Heat transfer

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Heat transfer

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• Introduction

Heat Transfer

– Practical occurrences, applications, factors affecting heat transfer

– Categories and modes of heat transfer

• Conduction

– In a slab and across a pipe

• Convection

– Free (natural) and forced (in a pipe and over a solid object)

– Determination of convective heat transfer coefficient (h and hfp)

• Radiation

• Thermal resistances to heat transfer

• Overall heat transfer coefficient (U)

• Steady state heat transfer

– In a tubular heat exchanger (without and with insulation)

• Dimensionless numbers in heat transfer

– Steady: Reynolds #, Prandtl #, Nusselt #, Grashof #; Unsteady: Fourier #, Biot #

• Unsteady state heat transfer

– For conduction/convection driven heat transfer; Heisler chart 2

Introduction

1

Practical Occurrences

• Is a metallic park bench colder than a wooden park bench?

• What is wind-chill factor? What is heat index?

• Why dress in layers during winter?

• How does a fan provide cooling effect? Does it blow cold air?

• What is the insulation used in houses? Is it for winter or summer?

• Why does our skin dry-up in a heated room?

• What time of the day and why do we get sea-breeze?

• Why are higher altitude places colder?

• Does hot water freeze faster than cold water?

• In winter, do hot or cold water pipes burst first?

• What is greenhouse effect? What is the principle behind it?

• Can you lose weight by drinking cold water?

• Why are “fins” present on the outside of the radiator of a car?

• “Bridge freezes before road” -- Why?

• Why is salt used to melt ice on the road? When is sand used?

• How does an igloo keep an Eskimo warm?

• Why do you see cars breakdown or pull over to the shoulder of a highway during traffic

jams? Do traffic jams cause breakdowns or do breakdowns cause traffic jams? 4

• Automobile: Radiator and engine coolant

• Electronics: Cooling of motherboard/CPU by fan

• Pharmaceutical: Freeze drying of vaccines

• Metallurgical: Heating/cooling during steel

manufacture

• Chemical: Condensation, boiling, distillation of

chemicals

5

• Melting: Thawing of a frozen food (turkey)

• Freezing: Freezing of ice-cream mix

• Drying: Drying of fruits

• Evaporation: Spray drying of coffee or

concentration of juices

• Sublimation: Freeze drying of coffee

• Heating/cooling of milk

• Baking of bread

• Processing of canned soups (inactivate

microorganisms & maximize nutrient content,

color/flavor/texture) 6

2

What Factors Affect Rate of Heat Transfer?

• Thermal

– Specific heat (cp in J/kg K)

• Measured using Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)

– Thermal conductivity (k in W/m K)

• Measured using Fitch apparatus or thermal conductivity probe (Lab #5)

• Physical

– Density ( in kg/m3)

• Measured using pycnometer

• Rheological (measured using rheometer/viscometer)

– Viscosity ( in Pa s) for Newtonian fluids

OR

– Consistency coefficient (K in Pa sn) and flow behavior index (n)

for power-law fluids

Note: Thermal diffusivity ( = k/cp in m2/s) combines the effect of several factors7

and Thermal Diffusivity

• Specific heat (cp)

– A measure of how much energy is required to raise the

temperature of an object

• Thermal conductivity (k)

– A measure of how quickly heat gets conducted from one

part of an object to another

• Thermal diffusivity ()

– It combines the effects of specific heat, thermal

conductivity, and density of a material. Thus, this one

quantity can be used to determine how temperature

changes at various points within an object.

8

Heat flux held constant & temperature diff. measured

Q = m1 cp(1) (T1) = m2 cp(2) (T2)

cp(2) = {m1/m2} {(T1)/ (T2)} cp(1)

Manufacturer: Perkin-Elmer 9

3

Thermal Conductivity (Fitch Apparatus)

Slope

Heat Source

(ice-water mix) Intercept

Q

This can be rewritten as:

Sample t: time

(cheese slice)

m, cp, A, T: For heat sink

(mass, sp. ht., area, temp.)

Ti: Initial temp. of heat sink

Heat Sink

(copper block) T∞: Temp. of heat source

Insulation L: Thickness of sample Y X

Note: ‘k’ is always a positive number

10

KD2 Pro Probe (Manufacturer: Decagon Devices)

Single needle probe: Can measure ‘k’

Dual needle probe: Can measure ‘k’ and ‘’ = k / ( cp)

Sample

Sample

: Density (kg/m3); cp: Specific heat (J/kg K)

11

• Good conductors of heat have high k values

– Cu: 401 W/m K

– Al: 250 W/m K

– Fe: 80 W/m K

– Stainless steel: 16 W/m K

• Insulators have very low (but positive) k values

– Paper: 0.05 W/m K

– Cork, fiberglass: 0.04 W/m K

– Cotton, styrofoam, expanded polystyrene: 0.03 W/m K

– Air: 0.024 W/m K (lower k than insulators!)

• Foods and other materials have intermediate to low k values

– Foods: 0.3 to 0.6 W/m K (water: ~0.6 W/m K at room temperature)

– Glass: 1.05 W/m K; Brick: 0.7 - 1.3 W/m K; Concrete: 0.4 - 1.7 W/m K

– Plastics (commonly used): 0.15 - 0.6 W/m K

• Thermally conductive plastics may have k > 20 W/m K 12

4

Empirical Correlations

+ 0.837 (Xa) Heldman & Singh, 1981

0.135 (Xa) Choi & Okos, 1984

13

14

Questions

Q: When the same heating source is used to heat

identical quantities of water and butter, which will be

hotter after a certain time?

