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Research Article

Received: 18 November 2009 Revised: 12 February 2010 Accepted: 2 April 2010 Published online in Wiley Interscience: 26 May 2010

(www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI 10.1002/jsfa.4004

Effects of dietary yeast autolysate


(Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance,
egg traits, egg cholesterol content, egg yolk
fatty acid composition and humoral immune
response of laying hens
Sakine Yalçın,a∗ Suzan Yalçın,b Kemal Çakın,a Önder Eltanc
and Levent Dağaşand

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary yeast autolysate on performance, egg traits,
egg cholesterol content, egg yolk fatty acid composition, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood parameters and humoral
immune response of laying hens during a 16 week period. A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age, were
allocated equally to one control group and four treatment groups. Yeast autolysate (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, InteWall) was
used at levels of 1, 2, 3 and 4 g kg−1 in the diets of the first, second, third and fourth treatment groups respectively.

RESULTS: Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, feed intake and egg traits. Yeast autolysate
supplementation increased egg production (P < 0.001) and egg weight (P < 0.001) and improved feed efficiency (P < 0.05).
Yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg−1 decreased egg yolk cholesterol level as mg g−1 yolk (P < 0.01) and blood
serum levels of cholesterol and triglyceride (P < 0.05) and increased antibody titres to sheep red blood cells (P < 0.01). Total
saturated fatty acids and the ratio of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids increased (P < 0.01) and total monounsaturated fatty
acids (P < 0.001) decreased with yeast autolysate supplementation.

CONCLUSION: Dietary yeast autolysate at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg−1 had beneficial effects on performance, egg cholesterol
content and humoral immune response. It is concluded that 2 g kg−1 yeast autolysate will be enough to have beneficial effects
in laying hens.
c 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

Keywords: yeast autolysate; laying hen; performance; egg traits; egg cholesterol; egg yolk fatty acid; immune response

INTRODUCTION bacteria, thereby preventing these bacteria from colonising the


The use of antibiotics as growth promoters in feed for poultry intestinal tract by interfering with the binding of carbohydrate
is banned in many countries because of developed resistance residues on epithelial cell surfaces.3 Yeast cell walls also exhibit
and the potential effects on humans. Yeasts and yeast products high antioxidant activity after a few easy extraction steps
may serve as alternatives to antibiotics for growth promotion and (disruption, hot water extraction and proteolytic treatment).2 The
disease resistance in poultry. major antioxidant defences of baker’s yeast may be attributed
Yeast autolysates consist of ruptured or lysed cells and contain
both intracellular and cell wall fractions.1 Yeast cell walls contain
∗ Correspondence to: Sakine Yalçın, Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty
(w/w) 29–64% β-glucans, 31% mannans, 13% proteins, 9% lipids
of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara University, 06110 Dışkapı, Ankara, Turkey.
and 1–2% chitin. The exact structure and composition of the yeast E-mail: yalcin@veterinary.ankara.edu.tr
cell wall depends strongly on the cultivation conditions.2 Mannan
oligosaccharides (MOS), derived from the outer cell wall of yeast, a Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ankara
University, Ankara, Turkey
shift the gastrointestinal microflora balance towards beneficial
organisms.3 (1 → 3),(1 → 6)-β-D-glucan from Saccharomyces b Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,
cerevisiae is a well-known immunomodulator with a strong Selçuk University, Konya, Turkey
positive effect on the animal immune system.4 MOS also have
c Integro Food and Feed Manufacturing Company, Istanbul, Turkey
immunomodulatory properties. They have the ability to attach to
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mannose-binding proteins on the cell surface of some strains of d Pak Biotechnology Center, Izmit, Turkey

J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 1695–1701 www.soci.org 


c 2010 Society of Chemical Industry
www.soci.org S Yalçın et al.

