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E. P. Petrov in Forced Response Analysis of

D. J. Ewins

Centre of Vibration Engineering,

Bladed Disk Assemblies

Mechanical Engineering Department,

An approach is developed to analyze the multiharmonic forced response of large-scale

Imperial College London,

finite element models of bladed disks taking account of the nonlinear forces acting at the

South Kensington Campus,

contact interfaces of blade roots. Area contact interaction is modeled by area friction

London SW7 2AZ, UK

contact elements which allow for friction stresses under variable normal load, unilateral

contacts, clearances, and interferences. Examples of application of the new approach to

the analysis of root damping and forced response levels are given and numerical inves-

tigations of effects of contact conditions at root joints and excitation levels are explored

for practical bladed disks. 关DOI: 10.1115/1.2181998兴

els of bladed disks commonly requires the application of detailed

Bladed disks are subjected to high levels of vibration ampli-

tudes excited under service conditions by aerodynamics forces. finite element 共FE兲 models in order to describe realistic design

Such forces can have a very dense frequency spectrum and, simi- features and to achieve practically acceptable accuracy. The num-

larly, the spectrum of the natural frequencies of practical struc- ber of degrees of freedom in realistic finite element models can

tures is also customarily very dense. These dense excitation and reach 105 – 107 共see, for example, Ref. 关13兴兲 which makes the

natural frequency spectra combine to make the task of avoiding all numerical cost of forced response calculations large, even in lin-

resonance regimes almost impossible. Because of that the problem ear forced response calculations. For the case of bladed disks with

of developing methods in order to provide accurate, fast, and ro- friction contacts at the blade roots, a nonlinear vibration analysis

bust predictive tools for the analysis of forced vibration response is essential. The nonlinear forced response analysis requires solu-

levels of bladed disks under operating conditions is a problem of tion of nonlinear equations of motion, which is much numerically

major practical importance. more expensive than the conventional analysis methods used for

Accuracy of prediction of forced response levels is dependent linear vibrations. Because of this, special reduction techniques are

on the modelling of bladed disk components 共i.e., blades, disk, necessary to make the use of large-scale models feasible in the

shroud, damping devices, etc.兲 and on the modeling of the inter- analysis of nonlinear vibrations of bladed disks.

action forces at the contact interfaces between these components. There are several reported theoretical and experiments studies

Demands made by the gas-turbine industry to increase the ac- of blade-disk joints 共see, e.g., Refs. 关1–4兴兲 where static loading

curacy of predictive analysis methods for forced response of and deformations are considered. These studies are focused

bladed disks require development of advanced models and meth- mostly on the analysis of contact stresses and stresses in areas

ods describing in detail all components of the bladed disk includ- close to the contact interfaces. Detailed FE models are often de-

ing the interaction of these components at the joints of the assem- veloped only for small areas adjacent to the contact interface itself

bly. Friction at blade-disk joints is an important source of to make the calculations feasible and cost effective. Solutions of

damping in bladed disk assemblies. It results from the action of nonlinear dynamic problems in bladed disks 共see Refs. 关5–14兴兲

friction forces caused by usually small relative motions between have been performed for localized contacts in special devices,

blades and the disk at the contacting surfaces of the blade roots. such as friction dampers, or for localized contacts of blade

The contact interaction forces have a strongly nonlinear character shrouds. The main problem for the dynamic analysis of bladed

due to: 共i兲 slip-stick transitions, 共ii兲 the unilateral character of the disks with root joints, and the effects of root damping, on forced

interaction force acting along a normal to the contact surface, 共iii兲 response of bladed disks has not been investigated to date.

the influence of normal force on slip-stick transitions and the mag- In this paper, a new method for the analysis of nonlinear forced

nitude of the friction force, 共iv兲 variation of contact area where

response of bladed disks with blade-disk joints in frequency do-

slip occurs during each cycle of vibration, and others.

main is proposed. Special friction area contact elements are de-

Moreover, variation of the contact area at the blade roots in-

veloped to the model nonlinear interaction phenomena which oc-

duced by the blade vibration also causes variation of the elasticity

and stiffness properties of blade-disk joints over each vibration cur at the friction contact interfaces in the blade roots. These

cycle and hence can affect resonance frequencies of a bladed disk. contact elements take account of any time variation of the actual

Methods for forced response analysis of bladed disk assemblies contact area during vibration, the unilateral character of interac-

must allow calculations to be performed which include all these tion of mating surfaces along normal direction to the contact in-

nonlinear effects, i.e., they are to be representative. terface and the stick-slip transitions for friction contacts. Large-