Ans: Butter; because it has a lower specific heat

nearby wooden park bench?

Ans: NO. A metallic bench has a higher thermal

conductivity and hence conducts heat very well,

thereby taking away the heat generated by our body

very fast and making us feel colder. 15

5

Categories of Heat Transfer

• Steady state

– Temperatures at all points within the system remain

constant over time

– The temperatures at different locations within the system

may be different, but they do not change over time

– Strictly speaking, steady state conditions are uncommon

• Conditions are often approximated to be steady state

– Eg.: Temperature inside a room or refrigerator

• Unsteady state

– Temperature(s) at one or more points in the system

change(s) over time

– Eg.: Temperature inside a canned food during cooking 16

• Conduction

– Translation of vibration of molecules as they acquire thermal energy

• Occurs in solids, liquids, and gases

– Heat transfer from hot plate to vessel/pot

– Heat transfer from surface of turkey to its center

• Convection

– Fluid currents developed due to temp. differences {within a fluid

(liquid/gas) or between a fluid and a solid} or the use of a pump/fan

• Occurs in liquids and gases

– Heat transfer from hot vessel/pot to soup in it

• Radiation

– Emission & absorption of electromagnetic radiation between two

surfaces (can occur in vacuum too)

• Occurs in solids, liquids, and gases

– Radiation from sun; reflective thermos flask; IR heating of buffet food 17

Conduction

18

6

Basics of Conduction

• Conduction involves the translation of vibration of

molecules along a temperature gradient as they acquire

thermal energy (mainly analyzed within solids;

however, it takes place in liquids and gases also)

– Actual movement of particles does not occur

• Good conductors of electricity are generally good

conductors of heat

• Thermal conductivity (k) is used to quantify the ability

of a material to conduct heat

19

Rate of heat transfer by conduction is given by

Fourier’s law of heat conduction as follows:

Q = - kA (T/x)

The negative sign is used to denote/determine the

direction of heat transfer (Left to right or right to left)

k: Thermal conductivity (W/m K); it is a +ve quantity

A: Area of heat transfer (m2)

T: Temperature difference across the ends of solid (K)

x: Distance across which heat transfer is taking place (m)

Q/A: Heat flux (W/m2)

20

Heat flow

T1

• Slab: Q = kA (T/x) x

T = T1 – T2 T2

For the same value of Q (example: use of a heater on one

side of a slab),

For insulators (low k), “T1 – T2” is large

For good conductors (high k), “T1 – T2” is small

temperature of room and outside air temperature),

For insulators (low k), Q is small

For good conductors (high k), Q is large

Note: x and A are assumed to be the same in all of the above situations

21

7

Conduction Across a Slab or Cylinder

Heat flow

T1

• Slab: Q = kA (T/x) x

T2

T1 Heat flow

r

T2

• Cylinder: Q = kAlm (T/r)

k: Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

A: Area across which heat transfer is taking place (m2)

T = T1 – T2: Temperature difference (K)

Alm: Logarithmic mean area (m2)

Note: Alm comes into play when the area for heat transfer at the two ends across

which heat transfer is taking place, is not the same

22

r T1 Heat flow

T2 ro Q = kAlm (T/r)

ri

T = T1 – T2

r = ro - ri

L

• Cylinder

– Area at one end (outside) is Ao (= 2roL)

– Area at other end (inside) is Ai (= 2riL)

– Which area should be used in determining Q?

– Alm = (Ao – Ai) / ln (Ao/Ai) = 2L (ro – ri) / [ln (ro/ri)]

– Note: Ao > Alm > Ai 23

Double Tube Heat Exchanger

T1 T2

T1 = Tw(o) – Tp(i) , T2 = Tw(i) – Tp(o)

Tlm = (1 – 2) / [ln (1 / 2)]

Subscripts: ‘w’ for water; ‘p’ for product, ‘i’ for inlet, ‘o’ for outlet

Note: Tlm comes into play when the temperature difference across the two ends

where heat transfer is taking place, is not the same 24

8

Convection

25

Basics of Convection

• It involves transfer of heat by movement of

molecules of fluid (liquid or gas) due to

– Temperatures differences within a fluid or between a

fluid and a solid object

OR

– An external agency such as a pump or a fan

• Convection is a combination of

– Diffusion (microscopic/molecular level)

• Random Brownian motion due to temperature gradient

– Advection (macroscopic level)

• Heat is transferred from one place to another by fluid movement

26

cooling) is given by Newton’s law of cooling as follows:

Q = h A (Ts - T∞)

Q: Energy transferred per unit time (W)

h: Convective heat transfer coefficient -- CHTC (W/m2 K)

A: Surface area available for heat transfer (m2)

T = Ts – T∞ : Temperature difference (K)

Ts: Surface temperature of solid object (K)

T∞: Free stream (or bulk fluid) temperature of fluid (K)

CHTC (h): Measure of rate of heat transfer by convection; NOT a property;

depends on fluid velocity, surface characteristics (shape, size, smoothness),

fluid properties (, k, , cp)

