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FRP Slab Flexure Strengthening with TYFO Fibrwrap System

Worksheet for flexural strengthening of a standard, singly reinforced concrete beam with externally applied and
near-surface mounted FRP laminates based on the procedures of the American Concrete Institute ACI 440.2R-08.

Date: June 23, 2018 Company: EC STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES INC.

Project Name: Retrofitting of Anglo Warehouse Designed By: Engr. HEHERSON JUAN
Project Location: Canlubang, Laguna Project No.
Description: Proposed Retrofitting of Anglo Warehouse RC Reference: Slab, One-Way

1 - Slab Geometry and Capacity

Slab length, l 3 m
Slab width, b 1000 mm
Effective depth, d 124 mm
Depth to FRP, df 150 mm
Concrete compressive strength, f'c 21 MPa
Steel yield strength, f y 276 MPa
Modulus of Elasticity of steel, E s 200,000 MPa
Area of tension steel, A s, Assumed unless AS Built is given 867 mm2
Existing Dead-load moment, M DL, existing 2.4 kN-m
Moment resistance of unstrengthened beam, ΦM n 25.3 kN-m
Calculate ΦM n Manually
2 - Loadings and corresponding moments
Design Dead-load moment, M DL anticipated load 4.06 kN-m
Design Live-load moment, M LL anticipated load 16.20 kN-m
Design Service-load moment, M S = 1.0·M DL + 1.0·M LL 20.26 kN-m
Factored moment, M u = 1.2·M DL + 1.6·M LL 30.79 kN-m (ACI 318-11 eq. 9-2)
Extended and heavy (greater than 7.2 kPA) live load? YES
Unstrengthened moment limit, (ΦRn )existing 20.7 kN-m (ACI 440.2R-08, eq. 9-1, sec. 9.2)
Does ΦMn ≥ (ΦRn )existing ? 25.3 kN-m > 20.7 kN-m

3 - Manufacturer's reported FRP system properties

FRP Product SCH-41
Properties of textile or laminate? Sheet
Fiber material in the FRP glass carbon
Ultimate tensile strength, f* fu 986 Mpa or N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity of FRP laminates, E f 95,800 Mpa or N/mm2
Rupture strain, ε*fu 0.010 mm/mm
FRP Thickness, tf, 1.00 mm
FRP width, wf, 200 mm
Number of Layers, nf 1

4 - Summary of Results
Summary of factors and moment resistance
FRP Strength Slab strength strength with
reduction reduction without FRP FRP Required ultimate
factor factor reinforcing reinforcing flexural strength

ψ φ φMn (unreinf.) φMn (reinf.) Mu

kN-m kN-m kN-m

0.85 0.89 25.3 36.63 30.79

5 - Calculate the FRP system design material properties
Environmental reduction factor C E

Exposure Conditions = Interior Exposure

CE= 0.95 (ACI 440.2R-08, Table 9.1)

f fu = C E ·f* fu ε fu = C E ·ε* fu
f fu = 936.7 Mpa ε fu = 0.0095 mm/mm

6 - Existing Slab Properties

β1 from ACI 318-11, §
for 17 MPa ≤ f'c ≤ 28 MPa psi, β1 = 0.85

β1 = β1 = for f' c > 28 MPa, β1 = 0.85 -0.05(f'c - 28)/7

but β1 shall not be less than 0.65

therefore, β1 = 0.85

Modulus of Elasticity of Normal Weight Concrete, E c

E c = 4700 √ f'c (ACI 318-11, § 8.5.1)

Ec= 21538 MPa

The modular ratio of elasticity between steel and concrete, n s

ns = Es/ Ec

ns = 9.3
7 - Existing strain on the slab soffit
Using cracked beam analysis, calculate the depth to the neutral axis, y, and the
moment of inertia of the cracked section, I cr