Table 1. Ingredients and chemical composition of basal diet

Ingredients (g kg−1 ) Fatty acids (% of total fatty acid methyl esters)


Corn 570.3 Myristic acid (C14 : 0) 0.19
Soybean meal 165.0 Palmitic acid (C16 : 0) 11.62
Full fat soya 120.0 Palmitoleic acid (C16 : 1) 0.26
Meat and bone meal 40.0 Heptadecanoic acid (C17 : 0) 0.18
Limestone 82.0 Heptadesenoic acid (C17 : 1) 0.10
Dicalcium phosphate 15.0 Stearic acid (C18 : 0) 5.02
Salt 2.7 Oleic acid (C18 : 1) 22.20
DL-Methionine 2.0 Linoleic acid (C18 : 2) 51.88
Lysine 0.5 Linolenic acid (C18 : 3) 7.98
Vitamin/mineral premixa 2.5 Eikosenoic acid (C20 : 1) 0.16
Behenic acid (C22 : 0) 0.31
Chemical composition (analysed) Lignoseric acid (C24 : 0) 0.10
Metabolisable energyb (kcal kg−1 ) 2830 Saturated fatty acids (SFA) 17.42
Crude protein (g kg−1 ) 181.2 Unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) 82.58
Calcium (g kg−1 ) 40.8 Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) 22.72
Total phosphorus (g kg−1 ) 8.6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) 59.86
MUFA/SFA 1.30
PUFA/SFA 3.44
a Supplied 12 000 000 IU vitamin A, 2 400 000 IU vitamin D , 30 g vitamin E, 2.5 g vitamin K , 2.5 g vitamin B , 6 g vitamin B , 4 g vitamin B , 20 mg
3 3 1 2 6
vitamin B12 , 25 g niacin, 8 g calcium D-pantothenate, 1 g folic acid, 50 g vitamin C, 50 mg D-biotin, 150 g choline chloride, 1.5 g canthaxanthin, 0.5 g
−1
apo-carotenoic acid ester, 80 g manganese, 60 g zinc, 60 g iron, 5 g copper, 1 g iodine, 0.5 g cobalt and 0.15 g selenium kg diet.
b Estimated according to the Carpenter and Clegg equation.13

to superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and glutathione, The nutrient composition of the basal diet was determined
which protect the brain tissues from superoxide, hydrogen according to the AOAC.10 The diet sample was ashed in a muffle
peroxide toxicity and hydroxyl radical-initiated membrane lipid furnace prior to the analysis of calcium11 and total phosphorus.12
peroxidation. Among antioxidants, baker’s yeast may therefore The metabolisable energy (ME) of the basal diet was estimated
be useful as a clinical agent against free radical-induced diseases.5 using the Carpenter and Clegg equation:13
There are some reports about the usage of various yeast and
yeast products such as inactive dried yeast, yeast culture, whey ME (kcal kg−1 ) = 53 + 38 × [crude protein (%)
yeast, selenium yeast, chromium yeast and yeast cell walls in the
+ 2.25 × ether extract (%) + 1.1 × starch (%) + sugar (%)]
diets of laying hens.6 – 9 However, no studies have determined the
effects of dietary supplementation of yeast autolysate in laying
hens. Therefore the present study was aimed to examine the Free and total amino acids of the yeast autolysate were
effects of different levels of yeast autolysate as a feed additive determined by modified o-phtalaldehyde derivatisation using a
on performance, egg traits, egg cholesterol concentration, egg high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system (Agilent
yolk fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation of egg yolk, some blood 1100, Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany).
parameters and humoral immune response of laying hens. Hens were weighed individually at the beginning and end of
the experiment. Mortality was recorded as it occurred. Eggs were
collected daily and egg production was expressed on a hen-day
MATERIALS AND METHODS basis.
A total of 225 Hyline Brown laying hens, 22 weeks of age and All eggs laid during the last two consecutive days of every week
with an average body weight of 1556 g, were used in this study. were collected and weighed individually to determine egg weight.
They were randomly allocated into one control group and four Feed intake was recorded biweekly and calculated as g day−1
treatment groups of 45 hens each. Each group was divided into per hen. Feed efficiency was calculated as kg feed kg−1 egg.
five replicates as subgroups, comprising nine hens each. They were To determine egg traits, 15 eggs laid between 09 : 00 and
housed in cages (30 cm × 44 cm × 44 cm) in a windowed poultry 12 : 00 were collected randomly from each group (three eggs per
house with a 16/8 h light/dark regimen. Feed in mash form and replicate) on the first day of weeks 4, 8, 12 and 16 of the experiment
water were provided ad libitum during the 16 week experimental (giving a total of 60 eggs per group during the experiment).
period. Individual eggs were weighed and egg shell breaking strength was
The ingredients and chemical composition of the basal diet are measured using an egg-breaking tester (static compression device,
presented in Table 1. The basal diet was supplemented with yeast Dr.-Ing. Georg Wazau Mess- + Prüftechnick, Berlin, Germany). The
autolysate (InteWall, S. cerevisiae, NCYC R 625, Integro Food and content of each egg was broken onto a glass-topped table. Egg
Feed Manufacturing Company, Istanbul, Turkey) at levels of 1, 2, shell thickness was measured at three different parts (upper and
3 and 4 g kg−1 for the diets of the first, second, third and fourth lower ends and middle) using a micrometer (Mitutoya No. 1044N,
treatment groups respectively. The yeast autolysate contained 0.01–5 mm, Kawasaki, Japan). The heights of the albumen and
920 g kg−1 dry matter, 410 g kg−1 crude protein, 50 g kg−1 ether the yolk were measured with a tripod micrometer (Mitutoya No.
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extract and 40 g kg−1 crude ash. 2050-08, 0.01–20 mm). The length and width of the albumen and

