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Contents

List of Figures iii


List of Tables iv

Chapter Title Page No.

1 Introduction 01

1.1 Esterification 01

1.2 Uses of N-propyl propionate 03

1.3 Applications of n-Propyl propionate 04

2 Literature Review 05

3 Reaction Feasibility 10

3.1 Chemical Reaction 10

3.2 Reaction Feasibility 10

3.3 Correlations for Gibbs Energy Formation 11

3.4 Reaction Feasibility for the Proposed System 11

4 Reactive Chromatography 12

4.1 Principle of Reactive Chromatography 12


4.2 Classification of Reactive Chromatography
13
4.3 Chromatographic rector
14
4.4 Esterification
15

5 Experimental Work 17

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5.1 Materials and Analytical Methods 17

5.2 Calibration for Titration 17

5.3 Calibration of Gas Chromatography(GC) 22

References 25

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List of Figures

Figure Title Page

4.1 Principle of reactive chromatography 12

4.2 Classification of Reactive Chromatography Based On Phase Situation 13

4.3 The Classification of Reactive Chromatography Based On Operation


14
Mode

4.4 Scheme of the 5-section SMBR 15

5.1 Plot of actual Normality vs Experimental calculated Normality for


21
Propionic acid

5.2 Chromatogram showing peaks for all components of the system 22

5.3 Calibration of water to Ethanol 23

5.4 Calibration of 1-propanol with Ethanol 23

5.5 Calibration of Propionic Acid to Ethanol 24

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List of Tables

Table Title Page

1.1 Fragrances and boiling point of esters 2

3.1 Data for Gibbs energy of formation 11

3.2 Gibbs Energy of formation for Individual Component at Different


11
Temperature

5.1 Standardization of NaOH 17

5.2 Calibration of 0.5 N Propionic acid 18

5.3 Calibration of 1 N Propionic acid 19

5.4 Calibration of 1.5 N Propionic acid 19

5.5 Calibration of 2 N Propionic acid 20

5.6 Calibration of 2.5 N Propionic acid 21

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