27

9

Categories of Convection

• Free (or natural) convection

– Does not involve any external agency in causing flow

– Heat transfer between bottom of vessel and fluid in it

– Cooling of human body

– Cooling of radiator fluid in car engine during idling

– hair-solid: 5-25 W/m2 K; hwater-solid: 20-100 W/m2 K

• Forced convection

– External agency such as fan/pump causes flow

– Cooling of radiator fluid in car engine during motion

– Ice-cream freezer (Blast air)

– Stirring a pot of soup

– Heat transferred from computers (fan)

– hair-solid: 10-200 W/m2 K; hwater-solid: 50-10,000 W/m2 K

– hboiling water or steam to solid: 3,000-100,000 W/m2 K 28

Free Convection

• Fluid comes into contact with hot solid

• Fluid temperature near solid increases

• Fluid density near solid decreases

• This results in a buoyancy force that causes flow

• Rate of heat transfer (Q & h) depends on

– Temperature difference between fluid and surface of solid

– Properties (, , k, cp) of fluid

– Dimensions and surface characteristics (smoothness) of solid

29

Question

Q: What is wind-chill factor? In winter, a

thermometer reads -20 °C when air is stationary. All

of a sudden, a gust of wind blows. What will the

thermometer read?

Ans: -20 °C. As wind speed increases, more heat is

removed from our body due to an increase in ‘h’

and hence ‘Q’. Thus, we feel colder than when the

air is stationary. The air is NOT colder, we just feel

colder since more heat is removed from our body

and our body is unable to generate enough heat to

replace the energy lost to the surroundings.

30

10

Nusselt Number (NNu)

dc: Characteristic dimension (m)

kf: Thermal conductivity of fluid (W/m K)

Nusselt number represents the ratio of heat transfer by convection & conduction

31

g: Acceleration due to gravity (= 9.81 m/s2)

f: Density of fluid (kg/m3)

Ts: Surface temperature of solid object (K)

T∞: Free stream temperature of fluid (K)

dc: Characteristic dimension of solid object (m)

(Obtained from tables based on shape & orientation of solid object)

f: Viscosity of surrounding fluid (Pa s)

32

f: Viscosity of fluid (Pa s)

kf: Thermal conductivity of fluid (W/m K)

33

11

Properties of Air

0.72

0.74

0.74

0.74

0.73

0.73

0.73

0.73

0.73

0.72

0.72

0.72

0.72

0.72

0.73

0.72

0.72

0.72

0.72

34

Properties of Water

35

• NNu = hdc/kf = f (NGr, NPr)

• For vertical plate (dc = plate height)

a = 0.59, m = 0.250 (for 104 < NRa < 109)

a = 0.10, m = 0.333 (for 109 < NRa < 1013)

• For inclined plate (for NRa < 109)

Use same eqn as vertical plate & replace ‘g’ by ‘g cos ’ in NGr

• For horizontal plate (dc = Area/Perimeter)

Upper surface hot

• a = 0.54, m = 0.250 (for 104 < NRa < 107)

• a = 0.15, m = 0.333 (for 107 < NRa < 1011)

Lower surface hot

• a = 0.27, m = 0.250 (for 105 < NRa < 1011) 36

12

Free Convection (Cylinder)

– Similar to vertical plate if D ≥ 35L/(NGr)0.25

37

film temperature {Tfilm = (Ts + T∞)/2} unless otherwise specified

Note 2: For all free convection scenarios, as the T between the fluid and

surface of solid increases, NGr increases. Thus, NNu and ‘h’ increase. 38

Forced Convection

• Fluid is forced to move by an external force (pump/fan)

• Rate of heat transfer (Q & h) depends on

– Properties (, , k, cp) of fluid

– Dimensions and surface characteristics (smoothness) of solid

• ‘h’ does NOT depend on

– Temperature difference between fluid and surface of solid

• ‘h’ strongly depends on Reynolds number

– When all system and product parameters are kept constant, it

is flow rate (a process parameter) that strongly affects ‘h’

39

13

Categories of Convective Heat Transfer

Coefficient for Forced Convection

• Between a moving fluid and a stationary solid object

– Transfer of heat from hot pipe to a fluid flowing in a pipe

– Generally depicted by ‘h’

– Transfer of heat from a hot fluid to a freely flowing

particle in a suspension (particulate/multiphase food)

– Generally depicted by ‘hfp’

40

• NNu = hdc/kf = f (NRe, NPr)

• Three sub-categories of forced convection exist…..

• 1. Laminar flow (NRe < 2100)

– A. Constant surface temperature of pipe

• NNu = 3.66 (for fully developed conditions)

– B. Constant surface heat flux

• NNu = 4.36 (for fully developed conditions)

– C. Other situations (for entry region & fully developed)

• NNu = 1.86 (NRe x NPr x dc/L)0.33 (b/w)0.14

dc: ID of pipe, L: Length of pipe

• 2. Transitional flow

(2100 < NRe < 4000)

– Friction factor (f)

• For smooth pipes:

• For non-smooth pipes, use Moody chart (graph of: f, NRe, /D) 41

Moody Diagram

Relative Roughness (/D)

Friction Factor (f)

= 259 x 10-6 m for cast iron; 1.5235 x 10-6 m for drawn tubing;

152 x 10-6 m for galvanized iron; 45.7 x 10-6 m for steel or wrought iron42

14

Forced Convection in a Pipe (contd.)

