (EXD) advises the Secretary-General on

management issues to ensure the OECD stays at the forefront of
corporate management best practices. EXD delivers corporate services
to staff, members and delegates including human and financial resource
management, digital knowledge and information management and
conference, language, security and operations services.

Anthony Rottier In 2016 EXD planned and implemented a large office space project that
Director consolidated the OECD presence on two sites – OECD (La Muette) and
E-mail: OECD (Boulogne). The Boulogne project will culminate in 2017 with the
opening of a new conference centre. In Boulogne, almost 1 500 staff work
more flexibly than in the past, assisted by policies to facilitate teleworking.
“ The OECD is always
challenging itself to reinforce its
The year 2016 also saw the modernisation of paternity leave rules and a
project to facilitate access to crèche facilities.
recognised strong management
practices and standards. In The OECD achieved certification of all its buildings against the highly-
2016 EXD’s work focussed on regarded HQE® standard in 2016, recognising our environmental
performance in building management and our ongoing drive to “Green”
‘renewal projects’ that further
the OECD. The launch of a forum for staff to share and discuss good
modernise our ways of working
practices was among the projects to implement the Value for Money
and increase our ability to (V4M) Action Plan.
collaborate across geographies
and traditional organisational EXD developed the OECD Digital Strategy in 2016, an ambitious programme
structures in innovative ways. to reinforce the Organisation’s agility and effectiveness through digital
These developments will technologies. Over 2017-18, the introduction of new tools will enable
provide the right environment staff, members and Delegations to access information more flexibly and
facilitate collaboration between different policy areas. In parallel, EXD
and tools for our staff to
contributed to putting in place the digital infrastructure required for tax
continue to produce exceptional
administrations to share information from September 2017. 
outputs and deliver value for
money to our members.

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Internal Audit and Evaluation

Internal Audits provide objective and independent assurance to the

Secretary-General over executive governance, risk management and
control within the OECD secretariat. In-depth Evaluations provide
systematic and objective assessments of the relevance, effectiveness
and efficiency of the OECD’s substantive committees inter alia to inform
Council decisions on mandate appropriateness and renewal.

Lucy Elliott In 2016, In-depth Evaluation covered 12 committees and two “Part II”
Director programmes, including evaluations and monitoring of implementation of
E-mail: recommendations, while continuing to enrich a repository of good-practice
cases aimed at contributing to replicating success and promoting learning
across the Organisation. Furthermore, following agreement of Council
In-depth Evaluation and
Audit play a key role
on a third cycle of In-depth Evaluation designed to reflect the changing
needs and strategic priorities of the Organisation, a six-year programme
in supporting the OECD’s up to and including 2022 was approved by Council at the start of 2017.
mission through their forward-
looking recommendations and The year 2016 was the second year of Internal Audit’s four-year strategy,
auditing closer to the substance of the OECD’s work and providing more
identification of good practices,
assurance at a corporate level. In line with this strategy, Internal Audit
and their advice to the
continued to “audit what matters”, notably in 2016 covering voluntary
Secretary-General on executive contributions, external communications and ethics among other subjects.
governance, risk management, Internal Audit’s risk-based work plan for the 2017-2018 biennium includes
control, monitoring and cybersecurity and physical security, procurement, and various Human
evaluation, all of which Resources matters.
contribute to reinforcing the
leading-edge nature of the Through Internal Audit and In-depth Evaluation the OECD continues to
enhance transparency and accountability – since the beginning of 2016
OECD’s executive governance,
summary Internal Audit reports are made available to the full OECD
accountability, transparency
membership, and from its 3rd Cycle, reports of In-depth Evaluations will
and performance.
” be publicly disclosed.

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Directorate for Legal Affairs

The Directorate for Legal Affairs advises on all legal, institutional

and procedural aspects of the Organisation’s activities and supports
directorates in the development of their outputs. It represents the
Organisation in legal proceedings and provides support on contracts, co-
operation and financing agreements, intellectual property and financial
and human resources reforms.

