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ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS

(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)


Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

CHAPTER – 7
BOILER OPERATION

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 76


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

Chapter – 7

BOILER OPERATION

DESCRIPTION
Sl.No.
7.1 Filling water in economiser and boiler

7.2 Boiler Light up

7.3 Cold Start Procedure

7.4 Key Steps in coal firing

7.5 Drying out and boiling out pressure parts

7.6 Blowing out steam lines

7.7 Safety valves setting

7.8 Raising Pressure

7.9 Putting the boiler on load

7.10 Normal steaming

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 77


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

7.1 FILLING WATER IN ECONOMISER AND BOILER

DESCRIPTION
a) Feed Water
b) Feed Water piping
c) Economiser
d) Boiler and Mountings
e) Drum gauge glasses
f) Water filling into boiler
g) Valves opening before water filling
h) Valves closing before water filling
i) Steam drum water level
j) Safety valve and its escape piping

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 78


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

a. Feed Water
Boiler feed water should preferably be de-aerated and shall be dosed with oxygen
Scavenger. When filling the unit for service, care should be taken to only use properly
treated and de-aerated water so that correct operating conditions will exist from the start
suitable for the avoidance of scale, corrosion and other difficulties caused by improperly
conditioned water. Make sure that the unit is filled with water and chemicals in
accordance with the instructions.
Caution
If feed water is not de-aerated, special attention should be paid so as to prevent
pitting & corrosion in the drum due to oxygen dissolved in feed water. So chemical
for oxygen scavenger is to be fed from steam drum manhole in such conditions.

b. Feed Water Piping


Make sure that the feed water piping is clean. Open the root valves of the measuring
instruments. Open the inlet and outlet valve, and close bypass valve for the feed water
control valve. Close the drain valve.

c. Economiser
ƒ Open the air vent valves, economiser inlet stop valve
ƒ Make sure that there is no foreign matter in the gas path of the economiser tube
surface
ƒ When a flow of water has been established through the economiser, shut its air vent
valve

d. Boiler and Mountings


ƒ Clean up sludge and scale in the drum. Confirm that any foreign material such as
tools is not left behind.

ƒ Check if drum internal fittings are arranged in right position. Special care should be
taken to check looseness of connection, sludge in openings or holes, and damage of
packing.

ƒ Replace damaged packing for manhole with new one. Confirm the tightness of cover.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 79


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

e. Drum Gauge Glasses


Make sure that the drum gauge glasses are in good working order .It is most essential
for safe operation of the boiler to keep the drum water level at the normal level as far as
possible. Too much reliance on automatic control or annunciation system is not
recommended. It is recommended always to put on the lights of the level gauge for easy
watching.

f. Water Filling into Boiler


When the boiler is empty, feed it with water in the following typical procedure

g. Valves Opening before Water Filling


Open the following valves
ƒ Steam drum air vent valve
ƒ All gauge glass root valve
ƒ 3 way-valves with level gauge
ƒ Drum pressure gauge root valve
ƒ Drum pressure transmitter root valve
ƒ Level transmitter root valves
ƒ Main steam line air vent valve
ƒ Main steam line drain valve
ƒ Main steam flow / pressure transmitter root valves
ƒ Main steam pressure gauge root valves
ƒ Feed water flow transmitter root valves
ƒ Feed water line drain valves
ƒ Feed water line vent valves
ƒ Economiser inlet stop valve
ƒ Economiser header vent valves
ƒ Bottom blow off valves
ƒ Water wall header drain valves
ƒ Boiler blowdown valves near steam drum
ƒ Boiler blowdown drum inlet valve
ƒ Boiler blowdown drum drain valve
ƒ Boiler blowdown drum level gauge root valves

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 80


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

h. Valves Closing before Water Filling

Close the following valves


ƒ All water column and level gauge drain valves
ƒ Chemical feed valve
ƒ Feed water flow control valve
ƒ Feed water flow control bypass valve
ƒ Feed water flow control valve isolating valves
ƒ Boiler steam drum sampling valve
ƒ Open the feed water flow control bypass valve and adjust feed water flow rate.
ƒ Close the bottom blow off valves after 5 minutes past from the beginning of
feeding water.
ƒ Close the feed water line drain valves after feed water become clean.
ƒ Close the feed water line vent valves when the overflow starts.
ƒ When a flow of water has been established through the economiser, shut its air
vent valve
ƒ Close the water wall header drain valve and bottom blow off valves as water starts
coming out
ƒ Close the boiler blowdown drum inlet valve when feed water flows out from boiler
blowdown drum drain valve.
Water is gradually taken in the boiler.
Hydraulic test is carried out as described elsewhere in case of a new boiler or in case
water is taken after maintenance job of the boiler pressure parts. After hydraulic test,
water level in the steam drum is brought down to 50mm under NWL Normal Water Level.
In case hydraulic test is not required, bypass above and close the feed water flow
control bypass valve, when steam drum water level reaches 50mm under NWL (Normal
Water Level).
Stop the boiler feed water pump if it is not necessary to operate the boiler feed water
pump.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 81


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

Caution:

• Do not over tighten the valves by applying excessive leverage as it may lead to
permanent damage of valve & its seat

• Do not fill super heaters by filling the drum. Always prefer back filling of super
heaters to avoid contaminants from drum being carried into super heaters.

i. Steam Drum Water Level


ƒ Monitor the steam drum water level
ƒ Arrangement for inter-communication between the operators at drum level and firing
floor is to be made.
ƒ Test the level transmitter for low water level trip at – 200-mm. level, centerline of
boiler considered as 0 mm. and confirm if the trip position is correct. High / low alarms
are set at ±100 mm from the normal level.
ƒ Keep the water level normally within ± 50 mm from the normal level (Drum center line
mm). -0
ƒ Check that the difference in readings between the transparent type level gauge and
controller indicators is acceptably small.
ƒ Establish water level at slightly above the Low water trip level, LLWL which is set at –
200 mm i,e., 200 mm below the drum center line in the steam drum gauge glass
before light up. At this time keep the Low Water level LWL alarm, which is set at –100
mm, acknowledged. This is to avoid excessively high levels when the water
subsequently swells on firing the unit.

If hot water is used to fill the boiler and economiser, extreme care must be taken to
feed slowly and vent thoroughly so that no pressure is built up by the resultant flashing
into steam. To avoid excessive localized heating or chilling of the boiler drum it is
recommended that the temperature of the water used should be no more than about 28
deg. C above or below the temperature of the boiler steam drum.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 82


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

Check the water level gauges and water column by opening all valves attached at
least once a day periodically.

j. Safety Valve and its Escape Piping


The Safety valves on the boiler should be inspected. Necessary precautionary
measures are to be taken before hydraulic test as described. Safety Valves setting are
described elsewhere. The fittings of its internals and of its escape piping are to be in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

Caution: Do not gag safety valve if hydro test pressure is more than 10 % of valve
set pressure. Always Hydro plug the safety valve while hydro testing above this
pressure .

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 83


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

7.2 BOILER LIGHT UP

DESCRIPTION
i. Introduction
a. Hydraulic Test
b. Safety Interlocks and Alarms
c. Utilities
d. Checking Furnace, Air and Gas Passages, Access Doors,
Safety Valves, Valves and Pressure Gauges

ii. Draught Plant- Air Duct, Gas Duct And Stack


a. Availability of Draught Plant
b. Forced Draught Fan and Silencer
c. Instruments and Plant Air
d. Air Leakage Test

iii. Fuel
a. Fuel Supply
b. Fuel Burning Equipment
c. Burner Operation Procedure (Typical)
d. Burner Operation
o Burner Start Procedure
o Burner Stop Procedure
o Trouble Reset Operation
ƒ Burner trouble reset
e. Precautionary Measure
ƒ Clean Burner
ƒ Check Burner Position
ƒ Uniform Combustion
ƒ Optimize Air Flow
ƒ Check Adequate Air
ƒ Ascertain Suitable Air Supply
ƒ Check Fuel Oil Pressure

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 84


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

7.2 BOILER LIGHT UP

i) Introduction

a. Hydraulic Test
For a new boiler or after maintenance job in pressure parts, hydraulic test is carried
out after taking water in the economiser and boiler to check that there is no water leakage
from any pressure part.
Warning: Do not hydro test boiler at pressures more than 1.5 times of it maximum
working pressure.

b. Safety Interlocks and Alarms


Check all SAFETY INTERLOCKS and alarms. These should work properly. Alarming
lights and buzzers should be tested.
Warning: Do not by pass any safety interlocks & protections without proper
understanding as it may cause damage to the equipment & personnel.

c. Utilities
Check prior to start up that the following utilities are available
1. Instrument Air
2. Electric Power
3. Demineralised water
4. Cooling water
5. Plant Air
6. Lubricant oil and / or grease.
7. Availability of Fuel oil
8. Chemicals for boiler water and boiler feed water treatment.
Check that all blow down and drain valves can be used effectively.

d. Checking Furnace, Air and Gas Passages, Access Doors, Safety Valves, Valves
and Pressure Gauges.
Remove all structural timber from the furnace and from the gas passages
especially from locations where the gas temperature may reach the point at which the
wood will burn or glow.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 85


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

The reason for this is that a glowing member may be the cause of igniting explosive
gases which can accumulate with careless handling of the combustion equipment while
firing at low rates of boiling out.
Ascertain cleaning and arrangements in the furnace and gas passage are perfect.
Open and close all the covers for cleaning, and confirm they are in good order.
All access doors on boiler, ductwork and auxiliaries are closed.
Check boiler, economiser, expansion joints and their supports and confirm that
thermal expansion during operation will not be restrained.
Ascertain that the safety valve is free from drain or accumulated rainwater. Confirm
that stoppers or cover plates used for hydraulic test have been removed.
Confirm that each position of the valves, such as feed water, steam, fuel Oil and drain
valves is in good order. These should operate freely