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c 2010 Society of Chemical Industry J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 1695–1701
Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens www.soci.org

the diameter of the yolk were measured using a digital caliper. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software (SPSS
From these values, yolk index, albumen index and Haugh unit Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The normality of data distribution was
were calculated.14 Egg internal and external quality analyses were checked using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. One-way analysis of
completed within 24 h of the eggs being collected. Egg quality variance (ANOVA) was performed to examine differences among
evaluation was performed on individual eggs, as it was done in groups. The significance of mean differences between groups
relation to egg weight. was tested by Duncan’s multiple range test. Values are given as
To determine the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the mean ± standard error. Only egg internal and external quality
egg yolk, 30 eggs were collected randomly from each group (six characteristics were compared with ANCOVA (difference and
eggs per replicate) in the last week of the experiment and stored repeated contrast method). The level of significance was taken
at 4 ◦ C in a refrigerator. Fifteen eggs from each group after 1 day of as P < 0.05.20
storage and 15 eggs from each group after 7 days of storage were
used for MDA analysis. The MDA concentration in the egg yolk
was determined using commercial reagents (ImmuChrom GmbH, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Heppenheim, Germany) in an Agilent 1100 HPLC system with a The basal diet was rich in linoleic and oleic acids (Table 1). The
fluorescence detector and an IC1900rp HPLC column. ratios of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids and
In week 15 of the experiment, 15 hens were randomly selected of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids were 1.30
from each group (three hens per replicate) and injected with and 3.44 respectively. Amino acid analysis of the yeast autolysate
0.1 mL of a 2.5 g L−1 suspension of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) in indicated that it was a source of good quality protein, with
phosphate-buffered saline. Circulating anti-SRBC antibody titres high amounts (w/w) of glutamic acid (5.31%), lysine (3.68%),
were determined by the microhaemagglutination technique from leucine (2.87%), aspartic acid (2.85%), proline (2.33%), valine
samples taken at 5 days after immunisation. All titres were (2.22%), alanine (2.17%) and threonine (2.01%) but low amounts
expressed as the log2 of the reciprocal of the serum dilution.15 of methionine, arginine and tryptophan (Table 2). As also seen in
Blood samples were collected from the vena brachialis under Table 2, the major fatty acids of the yeast autolysate were palmitic
the wing of 15 fed hens randomly chosen from each group (three and oleic acids, together with appreciable amounts of stearic and
hens per replicate) at the end of the experiment and centrifuged palmitoleic acids. The dominant fatty acid was palmitic acid, which
at 3000 × g for 10 min. Serum was collected and stored at −20 ◦ C accounted for 34.47% (w/w) of total FAMEs.
for the determination of total protein, uric acid, triglyceride, During the experimental period, one hen died in each of the
cholesterol and levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and groups fed the diets containing yeast autolysate at levels of 1 and
2 g kg−1 , so mortality was not treatment-related. This is consistent
alkaline phosphatase (ALP) using a Vitros 350 autoanalyser with
with the findings of previous studies of laying hens fed diets
accompanying commercial kits (Vitros Chemistry Products, Ortho-
supplemented with yeast and yeast products.8,21