Bladed disks are structures of complex geometric shape and scale FE models describing design features in detail are

implemented. The method includes the multiharmonic balance

formulation of the equations of motion for steady response and a

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute 共IGTI兲 of ASME for pub- technique developed for efficient reduction of the number of de-

lication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 25, 2005; grees of freedom in resolving nonlinear equations which preserves

final manuscript received September 28, 2005. IGTI Review Chair: K. C. Hall. Paper

presented at the ASME Turbo Expo 2005: Land, Sea, and Air, Reno, NV, June 6–9, the necessary accuracy and completeness of the initial large scale

2005, Paper No. GT2005-68936. finite element models. Numerical investigations of multiharmonic

Journal of Turbomachinery Copyright © 2006 by ASME APRIL 2006, Vol. 128 / 403

free. The total number of degrees of freedom, N, in a large-scale

FE bladed disk model is usually too large to permit nonlinear

forced response calculations to be made using the matrices K⌺

and M⌺ directly. In order to make use of these models in nonlin-

ear forced response analysis to be feasible, we apply the modal

synthesis method developed in Ref. 关15兴 and which can efficiently

reduce the size of large FE models. To do this reduction, all DOFs

of a bladed disk, q⌺, can be expressed through a selected subset of

DOFs—so-called “master” DOFs, qm, and special modal DOFs, ,

in the following way:

q⌺ =

N⫻1

再 冎 冋 册再 冎 再 冎

qm

q

N⫻1

S =

I

B ⌽

N⫻n

0 qm

n⫻1

= T

N⫻n

qm

n⫻1

共2兲

nated after reduction; and I共n ⫻ n兲 is the identity matrix. The num-

ber, n, of DOFs retained in the reduced model, q = 兵qm , 其T, can be

much smaller than total number of DOFs in the original structure,

N, i.e., n = size共qm兲 + size共兲 Ⰶ N. Matrices B and ⌽ used in Eq. 共2兲

are determined from the solution of the following two conjugated

problems:

Fig. 1 Bladed disk models: „a… a bladed disk sector; „b… master 1. Each jth column of matrix B is determined from a solution of

nodes of the reduced model at blade contact surfaces; „c… mas- the following static problem with respect to the vector of slave

ter nodes at disk contact surfaces; and „d… an area contact DOFs, qS:

element

K ⌺q ⌺ = 0 共3兲

forced response accounting for nonlinear interactions at blade- when the corresponding master coordinate qmj = 1

and all the other

disk joints are performed for the first time for realistic bladed master DOFs are zero.

disks. 2. The jth column of matrix ⌽ is the jth mode shape obtained

for vector of slave DOFs, qS, from solution of the following

2 A Method for the Predictive Forced Response Analy- eigenproblem when all master DOFs are fixed 共i.e., when qm = 0兲:

sis of Bladed Disks With Root Joints K ⌺q ⌺ = 2M ⌺q ⌺ 共4兲

The equation for motion for a bladed disk 共see Fig. 1, where For analysis of variable contact and friction at root joints, mas-

one sector of a bladed disk is shown兲 with friction contact inter- ter degrees of freedom are selected at the mating nodes of the

faces can be written in the following form: blade root and disk contact surfaces. In addition, master nodes are

also selected in the blade body to ensure acceptable accuracy of

K⌺q⌺ + C⌺q̇⌺ + M⌺q̈⌺ + f⌺共q⌺兲 = p⌺共t兲 共1兲 the dynamic model condensation. An example of master nodes

where q⌺共t兲 is a vector of displacements for all degrees of free- used for forced response analysis of a bladed disk with friction at

dom 共DOFs兲 in the structure considered; K⌺, C⌺, and M⌺ are blade roots is shown in Fig. 1.

stiffness, viscous damping, and mass FE matrices used for de- Substitution of Eq. 共2兲 into Eq. 共1兲 gives a reduced equation of

scription of linear forces; f⌺共q兲 is a vector of nonlinear interface motion for the bladed disk

forces, which is dependent on displacements DOFs at interface Kq + Cq̇ + Mq̈ + f共q兲 = p共t兲 共5兲

nodes; and p⌺共t兲 is a vector of excitation forces. Thus, the prob-

T T T T

lem of modeling bladed disks with friction interfaces at the blade where K = T K⌺T; M = T M⌺T; C = T C⌺T and p = T p⌺. The

roots can be separated into three major parts: 共i兲 modeling of the ratio, n / N, of the number of DOFs before and after mode synthe-

bladed disk assembly, or its components, when only linear forces sis method reduction can take values of 10−2 – 10−3.

are allowed for 共i.e., constructing matrices K⌺, C⌺, and M⌺兲; 共ii兲 2.2 Multiharmonic Balance Equation of Motion. Steady-

modelling of the friction contact interaction at the root contact state periodic regimes of vibration response are sought by making

surfaces 共calculation of f⌺共q兲兲, and 共iii兲 combining the models for a transformation of the equation of motion 共5兲 formulated in time

the bladed disk and the contact interfaces. Approaches developed domain into the frequency domain. In order to search for a peri-

to resolve these issues in the analysis of bladed disks with friction odic vibration response, the time variation of all DOFs of the

interaction at blade roots are discussed in this section together system is represented as restricted Fourier series, which can con-

with a multiharmonic formulation of the equation of motion and a tain as many and such harmonic components as are necessary to

method for calculation of the amplitudes of vibration. approximate the solution with a desired accuracy, i.e.