3. Turbulent flow (NRe > 4000) of a Newtonian fluid in a pipe,

NNu = 0.023 (NRe)0.8 (NPr)0.33 (b/w)0.14

w: Viscosity of fluid based on wall temperature

The term “(b/w)” is called the viscosity correction factor and can be

approximated to “1.0” in the absence of information on wall temperature

Note: For flow in an annulus, use same eqn with dc = 4 (Acs/Wp) = dio – doi

dio: Inside diameter of outside pipe

doi: Outside diameter of inner pipe

Note: For all forced convection situations, use bulk temperature of fluid

to determine properties (unless otherwise specified) 43

NNu = hdc/kf = f (NRe, NPr) – similar to flow in a pipe

For 1 < NRe < 70,000 and 0.6 < NPr < 400

Note 2: Determine all properties at the film temperature

{Tfilm = (Ts + T∞)/2}

44

• Free convection [Q = hA T; NNu = hdc/kf = f (NGr, NPr)]

– Does not involve any external agency in causing flow

• Temperature difference (T) causes density difference; this causes flow

– Q & h depend on

• Temperature difference between surface of solid and surrounding fluid (T)

• Properties (, , k, cp) of fluid

• Dimensions and surface characteristics (smoothness) of solid

• Forced convection [Q = hA T; NNu = hdc/kf = f (NRe, NPr)]

– External agency such as fan/pump causes flow

– Q & h depend on

• Properties (, , k, cp) of fluid

• Dimensions and surface characteristics (smoothness) of solid

– Only ‘Q’ and NOT ‘h’ depends on temperature difference between

surface of solid and surrounding fluid (T)

45

15

Radiation

46

Boltzmann law as follows:

Q = σ A ε T4

σ: Stefan-Boltzmann constant (= 5.669 x 10-8 W/m2 K4)

A: Surface area of object (m2)

ε: Emissivity of surface (ranges from 0 to 1.0)

T: Temperature (K)

47

Infrared Thermometer

• Infrared thermometer can be used to non-invasively

and remotely determine the surface temperature of

an object

• Care should be exercised in ensuring that ONLY

emitted energy is measured and NOT reflected

energy (may have to use non-reflecting tape on

metallic surfaces)

• The emissivity of some infrared thermometers can

be adjusted; for others, a pre-set value of 0.95 is

commonly programmed

48

16

Thermal Resistances to Heat Transfer

49

• Conduction

– Slab: Q = kA (T/x) = T/[(x/kA)]

– Cylinder: Q = kAlm (T/r) = T/[(r/kAlm)]

– Driving force for heat transfer: T

– Thermal resistance to heat transfer: (x/kA) or (r/kAlm)

• Convection

• Q = hA (T) = T/[(/hA)]

– Driving force for heat transfer: T

– Thermal resistance to heat transfer: (/hA)

Units of thermal resistance to heat transfer: K/W

50

Thermal Resistances

Conduction: Q = kA T/x

Single slab: Q = T/[(x/kA)]

Multiple slabs: Q = T/[(x1/k1A) + (x2/k2A) + …]

Cylindrical shell: Q = T/[(r/kAlm)]

Multiple cylindrical shells: Q = T/[(r1/k1Alm(1)) + (r2/k2Alm(2))]

Convection: Q = hA T

Single convection: Q = T/[(/hA)]

Multiple convections: Q = T/[(/h1A1) + (/h2A2) + …]

Combination of conduction and convection

Multiple slabs

Q = T/[(x1/k1A) + (x2/k2A) + (/h1A1) + (/h2A2) + …]

Multiple cylindrical shells

Q = T/[(/h1A1) + (r1/k1Alm(1)) + (r2/k2Alm(2)) + (/h2A2)]

Units of thermal resistance to heat transfer: K/W 51

17

Electrical Analogy

A current (I) flows because there is a driving

I force, the potential Difference (V), across the

resistance (R)

V R

I = V/R

Q = T/(Thermal Resistance)

I R1 I = V/(R1 + R2)

V

Q = T/(Sum of Thermal Resistances)

R2

52

resistance due to conduction (x/kA) decreases

– Thus, temperature difference between center and surface

of object decreases

• As convective heat transfer coefficient (h) increases,

thermal resistance due to convection (1/hA) decreases

– Thus, temperature difference between the fluid and

surface of the solid object decreases

53

54

18

What is Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient?

• OHTC (denoted by the symbol ‘U’) refers to a

single quantity that can be used to quantify the effect

of all forms (conduction and convection) of heat

transfer taking place in a system

• It facilitates the use of one equation (instead of

individual equations for each conductive and

convective heat transfer in the system) to determine

the total heat transfer taking place in the system

– All thermal resistances in the system are added in order

to facilitate this process

55

• Three conductive heat transfers

1/(UA) = x1/(k1A) + x2/(k2A) + x3/(k3A)

• Two convective heat transfers

1/(UA) = 1/(h1A1) + 1/(h2A2)

• One conductive and one convective heat transfer

1/(UA) = x1/(k1A) + 1/(hA)

Note 1: 1/UA > 1/hA; Thus, U < h

Note 2: If there is no conductive resistance, U = h

“1/UA”: Overall thermal resistance (K/W)

56

• As thermal conductivity (k) increases, thermal resistance due to

conduction (x/kA) decreases

– Thus, temperature difference between center and surface of object

decreases

• As convective heat transfer coefficient (h) increases, thermal

resistance due to convection (1/hA) decreases

– Thus, temperature difference between the fluid and surface of the solid

object decreases

• As overall heat transfer coefficient (U) increases, overall thermal

resistance (1/UA) decreases

– Thus, temperature difference between the two points across which heat

transfer is taking place, decreases

Thermal conductivity: W/m K

Convective heat transfer coefficient: W/m2 K

Overall heat transfer coefficient: W/m2 K

Thermal resistance to heat transfer: K/W 57

19

Why Dress in “Layers” in Winter?