Pressure Gauges on the steam drum

1. Particularly stationary indication of the pressure gauge may be sometimes caused by


the blockage of the leading pipe for pressure gauge.
2. Special care is required for the possibility of priming and carry-over in the steam
drum.
3. The pressure indication of the pressure gauge is very important for safe operation of
the boiler.
4. Calibrate the pressure gauge with the standard pressure gauge periodically to make
sure of correct indication.

ii) Draught Plant – Air Duct, Gas Duct and Stack

a. Availability of Draught Plant


Check the draught plant availability
Open the root valves of the measuring instruments
Make sure that no man or no foreign matter is in the duct and close manhole of the
duct.
Inspect the expansion joint of the duct.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 86


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

b. Forced Draught Fan and Silencer


Check that the FD fan erection and alignment are in accordance with instruction
manual issued by the manufacturer.
Make sure that foreign materials such as papers etc. are not attached to suction wire
net.
Confirm that the lubrication is done as per instruction.
Inspect the inlet vane and its drive unit.
Inspect the inside of the fan
Ensure that Electric supply is available to the motor provided for the forced draught fan
The inlet vanes of the FD fan are shut.
Turn the fan and its drive motor and observe right rotating direction and smooth moving.
For further details, refer to “ Instruction manual of forced draught fan “

c. Instrument and Plant Air


Confirm the instrument air and plant air with adequate pressure are supplied
Check the zero indication of pressure gauges when no pressure is applied.
Observe that the stop valves for pressure gauges and pressure transmitters are fully
opened.

d. Air Leakage Test


Air leakage test is carried out for a new boiler or after furnace or air and flue gas
passages maintenance by pressurizing the furnace either by running the PA & FD fans or
by any other source.

iii) Fuel
a. Fuel Supply.
Ensure that sufficient quantity of fuel is available. Check the fuel oil header
pressure.

b. Fuel Burning Equipment


Make sure that the fuel burning equipment can be operated in strict accordance
with all recognized rules of safety applying to the particular fuel to be used.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 87


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

Check the burner in accordance with “Instruction Manual” issued by the burner
manufacturer.
Inspect the burner shield. Confirm electric source is supplied.
Check the flame detectors, and confirm the normal action of the electric circuit.
For further details, refer to “ Instruction manual of burner “.

c. Burner Operation Procedure (Typical)


A typical Burner Operations Procedure is given below.
Master Fuel Trip (MFT)
• The following signals are conditions of MFT by which the boiler trip is caused. This is
operated either locally or at the control room. (CCR).
• MFT is an event resulting in the rapid shut–off of Oil fuel.
• MFT P. B. (Local) depressed.
• MFT P. B. (CCR) depressed.
• Loss of ID fan.
• LDO pressure Low.
• Burner air pressure Low.
• Combustion air flow Low – Low.
• Furnace pressure High – High.
• Drum level Low – Low.
• Drum level High – High.

d. Burner Operation

Burner Start Procedure (typical)


1. Start the burner air fan with the following Permissive to be satisfied

• Fan IGV at minimum position.


• Burner Air damper closed (both burner)
• Burner air fan duct Pressure controller to be set in manual mode.
• Pressure controller in output set to minimum position.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 88


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

2. Start the fuel oil pump (A/B) with the following permissive to be satisfied
• Fuel oil tank level normal
• Header pressure low
• Suction strainer DP is normal
3. The header trip valve shall be opened with “ Oil firing start” push button.
4. Open the Burner Air fan Damper valve set the required head Pressure of 200mmwc.
5. Press “ Burner Start (burner 1 or 2) push button which causes the following valves to
open
• Atomising air trip valve opened (HV – 379A / 379B)
• Burner air damper is opened (HV – 375A / 375B)
• Fuel oil trip valve opened (HV – 368A / 378B)
• Portable Ignitor to be positioned in the burner.
• Instantaneously operator has to ignite the ignitor.
6. Burner start is completed,“ Lightup successful if flame sensed by flame sensor.
7. If Ignition trail time is elapsed and flame is not sensed “Lightup failure sensed by
flame sensor.

Warning: Furnace should be purged sufficiently in case of a failed attempt of


burner light – up to avoid a furnace explosion due to accumulated fuel inside the
furnace.

Burner Stop Procedure


1. Press “ Burner Stop push button which causes the following valves are closed.
• Fuel oil trip valve closed (HV – 368A / 378B)
• Atomising air trip valve closed (HV – 379A / 379B)
2. Give open command to atomising air trip valve, which causes atomising air trip valve
to open.
3. Scavenge the burner for sometime to remove any unburnt carbon deposits using
atomising air.
4. Stop the burner air fan and close the burner air Damper.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 89


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

5. “Burner Off “ lamp glows. Burner stop is completed.


Note: Refer the BMS logic for interlocks & safety protections.

Trouble Reset Operation

Burner Trouble Reset


Operator confirms the reason of Burner trouble and correct it.
Depress “Burner Trouble Reset “ push button switch. “ Burner Trouble Shutdown “ lamp
is extinguished.

e. Precautionary Measures
Clean Burner
Always clean the burner possibly after every operation so as not to accumulate the
carbon on the burner nozzle and throat tile.

Check Burner Position


Check the installation and centering of burner. Ascertain the relative position of the
burner nozzles and swirler from the end of the refractory. Refer to supplier’s instruction
Manual.

Uniform Combustion
Check the fuel valve open / close time and record it. Confirm the burner performance
in accordance with the instruction book.
Uniform combustion is desirable to prevent excessive local combustion load,
fluctuation of combustion gas temperature or explosion.

Optimize Air Flow


Cold furnace, just after light up, tends to cause black smoke due to incomplete
combustion. Increase of airflow is effective for decreasing black smoke, but excessive
amount of air may cause unstable flame.
Special care must be taken of the airflow adjustment during cold start up period.

Check Adequate Air

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 90


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

Check the operation of burner dampers and record the damper open / close time.
Insufficient amount of air flow tends to cause pulsating combustion, which may result in
damage of refractory materials and inner casing if this condition continues for a long time.
Ascertain Suitable Air Supply
Suitable supply of airflow for combustion is essential. Even in case that automatic
control system is furnished, ascertain its sure function.
Insufficient combustion airflow may cause the following troubles:
Decrease in boiler efficiency due to incomplete combustion.
Dangerous secondary combustion due to the accumulation of unburnt gas.
Decrease in boiler efficiency and evaporation rate due to excessive accumulation of soot
on the heating surface.
Too much combustion airflow may cause the following troubles:
Decrease in combustion gas temperature in furnace, resulting in decrease in boiler
efficiency and evaporation rate due to decrease in radiant heat absorption in the furnace.
Increase in heat loss due to the increase in combustion gas flow rate and exhaust gas
temperature.

Check Fuel Oil Pressure


During operation, check the fuel oil pressure at the burner inlet to keep them within
the specified values.
The broad outlines of cold start procedure follows.

7.3 COLD START PROCEDURE


a. Ensure compressed air and electrical supplies are available to all systems.
b. Feed water to Boiler after checking the steam feed water systems upto normal water
level.
c. Make proper damper line-up in air and gas path.
d. Open the Wind Box dampers (sometimes it may be necessary to fluidize one bed).
e. Operate the ID, FD & PA dampers and leave the dampers in shut positions.
f. Start the ID fan and maintain the furnace draught of - 5 mm of WC.
g. Start the FD fan and open the FD dampers manually to give adequate fluidization.
h. Check the bed depth. Feed bed material manually to restore normal bed inventory.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 91


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

i. Start the Burner Air fan.


j. Purge the furnace by increasing airflow > 30 % of MCR airflow for 5 Minutes.
k. Start the fuel oil pump. Maintain fuel oil and atomizing air pressure at around 6 Kg/cm²
and 10 Kg/cm² respectively. If atomizing steam is not available, atomizing air at a
pressure of 6 Kg/cm² may be used.
l. After completion of purge, open the fuel shut-off valve. Maintain the oil pressure at the
burner inlet around 6 Kg/cm² to light up the first burner.
m. Open the master oil valve. The “burner ready light” will be lit.
n. Press “Burner start” on the selected burner.
o. After 10 minutes, start the second burner.
p. Control firing to suit the Babcock pressure-raising curve (1.2° C saturated steam
temperature rise per minute) reducing to one burner if necessary.
q. Shut the drum and superheater air cocks at 30 to 35 psi.
r. Hold airflow at plate DP of 10” wg and increase burner-firing rates to suit the pressure
raising curve. The bed temperatures will start to rise but this is of secondary
importance at this stage.
s. Start coal feeding when the boiler pressure reaches about 35 Ksc (g) start coal feeder
with minimum coal flow intermittently. When the LUB and RUB (Left Upper Bed and
Right Upper Bed) temperature exceed coal ignition temperature, coal feeding should
commence continuously using coal feeder.
t. The bed temperatures will gradually increase in other side of the bed also and when
the left hand side trough temperatures reach 350° C start other feeders with minimum
coal flow. Sequence of operations will be starting of coal feeder from 1st compartment
feeders only. Evidence that the coal is starting to burn can be taken from:
• Visual inspection of furnace.
• Reduction in O2.
• Increase in furnace free board temperature.
• Increase in steam flow.
• Increase in smoke density (chimney exit).
• Do not exceed the superheater steam outlet temperature more than 520°C.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 92


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

Note:
If bed temperatures start to decrease rapidly in some area, this indicates that
fluidization has been lost in this area and the airflow must be increased to re-fluidize
the area and restore the bed temperatures. This will unfortunately also reduce the
leading bed temperatures, but this is unavoidable.
u. When all the bed temperatures are greater than the coal ignition temperature, the coal
feeders should be run continuously at minimum coal flow.
v. Shut off the oil burners at 650° C bed temperature, set boiler to automatic control.
w. When all the bed temperatures are above 500° C, increasing or decreasing the coal
and airflows can control the rate of rise. As coal firing increase, reduce the oil burner
firing rate, maintaining a steady bed temperature rise to about 920° C and allow the
bed temperatures and the boiler generally to stabilize.
x. Float the boiler on to range, when steam flow is observed shut the superheater drain
and commission the automatic feed water control. When feed water is being supplied
continuously, open the economizer inlet valve.
y. Monitor the bed closely to ensure that fluidization is not lost in any area. Fluidization
will be significantly uniform in all corners of the furnace.
z. Remove the burner guns and clean the tips as per recommendation.