2.1 Models for Blades and a Disk. Models for bladed disks n

with linear forces only allowed for are constructed using the finite

element method. This is now a well-established method widely

q共t兲 = Q0 + 兺Q

j=1

c

j cos m jt + Qsj sin m jt 共6兲

used in practice in the gas-turbine industry. Commercial FE soft-

ware packages available allow stiffness and mass matrices to be where n is the number of harmonics kept in the multiharmonic

routinely calculated for large-scale FE models. A specific feature solution; Q0, Qcj , and Qsj 共 j = 1 , . . . , n兲 are vectors of harmonic

necessary for the FE models created for the analysis of bladed coefficients for the system DOFs; m j 共 j = 1 , . . . , n兲 are the specific

disks with friction contact interfaces require introduction mating harmonics that are kept in the displacement expansion in addition

nodes at all contact surfaces where nonlinear contact interaction to the constant component, and is the fundamental vibration

can be expected. These mating nodes can have the same spatial frequency. In accordance with the multiharmonic balance method,

coordinates, but the stiffness, K⌺, and mass, M⌺, matrices of the the expansion from Eq. 共6兲 is substituted into Eq. 共5兲 which is

FE model for the bladed disk are calculated assuming that these sequentially multiplied by 共cos m j兲 and 共sin m j兲 and then inte-

nodes are disconnected and, hence, that all contact surfaces are grated over the vibration period. As a result, equations for deter-

mining all the harmonic components are obtained in the following Table 1 Stresses of the friction contact interaction

form:

Status Tangential force t Normal force n

R共Q兲 = Z共兲Q + F共Q兲 + P = 0 共7兲

where Q = 兵Q0 , Qc1 , . . . , Qsn其T is a vector containing all harmonic

Contact Stick: kt共ut − u共0兲 共0兲

t 兲 − n

0 + k nu n

Slip: n

coefficients for displacement; P = 兵P0 , Pc1 , Ps1 , . . . , Psn其T is a vector

of the harmonic coefficients of excitation forces, which for bladed Separation 0 0

disks are usually due to the aerodynamic forces caused by inho-

mogeneous gas flow and F共Q兲 = 兵F0共Q兲 , Fc1共Q兲 , . . . , Fsn共Q兲其T is a

vector of multiharmonic nonlinear friction contact forces acting at

the blade-disk interfaces. The dynamic stiffness matrix involved of blade-disk interaction along normal to the contact surfaces can

in Eq. 共7兲 has the form be described. This unilateral interaction occurs due to the fact that

only compressing normal stresses can act at the contact surfaces

Z共兲 but not the tensile stresses. Because of that when the mating con-

冤 冥

K 0 0 ¯ 0 tact surfaces are temporarily separated during vibrations the nor-

mal stresses become equal to zero and cannot take negative val-

0 K − 共m1兲 M

2

m 1 C ¯ 0

ues. In order to model blade-disk interaction at the contact patches

= 0 − m 1 C K − 共m1兲2M ¯ 0 of the blade roots the area contact elements are distributed over

¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ m n C the surfaces where nonlinear forces can be expected 共as shown in

Fig. 1共d兲兲. The friction area contact element developed allows

0 0 0 ¯ K − 共mn兲2M automatic determination of all possible contact interaction states

共8兲 for a small area covered by the contact element including stick,

The multiharmonic balance formulation avoids the conven- slip, and separation. Friction contact models for time-domain

tional time-consuming integration of equation. Instead, the non- analysis were developed in paper 关16兴 and friction contact ele-

linear algebraic equation 共7兲 is formed with respect to harmonic ments for frequency-domain analysis were developed in paper

coefficients of displacement. The matrix of multiharmonic dy- 关14兴.

namic stiffnesses in Eq. 共8兲 is formed from the stiffness, damping, The friction contact elements developed in paper 关14兴 are ex-

and mass matrices of the linear part of the structure. Although it is tended here to modeling area contact for analysis of bladed disks

quasi-diagonal, the matrix in Eq. 共7兲 represents a simultaneous with blade-disk contact interfaces. In contrast to paper 关14兴, these

system of equations since coefficients for all harmonics are friction area contact elements express contact stresses but not con-

interdependent through a vector of multiharmonic nonlinear tact forces in terms of the relative displacements along a direction

friction contact forces acting at blade-disk joints F共Q兲 tangential to the contact surface, ux共兲, and a normal relative dis-

= 兵F0共Q兲 , Fc1共Q兲 , . . . , Fsn共Q兲其T. placement, uy共兲. There are several major possible states of the

contact interaction and expressions for tangential and normal

2.3 Solution of the Nonlinear Equations and Tracing of the components of the interaction force are shown for each of these in

Solution. Equation 共7兲 represents a nonlinear set of equations with Table 1.