Ratio of steel reinforcing to the concrete section

ρ s = As / b d

ρs= 0.00699

Ratio of FRP reinforcing to the concrete section

ρ f = Af / b h

ρf= 0.00133

The ratio of depth of the neutral axis to the depth of steel reinforcement, k

k= 0.315

Calculate the elastic depth to the cracked neutral axis

y= k·d
y= 39 mm
The moment of inertia of the cracked section can then be found by

I cr = 77958340 mm

Finally, the strain on the soffit due to the existing dead load can be found by

ε bi = 0.00016

8 - Design strain of the FRP system (ACI 440.2R-08, § 10.1.1, and eq. 10-2)

ε fd = 0.0061 ≤ 0.0086
Therefore FRP debonding controls design so use
ε fd = 0.0061

9 - Estimate c , the depth to the neutral axis

c est = 28 mm Estimating c as 0.20d initially.

10 - Effective strain in the FRP reinforcement

(ACI 440.2R-08, eq. 10-3)

ε fe = 0.0131 > 0.0061

FRP debonding is failure mode
Therfore, ε fe = 0.0061

Calculate the concrete strain:

εc= 0.00141 ≤ 0.003

Therfore, εc= 0.00141

Calculate the strain in the existing reinforcing steel

(ACI 440.2R-08, eq. 10-10)

εs= 0.0049

11 - Stress level in the reinforcing steel and FRP

Stress on the reinforcing steel:
f s = E s ·ε s ≤ f y (ACI 440.2R-08, eq. 10-9 and 10-11)
fs= 980.8 MPa > 276 MPa

Stress on the steel is greater than the yield stress therefore use,
fs= 276 MPa

Stress on the FRP:

f fe = E f ·ε fe
f fe = 581.5 MPa
12 - Internal force resultants and equilibrium check
Calculate the strain, ε'c , corresponding to f' c ,

ε 'c = 0.0017

Calculate β1, the ratio of the equivalent rectangular compressive stress block depth to the
neutral axis depth, c , and α1, the ratio of average concrete stress.

β1 = 0.733

α1 = 0.833 0.800

Force equilibrium is verified by checking the initial estimate of c ,

(ACI 440.2R-08, eq. 10-12)

c= 28 mm = c est = 28 mm

13 - Adjust c est until force equilibrium is satisfied

Equilibrium is achieved when c equals c est . If not, try another value for c est in Step 8.

14 - Flexural strength components

Steel contribution to bending resistance

(ACI 440.2R-08, eq. 10-13)

M ns = 27.24 kN-m

FRP contribution to bending resistance

(ACI 440.2R-08, eq. 10-13)

M nf = 16.3 kN-m

15 - Design flexural strength of the section

First check the strength reduction factor, Ф based on the strain of the reinforcing steel, εs

(ACI 318-11, fig. R9.3.2)

In Step 9, ε s was found to be 0.00490 therefore,

Ф= 0.89
Calculate the design flexural strength

(ACI 440.2R-08, eq. 10-1 & 10-13)

ФM n = 36.63 kN-m ≥ 30.792 kN-m

where ψf = 0.85

Therefore the strengthened section IS capable of sustaining the new required moment strength.

16 - Reinforcing steel stress check at the service load level

Calculate the service stress level in the reinforcing steel. Verify that it is less than the recommended limit.

≤ 0.80·f y (ACI 440.2R-08,
eq. 10-6 & 10-14)

f s,s = 182.4 Mpa ≤ 220.8 MPa


Therefore the stress level in the reinforcing steel IS within the recommended limit.

17 - Creep rupture limit of the FRP check at the service load level
Calculate the stress level in the FRP.
(ACI 440.2R-08, eq. 10-15 & table 10.1)
≤ 0.55·ffe for carbon FRP

f s,s = 98.96 MPa ≤ 515.19 MPa


Therefore the stress level in the FRP IS within the recommended sustained + cyclic stress limit.

18 - Development length
Bonded anchorage length, l df

l df = 441 mm


1 Slab main reinforcements is φ-12mm spaced at 150mm c/c.

2 Slab thickness is 150mm.


Notes: 1. Symbols and notations follow the conventions in ACI 440.2R-08.