Warning:

• Do not allow burner flame to impinge on to the bed coils. The bed coils
are to be fully submerged by filling bed material before start – up to
avoid flame impinging.

• Always make sure that the start – up vent is open during start – ups & a
minimum flow of steam is established through the super heaters after
closing of air vents to avoid over heating of super heaters.

• Always maintain water level between NWL to Low alarm limit to prevent
over heating / carryover of drum water level.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 93


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

Caution:

™ Do not operate the boiler with compartments slumped for long duration
without giving any mixing of slumped compartment as it may result in
clinker formation.

™ Do not open furnace manhole doors while coal firing is on without


knowledge of control room operator.

7.4 KEY STEPS IN COAL FIRING


a. Complete oil and grease level checks.
b. Regularly inspect the bed for fluidization through the observation ports.
c. Check the burners for evidence of overheating and control the burner fans and
associated dampers necessary for cooling purposes.
d. Inspect the coal feeders and remove any coal build-ups.
e. When running the ash drains check that all the lines are flowing (hot). Use the rodding
and inspection post facilities to locate and clear any chokes.
f. Take log sheet readings at intervals required and investigate any abnormal
indications.
g. Investigate interlock and annunciation panel alarms as they arise and take
appropriate corrective action (see action on alarm section)
h. Carry out the routines for checking the water level indicators as well as for controlling
the water chemistry.
When top to bottom bed temperature differentials increase to 50° C raise the airflow
by 50% or the maximum allowable whilst still remaining the furnace section and run the
ash drains at full speed. Restore the airflow and the ash drain conveyor speeds to their
previous levels after half-an-hour or when any upper bed temperature drops to 750°C.
Allow the bed inventory and temperature differentials reduce.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 94


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

7.5 DRYING OUT AND BOILING OUT PRESSURE PARTS

DESCRIPTION

a) General

b) Chemicals

c) Economiser

d) Firing

e) Procedure For Alkali Boil Out Cold Water Rinsing

f) Alkali Boilout Flushing And Draining

g) Post Boil Out Inspection

h) Replacement of Gauge Glass Parts

i) Refractory Inspection

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 95


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
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CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

7.5 DRYING OUT AND BOILING OUT PRESSURE PARTS

a) General
When the boiler is new or after extensive repair to the pressure parts is done any oil
or grease remained internally must be boiled out.
During the initial boiling out process, or after major repairs are done to refractory
materials, the drying out shall be carried out to dry the refractory bricks and castables.
When the refractory bricks and castables are new, the drying out must not be started
within 24 hours after the completion of the refractory work.
Before proceeding with boiling out of boiler, remove as completely as possible any oil
or other foreign materials by wiping out the end of the tubes, the headers and drums
using rags, make sure no rag is left in the pressure parts as a tube may be blocked and
the poor circulation will result in the tube failure.

b) Chemicals
The pressure parts should be boiled out with a dilute solution of tri-sodium phosphate
(Na3 PO4) to remove grease and loose mill scale from the internal surfaces. If tri-sodium
phosphate is not available, Soda ash (Na2 CO3) may be used. Suggested quantities of
these alternative chemicals to be added to the boiler water for boiling out are given below
in kgs per ten tons of water.

Crystalline trisodium phosphate Na 3 P O 4, 12 H 2 O 30 kgs

The water content in the boiler upto normal water level NWL or upto Steam Drum
centerline is 60 kl. The crystalline form of tri-sodium phosphate is preferred because it
dissolves more easily in water than the anhydrous form.
Open the boiler steam drum manhole door. See that there is about 150 mm depth
of water in the bottom of the drum. Dissolve the chemical in hot water in a suitable tank,
and transfer the solution into the drum using a portable hand pump or by HP dozing
pump, admitting the solution through the manhole while slowly feeding the drum with
water. This procedure will ensure that the solution is thoroughly distributed.

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If the solution were poured into an empty boiler drum, the whole quantity would
disappear into the nearest boiler tube.The chemical injection pump may be used to
introduce the boiling out chemicals.
After closing the drum manhole door, add water to bring the water level into the gauge
glasses.

c) Economiser
Economiser, during the boiling out procedure, should be handled in the same manner
as during the starting-up period; i.e. the procedure and precautions for the operation of
the air cocks, drains, feed valves, etc., called for in the starting-up instructions, should
apply during boiling out period.

d) Firing
Before lighting the fire, it is recommended as earlier mentioned that the following
precautions should be taken
a) Remove all structural timber from the furnace and from the gas passages, especially
from locations where the gas temperature may reach the point at which wood will burn
or glow. The reason for this is that a glowing member may be the cause of igniting
explosive gases which can accumulate with careless handling of the combustion
equipment while firing at low rates during the period of boiling out.
b) Check that all blow-down and drain valves can be used effectively.
c) Make sure that the drum gauge glasses are in good working order.
d) Make sure that the fuel burning equipment can be operated in strict accordance with
all recognized rules of safety applying to the particular fuel to be used for the boiling
out process.
e) Make sure that the unit is filled with water and chemicals in accordance with the
foregoing instructions.
f) Before lighting up, completely purge the setting of all combustible gas by pulling air
through the setting for at least five minutes at the rate approximately one fourth of the
requirement for maximum capacity of the unit.

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g) Start burner at minimum firing rate and keep the steam saturation temperature rising
rate within 1°C per minute. This limitation should be duly kept under consideration
during all the three days of boiling out period. Precaution should be taken against the
spall and crack of refractory caused by intense combustion.

After the fire has been lit, it is important to hold them continuously at the minimum
rates consistent with the boiling out process. It is especially important from the
standpoint of safety to maintain stable combustion conditions for the avoidance of
puffs or perhaps, a serious explosion. In this connection, should the fire be
accidentally or purposely extinguished, it is absolutely necessary to purge the setting
completely for at least five minutes before re-lighting.

Caution-
The drying out and boiling out periods may give rise to hazards unless very great
care is taken to observe the safety rules applying to the type of firing supplied. In
particular, experienced operators only should be used and it is recommended that
they should have adequate training and opportunity to become familiar with the new
equipment before commissioning begins.

e) ALKALI BOILOUT , COLD WATER RINSING:


• Drum internals shall be kept loose inside the steam drum.
• Detergent is made into solution and taken into the Economiser through the Feed
water filling line in the inlet header to Economiser.
• DM water is taken into the boiler through Economiser up to normal water level of
the Steam drum.
• Parallel filling and draining shall be carried out through individual drains in the
bottom
• Headers separately and clarity of the water shall periodically be checked.
• As and when the clarity of the flushing water is equal to the incoming water,
flushing shall be stopped.

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• Drum shall be filled with DM water and taken to super heaters back filling. Filling
and flushing shall simultaneously be carried out till the clarity of the flushing is
equal to incoming DM Water.
• After flushing super heaters, drum level shall be brought to normal operating level.

f) ALKALI BOIL OUT, FLUSHING AND DRAINING


• Economiser shall be drained and approximately 50 Kgs of Tri sodium Phosphate
shall be made into a solution with DM water and taken into Economiser through
the feed water inlet provided in the inlet header.
• System shall be filled with DM water through Economiser and water level in the
steam drum shall be brought to normal operating level.
• Economiser shall again partially be drained and another 50 Kgs of Tri Sodium
Phosphate made into a solution with the DM water and taken into Economiser
through FW line provided in the inlet header.
• Another 100 Kgs of Tri Sodium Phosphate shall be made into a solution and taken
into HP Dosing Tank and system shall be made ready for dosing.
• Boiler shall be lighted up with oil burner and firing shall be continued till the drum
pressure reaches 2 Kg/cm2. The firing shall be adjusted in such a way that
pressure raising to 2 Kg/cm2 and holding at 2 Kg/cm2 shall be extended over a
period of 24 hours.
• During pressure raising and holding at 2 Kg/cm2, sufficient flushing and draining
through all bottom drains shall be made, a composite sample shall be collected
and pH, conductivity and oil content in the composite sample shall be analyzed
and recorded.
• During firing of the boiler, HP dosing pump shall be started and shall be allowed to
run continuously till the end of the Alkali Boil out operation. Periodically HP dosing
tank shall be topped up with Tri Sodium Phosphate solution to maintain optimum
level in the dosing tank.
• Boiler shall again be lighted up and pressure raising and holding at 5 Kg/cm2 shall
be over a period of 8 hours.

