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Heat Transfer

• Introduction
Heat Transfer
– Practical occurrences, applications, factors affecting heat transfer
– Categories and modes of heat transfer
• Conduction
– In a slab and across a pipe
• Convection
– Free (natural) and forced (in a pipe and over a solid object)
– Determination of convective heat transfer coefficient (h and hfp)
• Radiation
• Thermal resistances to heat transfer
• Overall heat transfer coefficient (U)
• Steady state heat transfer
– In a tubular heat exchanger (without and with insulation)
• Dimensionless numbers in heat transfer
– Steady: Reynolds #, Prandtl #, Nusselt #, Grashof #; Unsteady: Fourier #, Biot #
• Unsteady state heat transfer
– For conduction/convection driven heat transfer; Heisler chart 2

Introduction

1
Practical Occurrences
• Is a metallic park bench colder than a wooden park bench?
• What is wind-chill factor? What is heat index?
• Why dress in layers during winter?
• How does a fan provide cooling effect? Does it blow cold air?
• What is the insulation used in houses? Is it for winter or summer?
• Why does our skin dry-up in a heated room?
• What time of the day and why do we get sea-breeze?
• Why are higher altitude places colder?
• Does hot water freeze faster than cold water?
• In winter, do hot or cold water pipes burst first?
• What is greenhouse effect? What is the principle behind it?
• Can you lose weight by drinking cold water?
• Why are “fins” present on the outside of the radiator of a car?
• “Bridge freezes before road” -- Why?
• Why is salt used to melt ice on the road? When is sand used?
• How does an igloo keep an Eskimo warm?
• Why do you see cars breakdown or pull over to the shoulder of a highway during traffic
jams? Do traffic jams cause breakdowns or do breakdowns cause traffic jams? 4

Heat Transfer in Various Industries


• Automobile: Radiator and engine coolant
• Electronics: Cooling of motherboard/CPU by fan
• Pharmaceutical: Freeze drying of vaccines
• Metallurgical: Heating/cooling during steel
manufacture
• Chemical: Condensation, boiling, distillation of
chemicals

Home: Refrigerator, AC, heater, dryer, stove, microwave


5

Heat Transfer in the Food Industry


• Melting: Thawing of a frozen food (turkey)
• Freezing: Freezing of ice-cream mix
• Drying: Drying of fruits
• Evaporation: Spray drying of coffee or
concentration of juices
• Sublimation: Freeze drying of coffee
• Heating/cooling of milk
• Baking of bread
• Processing of canned soups (inactivate
microorganisms & maximize nutrient content,
color/flavor/texture) 6

2
What Factors Affect Rate of Heat Transfer?
• Thermal
– Specific heat (cp in J/kg K)
• Measured using Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC)
– Thermal conductivity (k in W/m K)
• Measured using Fitch apparatus or thermal conductivity probe (Lab #5)
• Physical
– Density ( in kg/m3)
• Measured using pycnometer
• Rheological (measured using rheometer/viscometer)
– Viscosity ( in Pa s) for Newtonian fluids
OR
– Consistency coefficient (K in Pa sn) and flow behavior index (n)
for power-law fluids
Note: Thermal diffusivity ( = k/cp in m2/s) combines the effect of several factors7

Specific Heat, Thermal Conductivity,


and Thermal Diffusivity
• Specific heat (cp)
– A measure of how much energy is required to raise the
temperature of an object
• Thermal conductivity (k)
– A measure of how quickly heat gets conducted from one
part of an object to another
• Thermal diffusivity ()
– It combines the effects of specific heat, thermal
conductivity, and density of a material. Thus, this one
quantity can be used to determine how temperature
changes at various points within an object.
8

Specific Heat (DSC Method)


Heat flux held constant & temperature diff. measured
Q = m1 cp(1) (T1) = m2 cp(2) (T2)
cp(2) = {m1/m2} {(T1)/ (T2)} cp(1)

Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)

Manufacturer: Perkin-Elmer 9

3
Thermal Conductivity (Fitch Apparatus)
Slope
Heat Source
(ice-water mix) Intercept
Q
This can be rewritten as:
Sample t: time
(cheese slice)
m, cp, A, T: For heat sink
(mass, sp. ht., area, temp.)
Ti: Initial temp. of heat sink
Heat Sink
(copper block) T∞: Temp. of heat source
Insulation L: Thickness of sample Y X