• Single jacket of thickness x:

– Q = T/[(x/kA)]

• Two jackets, each of thickness x/2:

– Q = T/[{(x/2)}/kA) + {(x/2)}/kA)] = T/[(x/kA)]

better to wear two jackets, each of thickness x/2?

Air trapped between the two jackets adds a convective

thermal resistance. Thus,

Q = T/[{(x/2)}/kA) + {(x/2)}/kA) + (1/hA)]

Thus, total thermal resistance increases and Q decreases

58

Q

• A heater is used to maintain the

Q h 5 °C left end of the slab at 95 °C

• Ambient air on right side is at 5 °C

k • What factors determine the

95 °C magnitude of temperature at right

x T

end of slab?

• Resistance to heat transfer from left (by conduction) is x/kA

• Resistance to heat transfer from right (by convection) is 1/hA

• If both resistances are equal, T = (95 + 5)/2 = 50 °C

• If conductive resistance is less (occurs when ‘k’ is high), T > 50 °C

• If convective resistance is less (occurs when ‘h’ is high), T < 50 °C

Note: The same Q flows through the slab and outside

Thus, Q = kA (95 – T)/x = hA (T – 5) 59

60

20

Types of Heating Equipment

• Direct contact

– Steam injection, steam infusion

• Indirect contact (Other than plate, tubular, Shell & tube, SSHE)

– Retorts (Using hot water, steam, or steam-air for heating)

• Batch (Agitation: None, axial or end-over-end): With our w/o basket/crate

• Continuous (With agitation): Conventional, Hydrostatic

– Plate: Series, parallel, series-parallel

– Tubular: Double tube, triple tube, multi-tube

– Shell & tube: Single pass, multiple pass, cross-flow

– Scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE)

• Alternative/Novel/Emerging Technologies

– Microwave and radio frequency heating

• Uses electromagnetic radiation; polar molecules heat up

– Ohmic heating

• Electric current in food causes heating; ions in food, cause heating 61

Steam Injection

Intense, turbulent mixing of

steam and product occurs. It

Steam results in rapid heating and

dilution of product. A vacuum

Pneumatically chamber is used downstream

actuated to evaporate steam that

condensed into product.

Pneumatically actuated

Variable Gap

Product

www.process-heating.com

62

Steam Infusion

Air out

CIP in

Steam in

Product in

Cooling

water in/out This is a gentler process than

steam injection. A vacuum

chamber is used downstream to

evaporate steam that condensed

into product.

Product out 63

21

Batch Retorts

• Static (with or without crates/baskets) Rotary, end-over-end

or reciprocating

– Horizontal motion is used to mix

– Vertical the product and make

the temperature

• Rotary (axial or end-over-end rotation) distribution uniform

End-over-end Rotation

Axial Rotation

• Reciprocating

– Shaka

64

Raw canned Horizontal Basket Retort

foods are

placed in basket

SuperAgi Retort

www.libertyprocess.co.uk

www.jbtfoodtech.com

65

66

22

Conventional Continuous Rotary Retort

67

Hydrostatic Retort

Height of water

column provides

enough pressure

to prevent water

from boiling at

temperatures well

above 100 °C

68

Hydrostatic Retort/Sterilizer

69

23

Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE)

on one side of

plate and cold

fluid flows on

other side of

plate. Heat

transfer occurs

across each plate.

70

Advantage

Low pressure drop

Disadvantage

1X4 Low heat transfer

1X4

71

Advantage

High heat transfer

4X1 Disadvantage

4X1 High pressure drop

72

24

PHEs (Series & Parallel)

Advantage

Optimized

pressure drop

and heat transfer

2X2

1X4

73

Regeneration in a PHE

Raw product

cold raw product. Typical regeneration efficiency is ~90%. 74

Heating from 1 side

75

25

Shell & Tube: (One & Two Pass)

pattern (product and heating/cooling

medium flow at right angles to one another)

with uniform heat transfer throughout the

heat exchanger. Baffles prevent short-

circuiting of heating medium directly from

the inlet port to the outlet port.

76

(SSHE)

Motor

Shaft with motor rotating it

Blade

Blade Insulation

Product

Cross-sectional view Insulation

Steam

Advantage: Mixing of viscous foods jacket

uncertain residence time, cleaning

Product 77

Hot/Cold water

Heat Transfer

Product

Two concentric tubes

Product generally flows in inner tube

Heating/cooling medium generally flows in outer tube (annulus)

One stream gains heat while the other stream loses heat (hence, heat exchanger)

Heat transfer takes place across wall of inner tube

Both streams may flow in the same or opposite directions 78

26

Heat Transfer in a Double Tube HX

(Hot water heating a product)

Q = hoAo [Thot water - Twall (outside)] Hot water

Tho ho .

Thi, mh, cp(h)

Q = kAlm [Twall (outside) - Twall (inside)]/r

U Q = hiAi [Twall (inside) - Tproduct]

Product hi rii roi

.