Clinical Diagnostics, Johnson & Johnson Company, New York, NY,
Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight and
USA).
feed intake of hens (Table 3). Similar results were obtained by
At the end of the experiment, 20 eggs were randomly selected
other researchers.21,22
from each group (four eggs per replicate) to determine yolk
Hen-day egg production of groups fed the diets containing
cholesterol and yolk fatty acid composition. The eggs were boiled
2, 3 and 4 g kg−1 yeast autolysate was significantly higher than
for 5 min, allowed to cool and then broken and their constituent
that of the control group (P < 0.001) (Table 3). In agreement
parts were separated and weighed. The shells were weighed after
with the present study, Mohiti Asli et al.22 found that dietary
being air dried for 24 h. The percentage values of shell weight,
supplementation with 1 g kg−1 yeast (S. cerevisiae) had no
yolk weight and albumen weight were calculated. The yolks were significant effect on egg production. Some authors have reported
blended with 10 mL isopropyl alcohol g−1 yolk.16 The cholesterol a considerable improvement in egg production in poultry fed MOS
content of this extract was determined by the enzymatic method derived from yeast cell walls.23,24 This could be due to the MOS
of TECO.17 Yolk cholesterol was calculated and expressed as both reducing the pathogenic bacterial load in the intestine, so the
mg g−1 yolk and mg per yolk. nutrients in the diet are efficiently diverted towards production in
Yolk lipids were extracted by the method of Folch et al.18 to poultry fed MOS, which might improve egg production in layers
determine fatty acid composition. After alkaline hydrolysis, fatty and breeders.3,25
acids were methylated with BF3 .19 The fatty acid methyl esters Yeast autolysate supplementation to the diet of laying hens
(FAMEs) obtained were analysed by gas chromatography (GC; increased egg weight significantly (P < 0.001) (Table 3). Similarly,
HP 6890, Agilent, Wilmington, Deleware, USA) using an HP-88 egg weight was reported to be increased by dietary supplemen-
column for FAMEs (100 m × 250 µm × 0.25 µm; Agilent). The GC tation with yeast and yeast products.4,6,8 In contrast, others found
conditions were as follows: injector temperature, 250 ◦ C; detector that yeast and yeast product supplementation had no effect on
temperature, 280 ◦ C, carrier gas, H2 ; split ratio, 1/50 to 1/25. The egg weight in laying hens.9,21,22,26,27
temperature programme was as follows: 120 ◦ C for 1 min; increase Feed efficiency was improved by yeast autolysate supplemen-
of 10 ◦ C min−1 to 175 ◦ C; 175 ◦ C for 10 min; increase of 5 ◦ C min−1 tation at levels of 2, 3 and 4 g kg−1 (P < 0.05) (Table 3). The
to 210 ◦ C; 210 ◦ C for 15 min; increase of 5 ◦ C min−1 to 230 ◦ C; improvement in feed efficiency was primarily reflected in the
230 ◦ C for 5 min. Peaks were identified by comparison of retention increase in egg weight. Some researchers observed that feed
times with those of the corresponding standards of FAMEmix-37 efficiency improved when broilers and poults were fed diets
and FAMEmix-C8-C24 (Supelco, Bellefonte, PA, USA). Identification supplemented with MOS.28,29 Dietary supplementation with inac-
of the peaks included fatty acids between 4 : 0 and 24 : 0. Amounts tivated or autolysed brewer’s yeast was found to serve as a growth
of fatty acids were expressed as a percentage (w/w) of total FAMEs. enhancer under certain conditions, such as chronic infection, in
Fatty acids of yeast autolysate and diets as a percentage (w/w) of sub-adult hybrid striped bass, and fish fed 20 g kg−1 brewer’s
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total FAMEs were also determined by the same method. yeast showed significantly higher feed efficiency than fish fed the

J Sci Food Agric 2010; 90: 1695–1701 


c 2010 Society of Chemical Industry www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa
www.soci.org S Yalçın et al.