Plot on y-axis versus t on x-axis & set intercept = 0

Slope = -kA/(m cp L); Solve for k: k = - (Slope) (m cp L)/A


Note: ‘k’ is always a positive number
10

Thermal Conductivity Probe


KD2 Pro Probe (Manufacturer: Decagon Devices)
Single needle probe: Can measure ‘k’
Dual needle probe: Can measure ‘k’ and ‘’  = k / ( cp)

Sample
Sample

k: Thermal conductivity (W/m K); : Thermal diffusivity (m2/s)


: Density (kg/m3); cp: Specific heat (J/kg K)
11

Values of Thermal Conductivity (k)


• Good conductors of heat have high k values
– Cu: 401 W/m K
– Al: 250 W/m K
– Fe: 80 W/m K
– Stainless steel: 16 W/m K
• Insulators have very low (but positive) k values
– Paper: 0.05 W/m K
– Cork, fiberglass: 0.04 W/m K
– Cotton, styrofoam, expanded polystyrene: 0.03 W/m K
– Air: 0.024 W/m K (lower k than insulators!)
• Foods and other materials have intermediate to low k values
– Foods: 0.3 to 0.6 W/m K (water: ~0.6 W/m K at room temperature)
– Glass: 1.05 W/m K; Brick: 0.7 - 1.3 W/m K; Concrete: 0.4 - 1.7 W/m K
– Plastics (commonly used): 0.15 - 0.6 W/m K
• Thermally conductive plastics may have k > 20 W/m K 12

4
Empirical Correlations

cp = 4.187 (Xw) + 1.549 (Xp) + 1.424 (Xc) + 1.675 (Xf)


+ 0.837 (Xa) Heldman & Singh, 1981

k = 0.61 (Xw) + 0.20 (Xp) + 0.205 (Xc) + 0.175 (Xf) +


0.135 (Xa) Choi & Okos, 1984

w: water, p: protein, c: carbohydrates, f: fat, a: ash

13

Effect of Temperature on k, , , cp)

14

Questions
Q: When the same heating source is used to heat
identical quantities of water and butter, which will be
hotter after a certain time?
Ans: Butter; because it has a lower specific heat

Q: In winter, is a metallic park bench colder than a


nearby wooden park bench?
Ans: NO. A metallic bench has a higher thermal
conductivity and hence conducts heat very well,
thereby taking away the heat generated by our body
very fast and making us feel colder. 15

5
Categories of Heat Transfer
• Steady state
– Temperatures at all points within the system remain
constant over time
– The temperatures at different locations within the system
may be different, but they do not change over time
– Strictly speaking, steady state conditions are uncommon
• Conditions are often approximated to be steady state
– Eg.: Temperature inside a room or refrigerator
• Unsteady state
– Temperature(s) at one or more points in the system
change(s) over time
– Eg.: Temperature inside a canned food during cooking 16

Modes of Heat Transfer


• Conduction
– Translation of vibration of molecules as they acquire thermal energy
• Occurs in solids, liquids, and gases
– Heat transfer from hot plate to vessel/pot
– Heat transfer from surface of turkey to its center

• Convection
– Fluid currents developed due to temp. differences {within a fluid
(liquid/gas) or between a fluid and a solid} or the use of a pump/fan
• Occurs in liquids and gases
– Heat transfer from hot vessel/pot to soup in it

• Radiation
– Emission & absorption of electromagnetic radiation between two
surfaces (can occur in vacuum too)
• Occurs in solids, liquids, and gases
– Radiation from sun; reflective thermos flask; IR heating of buffet food 17

Conduction

18

6
Basics of Conduction
• Conduction involves the translation of vibration of
molecules along a temperature gradient as they acquire
thermal energy (mainly analyzed within solids;
however, it takes place in liquids and gases also)
– Actual movement of particles does not occur
• Good conductors of electricity are generally good
conductors of heat
• Thermal conductivity (k) is used to quantify the ability
of a material to conduct heat

19

Fourier’s Law of Heat Conduction


Rate of heat transfer by conduction is given by
Fourier’s law of heat conduction as follows:
Q = - kA (T/x)
The negative sign is used to denote/determine the
direction of heat transfer (Left to right or right to left)

Q: Energy transferred per unit time (W)


k: Thermal conductivity (W/m K); it is a +ve quantity
A: Area of heat transfer (m2)
T: Temperature difference across the ends of solid (K)
x: Distance across which heat transfer is taking place (m)
Q/A: Heat flux (W/m2)
20