Tci, mc, cp(c) Tco

Subscripts for T: ‘c’ for cold, ‘h’ for hot, ‘i’ for inlet, ‘o’ for outlet 79

• Convection

From hot water to outside surface of inner tube

Q = hoAo [Thot water - Twall (outside)]

• Conduction

From outside of inner tube to inside of inner tube

Q = kAlm [Twall (outside) - Twall (inside)]/r

• Convection

From inside surface of inner tube to bulk of product

Q = hiAi [Twall (inside) - Tproduct]

80

Water to Product

Hot water

ho

Convective resistance (1/ho Ao)

Conductive resistance (r/k Alm)

Convective resistance (1/hi Ai)

Product hi

81

27

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U)

Q = T / [(1/hoAo) + (r/kAlm) + (1/hiAi)]

Thermal resistances have been added

1/UAlm = (1/hoAo) + (r/kAlm) + (1/hiAi)

Thus, Q = UAlm Tlm U: W/m2 K

U: Accounts for all modes of heat transfer from hot water to product

U is NOT a property; it is NOT fixed for a HX; it depends on material

properties, system dimensions, and process parameters

82

• hi and ho are usually determined using empirical

correlations

• ‘k’ is a material property of the tube of HX

• Ai, Ao, and Alm are determined based on dimensions

(length & radii) of heat exchanger tubes

• Once Ai, Ao, Alm, hi, ho , and k are known, U is

calculated using the above equation

83

(Hot Water as Heating Medium)

. .

Q = mc cp(c) Tc = mh cp(h) Th

= UAlm Tlm

Assumption: Heat loss = zero

product and hot water are experimentally

determined, U can be calculated

Qlost by hot water = Qgained by product + Qlost to outside

84

28

Tubular Heat Exchanger (Co- and Counter-Current)

1/UAlm = (1/hoAo) + (r/kAlm) + (1/hiAi) and Q = UAlm Tlm

h: Hot

c: Cold h: Hot

i: Inlet c: Cold

i: Inlet

Temperature

Temperature

o: Outlet

o: Outlet

Used only when rapid initial cooling is needed Most commonly used

Lower heat transfer efficiency Higher heat transfer efficiency

Tco ≤ Tho always Tco can be greater than Tho

T btwn hot & cold fluid dec. along length T btwn hot & cold fluid does not

Ai = Inside surface area of inner pipe = 2 rii L change significantly along length

Ao = Outside surface area of inner pipe = 2 roi L

Alm = Logarithmic mean area of inner pipe = (Ao – Ai) / [ln (Ao/Ai)]

= 2L (roi – rii)/[ln (roi/rii)]

Tlm = Logarithmic mean temperature difference = (T1 – T2)/[ln(T1/T2)] 85

Co-Current Arrangement

Q3

Hot water . ho Tho

Thi, mh, cp(h) Q2

Product U

. hi Q1 Tco

Tci, mc, cp(c) rii roi

L r = roi - rii

Q1: Energy transferred from heating medium to product (= energy gained by product)

Q2: Energy lost by heating medium (= energy gained by product and surroundings)

Q3: Energy transferred from heating medium to surroundings (= energy gained by surroundings)

Note: Q2 = Q1 + Q3

Common approximation: Q3 = 0 (valid if HX is insulated)

In this case, .

. . Subscripts for m, cp, T, T:

Q1 = mc cp(c) (T)c = Q2 = mh cp(h) (T)h = UAlm Tlm ‘h’ for hot, ‘c’ for cold

with 1/UAlm = 1/hiAi + r/kAlm + 1/hoAo ‘i’ for inlet, ‘o’ for outlet

Note 1: (T)c = (Tco – Tci); (T)h = (Thi – Tho) Subscripts for h, A:

Note 2: (T)1 = (Thi – Tci); (T)2 = (Tho – Tco) ‘i’ for inside, ‘o’ for outside 86

Counter-Current Arrangement

Q3

Tho Q2 ho

.

Thi, mh, cp(h) Hot water

Product U

. Q hi Tco

Tci, mc, cp(c) 1 rii roi

L r = roi - rii

Q1: Energy transferred from heating medium to product (= energy gained by product)

Q2: Energy lost by heating medium (= energy gained by product and surroundings)

Q3: Energy transferred from heating medium to surroundings (= energy gained by surroundings)

Note: Q2 = Q1 + Q3

Common approximation: Q3 = 0 (valid if HX is insulated)

In this case, .

. . Subscripts for m, cp, T, T:

Q1 = mc cp(c) (T)c = Q2 = mh cp(h) (T)h = UAlm Tlm ‘h’ for hot, ‘c’ for cold

with 1/UAlm = 1/hiAi + r/kAlm + 1/hoAo ‘i’ for inlet, ‘o’ for outlet

Note 1: (T)c = (Tco – Tci); (T)h = (Thi – Tho) Subscripts for h, A:

Note 2: (T)1 = (Tho – Tci); (T)2 = (Thi – Tco) ‘i’ for inside, ‘o’ for outside 87

29

Insulation

88

Effect of Insulation

• Air has a lower ‘k’ value than most insulating materials.

Why do we use insulation then, to minimize heat loss

from a heated pipe?

• Does the addition of insulation around a hot pipe

surrounded by a cold fluid always decrease the heat loss

from the pipe?

– Not always!