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No. 99


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
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CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

• During pressure raising and holding at 5 Kg/cm2, sufficient flushing and draining
through all bottom drains shall be made, a composite sample shall be collected
and pH, conductivity and oil content in the composite sample shall be analyzed
and recorded.
• Boiler pressure shall be raised to 10 Kg/cm2and pressure raising and holding at
10Kg/cm2 shall be over a period of 8 hours. During pressure raising and holding at
10 Kg/cm2, sufficient flushing and draining through all bottom drains shall be
made, a composite sample shall be collected and pH, conductivity and oil content
in the composite sample shall be analyzed and recorded.
• Filling and draining shall be made with DM water through all bottom drains either
individually or collectively depending up on the site conditions. Once pH,
Conductivity,Oil content (less than 5 ppm) and clarity of the water is satisfactory,
flushing and draining shall be stopped.
• Boiler shall again be filled and taken to super heaters and super heaters also filled
and drained and the flushing shall be checked for pH, Conductivity and clarity.
Once they are satisfactory, filling and draining of super heaters shall be stopped
and boiler shall be drained completely through all bottom drains including
economizer.
• After complete draining of boiler water, Steam drum and Water drum shall be
opened. Internals kept inside the Steam drum shall be taken out, cleaned
thoroughly and kept ready for assembling. Debris collected inside the steam and
water drums shall physically be removed, thoroughly cleaned and internals
assembled in the steam drum and both the drums shall be closed and kept ready
for steam blowing.
• Inspection stubs of all bottom headers shall be cut on both sides, inspected,
collected debris removed, cleaned, inspection stubs welded back and kept ready
for steam blowing.

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ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
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CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

NOTE:
ƒ Water holding capacity is 68M3
ƒ Tri Sodium Phosphate requirement for the Alkali Boil out shall be 200 Kgs.
(Minimum).
ƒ At any time of Alkali Boil out up to a pressure of 20 Kg/cm2, TSP concentration
shall not be below 50% of the original concentration.

Activities of Chemical Boilout


Day 1
ƒ At 80 Deg C water temperature in the steam drum chemicals for the alkali boilout
can be introduced through steam drum.
ƒ Close the manhole of the steam drum and fill up the water up to normal level of the
boiler.
ƒ Start the both ID fans and FD fan.
ƒ Maintain –3 to –5 mmwc. Pressure in furnace.
ƒ Ensure drum, saturated steam vents and super heater drain valves are opened
fully.
ƒ Ensure atomizing air is available between 6 – 8 Kg/sq cm
ƒ Set the burner oil tip pressure as 5 Kg/cm
ƒ After air purging the oil gun burner can be lighted up.
ƒ Reduce the oil pressure to required level to maintain the rate of increase of temp.
In the boiler.
ƒ At 3 Kg/sq. cm g maintain the pressure for 4 Hrs. before raising the pressure to 8
Kg/sq. cm g by crack opening the start up vent.
ƒ Check the thermal expansion of the furnace and record the same.
ƒ At the end of the 4th hour close the drum and saturated steam vents.
ƒ Raise the steam pressure to 8 Kg/sq cm g and maintain the same for 8 hours.
ƒ Always ensure steam is passing through the superheater coils sufficiently for its
cooling.
ƒ At the end of the boiling out period, stop the burner and fans and give quick
blowdown through bottom headers.

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ƒ Collect the sample of the RHS, LHS, Front and Rear bottom headers as well as
drum water and send to lab for analysis of pH and conductivity.
ƒ Allow the boiler to cool naturally.

Day 2
ƒ Repeat the activities of 1st day and raise the steam pressure to 10 Kg/cm g. as per
the chemical boil out curve.
ƒ Maintain the pressure at 10 Kg/cm g. for 8 hrs.
ƒ Take the thermal expansion readings.
ƒ Quick blow down to be given from the bottom headers after shutting the burners at
the end of boil out period.
ƒ Collect water samples from bottom headers and drum and analysis for pH,
Conductivity, oil traces and Iron pick-ups.
ƒ Allow the boiler for natural cooling in the night.

Day 3
ƒ After ensuring the steam drum has cooled sufficiently, start rinsing the drum and
pressure parts to get the required pH in the drum water as given in the procedure
of the alkali boil out.
ƒ Rests of the activities like stub cutting for checking cleanness of the headers as
well as to water hose for cleaning if required is to be performed.
ƒ All the internals in side the steam drum are to be taken out and mechanically
cleaned and water hosed before fitting inside the steam drum.

MAINTENANCE OF WATER AND STEAM CHEMISTRY REGIME DURING PASSIVATION,


STEAM BLOWING AND TURBINE ROLLING
HP dosing tank shall thoroughly be cleaned and kept ready for normal operation.
Hydrazine shall be pumped through economizer and taken into steam drum as well as
super heaters and circulation established through all vents in Economizer, Steam Drum
and Main Steam Header.

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Hydrazine concentration shall be maintained between 250 to 300 ppm and pH adjusted to
10.5 with the help of Ammonia, if necessary. After establishing necessary concentration
of Hydrazine and pH, circulation shall be stopped and steam drum drained to normal
water level.
During steam blowing operation chemistry of feed water, boiler water and steam
shall be maintained with the help of Hydrazine and Ammonia.
Feed Water pH shall be maintained between 8.8 and 9.0, boiler water pH shall be
maintained between 9.2 and 9.4 & steam pH shall be maintained between 8.8 and 9.0.
ƒ Dosage of Tri Sodium Phosphate through HP dosing system shall be avoided and
drum level shall be maintained at the lowest level possible.
ƒ After attaining steam purity during steam blowing operation system is ready for
giving steam for turbine rolling.
ƒ If turbine rolling is delayed, fire shall be killed and drum pressure shall be allowed
to drop to 5 Kg/Cm2 and boiler shall be hot drained and all the vents shall be
opened.
ƒ With this operation, internals of the boiler would have been passivated. If
necessary, drum manhole shall be opened and inspected for jet-black coating of
magnetic oxide (Fe3 O4).
ƒ To confirm the magnetic oxide coating, after opening the drum manhole, coating
from the accessible area shall be scrapped and tested with magnet wrapped with
paper. If the coating is magnetic, entire scrapped material shall be attracted
towards magnet.
ƒ During initial period of steam being taken to turbine rolling, the chemistry of feed
water, drum water and steam shall be maintained with the help of Hydrazine and
Ammonia.
ƒ Afterwards, drum water chemistry shall be maintained with Tri Sodium Phosphate
(HP Dosing) and feed water pH shall be maintained with Hydrazine and if
necessary, feed water chemistry shall be adjusted with the help of small dosage of
Ammonia.

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BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF OIL AND GREASE IN BOILER WATER


SAMPLESDURING ALKALI BOIL OUT

The following procedure is in close accordance with ASTM D 1178 and accuracy of
this method is 1 ppm.

COLLECTION OF SAMPLES

Samples shall be collected through individual drains through all bottom headers and a
composite sample shall be prepared and used for analysis of oil and grease. The sample
shall be collected in a thoroughly cleaned Stainless steel / Plastic Bucket.

LIST OF EQUIPMENTS:
500 / 250 ml glass separating funnel
500/250 ml glass measuring cylinder
25 ml glass measuring cylinder
Glass funnel
100 ml glass beaker
Desiccator
pH meter
Chemical Balance (0.1 mg accuracy)
Air Oven

LIST OF CHEMICALS:
Chloroform AR
Sodium Sulphate Anhydrous AR
1:4 Sulphuric Acid AR / Concentrated Hydro Chloric Acid AR
Universal Indicator Solution
GF / A filter paper (Pore size 1.6 micron) No. 1 filter paper

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PROCEDURE:
Composite sample collected shall be filtered through GF / A filter paper. The clarity of
the filtered water shall be as good as DM water. 500 / 250 ml of composite filtered sample
shall be taken for analysis and 10 ml of 1:4 Sulfuric Acid / hydrochloric acid shall be
added to the above sample to make the solution distinctly acidic.
This shall be ensured by testing a fraction of the sample either with pH meter or with
universal indicator solution. 25 ml of Chloroform shall be added to the separating funnel
and shaken well (care shall be taken that no grease or oil is applied on the stopcock or
the stopper of the separating funnel). The separated chloroform layer at the bottom of the
separating funnel shall be allowed to pass through Anhydrous Sodium Sulphate taken in
no.1 filter paper in glass funnel and filtered chloroform shall be collected in a pre weighed
100 ml glass beaker.
The addition of chloroform to the sample shaking it and filtering it through anhydrous
sodium sulphate shall be made at least twice and all the filtered chloroform shall be
collected in the same pre weighed beaker. Finally Sodium Sulphate is given wash 25 ml
of fresh chloroform and this will also be collected in the same beaker. The glass beaker to
the chloroform shall be kept in a water bath and shall be allowed to evaporate completely.
This beaker shall than be kept inside an air oven at 105 Deg. C and allowed it to cool in
desiccator and weighed.
The above experiment shall be carried out with the DM water and the results shall be
taken as a blank and this shall be subtracted from the sample.
The results shall be reported in mg/l (ppm).

e) Post Boil-out inspection:


Remove sufficient hand hole caps to permit an internal inspection to be made. The
caps removed for inspection should be marked. Scrap out loose mill scale and sludge,
and wash the headers internally with a water jet. Finally all blow down and drain valves
should be washed through and operated to make sure they are clear. Make an internal
inspection, as far as possible to form an opinion as to the advisability of washing or
brushing through the tubes. A second boil out is rarely necessary, but should be
undertaken if there is doubt about the cleanliness of the heating surfaces.