Temperature Difference Across a Slab


Heat flow
T1

• Slab: Q = kA (T/x) x

T = T1 – T2 T2
For the same value of Q (example: use of a heater on one
side of a slab),
For insulators (low k), “T1 – T2” is large
For good conductors (high k), “T1 – T2” is small

For the same value of “T1 – T2” (example: fixed inside


temperature of room and outside air temperature),
For insulators (low k), Q is small
For good conductors (high k), Q is large
Note: x and A are assumed to be the same in all of the above situations
21

7
Conduction Across a Slab or Cylinder
Heat flow
T1
• Slab: Q = kA (T/x) x

T2
T1 Heat flow
r
T2
• Cylinder: Q = kAlm (T/r)
k: Thermal conductivity (W/m K)
A: Area across which heat transfer is taking place (m2)
T = T1 – T2: Temperature difference (K)
Alm: Logarithmic mean area (m2)
Note: Alm comes into play when the area for heat transfer at the two ends across
which heat transfer is taking place, is not the same
22

Logarithmic Mean Area (Alm)


r T1 Heat flow
T2 ro Q = kAlm (T/r)
ri
T = T1 – T2
r = ro - ri
L

• Slab: Area for heat transfer is same at both ends


• Cylinder
– Area at one end (outside) is Ao (= 2roL)
– Area at other end (inside) is Ai (= 2riL)
– Which area should be used in determining Q?
– Alm = (Ao – Ai) / ln (Ao/Ai) = 2L (ro – ri) / [ln (ro/ri)]
– Note: Ao > Alm > Ai 23

Logarithmic Mean Temp Diff (Tlm)


Double Tube Heat Exchanger

Tw(o) Hot water Tw(i)


T1 T2

Tp(i) Product Tp(o)

T is NOT constant across the length of tube


T1 = Tw(o) – Tp(i) , T2 = Tw(i) – Tp(o)
Tlm = (1 – 2) / [ln (1 / 2)]

Note: Tlm lies between T1 and T2


Subscripts: ‘w’ for water; ‘p’ for product, ‘i’ for inlet, ‘o’ for outlet
Note: Tlm comes into play when the temperature difference across the two ends
where heat transfer is taking place, is not the same 24

8
Convection

25

Basics of Convection
• It involves transfer of heat by movement of
molecules of fluid (liquid or gas) due to
– Temperatures differences within a fluid or between a
fluid and a solid object
OR
– An external agency such as a pump or a fan
• Convection is a combination of
– Diffusion (microscopic/molecular level)
• Random Brownian motion due to temperature gradient
– Advection (macroscopic level)
• Heat is transferred from one place to another by fluid movement
26

Newton’s Law of Cooling for Convection

Rate of heat transfer by convection (for heating or


cooling) is given by Newton’s law of cooling as follows:
Q = h A (Ts - T∞)
Q: Energy transferred per unit time (W)
h: Convective heat transfer coefficient -- CHTC (W/m2 K)
A: Surface area available for heat transfer (m2)
T = Ts – T∞ : Temperature difference (K)
Ts: Surface temperature of solid object (K)
T∞: Free stream (or bulk fluid) temperature of fluid (K)
CHTC (h): Measure of rate of heat transfer by convection; NOT a property;
depends on fluid velocity, surface characteristics (shape, size, smoothness),
fluid properties (, k, , cp)
27

9
Categories of Convection
• Free (or natural) convection
– Does not involve any external agency in causing flow
– Heat transfer between bottom of vessel and fluid in it
– Cooling of human body
– Cooling of radiator fluid in car engine during idling
– hair-solid: 5-25 W/m2 K; hwater-solid: 20-100 W/m2 K
• Forced convection
– External agency such as fan/pump causes flow
– Cooling of radiator fluid in car engine during motion
– Ice-cream freezer (Blast air)
– Stirring a pot of soup
– Heat transferred from computers (fan)
– hair-solid: 10-200 W/m2 K; hwater-solid: 50-10,000 W/m2 K
– hboiling water or steam to solid: 3,000-100,000 W/m2 K 28

Free Convection
• Fluid comes into contact with hot solid
• Fluid temperature near solid increases
• Fluid density near solid decreases
• This results in a buoyancy force that causes flow
• Rate of heat transfer (Q & h) depends on
– Temperature difference between fluid and surface of solid
– Properties (, , k, cp) of fluid
– Dimensions and surface characteristics (smoothness) of solid