共0兲 共0兲

respect to Q. One of the most efficient methods for solution of the Here ut = ut共stick兲 and n = n共stick兲 are values of the tangen-

nonlinear equations is the Newton–Raphson method, which pos- tial displacement and of the normal stresses at the beginning of

sesses quadratic convergence when an approximation is close the current stick state, stick, and 0 is static normal stresses

enough to the solution. An iterative solution process is expressed which are due to action of centrifugal, thermoelastic, and static

by the following formula: aerodynamic forces. kt and kn are contact stiffness coefficients

冉 冊

for tangential and normal deformations accordingly, and

R 共k兲 −1

= sgn共t共slip兲兲 = ± 1 is a sign function. Equations that are used to

Q共k+1兲 = Q共k兲 − R共Q共k兲兲 共9兲

Q determine time instants when contact state changes are given in

where superscript 共k兲 indicates the number of the current iteration. Table 2.

By differentiating Eq. 共8兲 with respect to Q, a recurrence formula Since periodic steady-state vibrations are analyzed, the relative

can be rewritten in the form displacements, x共兲 and y共兲 can be expressed as a Fourier series

冋 册

with a restricted number of harmonics

F共Q共k兲兲 −1

Q共k+1兲 = Q共k兲 − Z共兲 + R共Q共k兲兲 共10兲 ut共兲 = H−T共兲X; un共兲 = H−T共兲Y 共11兲

Q

where H− = 兵1 , cos m1 , sin m1 , . . . , cos mn , sin mn其 ; m j areT

The matrix Z共兲 is a multiharmonic dynamic stiffness matrix

numbers of harmonics that are used in the multiharmonic expan-

introduced in Eq. 共7兲. A matrix of derivatives, Knln共Q兲 sion, and X and Y are vectors of harmonic coefficients of relative

= F共Q兲 / Q, also called “a tangent stiffness matrix,” describes the motion in the tangential and normal directions, respectively. The

stiffness properties of the friction contact interfaces determined nondimensional time, = t, is introduced here using the principal

for a current vector of multiharmonic amplitudes, Q. The vector frequency, , of the multiharmonic vibrations which defines pe-

of nonlinear friction contact forces acting at blade-disk joints riod of the vibrations.

F共Q兲 and the tangent stiffness matrix of the friction contact inter- A method developed in Ref. 关14兴 allows the exact determination

face, Knln共Q兲 fully describe interaction of bladed and disk at of the contact stresses and tangent stiffness matrix of the friction

blade-disk joints and allows the nonlinear forced response to be contact interface as a function of relative displacements for a gen-

determined.

2.4 Friction Contact Modeling: Area Contact Elements.

Table 2 Conditions of the friction contact state transition

Special friction area contact elements have been developed to

model friction contacts of blade and disk at the blade root contact Stick to slip Slip to stick Contact to separation

surfaces. The friction contact elements allow for variation of area

of the contact patches during bladed disk vibration, friction t共 兲 = ± n共 兲 ktu̇t共兲 = knu̇n共兲 n = 0

stresses with effects of variable normal stresses on stick-slip tran- ˙ t ⬍ ˙ n ktüt ⬍ knün u̇n ⬍ 0

sitions and friction stresses’ levels. Moreover unilateral character

eral case of multiharmonic vibrations. In accordance with the

method, the interaction stresses given in Table 1 are expanded into

Fourier series

The vectors of multiharmonic components for tangential,

St共X , Y兲, and normal, Sn共Y兲, stresses are obtained in an explicit

form as functions of vectors of harmonic coefficients of relative

motion along tangential and normal directions to the contact sur-

face, X and Y.

The contact area can be now covered by the area contact ele-

ments. These elements are usually chosen to be relatively small to

allow distributions of the traction and normal stresses to be accu-

rately interpolated over each of the elements. The values of the

contact stresses are evaluated at a set of nodes usually located Fig. 2 Model „a…, natural frequencies of the bladed disk with

within and on boundaries of the area contact elements. For each different contact conditions and frequency range of interest „b…

node, the tangential friction forces and normal unilateral forces

冋 册 冋 册

are calculated in the local coordinate system with axes directed

along normal and tangential directions of the contact surface that Ktt Ktn F S t/ X S t/ Y

are defined for a current point, xyz. The contact stresses in global Ke = = =A 共17兲

0 Knn 兵X,Y其 0 S n/ Y

coordinate system, xyz, are then interpolated using the contact

forces evaluated at several nodes of the contact element area in Owing to analytical expressions obtained for St共X , Y兲 and Sn共Y兲

the form calculations of the tangent stiffness matrix for the contact inter-

face can be made exactly and very fast. Further details of the

nnodes nnodes

contact force vectors and the stiffness matrix derivation can be

¯= 兺 N j共x,y兲R共x j,y j兲共x j,y j兲 = 兺 N 共x,y兲¯ 共x ,y 兲

j j j found in Ref. 关14兴. Vectors of multiharmonic components of the

j j contact forces, Fe, and tangent stiffness matrices, Ke, are calcu-

共13兲 lated for all contact elements and added to the vector of nonlinear

friction contact forces F共Q兲 and the tangent stiffness matrix of the

where ¯ = 兵x̄ , ȳ , z̄其T is a vector of contact stresses interpolated; friction contact interface, Knln共Q兲.

