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Camunic language

The Camunic language is an extinct


language that was spoken in the 1st
Camunic
millennium BC in the Valcamonica and the Native to the south side of the
Central Alps
Valtellina, both of the Central Alps.
(Valcamonica,
Valtellina), Italy
Region Italian Peninsula
Contents Ethnicity Camunni
Language Era first millennium BC[1]

Transliteration Language uncertain, perhaps


family Tyrsenian[2] or Indo-
Gallery
European (Celtic)[3]
See also

References
Language codes
Bibliography ISO 639-3 xcc
External links
Linguist xcc

List (http://multitree.org
/codes/xcc)
Language Glottolog camu1235
The extant corpus is carved on rock, similar (http://glottolog.org
to the rock carvings of Valcamonica. There /resource/languoid

are at least 170 known inscriptions, the /id/camu1235)[4]

majority of which are only a few words long.


The writing system used is a variant of the north-Etruscan alphabet, known as the
Camunian alphabet or alphabet of Sondrio. Longer inscriptions show that Camunic writing
used boustrophedon.

Its name derives from the people of the Camunni, who lived during the Iron Age in Val
Camonica and were the creators of many of the stone carvings in the area.
Abecedariums found in Nadro and Piancogno have been dated to between 500 BC and
50 AD.[5]

The amount of material is insu�cient to decipher the language, or even to establish


what relationship it has to other languages. Some scholars think it may be related to
Etruscan and Raetic.[2] Most recently Camunic has been proposed to be a Celtic
language.[3]

Transliteration
Tibiletti Bruno Zavaroni Martinotti
Gliph
1992[6] 2004[7] 2009[8]

- A -

A A

A -

B B (V?)

B B (V?)

- D

h D (?) -

E E

E E

E E

V -

G K (G?)

G -

h H J (ii/h/η?)

- H -

I I

I I

- K K (G?)

L L Alphabet of Sondrio

L L

M M

M M

N N

N N
O Φ (Q?)

- P -

P P

R R

R R

S χ

S S

S S

T T

T T

- T I

- TS - -

TS - χ

U-W U

- U-W U

Z χ

Z χ

Gallery
Inscription from Capo di Inscription from Nadro Inscription from Nadro
Ponte (Val Camonica) (Val Camonica) (Val Camonica)

Inscription from the


museum of Sondrio
(Valtellina)

See also
Camunni
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Val Camonica

References
1. Camunic (http://multitree.org/codes/xcc) at MultiTree on the Linguist List
2. "Camunic : Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe : Blackwell Reference Online"
(http://www.blackwellreference.com/public
/tocnode?id=g9780631220398_chunk_g97806312203989_ss1-3).
Blackwellreference.com. Retrieved 2018-05-26.
3. Markey, Thomas (2008). Shared Symbolics, Genre Diffusion, Token Perception and
Late Literacy in North-Western Europe. NOWELE.
4. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Camunic"
(http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/camu1235). Glottolog 3.0. Jena,
Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
5. "Iscrizioni camune a cura di Adolfo Zavaroni" (http://www.simbolisullaroccia.it
/archivio/2005/2005-iscrizioni-zavaroni/archivio_iscrizioni.htm#) (in Italian).
Retrieved 2009-09-20.
6. Maria Grazia Tibiletti Bruno, Gli alfabetari, Quaderni camuni n° 60, 1992, p. 307
7. Adolfo Zavaroni, Iscrizioni camune (http://www.simbolisullaroccia.it
/PDF/ISCRIZIONI%20CAMUNE.pdf), 2004
8. Angelo Martinotti, Le iscrizioni preromane in Lucus rupestris, 2009, p. 325

Bibliography
Mancini, Alberto. 1980. "Le iscrizioni della Valcamonica" in Studi Urbinati di storia,
filosofia e letteratura. Supplemento linguistico 2, pp. 75–166.
Mancini, Alberto. 1991. "Iscrizioni retiche e iscrizioni camune. Due ambiti a
confronto" in Quaderni del Dipartimento di Linguistica, Università degli studi di
Firenze 2, pp. 77–93.
Marchesini, Simona. 2011. "Alla ricerca del modello perduto. Sulla genesi
dell’alfabeto camuno" (https://www.academia.edu/1215730
/Alla_ricerca_del_modello_perduto._Sulla_genesi_dellalfabeto_camuno),
Palaeohispanica 11, pp. 155-171
Markey, Thomas L. 2008. "Shared symbolics, genre difussion, token perceptions
and late literacy in North-western Europe" in NOWELE 54/55, pp. 5–62.
Morandi, Alessandro. 2004. Epigrafia e lingua dei Celti d'Italia, vol. II. Celti d’Italia,
ed. by Paola Piana Agostinetti (Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica, 12), Roma 2004
Prosdocimi, Aldo Luigi. 1965. "Per un'edizione delle iscrizioni della Valcamonica",
in Studi Etruschi 33, pp. 574–599.
Schumacher, Stefan. 2007. "Val Camonica, Inschriften" in Reallexikon der
germanischen Altertumskunde. Band 35: Speckstein bis Zwiebel. Ed. Heinrich Beck
et al., Berlin – New York, pp. 334–337.
Tibiletti Bruno, Maria Grazia. 1978. "Camuno, retico e pararetico", in Lingue e
dialetti dell'Italia antica ('Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica', 6), ed. by A. L.
Prosdocimi, Roma 1978, pp. 209–255.
Tibiletti Bruno, Maria Grazia. 1990. "Nuove iscrizioni camune" in Quaderni camuni
49-50, pp. 29–171.
Tibiletti Bruno, Maria Grazia. 1992. "Gli alfabetari" in Quaderni camuni 60,
pp. 309–380.

External links
"Etruscan alphabet" (http://www.omniglot.com/writing/etruscan.htm). Retrieved
2009-09-20.
"Iscrizioni camune a cura di Adolfo Zavaroni" (http://www.simbolisullaroccia.it
/archivio/2005/2005-iscrizioni-zavaroni/archivio_iscrizioni.htm#) (in Italian).
Retrieved 2009-08-20.
"Tracce n° 7 Scratched horses in a relief from Cividate Camuno – Valcamonica
(Italy)" (http://www.rupestre.net/tracce/12/neoderia.html). Retrieved
2009-09-18.
"Tracce n° 9 Vite-Deria, Paspardo, Valcamonica. Ricerche 1990–97"
(http://www.rupestre.net/tracce/VITDERIA.html) (in Italian). Retrieved
2009-09-18.
"Tracce n° 9 Rock and Roll with the Camunnians Did they have ladders in the
prehistory?" (http://www.rupestre.net/tracce/sfield97.html). Retrieved
2009-09-18.
"Tracce n° 12 Due nuove rocce istoriate in località Vite area di Vite-Deria, Paspardo
(Valcamonica, BS)" (http://www.rupestre.net/tracce/cividat.html) (in Italian).
Retrieved 2009-09-18.

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