NNu = hdc/kf = f (NGr , NPr)


29

Question
Q: What is wind-chill factor? In winter, a
thermometer reads -20 °C when air is stationary. All
of a sudden, a gust of wind blows. What will the
thermometer read?
Ans: -20 °C. As wind speed increases, more heat is
removed from our body due to an increase in ‘h’
and hence ‘Q’. Thus, we feel colder than when the
air is stationary. The air is NOT colder, we just feel
colder since more heat is removed from our body
and our body is unable to generate enough heat to
replace the energy lost to the surroundings.
30

10
Nusselt Number (NNu)

h: Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)


dc: Characteristic dimension (m)
kf: Thermal conductivity of fluid (W/m K)

Nusselt number represents the ratio of heat transfer by convection & conduction
31

Grashof (NGr) Number

f: Coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion (K-1)


g: Acceleration due to gravity (= 9.81 m/s2)
f: Density of fluid (kg/m3)
Ts: Surface temperature of solid object (K)
T∞: Free stream temperature of fluid (K)
dc: Characteristic dimension of solid object (m)
(Obtained from tables based on shape & orientation of solid object)
f: Viscosity of surrounding fluid (Pa s)

Grashof number represents the ratio of buoyancy and viscous forces


32

Prandtl Number (NPr)

cp(f): Specific heat of fluid (J/kg K)


f: Viscosity of fluid (Pa s)
kf: Thermal conductivity of fluid (W/m K)

Prandtl number represents the ratio of momentum and thermal diffusivities


33

11
Properties of Air

0.72
0.74
0.74
0.74
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.73
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.73
0.72
0.72
0.72
0.72

34

Properties of Water

35

Free Convection (Plate)


• NNu = hdc/kf = f (NGr, NPr)

• NNu = a (NGr NPr)m; NRa = NGr NPr


• For vertical plate (dc = plate height)
 a = 0.59, m = 0.250 (for 104 < NRa < 109)
 a = 0.10, m = 0.333 (for 109 < NRa < 1013)
• For inclined plate (for NRa < 109)
 Use same eqn as vertical plate & replace ‘g’ by ‘g cos ’ in NGr
• For horizontal plate (dc = Area/Perimeter)
 Upper surface hot
• a = 0.54, m = 0.250 (for 104 < NRa < 107)
• a = 0.15, m = 0.333 (for 107 < NRa < 1011)
 Lower surface hot
• a = 0.27, m = 0.250 (for 105 < NRa < 1011) 36

12
Free Convection (Cylinder)

• For vertical cylinder (dc = cylinder height)


– Similar to vertical plate if D ≥ 35L/(NGr)0.25

• For horizontal cylinder (dc = cylinder diameter)

– For 10-5 < NRa < 1012

Note: NRa = NGr NPr


37

Free Convection (Sphere)

NRa = NGr NPr

For sphere, dc = D/2

Note 1: For all free convection situations, determine properties at the


film temperature {Tfilm = (Ts + T∞)/2} unless otherwise specified
Note 2: For all free convection scenarios, as the T between the fluid and
surface of solid increases, NGr increases. Thus, NNu and ‘h’ increase. 38

Forced Convection
• Fluid is forced to move by an external force (pump/fan)
• Rate of heat transfer (Q & h) depends on
– Properties (, , k, cp) of fluid
– Dimensions and surface characteristics (smoothness) of solid
• ‘h’ does NOT depend on
– Temperature difference between fluid and surface of solid
• ‘h’ strongly depends on Reynolds number
– When all system and product parameters are kept constant, it
is flow rate (a process parameter) that strongly affects ‘h’

NNu = hdc/kf = f (NRe , NPr)


39

13
Categories of Convective Heat Transfer
Coefficient for Forced Convection
• Between a moving fluid and a stationary solid object
– Transfer of heat from hot pipe to a fluid flowing in a pipe
– Generally depicted by ‘h’

• Between a moving fluid and a moving particle


– Transfer of heat from a hot fluid to a freely flowing
particle in a suspension (particulate/multiphase food)
– Generally depicted by ‘hfp’
40