共x j , y j兲 = 兵t , n其T is a vector of contact stresses calculated at the

jth point, 共x j , y j兲; nnodes is number of nodes for the area contact 3 Numerical Investigations

element; R共x j , y j兲 is the so-called “rotation” matrix describing ro-

tation of for the local coordinate system with respect to a coordi- The method developed has been applied to analysis of realistic

nate system which is global and used for analysis of the whole bladed turbine and fan bladed disks of gas-turbine engines. One of

structure. N j共x , y兲 are conventional shape functions used in iso- the considered test cases was a bladed turbine disk from a test rig

parametric finite elements. The standard FE procedure for the re- of the EU-funded project ADTurb 共see 关17,18兴兲. A sector of the FE

duction of the contact stress distribution to the nodes of the finite model used in the analysis is shown in Fig. 2共a兲. The FE model is

element mesh can be applied. This procedure is based on equality constructed using tetrahedral 10 node finite elements. The total

of works performed by the nodal forces and the stresses distrib- number of blades in the bladed disk analyzed is 64. The number of

uted over the area of the element, which gives the following ex- DOFs in the FE model of one sector comprises 73,245 DOFs.

pression for the nodal force: Root damping is analyzed at contact surfaces of the first lobe of

the two-lobe firtree blade root. First, a linear bladed disk model

冕

was analyzed. To assess a range of the possible variation of the

fj = ¯ 共x,y兲dA = H−T共兲F j

N j共x,y兲 共14兲 resonance frequencies due to slip at blade root, the natural fre-

A quencies were calculated for two extreme cases: 共i兲 a case when

there is no contact between bladed and disk at the first lobe, and

where f j = 兵f x , f y , f z其T is a vector of nodal forces at the jth node of 共ii兲 a case when all contact surfaces are fully stuck and slip does

the area contact element and F j = 兵Fx , Fy , Fz其T is a vector of har- not occur. Due to confidentiality requirements, all frequencies in

monic coefficients for the jth nodal forces. From Eqs. 共12兲, 共13兲, this paper are normalized by the first blade-alone resonance fre-

and 共14兲, we derive expressions for harmonic coefficients of nodal quency and the forced response levels are also normalized. Cal-

forces in the form culated natural frequencies are shown for all possible nodal diam-

eters numbers in Fig. 2共b兲. One can see that variation of the

Fj = 冕 A

N j共x,y兲S̄共x,y兲dA 共15兲

contact condition at the first lobe of the bladed disk can signifi-

cantly affect the resonance frequencies.

The blade-disk interaction at the contact surfaces is essentially

共s兲

nonlinear since slip-stick or contact-separation transitions can oc-

where S̄ = 兵S̄0 , S̄共c兲

1 , . . . , S̄n 其 is a vector of harmonic coefficients cur at the contacting surfaces and, moreover, the contact area and

for

¯. contact conditions can vary during period of vibration. In order to

For the simplest case of the area element with one node located predict forced response levels and damping caused by friction at

in the middle of the area, the multiharmonic components of the the root contact surfaces the developed friction area contact ele-

nodal forces can be expressed in the form ments are applied at the contact surfaces of interest. The FE model

再冎 再 冎

of the bladed disk is constructed for this purpose with the contact

Ft St共X,Y兲 surfaces set to be free and the friction one-node area contact ele-

F= =A 共16兲 ments are distributed uniformly over these surfaces to describe

Fn Sn共X,Y兲

nonlinear friction contact interaction between the blades and the

where A is area covered by the eth contact element. The tangent disk. The reduced model obtained by application of the modal

stiffness matrix of this contact element is determined by differen- synthesis method has 332 DOFs. These DOFs includes 282 master

tiating Eq. 共16兲 with respect to vectors X and Y DOFs 共3 DOFs for each of 94 master nodes兲 and 50 modal coor-