Table 2. Amino acid and fatty acid composition of yeast autolysate

Amino acids (mg per 100 g) Fatty acids (% of total fatty acid methyl esters)
Total Free
Aspartic acid 2846 36 Caprylic acid (C8 : 0) 0.02
Glutamic acid 5305 2332 Capric acid (C10 : 0) 0.12
Asparagine 16 – Myristic acid (C14 : 0) 0.68
Serine 1721 142 Palmitic acid (C16 : 0) 34.47
Histidine 853 49 Palmitoleic acid (C16 : 1) 12.71
Glycine 1849 67 Heptadecanoic acid (C17 : 0) 0.15
Threonine 2007 86 Heptadesenoic acid (C17 : 1) 0.24
Citrulline 107 17 Stearic acid (C18 : 0) 13.90
Arginine 247 234 Oleic acid (C18 : 1) 29.81
Alanine 2168 370 Linoleic acid (C18 : 2) 5.98
Tyrosine 1340 92 Linolenic acid (C18 : 3) 0.09
Cystine 92 10 Arachidic acid (C20 : 0) 0.28
Valine 2216 208 Eikosenoic acid (C20 : 1) 0.11
Methionine 601 34 Behenic acid (C22 : 0) 0.07
Tryptophan 19 – Lignoseric acid (C24 : 0) 0.04
Phenylalanine 1835 77
Isoleucine 1922 107
Ornithine 1372 53
Leucine 2866 152
Lysine 3679 185
Hydroxyproline 1632 114
Sarcosine 21 –
Proline 2325 166

Table 3. Effects of dietary supplementation with yeast autolysate on performance of laying hens (mean ± standard error, n)

Yeast autolysate (g kg−1 )

Parameter 0 1 2 3 4 P

Initial body weight (g) 1545 ± 18 1583 ± 17 1571 ± 20 1555 ± 19 1528 ± 19 0.248
(45) (45) (45) (45) (45)
Final body weight (g) 1745 ± 25 1806 ± 24 1805 ± 26 1764 ± 20 1811 ± 29 0.223
(45) (44) (44) (45) (45)
Feed intake (g day−1 per hen) 103.4 ± 0.4 104.1 ± 0.4 103.8 ± 0.2 103.9 ± 0.2 104.3 ± 0.2 0.270
(5) (5) (5) (5) (5)
Hen-day egg production (%) 93.8 ± 0.4b 94.8 ± 0.6b 96.5 ± 0.4a 96.9 ± 0.2a 97.0 ± 0.3a <0.001
(5) (5) (5) (5) (5)
Egg weight (g) 59.5 ± 0.1b 60.2 ± 0.1a 60.2 ± 0.1a 60.3 ± 0.1a 60.2 ± 0.1a <0.001
(1300) (1280) (1307) (1328) (1306)
Feed efficiency (kg feed kg−1 egg) 1.85 ± 0.02a 1.83 ± 0.03ab 1.79 ± 0.01b 1.78 ± 0.01b 1.79 ± 0.01b 0.030
(5) (5) (5) (5) (5)

Means within a row followed by different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05).

control diet.30 The improvement in feed efficiency could be due to were higher in laying hens fed a diet containing 7.5 g kg−1 dried
the yeast reducing the pathogenic bacterial load in the intestine. yeast (S. cerevisiae).
The inclusion of yeast autolysate in the diet of laying hens The level of lipid oxidation was determined by MDA assay.
had no significant effect on the mean values of egg breaking Dietary yeast autolysate supplementation did not affect the yolk
strength, egg shell thickness, yolk index, albumen height, albumen MDA concentration of eggs stored for 1 and 7 days at 4 ◦ C (data
index and Haugh unit (data not shown) and the percentages not shown). MDA is one of the major lipid peroxidation products.
of egg parts (data not shown). Similarly, Yalçın et al.8 found This aldehyde is formed during lipid peroxidation of fatty acids
that yeast culture supplementation did not significantly affect with three or more double bonds. Zhang et al.31 reported that
interior and exterior egg quality characteristics. McKillop et al.27 S. cerevisiae supplementation to a corn/soybean meal-based con-
also reported that albumen height was not affected by yeast β- trol diet could improve the oxidative stability of broiler meat and
glucan supplementation at levels of 25, 50 and 250 g t−1 . However suggested that this was due to some antioxidant factors present in
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Ayanwale et al.6 observed that egg shell weight and yolk weight S.cerevisiae shifting the oxidative fat or fatty acid profile in the meat.