Forced Convection in a Pipe


• NNu = hdc/kf = f (NRe, NPr)
• Three sub-categories of forced convection exist…..
• 1. Laminar flow (NRe < 2100)
– A. Constant surface temperature of pipe
• NNu = 3.66 (for fully developed conditions)
– B. Constant surface heat flux
• NNu = 4.36 (for fully developed conditions)
– C. Other situations (for entry region & fully developed)
• NNu = 1.86 (NRe x NPr x dc/L)0.33 (b/w)0.14
dc: ID of pipe, L: Length of pipe

• 2. Transitional flow
(2100 < NRe < 4000)
– Friction factor (f)
• For smooth pipes:

• For non-smooth pipes, use Moody chart (graph of: f, NRe, /D) 41

Moody Diagram
Relative Roughness (/D)
Friction Factor (f)

Reynolds Number (NRe)


 = 259 x 10-6 m for cast iron; 1.5235 x 10-6 m for drawn tubing;
152 x 10-6 m for galvanized iron; 45.7 x 10-6 m for steel or wrought iron42

14
Forced Convection in a Pipe (contd.)
3. Turbulent flow (NRe > 4000) of a Newtonian fluid in a pipe,
NNu = 0.023 (NRe)0.8 (NPr)0.33 (b/w)0.14

b: Viscosity of fluid based on bulk fluid temperature


w: Viscosity of fluid based on wall temperature

The term “(b/w)” is called the viscosity correction factor and can be
approximated to “1.0” in the absence of information on wall temperature

Note: For flow in an annulus, use same eqn with dc = 4 (Acs/Wp) = dio – doi
dio: Inside diameter of outside pipe
doi: Outside diameter of inner pipe
Note: For all forced convection situations, use bulk temperature of fluid
to determine properties (unless otherwise specified) 43

‘hfp’ for Forced Convection over a Sphere


NNu = hdc/kf = f (NRe, NPr) – similar to flow in a pipe

NNu = 2 + 0.6 (NRe)0.5 (NPr)0.33


For 1 < NRe < 70,000 and 0.6 < NPr < 400

Note 1: dc is the outside diameter of the sphere


Note 2: Determine all properties at the film temperature
{Tfilm = (Ts + T∞)/2}
44

Comparison of Free and Forced Convection


• Free convection [Q = hA T; NNu = hdc/kf = f (NGr, NPr)]
– Does not involve any external agency in causing flow
• Temperature difference (T) causes density difference; this causes flow
– Q & h depend on
• Temperature difference between surface of solid and surrounding fluid (T)
• Properties (, , k, cp) of fluid
• Dimensions and surface characteristics (smoothness) of solid
• Forced convection [Q = hA T; NNu = hdc/kf = f (NRe, NPr)]
– External agency such as fan/pump causes flow
– Q & h depend on
• Properties (, , k, cp) of fluid
• Dimensions and surface characteristics (smoothness) of solid
– Only ‘Q’ and NOT ‘h’ depends on temperature difference between
surface of solid and surrounding fluid (T)
45

15
Radiation

46

Basics of Radiation Heat Transfer

Rate of heat transfer by radiation is given by Stefan-


Boltzmann law as follows:
Q = σ A ε T4

Q: Energy transferred per unit time (W)


σ: Stefan-Boltzmann constant (= 5.669 x 10-8 W/m2 K4)
A: Surface area of object (m2)
ε: Emissivity of surface (ranges from 0 to 1.0)
T: Temperature (K)
47

Infrared Thermometer
• Infrared thermometer can be used to non-invasively
and remotely determine the surface temperature of
an object
• Care should be exercised in ensuring that ONLY
emitted energy is measured and NOT reflected
energy (may have to use non-reflecting tape on
metallic surfaces)
• The emissivity of some infrared thermometers can
be adjusted; for others, a pre-set value of 0.95 is
commonly programmed
48

16
Thermal Resistances to Heat Transfer

49

Thermal Resistances to Heat Transfer


• Conduction
– Slab: Q = kA (T/x) = T/[(x/kA)]
– Cylinder: Q = kAlm (T/r) = T/[(r/kAlm)]
– Driving force for heat transfer: T
– Thermal resistance to heat transfer: (x/kA) or (r/kAlm)
• Convection
• Q = hA (T) = T/[(/hA)]
– Driving force for heat transfer: T
– Thermal resistance to heat transfer: (/hA)
Units of thermal resistance to heat transfer: K/W
50