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Open the drum manhole door to permit inspection and washing Fit the internal feed
pipe, chemical feed pipe etc., and prepare the safety valves for testing and setting. The
drum internal fittings should be inspected carefully, great care being taken to see that the
joints between the individual fittings and the drum are tight at all points. The pressure
parts may then be closed up and filled with suitable water, ready for raising pressure for
testing the Safety valves set pressures.

h) Replacement of Gauge Glass Parts


Gauge glasses may become dirty during the boil–out. Before the boiler goes into
service, these should be dismantled and cleaned, the mica on flat glasses replaced, if
necessary and the gauge glass re-assembled.

i) Refractory inspection
Before going into the gas passage for inspection, sufficient ventilation is essential to
avoid the danger due to the combustible or harmful gas.
After drying out, go into the gas passage, and inspect the refractory materials on the
drying condition, any crack and excessive contraction. Normally, small crack is no
problem for operation. But if excessive cracks are found, put the ceramic fibre into the
crack. Clean up the gas passage after the inspection. Be certain that no cloth or foreign
material remain inside.

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7.6 BLOWING OUT STEAM LINES

DESCRIPTION

a) Introduction

b) Requirement of Temporary Steam Line for Blowing

C) Procedure for Blowing

d) Steam Blowing Completion Criteria

e) Precautions

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7.6 BLOWING OUT STEAM LINES

a) Introduction

When a boiler and its associated steam piping have been erected, there is a
possibility that debris, such as welding beads and dirt may have been left in the tubes and
piping. In addition, these parts may have an internal coating of oxide or mill scale, which
will flake off during initial temperature changes. Failure to remove the debris results in
increased erosion, turbine blade damage and rapid deterioration of turbine efficiency.
To avoid any hazard of such material causing obstruction or damage to machinery, it
is recommended that arrangements be made to blow the piping systems to atmosphere
before the final connections are made and steam is passed to the plant. This blowing
through is done with steam, which is exhausted through adequate sized, open-ended low-
pressure temporary piping. The steam blowing operation cleans the system and provides
the steam of requisite purity for the plant.
This low-pressure temporary piping must be connected as near as possible to the
terminal point of the section of the system being purged. In some cases an appropriate
valve cover may be removed and the temporary piping led off the valve chest. The run
should be as short as possible consistent with steams discharging freely to atmosphere
without causing danger to personnel or damage to structure and equipment.
If a basket type strainer is installed in the steam piping it must be removed prior to
steam blowing and subsequently replaced.
The precautions listed below must be strictly observed.

b) Requirement of Temporary Steam Line for Blowing

The diameter of temporary discharge piping shall not be less than the diameter of the
respective line to be steam blown. The spool pieces should have an opening equal to the
diameter of the respective temporary pipeline the temporary discharge piping and
supports shall be capable to withstand steam-blowing parameters.

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c) Procedure for Blowing


There are two alternative procedures for blowing out the steam lines to the plant.
One is to raise pressure in the boiler to just below the permissible pressure in the
temporary atmospheric discharge piping, gradually open the boiler stop valve while
increasing the firing rate to maintain pressure during the blow, then gradually close the
stop valve whilst reducing the firing rate.This procedure has the advantage that the
blowing period may be as long as is necessary to clean the steam piping thoroughly.
Usually the waste steam discharged to atmosphere will be dark in color when blowing
starts, and will become clear as foreign matter is removed from the system. Several
successive blows should be made with an adequate cooling period between each, as the
associated temperature changes will assist in loosening mill scale.
The alternative procedure is the puffing method. The boiler is raised to around 40 kg /
cm2g pressure or just below the permissible pressure in the temporary atmospheric
discharge piping. Shut off the firing.
Ensure that the drum water level is at the lowest port
Open the boiler stop valve quickly. Water level in the drum swings upward. The level
may even go beyond visible limit. Permit the boiler pressure to drop about 10.5 to 14
kg/sq.cm. The change in steam saturation temperature is kept less than 42° C then
quickly closes the stop valve.
This method has the advantage that the sudden change in steam pressure produces
a sudden change in saturated steam temperature causing a thermal shock which helps to
loosen the adhered scale from the inside of tubes and piping. The steam expands quickly
through the system as the pressure drops. The scales are then removed by the
expanding steam. However, all the pressure parts, including the drum, are subject to
thermal shock, and to prevent excessive stresses and differential expansions, the change
in saturation temperature should not exceed 42°C.To ensure thorough cleaning, a
number of successive blows must be made due to the limited blowing period permitted by
the allowable pressure reduction.

For both procedures, experienced observation can determine when sufficient blowing
through has been effected. Clean metal target plates are rigidly secured in the path of the
discharging steam at a suitable distance from the pipe end.

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These are placed in position for evaluation of debris carryover along with the steam
after the initial few blows when the steam is visibly clean. After each blow the target
plates are inspected for any pitting by the debris.

Target plate assembly is located in the temporary exhaust pipe and placed nearest to
the permanent pipe work. Availability of sufficient number of target plates is to be
ensured. Stainless steel plates having mirror finish shall be used in final blows. In
preceding blows target plates of aluminium shall be used. Further blows are given until
they indicate that no debris remains in the piping. It is a standard practice to limit the
number of blows to 6 to 8 per day at an interval of 2 hours between 2 consecutive blows
and with an overnight cooling.
A complete record of the events and observations are to be maintained.

d) Steam Blowing Completion Criteria


Steam blowing can be declared complete only after ensuring cleanliness of target
plates mounted in the temporary exhaust pipe. As already mentioned, for evaluating the
cleanliness and termination point of the steam blowing, aluminium target plates is to be
used initially. For the final stages, target plates of stainless steel having mirror finish are
to be used.
The highest velocity of steam being at the center of pipe, the effectiveness of steam
blowing is judged by the absolute pitting on the target plate in the central zone i.e. the
area covered by three quarter of the pipe diameter.
The piping is considered clean if there are not more than five pitting on the target
plate central zone and the edges are not deformed. Besides, there should be no pitting in
the rim zone i.e. the area other than the central zone. This should be achieved in three
consecutive plates.

e) Precautions
To prevent excessive strain on pressure parts and danger to personnel, the
following precautions must be strictly observed.
1. The securing arrangements of permanent piping must be complete, or adequate
temporary bracing installed. For thermal expansion of pipes, proper allowance must
be given. First test steam blow should be given at lower pressure and the temporary
piping should be surveyed for proper expansion and supports.

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2. The temporary low pressure piping exhausting to atmosphere will be subject to


strong reaction forces during the blow and must be adequately secured. The exhaust
can be diverted at an angle of 30° from horizontal to reduce reaction force on
temporary support.
3. During the blowing period steam and debris will be issuing from the discharge pipe at
high velocity and the location and direction of this must be carefully considered in
terms of safety. The steam must be exhausted to the atmosphere outside the boiler
house and so directed that personnel and equipment are not damaged or
endangered. The area should be cordoned off and warning / safety notices displayed
prominently.
4. Since it is necessary to have a high steam velocity through the system being cleaned
during the blowing period, the temporary piping exhausting to atmosphere must be of
generous size so that it will not significantly restrict the flow.
5. The boiler pressure used for blowing out the lines must not exceed the design
pressure of the low pressure temporary piping and fittings used during the blowing
period. The temporary piping should have minimum 1 in 100 slope towards exhaust
for removal of condensate and should be well supported. This should have proper
provision for thermal expansion.
6. During pressure raising and blowing, all NRV internals, control valves and flow
nozzles, orifice plates if any in the blow circuits are to be removed and spool pieces to
be provided.
7. An adequate reserve of feed / DM water must be kept readily available to replace the
blowing losses.
8. Water level in the boiler must be carefully watched and kept under proper control at all
times, particularly as feed heaters may not be in commission Special care must be
taken to prevent priming and carry over. If the water level drops below the bottom of
the gauge glass, there is a possibility of quenching the hot drum with cold feed water
when regaining level, and causing excessive thermal stresses. The temperature of the
water entering the steam drum should be monitored at all times. It is recommended
that the differential between water leaving economiser and drum shell temperature
shall not exceed 20° C.

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9. All the permanent pipelines and temporary pipelines passing through working area
should be insulated before the blowing.

10. All permanent hangers and supports for various lines are to be erected and set for
proper values as per design figures. All locks and restraints are to be removed from
pipelines.
11. Provision should be made for tightening of flanges of holding arrangements for target
plates. Spare gaskets for flanges are to be kept ready.
12. In addition to usual light up instruments, provision is to be made for monitoring /
recording pressure and temperature at outlet of boiler and before temporary exhaust.
13. The area around the exhaust point should be cordoned off. For warning sound, prior
to blow, siren or PA system can be utilized.
14. Effective communication and lighting system should be ensured at the vulnerable
areas.
15. Boiler should be ready in all respects including

i. Interlocks, protections, alarms, annunciation & instruments.


ii. Chemical dosing system.
iii. Insulation of furnace and flue gas ducts.
iv. Fire Fighting System as per designed scheme
v. Fuel Oil firing equipment

16. Chemical cleaning of the pressure parts internals should be complete prior to steam
blowing
17. All drain connecting piping are to be left open to atmosphere and are not to be
connected permanently to drain vessel to ensure proper and quick draining. After
checking drain pots for choking, the drain lines are to be connected permanently to
vessels after steam blowing.