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Effect of yeast autolysate on laying hens www.soci.org

Table 4. Effects of dietary supplementation with yeast autolysate on anti-SRBC titre, egg yolk cholesterol and some blood serum parameters in
laying hens (mean ± standard error)

Yeast autolysate (g kg−1 )

Parameter n 0 1 2 3 4 P

Anti-SRBC titre (log2 ) 15 5.13 ± 0.22b 5.73 ± 0.21ab 6.20 ± 0.26a 6.20 ± 0.22a 6.27 ± 0.23a 0.003
Yolk cholesterol (mg g−1 yolk) 20 16.4 ± 0.5a 14.8 ± 0.5b 14.4 ± 0.4b 14.4 ± 0.4b 14.2 ± 0.4b 0.004
Total yolk cholesterol (mg per yolk) 20 264 ± 8a 242 ± 8b 242 ± 8b 238 ± 6b 234 ± 6b 0.043
Total protein (g L−1 ) 15 48.6 ± 0.5 49.4 ± 1.5 50.1 ± 1.1 49.9 ± 1.1 49.1 ± 0.9 0.859
Uric acid (mg L−1 ) 15 44.1 ± 2.8 45.0 ± 3.3 44.2 ± 3.2 45.3 ± 2.6 44.2 ± 2.2 0.997
Cholesterol (g L−1 ) 15 1.47 ± 0.06a 1.35 ± 0.05ab 1.29 ± 0.04b 1.31 ± 0.04b 1.26 ± 0.05b 0.042
Triglyceride (g L−1 ) 15 13.0 ± 0.08a 12.84 ± 0.10ab 12.68 ± 0.09b 12.65 ± 0.10b 12.65 ± 0.11b 0.048
AST (U L−1 ) 15 172.3 ± 2.6 168.3 ± 2.6 169.9 ± 6.4 177.9 ± 4.7 173.6 ± 2.9 0.516
ALP (U L−1 ) 15 201.7 ± 15.3a 202.5 ± 13.9ab 208.1 ± 16.2b 241.5 ± 12.7b 277.9 ± 10.8b 0.001

Means within a row followed by different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05).

Table 5. Effects of dietary supplementation with yeast autolysate on yolk fatty acids (% of total fatty acid methyl esters) (mean ± standard error,
n = 15 per group)

Yeast autolysate (g kg−1 )