Thermal Resistances
Conduction: Q = kA T/x
Single slab: Q = T/[(x/kA)]
Multiple slabs: Q = T/[(x1/k1A) + (x2/k2A) + …]
Cylindrical shell: Q = T/[(r/kAlm)]
Multiple cylindrical shells: Q = T/[(r1/k1Alm(1)) + (r2/k2Alm(2))]
Convection: Q = hA T
Single convection: Q = T/[(/hA)]
Multiple convections: Q = T/[(/h1A1) + (/h2A2) + …]
Combination of conduction and convection
Multiple slabs
Q = T/[(x1/k1A) + (x2/k2A) + (/h1A1) + (/h2A2) + …]
Multiple cylindrical shells
Q = T/[(/h1A1) + (r1/k1Alm(1)) + (r2/k2Alm(2)) + (/h2A2)]
Units of thermal resistance to heat transfer: K/W 51

17
Electrical Analogy
A current (I) flows because there is a driving
I force, the potential Difference (V), across the
resistance (R)
V R
I = V/R

Q = T/(Thermal Resistance)

I R1 I = V/(R1 + R2)
V
Q = T/(Sum of Thermal Resistances)
R2

Thermal resistances are additive (similar to electrical resistances)


52

k, h, U, Resistances, and Temperatures

• As thermal conductivity (k) increases, thermal


resistance due to conduction (x/kA) decreases
– Thus, temperature difference between center and surface
of object decreases
• As convective heat transfer coefficient (h) increases,
thermal resistance due to convection (1/hA) decreases
– Thus, temperature difference between the fluid and
surface of the solid object decreases

53

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (OHTC)

54

18
What is Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient?
• OHTC (denoted by the symbol ‘U’) refers to a
single quantity that can be used to quantify the effect
of all forms (conduction and convection) of heat
transfer taking place in a system
• It facilitates the use of one equation (instead of
individual equations for each conductive and
convective heat transfer in the system) to determine
the total heat transfer taking place in the system
– All thermal resistances in the system are added in order
to facilitate this process
55

OHTC (or U) in Different Scenarios


• Three conductive heat transfers
 1/(UA) = x1/(k1A) + x2/(k2A) + x3/(k3A)
• Two convective heat transfers
 1/(UA) = 1/(h1A1) + 1/(h2A2)
• One conductive and one convective heat transfer
 1/(UA) = x1/(k1A) + 1/(hA)
Note 1: 1/UA > 1/hA; Thus, U < h
Note 2: If there is no conductive resistance, U = h

U: Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)


“1/UA”: Overall thermal resistance (K/W)
56

k, h, U, Resistances, and Temperatures


• As thermal conductivity (k) increases, thermal resistance due to
conduction (x/kA) decreases
– Thus, temperature difference between center and surface of object
decreases
• As convective heat transfer coefficient (h) increases, thermal
resistance due to convection (1/hA) decreases
– Thus, temperature difference between the fluid and surface of the solid
object decreases
• As overall heat transfer coefficient (U) increases, overall thermal
resistance (1/UA) decreases
– Thus, temperature difference between the two points across which heat
transfer is taking place, decreases
Thermal conductivity: W/m K
Convective heat transfer coefficient: W/m2 K
Overall heat transfer coefficient: W/m2 K
Thermal resistance to heat transfer: K/W 57

19
Why Dress in “Layers” in Winter?
• Single jacket of thickness x:
– Q = T/[(x/kA)]
• Two jackets, each of thickness x/2:
– Q = T/[{(x/2)}/kA) + {(x/2)}/kA)] = T/[(x/kA)]

• If the above two expressions are identical, why is it


better to wear two jackets, each of thickness x/2?
Air trapped between the two jackets adds a convective
thermal resistance. Thus,
Q = T/[{(x/2)}/kA) + {(x/2)}/kA) + (1/hA)]
Thus, total thermal resistance increases and Q decreases
58

Effect of Resistance on Temperature


Q
• A heater is used to maintain the
Q h 5 °C left end of the slab at 95 °C
• Ambient air on right side is at 5 °C
k • What factors determine the
95 °C magnitude of temperature at right
x T
end of slab?