Fig. 5 The forced response levels for different levels of the

static normal stresses and different numbers of the friction

Fig. 3 Forces response of the bladed disk with stuck contact area elements applied at the contact surfaces

surfaces modeled by different number of the area contact

elements

tions and are distributed over the blade airfoils. Excitation by 43th

dinates. From 94 master nodes 4 ⫻ 21= 84 are chosen on blade-

engine-order is considered which corresponds to a vibration mode

disk mating contact surfaces at two contact patches of the blade

of a tuned bladed disk with 64− 43= 21 nodal diameters and fre-

root and are uniformly distributed over the contact surfaces. 10

quency range corresponding to first flap-wise 共1F兲 mode and first

master nodes are chosen at airfoil of the blade.

torsional 共1T兲 mode are analyzed. A green line marks a frequency

Damping loss factor, , due to material and aerodynamic damp-

range for which the forced response analysis is performed. Fric-

ing was assumed to be 0.001. Aerodynamic forces exciting the

tion coefficient at the contact surfaces was assumed to be 0.3.

vibration analyzed were determined from aerodynamic calcula-

Total damping including effects of friction forces and variation of

stiffness of the blade-disk joints due to variation of the contact

areas and slip-stick transitions at the contact interfaces were de-

termined in process of calculations by applied the friction area

contact elements.

The method developed reduces the number of DOFs in the

whole structure to the number of degrees of DOFs where nonlin-

ear contact forces are applied. Hence, the size of the resulting

nonlinear equation is proportional to number of the friction con-

tact elements applied to the bladed disk and, accordingly, the

speed of calculations is dependent on number of these elements.

In order to chose the number of contact elements providing ac-

ceptable accuracy for the area contact modeling together with

high speed of calculation, an investigation of influence of the

choice of number of the area elements on forces response levels

and values of the resonance frequencies is performed. Four cases

of 共i兲 3, 共ii兲 9, 共iii兲 15, and 共iv兲 21 one-node area contact elements

applied over each of two 共left and right兲 contact patches of the

first lobe of the firtree root.

In each of the considered cases, the friction area contact ele-

ments cover the whole area of the contact patches; hence, area of

contact represented by each element for these cases is 14.17, 4.73,

2.83, and 2.02 mm2, accordingly. In order to explore the capabil-

ity of the relative small number of the area contact elements to

model a full stuck condition, the forced response was calculated

with the large normal load excluding possibility of slip-stick tran-

sition at the contact patches. Since for this case the structure with

friction contact elements exhibits linear behavior without friction

damping, the forced response is compared with the forced re-

sponse of linear structure determined for the FE model obtained

for a case of fixed firtree lobes. Closeness of the resonance fre-

quencies and amplitudes obtained for the model with the friction

contact elements and from the FE model with fixed firtree lobes

indicates accuracy of the contact modeling for a case of full con-

tact. The calculated forced responses are compared in Fig. 3. This

comparison is used to choose number of the area contact elements

required in the analysis.

Fig. 4 Errors in prediction of the resonance characteristics for Errors in the prediction of the resonance frequencies and am-

different number of the area contact elements: „a… For reso- plitudes are shown in Fig. 4. One can see that for the case of 21

nance frequencies and „b… for resonance amplitudes area contact elements, for each of the two contact patches accept-

Fig. 6 Effects of different levels of the static normal stresses: Fig. 8 Effects of the excitation level on the forced response in

„a… Forced response; and „b… contact area where slip occurs frequency range of 1F mode: „a… Displacement; and „b… dis-

placement normalized by the excitation level

⬍2.7%兲 and resonance amplitudes 共error ⬍5.8%兲. number of the friction contact element applied over each contact

Moreover, realistic normal stresses which are due to action of patch are shown in Fig. 5. For comparison, forced responses cal-

the centrifugal forces were calculated and then these static stresses culated for two linear systems are also plotted there: 共i兲 the forced

are used in the forced response analysis for the area contact ele- response for a case when there is no contact with the disk at the

ments. Variation of the normal stresses over the contact patches is first lobe of the blade root; and 共ii兲 the forced response for a case

accounted for and hence different normal stress levels are applied when there is full contact at blade-disk joints and slip does not

to different area contact elements. Three different levels of the occur. One can see that there is more than an 8% shift in the

static normal stresses were studied, namely 100%, 50%, and 17% resonance frequency between these two extreme linear cases.

of the maximum level. These static stress levels occur in the When 21 friction contact elements are applied at each contact,

bladed disk analyzed at rotation speeds: 100%, 70%, and 40% of surface forced response level outside the vicinity of the resonance

the maximum rotation speed, respectively. frequency is practically coinciding with that of the linear system

Results of calculation of the forced response levels for cases of with full contact. For these frequencies, the level of relative dis-

3 different levels of the normal stresses and for 3 cases of the placements is too small to cause slip at the contact interfaces or

variation of the contact area. The resonance frequency for 100%

level of the static normal stresses is very close to resonance fre-

quency of this linear system. For cases of 3 and 9 friction contact

elements per contact surface, there is a difference, although small,

in resonance frequencies, which is due to a decrease in stiffness of

the blade-disk joints when too small a number of the contact ele-

ments is used for contact modeling. In all of the following figures,

results obtained with 21 friction contact elements at each of the

contact surfaces are shown.