Fatty acid 0 1 2 3 4 P

6:0 0.219 ± 0.019b 0.599 ± 0.016a 0.548 ± 0.038a 0.630 ± 0.045a 0.639 ± 0.043a <0.001
8:0 0.438 ± 0.029b 0.425 ± 0.029b 0.498 ± 0.055b 0.637 ± 0.030a 0.733 ± 0.029a <0.001
14 : 0 1.955 ± 0.136b 2.126 ± 0.151b 2.782 ± 0.287a 3.109 ± 0.240a 3.127 ± 0.215a <0.001
14 : 1 0.395 ± 0.039b 0.470 ± 0.048b 0.435 ± 0.028b 0.679 ± 0.050a 0.640 ± 0.044a <0.001
16 : 0 21.91 ± 0.33 22.88 ± 0.24 22.14 ± 0.38 22.01 ± 0.29 22.03 ± 0.31 0.195
16 : 1 1.913 ± 0.092 1.950 ± 0.078 1.924 ± 0.067 1.991 ± 0.081 2.038 ± 0.111 0.844
16 : 1c 0.729 ± 0.032a 0.751 ± 0.024a 0.729 ± 0.018a 0.673 ± 0.030a 0.580 ± 0.028b <0.001
17 : 0 0.228 ± 0.008a 0.233 ± 0.004a 0.231 ± 0.009a 0.234 ± 0.014a 0.197 ± 0.011b 0.046
17 : 1 0.118 ± 0.004 0.125 ± 0.004 0.121 ± 0.005 0.118 ± 0.005 0.111 ± 0.003 0.224
18 : 0 7.363 ± 0.155 7.221 ± 0.183 7.224 ± 0.114 7.161 ± 0.139 6.931 ± 0.144 0.353
18 : 1 41.09 ± 0.19a 39.95 ± 0.29b 39.98 ± 0.33b 39.41 ± 0.29bc 38.71 ± 0.27c <0.001
18 : 2 20.26 ± 0.25 19.80 ± 0.28 19.87 ± 0.39 19.75 ± 0.31 20.13 ± 0.20 0.697
18 : 3n-3c 0.792 ± 0.036 0.895 ± 0.030 0.881 ± 0.024 0.852 ± 0.016 0.820 ± 0.024 0.051
20 : 0 0.121 ± 0.006c 0.137 ± 0.008bc 0.157 ± 0.014ab 0.167 ± 0.008a 0.161 ± 0.009ab 0.005
20 : 1 0.313 ± 0.057 0.275 ± 0.036 0.253 ± 0.039 0.385 ± 0.054 0.383 ± 0.052 0.186
20 : 3n-3 1.289 ± 0.074b 1.179 ± 0.031b 1.232 ± 0.042b 1.205 ± 0.028b 1.507 ± 0.046a <0.001
20 : 3n-6 0.119 ± 0.007 0.141 ± 0.005 0.143 ± 0.006 0.143 ± 0.007 0.134 ± 0.008 0.068
20 : 5n-3 0.229 ± 0.024b 0.232 ± 0.010b 0.240 ± 0.010b 0.254 ± 0.022b 0.505 ± 0.033a <0.001
22 : 0 0.038 ± 0.004 0.037 ± 0.003 0.037 ± 0.004 0.049 ± 0.006 0.042 ± 0.004 0.293
22 : 6 0.484 ± 0.031b 0.576 ± 0.025a 0.578 ± 0.028a 0.542 ± 0.022ab 0.588 ± 0.021a 0.036
SFA 32.27 ± 0.28b 33.65 ± 0.28a 33.61 ± 0.45a 33.99 ± 0.41a 33.86 ± 0.18a 0.004
MUFA 44.56 ± 0.21a 43.52 ± 0.27b 43.44 ± 0.36b 43.26 ± 0.29bc 42.46 ± 0.28c <0.001
PUFA 23.17 ± 0.31 22.82 ± 0.30 22.94 ± 0.38 22.75 ± 0.30 23.68 ± 0.21 0.206
SFA/USFA 0.477 ± 0.006b 0.508 ± 0.006a 0.507 ± 0.010a 0.516 ± 0.009a 0.512 ± 0.004a 0.004
MUFA/SFA 1.38 ± 0.01a 1.29 ± 0.02b 1.30 ± 0.03b 1.28 ± 0.02b 1.25 ± 0.01b <0.001
PUFA/SFA 0.72 ± 0.01 0.68 ± 0.01 0.69 ± 0.02 0.67 ± 0.02 0.70 ± 0.01 0.152

Means within a row followed by different letters differ significantly (P < 0.05).

There was a significantly higher antibody titre in groups fed Mohiti Asli et al.22 observed greater antibody production against
the diets supplemented with 2, 3 and 4 g kg−1 yeast autolysate SRBCs in laying hens fed 1 g kg−1 yeast in the diet compared with
compared with the control group (Table 4). This higher antibody the control group (P < 0.05). Other researchers reported higher
titre in laying hens supplemented with yeast autolysate could antibody responses in broiler breeders fed MOS.25,32
be explained by the beneficial effects of supplementation in Dietary supplementation with yeast autolysate at 2, 3 and
maintaining a physiological balance of immunopotent cells and 4 g kg−1 reduced the levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride
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therefore providing a healthy environment for the immune system. (P < 0.05) but increased the serum activity of ALP (P < 0.01)

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c 2010 Society of Chemical Industry www.interscience.wiley.com/jsfa
www.soci.org S Yalçın et al.

(Table 4). However, there were no significant differences in the concentrations of enteric bacteria in the ceca of Salmonella-
levels of serum total protein, uric acid and AST. Yalçın et al.8 challenged broiler chicks. Poultry Sci 79:205–211 (2000).
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