• Addition of insulation

– Increases the thermal resistance to heat transfer by conduction

(x/kA)

– Decreases the thermal resistance to heat transfer by

convection (1/hA)

– The net effect may be an increase or decrease in heat loss 89

Without Insulation With Insulation

ho

ho To

To

Ti hi r1 r2 r3 r2 r1 hi Ti

(r/kAlm)pipe + (1/hiAi)]

rpipe = r2 – r1 and Ao = 2r2 L rinsulation = r3 – r2 and A’o = 2r3 L

(Alm)pipe = 2L (r2 – r1) / [ln (r2/r1)] (Alm)insulation = 2L (r3 – r2) / [ln (r3/r2)]

Adding insulation inc. conductive res. & dec. convective res.

Setting dQ/dr3 = 0, and ensuring that d2Q/dr32 is –ve, yields Qmax

This happens when r3 = kins/ho = rcritical = rc

Thus, as insulation is added, heat loss increases till r3 = kins/ho; then it decreases

If r2 > kins/ho, heat loss decreases even if a small amount of insulation is added 90

30

Qins/Qbare versus Thickness of Insulation

Outside Radius of Pipe = 2.25 cm

2

1.8

1.6

k/h = 0.01 m

1.4 k/h = 0.03 m

k/h = 0.05 m

1.2

k/h = 0.1 m

Qins / Qbare

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Zero benefit

0

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

91

92

• Reynolds number

cross-section

pipes

• Prandtl number

• Grashof number

93

31

Dimensionless Numbers (contd.)

• Biot number

s = k/( cp)

• Fourier number = Thermal diffusivity (m2/s)

Nusselt number: Ratio of heat transfer by convection & conduction

Prandtl number: Ratio of momentum & thermal diffusivities

Grashof number: Ratio of buoyancy & viscous forces

Biot number: Ratio of internal & external resistance to heat transfer

Fourier number: Ratio of heat conduction & heat storage

Subscripts: ‘f’ for fluid & ‘s’ for solid

dc (for free convection): Look up notes/slides based on shape of object

dc (for forced convection pipe flow) = 4 (Across-section)/(Wetted perimeter)

Dc: (for unsteady state heat transfer): Distance btwn hottest & coldest points in solid object

94

• Nusselt #

– Used in STEADY state heat transfer (to determine ‘h’)

– dc: Characteristic dimension (= pipe diameter for flow in a pipe)

– kf: Thermal conductivity of FLUID

• Biot #

– Used in UNSTEADY state heat transfer (to determine the relative

importance of conduction versus convection heat transfer)

– Dc: Distance between hottest and coldest point in solid object

– ks: Thermal conductivity of SOLID 95

(Heat Conduction to the Center of a Solid Object)

96

32

Basics of Unsteady State heat Transfer

• Temperature at one or more points in the system

changes as a function of time

• Goal of unsteady state heat transfer

– Determine time taken for an object to attain a certain

temperature

OR

– Determine temperature of an object after a certain time

• The dimensionless numbers that come into play for

unsteady state heat transfer are Biot # (NBi = hDc/ks

and Fourier # (NFo = st/Dc2) Note: s = k/( cp) 97

Categories are based on the magnitude of Biot # (NBi = hDc/ks)

NBi < 0.1 (also called lumped capacitance/parameter method)

2. Finite internal and external resistances

0.1 < NBi < 40

3. Negligible external (convective) resistance

NBi > 40

Dc for unsteady state heat transfer: Distance between points of maximum

temperature difference within solid object

Dc for sphere: Radius of sphere

Dc for an infinitely long cylinder: Radius of cylinder

Dc for infinite slab with heat transfer from top & bottom: Half thickness of slab

Dc for an infinite slab with heat transfer from top: Thickness of slab 98

Center of a Sphere

• Consider hot air (at 100 °C) being blown over a cold

sphere (at 20 °C)

h

20 °C

20 °C

100 °C air

• Convection (external) Q = hA T = T/(1/hA)

• Conduction (internal) Q = kA T/x = T/(x/kA)

99

33

Significance of Magnitude of NBi

– Occurs when ks is very high (metals) OR Dc is very small

t = 0 min t = 2 min

20 °C 20 °C 50 °C 49 °C

– Occurs when ‘h’ is very high (NRe is high) OR Dc is large

t = 0 min t = 2 min

20 °C 20 °C 95 °C 55 °C 100

• 0.1 < NBi < 40 (Cat. #2) => Neither conductive nor

convective resistance is negligible (both are of the same

order of magnitude)

– Occurs when neither ‘h’ nor ‘k’ is very high

t = 0 min t = 2 min

20 °C 20 °C 70 °C 45 °C

101

Category #1

OR

Based on time-temperature data, the equation can be used to determine ‘h’

Ti: Initial temperature of solid object (K)

T∞: Temperature of surrounding fluid (K)

h: Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)

A: Surface area for heat transfer (m2) Shape Area Volume

: Density of solid object (kg/m3) Brick 2 (LW+LH+WH) LWH

V: Volume of solid object (m3) Cylinder 2RL + 2R2 R2L

cp: Specific heat of solid object (J/kg K) Sphere 4R2 (4/3)R3

Note: V = mass of object (kg) L: Length of brick or cylinder

W, H: Width, height of brick resp.