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7.7 SAFETY VALVES SETTING

Description

a) Introduction

b) Details of Safety Valves Pressure Settings

c) Safety Valve Expansion Joint & Escape Piping

d) Safety Valve Gagging

e) Safety Valve Floating

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7.7 SAFETY VALVES SETTING

a) Introduction
Two numbers safety valves are provided on the steam drum, having a combined
relieving capacity of 75 % of the peak load steam generation. One number of safety valve
provided in main steam line, having a relieving capacity of 25 % (at 520 °C) of the peak
load steam generation.
During the inspection of the boiler after boiling out, the safety valve escape pipes
must be inspected to confirm that they are led to safe points of discharge and are
properly secured, and that the safety valve drains are clear. Also see that the expansion
chambers have the correct clearance so that when the pressure parts are hot they do not
foul the safety valve exhaust pipes.
Before the boiler is put into service and after the pressure parts of a new boiler have
been boiled out and it is otherwise ready for steaming, the safety valves should be
“floated “ with the main steam stop valve closed, to make sure that the valves lift and
close satisfactorily at the specified pressures.

b) Details of Safety Valve Pressure Settings


Safety valves are provided two numbers on the steam drum and one in Main
steam line (spring loaded). Pressure setting details of these safety valves are given in the
below table:

SAFETY VALVES PRESSURE SETTINGS:

Relieving Capacity Steam Set Pressure


Safety Valve Location
Tons / Hr. Kg/Cm² (g)

Drum Safety Valve No 1 50.63 109

Drum Safety Valve No 2 50.63 110

SH Safety Valve No 3 33.75 93.6

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Safety Valve Expansion Joint and Escape Piping


The safety valves have an arduous task to perform and can only meet their
requirements if no undue strain, which will lead to slight distortions, are placed upon
them.
To meet the “no strain” requirements an expansion joint employing a slip plate is fitted
at the start of the escape piping to take care of.
1. Boiler expansion relative to the escape piping assembly in the horizontal plane. (Note:
The escape piping has to be held rigid because of the severity of the duty it has to
perform).
2. Expansion of the drum and escape piping in a vertical plane. (The latter when the
safety valve operates.)
3. Depending upon other considerations, such as type of silencers, support and length of
escape piping, additional slip-joints may be fitted elsewhere in the escape assembly.
In the calculations determining the escape piping sizes, it is assumed that the piping
in and out of the expansion joint will be concentric. Any eccentricity will impose higher-
pressure losses than calculated and these could exceed the margin allowed during
design. If system pressure losses are greater than expected, then leakage will occur at
the expansion joint slip plates.
In the layout of escape piping cold settings are determined and are arranged so that
after expansion of the boiler parts the piping in and out of the expansion chambers will be
concentric.These settings should be checked before safety valves are set, both when the
boiler is cold and when it is hot and upto pressure.
Should expansion have been such that the pipes in and out of the expansion joint
chambers are not concentric then the necessary steps should be taken to correct this by
adjustment to the escape piping.
Further points that should be checked are as follows:
a) The slip plates should be free on the inlet piping into the expansion joint chamber and
should have sufficient clearance to take care of any diametrical expansion of the
piping when the valve operates.
b) The piping into the expansion joint chamber must protrude sufficiently far through the
slip plate to ensure that it cannot become disengaged.

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c) Ensure that the escape piping is rigidly held at a point near the expansion joint.
Cold settings of the escape piping may be included on the drawings sketch, as these
dimensions will be of benefit whenever it is necessary to remove valves or escape
piping.
If attention is paid to the above points, no trouble should arise either with valve
operation or expansion joint leakage.
As there can be no definite assurance of the latter it may be necessary to erect
protective barriers local to expansion joints, where leakage could be of danger to
personnel.

c) Safety Valve Gagging


At the commencement of “ Floating “ safety valves, all safety valves except that with
the highest lifting pressure, must be gagged with gags of the type shown in the maker’s
instructions.

d) Safety Valve Floating


Commencing with the valve set to lift at the highest pressure, each valve should be
floated separately by raising the steam pressure. Initially, blow by hand at 90 % of blow
pressure.
When the pressure approaches the lifting pressure, increase the rate of firing to lift the
valve sharply, and as soon as the valve is fully lifted reduce the firing rate and air supply,
and feed water to restore the water level. Check the blowing pressure, closing / reseat
pressure and valve lift of each safety valve. For further particulars, refer to the valve
maker’s instructions. Finally the valves should be inspected, the guards replaced, and the
keys handed over to responsible engineer.
When the safety valves are being floated, the water level should be kept below
half gauge glass, feed water should be available at the regulating valve, and the steam
line drains should be open.

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7.8 RAISING PRESSURE

DESCRIPTION

a) Preliminary Checks

b) Firing Equipment

c) Use of Drains

d) Testing Gauge Glasses

e) General Check – Up

f) Water Level

g) Steam Supply

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7.8 RAISING PRESSURE

a) Preliminary Checks
Before commencing to raise pressure in a boiler, make sure that all auxiliary
equipment is in working order and test the controls. The steam drum water level for boiler
tripping is set at –200 mm. Water is taken in the steam drum just above this level. Test
the water level by opening and closing the drain cocks. The cause of any sluggish
movement of the water should be investigated.
See that the keys of all blow down and drain valves are removed. Open the air cocks
and drains connected to the steam line before the main steam stop valve MSSV. Operate
all dampers and set them in the correct position. Remove any combustible material in
contact with steam pipes or ducts, as later it may ignite and cause trouble.
Test feed lines and make sure that the economiser is full by feeding some water into
the boiler via the economiser to raise the water level in the gauge glass by about 10 mm.
Afterwards close only the regulating valve so that water is readily available. See that the
valve admitting feed direct to the drum is closed and that the automatic feed valve is in
the fully open position and ready for setting. Before the boiler goes into operation when
there is continuous flow of water through the economiser, water should be taken
intermittently through the economiser to avoid overheating of its tubes during pressure
raising, alkali boil out or setting of safety valves etc.
See that access doors on the boiler are closed and that steam and water valves and
pressure gauge cocks are workable and correctly set. Run the fan and prepare the firing
equipment for service.

b) Firing Equipment
The fuel burning equipment should be placed in service in accordance with the
instructions for the type of system installed, and with rigid observance of all the
recognized rules of safety applying to the fuel to be used. The boiler settings should be
purged with 25% MCR airflow as mentioned in Art. 7.4 for light up.
The rate of firing should be adjusted to produce an increase in saturation temperature
not greater than 67°C/hr. Follow allowable pressure arising rate by manually regulating
fuel flow rate and adjust opening of main steam vent valve in order to keep the limitations
i.e. maximum temperature rising rate is 67°C/hr by supervising the steam pressure rising.

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Feed chemicals of phosphate and oxygen scavenger.


Check especially the following items during start–up period.

1. Fuel pressure at burner inlet


2. Burner flame
3. Steam drum water level
4. Drum pressure to calculate the saturation temperature
5. Thermal expansion of boiler proper.
Open boiler blow down valve and control the blow down flow rate to be about 1 %
of steam flow by controlling continuous blow line valve. Flow quantity is checked by
temporary flow meter during pre-commissioning work. Open the Main Steam Stop Valve
MSSV slightly, but not so much as causing leakage in order to prevent the valve from
sticking due to thermal expansion.
When drum pressure reaches about 2 kg/cm2 (g) close the following valves
1. Drum vent valves.
2. Water column vent valves.
But leave main steam line air vent valves and drain valves open.
Before the pressure reaches 2 kg/cm², tighten steam drum manhole door bolts if
have been removed for inspection purposes.

c) Use of Drains.
The boiler outlet steam line drain must be kept open during the whole pressure
raising period to ensure a flow of steam through the steam line

d) Testing Gauge Glasses


Thoroughly test each water gauge, by the following method.
1. Partially open the drain valve for half a minute to allow the glass and fitting to reach
the maximum temperature gradually without thermal shock, then open the drain valve
wide. Opening the drain valve suddenly may cause the glass to fracture.
2. Test the steam connection by closing the water valve and allowing steam to escape
through the gauge glass to the drain until satisfied that the steam connection is clear.
3. Open the water valve.

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4. Test the water connection by closing the steam valve and allowing water to escape to
drain until satisfied that the water connection is clear.
5. Open the steam valve.
6. Close the drain valve, when the water should return promptly to its true level in the
gauge glass. Any sluggishness in the movement of the water may indicate that the
steam connection or the water connection is partially choked and the level may be
false.
The operating engineer should satisfy himself that each boiler operator fully
understands how to test the water gauge.

e) General Check Up
Confirm that all newly made hand hole cap joints and manhole door joints have been
fully tightened, and keep all joints under observation during the pressure raising period.
When pressure is being raised, the expansion of water may make it necessary to blow
out some water to prevent the water level from rising above the gauge glasses
It will be found advantageous to put the distant level indicator into service while
pressure is being raised, so that it will be ready for use, and the boiler feeding can be
seen and controlled from the firing floor, when the boiler commences to deliver steam. It
must be remembered that the most reliable indication of the water level is obtained from
the direct - on gauge glass, and the distant water level indicator should be checked
against this when commissioned.
The high and low water alarm should be put into commission in accordance with the
commissioning instructions and should be checked by raising and lowering the water
level. When the alarm is correctly set, it should give audible warning if the water level
rises or falls, to ± 100 mm for high and low water level respectively. Considering the
drum Centerline at 0mm level and the normal water level being also at 0 mm level.
f) Water Level
As the pressure builds up, the water level in the boiler gauge glass will rise due to
the expansion of the heated water. When water level rises higher than the upper range
i.e., +100 mm in the water level gauge, blow off the boiler water by opening the
continuous blow line valve so that water level can be kept within the range of the gauge,
preferably near the normal water level i.e., 0mm which coincides with the steam drum
center line.
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Open the feed water flow control valve isolating valves. With the rise of steam
pressure, supply the feed water by opening feed water flow control valve to supplement
the exhaust steam lost through air vent valve, drain valve and steam vent valve by
adjusting feed water flow control valve. The intermittent feeding of water will also prevent
the overheating of the economiser tubes. Extreme care must be taken that the level is not
Abnormally high when the boiler is cut in, as there would be danger of the water
being carried over into the steam line.
The main steam stop valve should be opened gradually. Otherwise, such action of
water carrying over to steam line would cause undue temperature strains in the steam
line and possibly damage the steam driven equipment. As a precautionary measure the
water level should never be allowed to rise to the extreme top of the glass during the
starting –up period, and the boiler should be blown down to half glass shortly before line
pressure is reached.