Nicola Bonucci The Directorate played a central role in negotiating the contractual
Director for Legal Affairs and arrangements relating to the development and operation of a Common
Accession Co-ordinator Transmission System (CTS) enabling 100+ tax administrations to
E-mail: automatically exchange information as well as the development of a
standardised user agreement to be entered into between the OECD and
the jurisdictions that will be using the CTS.
“ Today, the OECD Guidelines
for Multinational Enterprises On matters of substance, support was extensive to the Base Erosion
are the most comprehensive and Profit Shifting Project (BEPS) – notably on the development of a
set of government-backed multilateral instrument to modify bilateral tax treaties. The Directorate
recommendations on also represented the OECD in various international fora focussing on the
fight against anti-corruption, including in the G20 context. These fields
responsible business conduct in
will remain key in the coming months, together with the work on general
existence and seek to encourage
due diligence guidance for responsible business conduct.
and maximise the positive
impact that Multinational Throughout 2016, the team mobilised to co-ordinate accession discussions
Enterprises can have on with three candidate countries at different stages in the process. Finally,
sustainable development and the directorate assisted with the significant relations maintained
social progress.
” with non-members, in particular with their adherence to OECD legal
instruments and with co-operation arrangements, and was very active
in the negotiation of Privileges and Immunities Agreements to facilitate
the work of the OECD and protect its independence.

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Council and Executive Committee


The Council Secretariat serves the Council and the Executive Committee,
the Heads of Delegation meetings, the Global Strategy Group and the
Ministerial Council Meeting (MCM).

The Council Secretariat advises the Secretary-General on the general

policy of the Organisation and provides advice and assistance on
institutional, policy and procedural aspects of the Council’s activities. It
Patrick van Haute also serves as a liaison among standing committees as well as between the
Director Secretariat and member delegations in the management of the Council’s
E-mail: work programme. The Council Secretariat’s dialogue with directorates
facilitates their engagement with members.

“ The Council Secretariat will

continue to serve as one of the
Within the available resources and while serving new bodies, the Council
Secretariat is continuing to upgrade its service to Council, its chair
interfaces between members and the Executive Committee, moving higher up in the value chain by
and the Secretariat, to prepare collecting timely information from different networks, with a view to
the decisions that will shape ensuring better co-ordination, earlier identification and resolution of
possible issues, as well as easier programming. The launch of the eCouncil
the future of the OECD. In
platform in 2014 has dramatically improved the document process for
a time of difficult economic
the preparation of the Executive Committee and Council: it enhances
situations with members, the co-ordination and streamlines document and meeting preparations.
OECD potential value-added is In 2016, a specific space was successfully launched within eCouncil
higher than ever. We dedicate for the preparation of the Budget Committee. Throughout 2017 efforts
our work and skills to the will continue toward enhancing and reinforcing processes within the
successful implementation of Secretariat and supporting institutional relations. With this in mind,
our recommendation, for the the Council Secretariat will continue to work on new developments in
eCouncil with the aim of launching a specific space for the preparation
benefit of our fellow citizens.
” of the External Relations.

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Development Centre

The OECD Development Centre (DEV) was established in 1962 as a platform

for analysis, knowledge-sharing and evidence-based policy dialogue
on development. With Japan and Paraguay joining in 2016, DEV counts
27 OECD countries, plus the EU, and 25 non-OECD countries interacting
on an equal footing to find innovative policy solutions to pressing
development challenges.

Mario Pezzini The Centre provides policy advice to developing and emerging economies
Director of the OECD Development on a wide range of issues. For example, DEV produced guidance that is
Centre, Special Advisor to the OECD being used by the G7 to help developing countries structure extractive
Secretary-General on Development contracts for the long term; brought foundations to the Global Partnership
for Effective Development Co-operation; deepened co-operation with
UN Habitat during the historic Habitat III Conference; and initiated a
new collaboration between the U.S. Millennium Challenge Corporation
and the OECD. Its Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) became an
official data source to gauge progress on Sustainable Development Goal
(SDG) 5.1 to end discrimination against women and girls. The People’s
Republic of China hereafter, ‘China’, asked DEV to join the Silk Road Think
Tank Network and to support the Centre for International Knowledge on

At its 2016 High-level meeting, co-chaired by China and France, Ministers

called on the Centre to pursue new initiatives, including a Dialogue on
Migration and Development, an Initiative with Africa, and called for a
further uptake of its Multi-dimensional Country Reviews as an innovative
tool for implementing the SDGs. In a changing global landscape, DEV’s
2017-18 work programme will be a chance to debate, challenge and redefine
the definition of development. 

For more information see: All Development Centre activities: www.oecd.

org/dev ; African Economic Outlook: ; Latin
American Economic Outlook: ; OECD’s Development
Blog: ; Social Institutions and Gender
Index: ; Wikigender:

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International Energy Agency

The International Energy Agency (IEA) works to ensure reliable, affordable

and clean energy for its 29 member countries and beyond. Its work revolves
around the “4 Es” of sound energy policy: energy security, environmental
sustainability, economic development and engagement worldwide.