The effect of the level of the static normal stresses on levels of

forced response is demonstrated in Fig. 6共a兲 for excitation fre-

quencies in the range of 4.8–5.15 corresponding to 1T mode. The

forced response of the linear system with full contacts is shown

here for comparison.

The method allows determination of not only the forced re-

sponse but also contact conditions at each point of the over area

covered by the friction contact elements, including occurrence

Fig. 7 Harmonic components for the multiharmonic forced re- slipping parts. The size of the contact area where slip occurs re-

sponse „calculated for the case of 50% of the normal stress lated to the whole size of the contact patches is shown Fig. 6共b兲.

level… One can see that the resonance frequency is not significantly af-

Fig. 11 Effects of the excitation level on the slipping area at

resonance frequency

produce strongly nonlinear blade-disk interaction at root joints,

the harmonic coefficients of the multiharmonic forced response

were small for all harmonics except of that coinciding with exci-

tation harmonic. In the calculations, the first 6 odd multiplies from

1 to 9 of the excitation harmonic, 43EO are kept. An example of

the amplitudes for all these harmonics in the multiharmonic ex-

pansion for displacement is shown in Fig. 7. One can see that the

43rd harmonic is predominant in the forced response and contri-

bution of all the other can be neglected.

The effect of the excitation level on the response level is dem-

Fig. 9 Effects of the excitation level on the forced response in onstrated in Fig. 8 for a frequency range including 1F mode, and

frequency range of 1T mode: „a… Displacement; and „b… dis- in Fig. 9 for a frequency range including 1T mode. Distribution of

placement normalised by the excitation level the excitation loads over the blade airfoil in all cases was the

same, but these loads were multiplied by a factor kF with values

from 1 / 8 to 5. In Figs. 8共a兲 and 9共a兲, the amplitude of the dis-

fected by the level of normal stresses and accordingly by effects placement is plotted. One can see that shape of the forced re-

of number of slipping nodes at the contact surface. Yet, the level sponse curves significantly differs for the different levels of exci-

of forced response is very sensitive to the normal stress level since tation. In Figs. 8共b兲 and 9共b兲, in order to clearly demonstrate the

the size of the contact area is involved in slip-stick transitions, nonlinear dependency of this amplitude to excitation levels, it is

and, therefore, the vibration energy is dissipated by the friction normalized by dividing by kF. For the case of the linear structure,

forces at these parts of the contact area. For the case considered, the displacement normalized by kF would be identical for all

accounting for root damping reduces resonance amplitude in 2.5 forced response levels, but they differ here and the highest level of

times for 100% level of the normal stresses and in 10 times for excitation produces the smallest value of the normalized forced

17% level. For the resonance frequency, 18% 共for 100% normal response. This is because at higher levels of vibration the larger

stress level兲 and 22% 共for 50% normal stress level兲 and 48% 共for part of the contact area starts slipping and therefore friction damp-

17% normal stress level兲 of the whole contact area is subjected to ing increases.

slip at least over small time interval. The resonance amplitude level as a function of level of excita-

tion is plotted in Fig. 10 for both resonance modes analyzed: 1F

and 1T. These functions have essentially nonlinear character. For

comparison, straight lines show the resonance amplitudes that

displacement Fig. 12 Dependency of the Q-factor on the excitation level

Table 3 Approximation for the Q-factor as a function of the on the results of the European Community project ADTurB

excitation level 共Project BRPR-CT95-0124兲. Further details can be found at

www.cordis.lu.

Mode

Approximation References

coefficient 1F 1T 关1兴 Kenny, B., Patterson, E. A., Said, M., and Aradhya, K. S. S., 1991, “Contact

Stress Distributions in a Turbine Disk Dovetail Type Joint—A Comparison of

c0 12.18 14.75 Photoelastic and Finite Element Results,” Strain J. Brit. Soc. Strain Measure-

c1 86.04 81.28 ment, 27, pp. 21–24.

c2 0.486 0.112 关2兴 Meguid, S. A., Refaat, M. H., and Papanikos, P., 1996, “Theoretical and Ex-

perimental Studies of Structural Integrity of Dovetail Joints in Aeroengine

Disks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 56, pp. 668–677.

关3兴 Papanikos, P., Meguid, S. A., and Stjepanovic, Z., 1998, “Three-Dimensional

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Dovetail Joints in Aeroengine Disks,”

would realize if there were no friction damping at the blade root. Finite Elem. Anal. Design, 29, pp. 173–186.

Relative size of the slipping part of the contact area is shown in 关4兴 Sinclair, G. B., Cormier, N. G., Griffin, J. H., and Meda, G., 2002, “Contract

Stresses in Dovetail Attachments: I—Finite Element Modeling,” Trans.