g) Steam Supply
The boiler is put into service by following procedures as described in part 7.9

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7.9 PUTTING THE BOILER ON LOAD

DESCRIPTION

a) For New Plant

b) Range Already Under Pressure

c) Feed Water Control

d) Firing Control

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7.9 PUTTING THE BOILER ON LOAD

a) For New Plant


When the boiler pressure reaches working pressure ,open the main steam stop valve
or its bypass and bring the range upto pressure with the boiler. Just before working
pressure is reached, open the main steam stop valve fully.
The range drains should be opened, with the steam traps bypassed to drain the
steam line of condensate, and also to create a flow of steam.
Special care must be taken to prevent water hammer caused by condensate
accumulated in the steam pipe when steam is supplied to the cold steam pipe.
Confirm that the piping from the boiler outlet to main steam stop valve (MSSV) and
the steam piping after this valve is warmed up and the condensate drained out completely
from the piping.
After warming up is completed, close main steam line vent valve and all drain valves
provided on the main steam pipe as slowly as possible and confirm that the steam is
surely flowing through the steam piping.
On a new plant, the steam traps should be bypassed for a longer period to avoid
choking with mill scale.

b) Range Already Under Pressure


If the range is already up to pressure obtained from another source, the main steam
stop valve and bypass should be kept closed until the boiler pressure is nearly equal to
the range pressure, when the main steam stop valve bypass is opened. When the
pressure in the range and boiler are equal, the main steam stop valve is opened.

c) Feed Water Control


The boiler water level should be below half gauge glass so that priming will be
avoided if there is a sudden flow of steam caused by a large steam demand.
A reliable assistant should be stationed at the feed regulating valve to be solely
responsible for feeding water into the boiler and maintaining the water level until the high
and low water alarm is tested and the automatic feed regulator is in service; then
responsibility for feeding the unit may be taken over by the boiler operator.

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This precaution is particularly necessary in starting up a new boiler, as the operators


may be unacquainted with the plant and various other duties may claim their attention at
this time.
Commence feeding a steady flow of water to the boiler immediately as the water level
begins to fall. Avoid intermittent feeding which may cause undesirable temperature
changes in the economiser.
Test the high and low water alarm by raising and lowering the boiler water level, and
record the levels at which the alarm operates.

d) Firing Control
When the boiler goes on load, the rate of firing should be adjusted to maintain
pressure and meet the steam demand without lifting the safety valves.
It is advisable to steam a new unit on light load for a period to prove its reliability and
to allow the operators to become familiar with the controls. Full use should be made of
this period to ensure that the instruments are working satisfactorily and to try out all
steam consumer services.

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7.10 NORMAL STEAMING

DESCRIPTION

a) Standard Operating Condition

b) Gauge Glasses & Water Columns

c) Chemical Treatment and Blow down

d) Continuous Blow Down

e) Dampers

f) Thermal Expansion And Expansion Joint

g) Bed management

h) Hot Start Procedure


Walk Down Check List During Operation
i)
Boiler
j) Do’s And Don’ts For Boiler Operation

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7.10 NORMAL STEAMING

a) Standard Operating Condition


After the main steam flow to the plant is proven by the steam flowmeter, using the
fuel oil flow controller increases the boiler load. The fuel oil flow rate is increased at
around 5% MCR per minute or below until boiler load reaches 25% MCR
When the boiler commences full load steaming, the operating engineer should
check the performance and establish standard operating conditions that can be used
as a guide to safe and economical everyday operation. The temperatures and
draughts should be accurately measured over a period of several hours to ascertain
whether or not they are reasonably in accordance with the anticipated figures.
Minor discrepancies are of little consequence provided that the final gas
temperature, upon which the efficiency of the boiler largely depends, does not
materially exceed the anticipated figure. If the final gas temperature or the draught loss
through the boiler is found to be materially higher than anticipated, the cause should
be found and corrected
Operation of rapid load change is not recommended. Excessive rapid load may
cause fluctuation of steam pressure or that of water level.
An Orsat apparatus should be used to check the CO2 content of the flue gases at
the boiler outlet and economiser outlet. A drop of more than 2% between the boiler
outlet and economiser outlet indicates excessive infiltration of air into the economiser
or into the flue duct in between the boiler and economiser. Steps should be taken to
stop this infiltration. Great care is sometimes necessary to avoid false CO2 readings
from the boiler outlet and the economiser outlet caused by stratification of the flue
gases.

Warning:
1. At any point of time do not increase the boiler-firing rate beyond the MCR
heat input of the boiler.
2. Do not operate boiler with drum level below Low Low trip level.
3. Do not operate water wall header & down comer drains when firing is on

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If the draught loss through the boiler increases noticeably while the boiler is in
service, an inspection of the gas passes should be made at the first opportunity, to
locate and remove any deposits from the gas passages.
Quick drop of main steam temperature is often the indication of carry over. In this
case, reduce the boiler load and investigate the reason of the quick drop in order to
prevent further trouble with the main steam line and others.
The cause may be an excessive rise of drum water level, rapid load change,
excessively high salt content of boiler water or contamination of oil into boiler.

b) Gauge Glasses and Water Columns


In general, water columns should be blown down once every eight hours, for
testing gauge glasses and the manner in which the water leaves and returns in the
gauge glass should be observed. If the section of the water in the glass is sluggish,
then the gauge glass should be blown sufficiently to clear any obstruction and to
satisfy the operator that all is correct. Unless the operator believes that the action of
the water in the gauge glass requires fully wide open gauge glass blowing, it is
considered unnecessary to suffer the high maintenance on the glass, mica and fittings
resulting from testing the gauge glass with the drain wide open. Normally, the drain
valve is cracked open during testing.
Gauge glasses should be kept clean. Leakage at the gauge glass connection will
cause rapid deterioration and may cause a false level in the gauge glass. The glass
should be well illuminated under all conditions.
When the high pressure flat type gauge glass is dismantled, particular attention
should be given to the mica sheets. As long as these are not allowed to wear through,
the glass should remain serviceable, but the mica bundle should be entirely replaced if
the cleaning thereof requires peeling off so many sheets that the resulting bundle will
be less than standard thickness.
Checking of water level gauges and water columns are necessary in the following
cases
1. After replacing of the glass
2. Particular constant indication of the water level, which may mean the blockage of
connection pipe.

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3. Priming and carry-over in the steam drum.


In case of sudden increase of the boiler load, which tends to raise the water
temporarily, do not reduce the feed water flow. If the feed water flow rate is reduced in
this case, the water level may fall below the range of water level gauges when sudden
decrease of load takes place.
Special care is necessary when any doubtful trace of oil contamination is
observed in the water level gauges or in the continuous blow-down water.
If the existence of oil in the boiler water is observed, shut down the boiler at
once and exhaust the oil.
If the amount of oil or grease is much, soda boiling is to be carried out again.
After eliminating the source of oil, put the boiler into operation again.
In case of the water level is not in sight of the level gauge, blow off the water
column or water level gauge to check whether the water level is above or below the
range of the level gauge and adjust the water level to the normal level.

Breakage of Glass
When the glass is broken, close the isolating valve as soon as possible. Take
the broken glass very carefully and blow off small particles of glass by slightly opening
the isolating valves with the drain valves open.

Replacing of Glass
It is advised that steam and water valves for the replaced water level gauge
should be opened very slowly to prevent breakage or crack of the glass due to thermal
shock. Steam and water shall be supplied into the gauge in the following manner.
1. Warm up the glass by slightly opening the steam valve and the drain valve.
2. Close the drain valve after slightly opening the water valve.
3. Gradually open the steam and water valves to full open.
In order not to damage the glass of the level gauge, uniform and gradual
tightening of all the bolts is essential.
High and low water alarm should be tested at least once a week by raising and
lowering the boiler water level. The external alarm should be blown through only as
stated in the maker’s instructions.

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c) Chemical Treatment and Blowdown


Chemical treatment of the feed water, conditioning of the boiler water, and
regulation of the boiler water concentration, should be placed on upon a routine basis
immediately a new boiler goes into service.
In many plants the amount of frequency of blowing down are ordinarily determined
from a chemical analysis of the water from the boiler. Where such analyses are not
made, the boiler should be blown down at least once every twenty four hours, the
amount of blowdown depending upon the class of feedwater and the amount of steam
generated.
In regular operation, economiser and water cooled furnace walls, should never be
blown down, in the ordinary sense, while the unit is in active steaming service.
Blowdown valves on this type of equipment are provided to serve only as drain valves
and should be padlocked while the boiler is in service.
If the water level in the gauge glass cannot be seen by the person operating the
blowdown valves, an assistant should be so stationed that he can observe the level,
and signal the completion of desired amount of the blowdown.
Where blowdown valves are fitted in tandem, one a quick opening, the other a
parallel slide or a screw down non-return valve, the latter should be opened wide first
and closed last when carrying out the blowdown routine. Under no circumstances
should water walls be blown down with the boiler in service. Any such blowdown must
only be carried out with the boiler under bank condition.

Warning: If feed water & drum water quality parameters show deviation from the
specified parameters and immediate steps to be taken to find out the probable
reason for it and suitable corrective action to be taken. Shut the boiler
immediately if the deviation is more than 10 % than specified to prevent damage
to boiler pressure parts.

d) Continuous Blow Down


The continuous blow down line is charged to maintain the boiler solids as
mentioned in 6.4 l.