R: Radius of cylinder or sphere 102

34

Category #2

• Need to use Heisler charts

– TR on y-axis and Fourier number (NFo) on x-axis

• Several straight lines based on different values of 1/NBi

1/NBi, we can determine x-axis value (or NFo) and

hence time, t

OR

• Knowing time, t (and hence NFo or x-axis value),

and value of 1/NBi, we can determine y-axis value

(or TR) and hence temperature, T

103

1

1/NBi = 100

0.1

0.01

1/NBi = 0

0.001

0 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

TR [=(T-T∞)/(Ti-T∞)]

35

Heisler Chart (For Infinite Cylinder)

TR [=(T-T∞)/(Ti-T∞)]

TR [=(T-T∞)/(Ti-T∞)]

Category #3

• Need to use Heisler charts to determine time-

temperature relation

– These charts are a way to approximate the exact solution

(equation) that represents how temperature (T) changes

as a function of time (t)

• Similar approach as category #2

• Since NBi > 40, 1/NBi is very small (~ 0)

• Thus, we use Heisler charts with the line

corresponding to 1/NBi = 0

– Note: 1/NBi = k/(hDc)

108

36

Summary of Categories of Unsteady

State Heat Transfer

NBi NBi < 0.1 0.1 < NBi < 40 NBi > 40

This category is ‘k’ is high OR Neither ‘k’ nor ‘h’ are ‘h’ is high OR

encountered Dc is small high and Dc is not too Dc is large

when….. small or too large

Resistance that Conductive None Convective

is negligible (Internal) (External)

T that is small Btwn center and None Btwn fluid and

surface of solid surface of solid

Solution Lumped Heisler chart(s) Heisler chart(s)

approach parameter eqn. (with 1/NBi = 0)

109

Heisler Charts

• For a finite sphere

• For an “infinitely” long cylinder

• For a slab “infinitely” long in two dimensions &

finite in one dimension

• Temperature at ONLY center of object can be

determined

– Use Gurney-Lurie charts for temperatures at other

locations within object

Rule of thumb: If one dimension of an object is at least 10 times another of its dimension,

the first dimension is considered to be “infinite” in comparison to the other 110

Finite Objects

Finite brick: Intersection of 3

infinite slabs

infinite cylinder & infinite slab

111

37

Finite Objects

• Finite objects (such as a cylinder or brick can be

obtained as an intersection of infinite objects)

temperatures for finite cylinder (food in a can) and finite brick (food in

a tray)

(t)finite brick ≠ (t)infinite slab, width + (t)infinite slab, depth + (t)infinite slab, height

112

Infinite Cylinder Infinite Slab

Characteristic

dimension (Dc)

Biot number (NBi) If both NBi < 0.1, the lumped parameter method (eqn) can be used

NBi = h Dc/ks

1/NBi

Thermal diffusivity ()

s = ks/(s cp(s))

Fourier number (NFo)

NFo = st/Dc2

Temperature ratio (TR)

from Heisler chart

(based on values of NFo

& 1/NBi)

Infinite Slab #1 Infinite Slab #2 Infinite Slab #3

Characteristic

dimension (Dc)

Biot number (NBi)

If all 3 NBi < 0.1, the lumped parameter method (eqn) can be used

NBi = h Dc/ks

1/NBi

Thermal diffusivity (s)

s = ks/(s cp(s))

Fourier number (NFo)

NFo = st/Dc2

Temperature ratio (TR)

from Heisler chart

(based on values of NFo

& 1/NBi)

38

Temperature Ratio (TR)

• At time t = ∞, T = T∞ and hence TR = 0

• Thus, TR starts off at 1.0 and can at best reach 0.0

change in temperature (from Ti) of the object

• High values of TR (closer to 1.0) indicate a minimal

change in temperature (from Ti) of the object

115

Summary

• Categories of steady state heat transfer

Conduction, convection, radiation

• Conduction: Fourier’s law of heat conduction

Q = - kA (T/x); replace A & T by Alm & Tlm resp. for cyl.

• Logarithmic mean area

Alm = (Ao – Ai) / ln (Ao/Ai) = 2L (ro – ri) / [ln (ro/ri)]

• Logarithmic mean temperature difference

Tlm = (1 – 2) / [ln (1 / 2)]

• Convection: Newton’s law of cooling

Q = h A (T)

• Free convection: Due to density differences within a fluid;

Forced convection: Due to external agency (fan/pump)

NNu = f(NGr & NPr) for free; NNu = f(NRe & NPr) for forced 116

Summary (contd.)

• Thermal resistances to heat transfer by conduction

(x/kA) and convection (1/hA) are additive

• Overall heat transfer coefficient (U) combines the

effect of all forms of heat transfer taking place

between any two points in a system

• Q = UAlm Tlm is the most generic form of equation

for steady state heat transfer involving conduction

and/or convection

• Tubular heat exchanger calculations are based on:

. .

Q = mp cp(p) Tproduct = mhw cp(hw) Thot water (for no heat loss)

= UAlm Tlm

117

39

Summary (contd.)

• Thermal properties

Specific heat: Important in determining T of an object

Latent heat: Important in determining energy required for

phase change

Thermal conductivity: Important in determining rate of heat

conduction in an object

• For unsteady state heat transfer, the lumped capacitance

method (for NBi < 0.1) or Heisler charts (for NBi > 0.1)

are used to establish time-temperature relations

Heisler charts are applicable only for 1-D heat transfer to

determine center temperature

Use multiple 1-D objects to create 2-D or 3-D objects

Characteristic dimension in unsteady state heat transfer

• Distance between the hottest and coldest point in object 118

40

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