In 2016, the IEA made considerable progress implementing the three pillars
of “modernisation” supported by IEA Ministers at their 2015 meeting:
Fatih Birol
Executive Director Enhance engagement with major emerging economies: Singapore and
Morocco became IEA Association members joining China, Indonesia and
Thailand; Mexico took concrete steps towards accession; and the IEA and
China shared their common intention to work towards establishing an
energy co-operation centre in Beijing.

Strengthen and broaden commitment to energy security: the IEA held

the eighth Emergency Response Exercise including partner countries and
launched two new energy security reports, Global Gas Security Review and
Re-Powering Markets.

Increase the IEA’s focus on clean energy technology: the IEA was chosen to
host the Clean Energy Ministerial Secretariat; and also created a dedicated
Energy Efficiency division and a Systems Integration of Renewables unit.

Key IEA outputs in 2016 included:

• World Energy Outlook 2016, with focus on renewables and Mexico.

• Energy Technology Perspectives, highlighting urban energy systems.
• Monthly Oil Market Report and five Medium-Term Market reports.
• First World Energy Investment report, generating 6 000 press stories.
• IEA Big IdEAs speaker series featuring EC Vice President Maros
Šefčovič, Qatar’s former Deputy Premier and Energy and Industry
Minister Abdullah Bin Hamad Al-Attiyah, and others.
• Training more than 400 partner country officials on energy data. 

For more information see:

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Nuclear Energy Agency

Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) member countries account for 83% of global
nuclear energy generating capacity. Through international co-operation,
the NEA assists its 31 member countries in maintaining and further
developing the scientific, technological and legal bases required for a
safe, environmentally sound and economical use of nuclear energy for
peaceful purposes. It strives to provide authoritative assessments and
to forge common understandings on key issues as input to government
William D. Magwood, IV decisions on nuclear energy policy and to broader OECD analyses in areas
NEA Director-General such as energy and the sustainable development of low-carbon economies.

NEA activities cover nuclear safety and regulation, including human

aspects such as safety culture, radioactive waste management,
decommissioning, radiological protection, nuclear science and data,
nuclear technology development, economic analyses, policy and legal
matters. The NEA is the Technical Secretariat for the Multinational Design
Evaluation Programme, the International Framework for Nuclear Energy
Co-operation and the Generation IV International Forum. Over 20 joint
undertakings operate under NEA auspices, including the Halden Reactor
Project which will mark its 60th year in 2018.

Highlights in 2016 include: adopting the 4th Strategic Plan of the Nuclear
Energy Agency: 2017-2022; the IFNEC-NEA Conference on Financing
Nuclear Projects; the Five Years after the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: Nuclear
Safety Improvements and Lessons Learnt report; the 5th International
Conference on Geological Repositories; and the Stakeholder Involvement
in Nuclear Decision Making workshop.

The NEA continues work on: the Nuclear Innovation 2050 project, intended
to identify global priorities for future research and development; and the
NEA Nuclear Education, Skills and Technology (NEST) framework, which
will provide research and training opportunities for youth to shape future
experts and leaders. 

For more information see: ; Twitter: @OECD_NEA

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International Transport Forum

The International Transport Forum (ITF) at the OECD is an intergovernmental

organisation with 57 member countries. It acts as a strategic think tank for
transport policy and organises the Annual Summit of transport ministers,
the world’s largest gathering of transport policy makers. The ITF is the
only global organisation covering all modes of transport.

The ITF’s Decarbonising Transport project launched in 2016 works towards

José Viegas carbon-free mobility, with over 40 partners and supporters, including the
Secretary-General OECD and the International Energy Agency (IEA). The project is building
the most comprehensive model of global transport activity to date and
creating a dialogue for mutual learning around sustainable transport

The ITF contributed extensively to the United Nations Secretary-General’s

High-Level Advisory Group on Sustainable Transport of which the ITF
Secretary-General was a member.

The 2017 Summit on Green and Inclusive Transport discussed transport’s

contribution to the Paris Agreement and the UN Sustainable Development
Goals. A joint declaration by ministers highlighted transport’s role in
mitigating climate change.

The ITF’s new network Safer City Streets, with 34 cities already, helps
improve urban road safety by sharing data, experiences and knowledge.
The ITF report Zero Road Deaths and Serious Injuries: Leading a Paradigm Shift
to a Safe System, received worldwide attention in 2016 earning ITF received
a Special Award from the Prince Michael of Kent International Road Safety
Awards for its global leadership.