BOILER OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No.129


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

e) Dampers
It is essential that dampers be moved from their set position at least once every
seven days, not only during boiler outages but also during prolonged operating
periods. This will ensure that damper spindles do not become seized in their bearings.

f) Thermal Expansion and Expansion Joint


Ascertain the thermal expansion of the boiler supports. Restriction of free thermal
expansion by abnormal or temporary materials may cause excessive thermal stresses.
Ascertain the normal working of the expansion joint.

g) Bed Management
It may be noted that the particle density of the bed material if is high will result in
low fluidization of the bed, will result in lower expanded bed height and the higher back
pressure in mixing nozzle. Low expanded bed will result in low pickup in bed coils and
high bed temperatures at lower boiler loads. This operating condition with actual bed
level LOW (shallow bed operation) will result in higher pickup of heat in Primary super
heaters higher rate of erosion and higher un – burnt carbon loss.
The following steps are to be adopted for better bed management and to maintain
optimum the bed material properties.

Check bed material Bulk density, particle density and particle distribution at least
once in a day. The following steps to be adopted to maintain the bed.
Regularly drain the bed based on bed chemistry and particle size. Use of Re –
cycling of bed material should be avoided and if recycling is being done, sieve the
drained bed material with 8 mesh & 18 mesh sieve. The optimum size of bed particle is
0.85 mm to 2.3 mm before it being used for topping up.
Add fresh material to maintain the bed chemistry (Al2O3 & SiO2 % to be maintained)
as per the recommendations. Always maintain Fe2O3 content in the bed less than 3% .
Check the Fe content in bed material once in a while (Say once in a week).
While procuring new bed material specify the parameters with Al2O3 - 55 – 65 %,
SiO2 - 35 – 45 %, particle size - 0.85 mm to 2.3 mm, the bulk density as Less than
1200 Kg/ M3 , Fusion temperature - > 1200 Deg C and Crushed from IS – 8 grade
refractory.

BOILER OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No.130


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

Always maintain coal size less than 6 mm. If any time larger size coal goes into the
furnace due to problems in coal handling plant, increase the bed drain frequency till
the bigger pieces are drained – off from the bed to maintain good fluidization.

h) HOT START PROCEDURE


This procedure is applicable to restart after the bed has been deliberately stopped
and after boiler trips, provided the bed temperatures remain above 650°C. A restart
involving bed temperatures below 650°C should follow a shortened version of the cold
start procedure, as burner assistance will almost certainly be required. As a result if
the boiler is required to be off the line but available at short notice it should be hot
started and slumped periodically to maintain the bed temperature above 700° C.
For a hot start it is assumed that the power, compressed air and cooling water
have not been isolated.

1. Feed water to the boiler through the economizer to just above the low-level
interlock set point.
2. Open the final steam drain valve carefully.
3. Start the ID fan and select the furnace pressure control to “AUTO”.
4. Start the feeder cooling system.
5. Start the FD fan and open the inlet dampers to provide the minimum fluidizing
air flow.
6. Start the coal feeders with minimum coal flow. Check the coal is ignited (See
cold start note).
7. Ensure that the pressure-raising rate does not exceed the Babcock pressure-
raising curve.
If the boiler steam pressure has dropped below about 35 Kg/cm2, it will probably
not be possible to regulate the firing at a suitably low firing rate. The pressure must
therefore be maintained above 35 Kg/cm2 for a hot start.
8. Float the boiler online and establish automatic feed water control. Shut the final
drain valve.

9. Allow the bed temperatures and combustion to stabilize and when the entire
bed temperature rise to about 850° C, set the boiler on automatic control.

BOILER OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No.131


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

Warning: Do not exert excessive thermal stress on the boiler by frequent


starting & stopping of the boiler or by sudden loading/ pressure fluctuations.
The Drum pressure rising & lowering should be done strictly at a saturation
temperature rate of 1.2 Deg C per minute only to avoid thermal shock to the
boiler.

i) WALK DOWN CHECK LIST DURING OPERATION


BOILER
• Check for unusual noises. This may be from steam or water leakage’s

• Check for steam or water leaks from valves, connections and fittings

• Check for unusual traces of water on floor

• Check for air / flue leakage from wind box, boiler casing and ducting

• Walk around the furnace exterior and observe for any hot spots or gas leaks.

• Check position of fan suction damper and check for obstruction

• Check for passing from safety valves at normal operating pressure. Check that
the drain lines and drip pans are not plugged

• Check to see that proper water level is being shown by the direct water level
gauge. Check for water or steam leak from ports or drain connections, which will
cause a false water level in the gauge glass. Inspect the glass for discoloration
or fouling

• Check for any obstruction for thermal expansion

j) Do’s AND Don’ts FOR BOILER OPERATION


DO’S

• Maintain all instruments in good working condition

• All equipment interlocks should always be in line

• Maintain normal water level in steam drum

• Maintain water quality as per the recommended limits.

BOILER OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No.132


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

• Fan dampers must be in smooth operating condition

• Pressure raising from cold start must be done as per the cold start up curve

• All the duct joints must be leak proof

• Use proper lubricant and maintain the schedule as recommended by the


manufacturers

• Operate the boiler within the recommended operation limits

• Boiler, piping, ducts must be properly insulated

• Servicing of equipments should be done as per the manufacturer’s schedule

• Maintain proper operation log sheets regularly

• Maintain the instrument air free from moisture and oily matters and the
pressure as recommended

• Carry out regular cleaning of direct water level gauge glasses of Boiler drum

• Use proper valve gland packing to avoid leakage

• Use proper gaskets for flange joints

• Operate the blow down valves as per recommendation

• In case of power failure close the steam stop valve

• If the water level goes up above the limits operate the intermittent blow down
valve immediately and maintain the water level to normal

• Maintain the feed water temperature at economizer inlet and flue gas
temperature at economizer outlet as recommended

• Use genuine spares

• Boiler surroundings and equipments must be properly illuminated

k) DON’TS

• Don’t bypass any instruments and safety interlocks


• Don’t use raw water as boiler feed water
• Don’t operate the boiler beyond the operation limits

BOILER OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No.133


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

• Don’t leave the furnace door open while the boiler is in operation
• Don’t mix up different lubricants
• Don’t alter the equipment maintenance schedule
• Don’t leave the control panel unattended
• Don’t allow unauthorized persons to operate the boiler and associated
equipments

• Do not dose chemicals into the boiler in batch wise, they should be done on a
continuous basis

• If boiler is running under combustion control manual mode, then while


increasing load air should be increased first followed by fuel gas. Ensure
always-proper air to fuel ratio corresponding to load.

OPERATIONAL PRECAUTIONS FOR SAFETY

The handling and burning of any fuel is potentially hazardous. Some fuels ignite
more readily than others do. Safe handling and operation demands knowledge of the
characteristics of the fuel and careful observance of necessary precautions.

Because of the rapid diffusion of gas, any leak of gas into an enclosed space may
result in an explosive mixture of air and gas.

One of the requirements of good combustion is intimate mixing of fuel and air. In
case of gaseous fuels such mixtures are potentially explosive and can be expected to
ignite from a single spark. Therefore these mixtures must never be allowed to exist
except inside the combustion chamber

• Never allow fuel to accumulate anywhere, other than in lines that form a part of a
fuel supply system.

• Steps should be taken immediately to clean or purge the area thoroughly and then
locate the source. Carry out routine checks to detect leaking fuel.

• Purge the furnace completely before introducing any light or spark during burner
operation.

• Maintain a positive airflow through the bed into the furnace and up the stack

• Ensure operation staff is alert to all abnormal conditions.

BOILER OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No.134


ENMAS GB POWER SYSTEMS
(A Division of GB Engineering Enterprises Pvt. LTD)
Chennai – 600 018 INDIA

CUSTOMER : M/S VARDHMAN FABRICS, PROJECT: 1 x 135 TPH AFBC BOILER


BUDHNI, M.P. CONT.JOB CODE : WB 017M

• Operating the boiler with low feed water temperature will result in corrosion of
economizer coils.

• The raising and lowering of steam parameters should be restricted to the value
given in the start – up curve. Exceeding these values will result in reduced fatigue
life of pressure parts.

• In case of tube failure, which can be identified by hearing the noise in the boiler
gallery and increase in draught pressure, flue gas and steam temperature, and the
boiler should be shutdown at the earliest by regular procedure for maintenance
work. Otherwise large number of tubes may fail due to steam erosion and
impingement.

• Boiler salt in the wet steam will accelerate corrosion.

• Always use deaerated de-mineralized water for boiler feeding.

• Carryover of salt in steam occurs either due to mechanical or vapour carryover


from steam drum. Efficient drum internals can only reduce mechanical carry over.
Silica is always carried over in vaporous form. Continuous monitoring of sodium and
silica in boiler water and steam is desirable.

• Before operating a boiler, ensure complete knowledge of water chemistry.

• Whenever boiler is started after a shutdown of more than 3 days, check all safety
interlocks before boiler start up for proper functioning.

• The steam drum should normally be filled up to the point when water is showing in
the bottom part of the gauge glass. This is to allow for the swell on heating and to
reduce any blowing down resulting from this cause to a minimum.

• Once the boiler is boxed up, the water level in the steam drum must be raised to
the very top of the drum. Filling the drum like this will prevent excessive
temperature differentials along the drum wall. The water is then shut-off and the
boiler is allowed to cool.
While raising pressure on boilers, continuous firing is recommended, since
intermittent firing may result in re-condensation in the tube loops.

BOILER OPERATION & MAINTENANCE MANUAL Page.No.135