Fig. 11 for both resonating modes. ASME: J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 124, pp. 182–189.

The calculations performed allow the determination of the 关5兴 Pierre, C., Ferri, A. A., and Dowell, E. H., 1985, “Multiharmonic Analysis of

damping in the structure caused by friction at blade root joints. Dry Friction Damped Systems Using an Incremental Harmonic Balance

The characteristics of the total damping in the structure, Q = 1 / Method,” Trans. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 52, pp. 958–964.

关6兴 Wang, J. H., and Chen, W. K., 1993, “Investigation of the Vibration of a Blade

共 is the total damping loss factor兲 were obtained directly from With Friction Damper by HBM,” Trans. ASME: J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power,

the calculated forced response functions in vicinity of the reso- 115, pp. 294–299.

nance frequency. The Q-factor extracted from results of the forced 关7兴 Yang, B.-D., and Menq, C.-H., 1997, “Modelling of Friction Contact and its

response is plotted as a function of excitation level in Fig. 12. The Application to the Design of Shroud Contact,” Trans. ASME: J. Eng. Gas

Turbines Power, 119, pp. 958–963.

regression analysis was made for the calculated function and it 关8兴 Sanliturk, K. Y., Imregun, M., and Ewins, D. J., 1997, “Harmonic Balance

was found that the three-parameter exponential function Q = c0 Vibration Analysis of Turbine Blades With Friction Dampers,” Trans. ASME,

+ c1e−c2kF with values for the coefficient values given in Table 3 J. Vib. Acoust., 119, pp. 96–103.

关9兴 Berthillier, M., Dupont, C., Mondal, R., and Barrau, R. R., 1998, “Blades

provides a good approximation for the Q-factor as a function of Forced Response Analysis With Friction Dampers,” Trans. ASME, J. Vib.

the excitation level. Acoust., 120, pp. 468–474.

关10兴 Szwedowicz, J., Sextro, W., Visser, R., and Masserey, P., 2003, “On Forced

4 Conclusions Vibration of Shrouded Turbine Blades,” ASME Paper No. GT-2003-38808.

关11兴 Petrov, E. P., 2004, “A Method for Use of Cyclic Symmetry Properties in

An effective method for predictive analysis of inherent damp- Analysis of Nonlinear Multiharmonic Vibrations of Bladed Disks,” ASME J.

ing at blade-disk root joints has been developed. The method can Turbomach., 126, pp. 175–183.

关12兴 Nacivet, S., Pierre, C., Thouverez, F., and Jezequel, L., 2003, “A Dynamic

use large-scale models for bladed disks with variable contact and Lagrangian Frequency-Time Method for the Vibration of Dry-Friction-

friction at root joints. In order to achieve high speed of calcula- Damped Systems,” J. Sound Vib., 265, pp. 201–219.

tion, the multiharmonic balance formulation for nonlinear equa- 关13兴 Petrov, E. P., and Ewins, D. J., 2004, “Method for Analysis of Nonlinear

tion of motion is used. The formulation allows accuracy required Multiharmonic Vibration of Bladed Disks Mistuned by Scatters in Character-

istics of Friction Contact Interfaces and Blades,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-

to be achieved by keeping necessary number of harmonics in the 53891.

solution and by choosing those harmonic number that are needed 关14兴 Petrov, E. P., and Ewins, D. J., 2003, “Analytical Formulation of Friction

to approximate the solution sought. Interface Elements for Analysis of Nonlinear Multiharmonic Vibrations of

The method is based on analytical formulation of friction area Bladed Disks,” ASME J. Turbomach., 125, pp. 364–371.

关15兴 Craig, R. R., Jr., and Bampton, M. C. C., 1968, “Coupling of Substructures for

contact elements which allows exact calculation of multiharmonic Dynamic Analysis,” AIAA J., 6共7兲, pp. 1313–1319.

components of interaction forces and of the tangent stiffness ma- 关16兴 Petrov, E. P., and Ewins, D. J., 2004, “Generic Friction Models for Time-

trix of the joints for friction contact. Reduction in size of the Domain Vibration Analysis of Bladed Disks,” ASME J. Turbomach., 126, pp.

model is performed by application of the modal synthesis method. 184–192.

关17兴 Green, J. S., 2001, “An Overview of a European Collaborative Programme for

Forced Response,” 6th National Turbine Engine High Cycle Fatigue Confer-

Acknowledgment ence, Jacksonville, FL.

关18兴 Aeromechanical Design of Turbine Blades 共ADTurB兲, Project funded by the

The authors are grateful to Rolls-Royce plc. for providing the European Community under the Industrial and Material Technologies Pro-

financial support for this project and for giving permission gramme 共Brite-EuRam III兲, Contract number: BRPR-CT95-0124, ADTurB

to publish this work. The FE model used for the test case is based Synthesis Report, 2001, 17 pp.

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