Member countries commissioned numerous case-specific policy analyses,

including: ports policies for Chile; regulation of for-hire passenger
transport for Portugal; rail transport regulation for Mexico; and the impact
of mega-ships on Gothenburg port for Sweden.

Five companies joined the ITF Corporate Partnership Board taking its
membership to 28. 

For more information see:

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Financial Action Task Force

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF), created by the G7 in 1989, today
includes 37 members to assess risks, set standards and evaluate countries’
efforts to counter money laundering, the financing of terrorism (including
evolving threats) and the financing of the proliferation of weapons of
mass destruction. Through nine regional bodies it brings together a global
network of 198 jurisdictions that have committed at the highest level to
implement the FATF Standards and be assessed against them. FATF works
David Lewis closely with the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund
Executive Secretary and others. Its standards are essential to combatting drug and people
trafficking, fraud, corruption, tax evasion and other serious threats.

FATF was the first standard setter to measure impact as well as formal
compliance. Countries with strategic deficiencies and posing a threat to
the financial system are listed publicly. Since 2007 FATF has reviewed
80 countries and publicly identified 60 of them. Forty-six countries have
since taken action.

Supported by the G7 and G20, FATF continues to prioritise global action

to swiftly and efficiently tackle all sources, techniques and channels of
terrorist financing; improve the implementation of transparency and
beneficial ownership standards alongside the Global Forum; strengthen
the capacity of the FATF and enhance the effectiveness of the Global
Network. The priorities of the FATF Spanish Presidency from July 2016
to June 2017 also include establishing a dialogue with the FinTech and
RegTech communities, and enhancing the operational focus of the FATF
through a forum of Heads of FATF Financial Intelligence Units. 

For more information see:

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Multilateral Organisation
Performance Assessment Network

The Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN)

is composed of 18 governments who share a common interest in assessing
the organisations they fund. Together MOPAN members provide 95% of
funding to multilateral organisations. The Network collects, analyses and
presents relevant and credible information on the organisational and
development effectiveness of these organisations.

Chantal Verger This knowledge base is intended to contribute to organisational learning

Acting Head of MOPAN Secretariat within and among the organisations, and their direct clients and partners.
Network members use the reports for their own accountability needs and
as a source of input for strategic decision making.

In 2015-16, MOPAN assessed twelve multilateral organisations: African

Development Bank, Gavi – the Vaccine Alliance, Global Fund to Fight
AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Inter-American Development Bank,
International Labour Organization, Joint United Nations Programme
on HIV/AIDS, United Nations Development Programme, United Nations
Environment Programme, United Nations Human Settlements Programme,
United Nations Children’s Fund, United Nations Office for the Coordination
of Humanitarian Affairs and the World Bank. The reports and findings
are now being presented to the management of each organisation and are
available on the MOPAN website.

Meanwhile MOPAN has embarked on a new round of 14 assessments

that are conducted in parallel over 2017-18. As was the case in 2015-16,
the organisations assessed comprise a mix of International Financial
Institutions, United Nations funds, programmes and specialised agencies,
and Global Funds. These organisations have operational and/or normative
mandates and there is a balance between humanitarian and development

For more information see:

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Partnership in Statistics for

Development in the 21st Century

The Partnership in Statistics for Development in the 21st Century (PARIS21),

founded in 1999 by the United Nations, the European Commission, the
OECD, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank, promotes
better use and production of statistics throughout the developing world.

PARIS21’s 2016-2020 strategy, in line with the Sustainable Development

Goals (SDGs), supports the effective use of data for better policies
Johannes Jütting and better lives. PARIS21 will respond to new and emerging demands
Secretariat Manager of the evolving data ecosystem through a set of four key activities:
knowledge-sharing and innovation incubator; advocacy; co-ordination
and monitoring; and technical support.

PARIS21’s Partner Report on Support to Statistics (PRESS), explores the amount

of worldwide financial support dedicated to statistical development. In
2016, only 0.25% of Official Development Assistance was dedicated to
statistics. For developing countries to meet the data needs of the SDGs,
current domestic and donor support to data and statistics will need to
double to nearly USD 1 billion per year.

In order for countries to respond to national and international data needs,

PARIS21 is developing a set of innovative statistical tools. The Platform
for Innovations in Statistics (PISTA) collects innovations in statistical
capacity and matches them with national statistical systems, while the
Advanced Data Planning Tool (ADAPT) helps countries consult, cost and
chart indicators relevant to development objectives.

PARIS21 will continue to promote and facilitate the better use of statistics
nationally, regionally and globally by providing innovative expertise
to developing countries as they adapt to the 2030 Agenda, while also
being a vital actor in the greater co-ordination amongst statistical and
development partners. 

For more information see:

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Sahel and West Africa Club

The Sahel and West Africa Club (SWAC) is an international platform whose
mission is to enhance the effectiveness of regional policies and promote
West African initiatives and positions in global debates. Members and
partners include West African regional organisations, OECD countries
and the European Union. SWAC is the only international entity entirely
dedicated to regional co-operation in Africa.

Laurent Bossard SWAC supports the Food Crisis Prevention Network (RPCA), an
Director, Sahel and West Africa Club international platform for consensual analysis and concerted action,
Secretariat under the political leadership of the Economic Community of West African
States (ECOWAS) and the West African Economic and Monetary Union
(UEMOA). The SWAC Secretariat also facilitates dialogue and advocacy
for the Global Alliance for Resilience (AGIR).

SWAC examines how urbanisation, population and income growth

are transforming the West African food economy. The Africapolis
project provides data on the size, growth and geolocation of all urban
agglomerations exceeding 10 000 inhabitants.

SWAC also advocates innovative, forward-looking approaches to policies

and international co-operation. The flagship publication, Cross-border
Co-operation and Policy Networks in West Africa, explores how border areas
contribute to regional integration.

The West African Papers series and Map & Facts cover a wide range of
topics including gender and climate change.

The Secretariat is active in the international dialogue on stability and

development in the region. The annual Sahel and West Africa Week took
place in Nigeria in 2016, focusing on the humanitarian situation in the
country’s north-east.

The Secretariat is developing synergies within the OECD Development

Cluster, including through the OECD Africa Forum and the Development
Matters blog. 

For more information see: and

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Business at OECD (BIAC)

Phil O’Reilly Bernhard Welschke

Chairman Secretary-General and member of
the Executive Board

The Business and Industry Advisory Committee (Business at OECD) addresses the OECD on a full range of
topics concerning economic development in OECD countries and across the globe. Established in 1962, we
stand for policies that enable businesses of all sizes to contribute to growth, economic development, and
prosperity. Through Business at OECD, the leading national business and employer federations and their
firms, as well as associated expert groups, provide knowledge to support good governance and economic

In line with the 2017 Ministerial Meeting theme, “Making Globalisation Work: Better Lives For All”, we
advocate for open and competitive markets, shared benefits of trade and investment, structural reforms, and
measures to ensure the participation of all. There is much evidence that global value chains will enhance
the potential of businesses to innovate, grow, and contribute to the success of our economies. Businesses
rely on governments to provide consistent and enabling policy environments nationally and internationally.
Good regulatory practice, better regulatory co-operation across borders, and more tax certainty are basic
requirements for an enabling business environment. Digital transformation harbours great opportunities for
our economies and societies. To fully reap the benefits, businesses depend on a skilled workforce and labour
mobility. Governments, business and other stakeholders must engage in dialogue and action to enhance
skills and enable all to participate in rapidly changing economies. This must be paired with active policies
that protect people from the consequences of serious disruptions in labour markets. 

For more information see: ; Twitter: @BusinessAtOECD

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Trade Union Advisory Committee

Richard Trumka John Evans

President of the AFL-CIO (USA) General Secretary

Vice Presidents: Marc Leemans, President of the Belgian Confederation of Christian Trade Unions (CSC-
Belgium); Naoto Ohmi, General Secretary of RENGO Japan; and Jorunn Berland, President of the Confederation
of Vocational Unions (YS – Norway)

The Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD (TUAC) brings the labour movement’s voice to the OECD,
its annual Ministerial Council Meeting and its committees and working groups. TUAC has 58 affiliated
trade union centres in OECD countries, representing more than 66 million workers, as well as associate
members in Brazil, Indonesia, the Russian Federation and South Africa. TUAC brings over 500 trade union
representatives every year to OECD meetings.

TUAC promotes policy frameworks that aim at shared prosperity within and between countries and at
asserting the positive role of trade unions and collective bargaining in achieving inclusive growth. Three
formal TUAC Working Groups help prepare policy positions for specific consultations and/or conferences
on economic policy, on responsible business conduct and investment, and on education, training and
employment. Access to OECD discussions enables TUAC to act as a “first mover” within the labour movement
in responding to new and emerging policy challenges, such as the digitalisation of the economy.

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the G7 process, as well as the European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and the various Global Union
Federations on sector specific issues. 

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