• T is affected by 95 °C at left AND 5 °C at right


• Resistance to heat transfer from left (by conduction) is x/kA
• Resistance to heat transfer from right (by convection) is 1/hA
• If both resistances are equal, T = (95 + 5)/2 = 50 °C
• If conductive resistance is less (occurs when ‘k’ is high), T > 50 °C
• If convective resistance is less (occurs when ‘h’ is high), T < 50 °C
Note: The same Q flows through the slab and outside
Thus, Q = kA (95 – T)/x = hA (T – 5) 59

Heat Exchangers (HX)

60

20
Types of Heating Equipment
• Direct contact
– Steam injection, steam infusion
• Indirect contact (Other than plate, tubular, Shell & tube, SSHE)
– Retorts (Using hot water, steam, or steam-air for heating)
• Batch (Agitation: None, axial or end-over-end): With our w/o basket/crate
• Continuous (With agitation): Conventional, Hydrostatic
– Plate: Series, parallel, series-parallel
– Tubular: Double tube, triple tube, multi-tube
– Shell & tube: Single pass, multiple pass, cross-flow
– Scraped surface heat exchanger (SSHE)
• Alternative/Novel/Emerging Technologies
– Microwave and radio frequency heating
• Uses electromagnetic radiation; polar molecules heat up
– Ohmic heating
• Electric current in food causes heating; ions in food, cause heating 61

Steam Injection
Intense, turbulent mixing of
steam and product occurs. It
Steam results in rapid heating and
dilution of product. A vacuum
Pneumatically chamber is used downstream
actuated to evaporate steam that
condensed into product.

Pneumatically actuated

Variable Gap
Product

www.process-heating.com
62

Steam Infusion
Air out
CIP in
Steam in
Product in

Cooling
water in/out This is a gentler process than
steam injection. A vacuum
chamber is used downstream to
evaporate steam that condensed
into product.
Product out 63

21
Batch Retorts
• Static (with or without crates/baskets) Rotary, end-over-end
or reciprocating
– Horizontal motion is used to mix
– Vertical the product and make
the temperature
• Rotary (axial or end-over-end rotation) distribution uniform
End-over-end Rotation

Axial Rotation

• Reciprocating
– Shaka

64

Static & Rotary Retorts


Raw canned Horizontal Basket Retort
foods are
placed in basket

SuperAgi Retort

www.libertyprocess.co.uk

www.jbtfoodtech.com
65

Crateless Retort (Semi-Continuous)

Problem: Cold spot identification www.maloinc.com


66

22
Conventional Continuous Rotary Retort

67

Hydrostatic Retort

Height of water
column provides
enough pressure
to prevent water
from boiling at
temperatures well
above 100 °C

68

Hydrostatic Retort/Sterilizer

69

23
Plate Heat Exchanger (PHE)

Hot fluid flows


on one side of
plate and cold
fluid flows on
other side of
plate. Heat
transfer occurs
across each plate.

Simple, efficient, inexpensive; used for not too viscous fluids


70

PHEs (All channels in Parallel)


Advantage
Low pressure drop

Disadvantage
1X4 Low heat transfer
1X4

71

PHEs (All Channels in Series)

Advantage
High heat transfer

4X1 Disadvantage
4X1 High pressure drop

72

24
PHEs (Series & Parallel)

Advantage
Optimized
pressure drop
and heat transfer

2X2
1X4

73

Regeneration in a PHE

Hot pasteurized product

Cold pasteurized product

Cooler Regenerator Heater

Raw product

Regeneration: Energy of hot pasteurized product is used to pre-heat


cold raw product. Typical regeneration efficiency is ~90%. 74

Double Tube, Triple Tube, Multitube HX


Heating from 1 side

Heating from 2 sides

75

25
Shell & Tube: (One & Two Pass)

Note: Presence of baffles creates cross-flow


pattern (product and heating/cooling
medium flow at right angles to one another)
with uniform heat transfer throughout the
heat exchanger. Baffles prevent short-
circuiting of heating medium directly from
the inlet port to the outlet port.
76

Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger


(SSHE)
Motor
Shaft with motor rotating it
Blade
Blade Insulation

Steam jacket Shaft

Product
Cross-sectional view Insulation

Steam
Advantage: Mixing of viscous foods jacket

Disadvantage: Particle damage,


uncertain residence time, cleaning
Product 77

Double Tube Heat Exchanger (DTHE)


Hot/Cold water

Heat Transfer
Product

Double tube heat exchanger


Two concentric tubes
Product generally flows in inner tube
Heating/cooling medium generally flows in outer tube (annulus)
One stream gains heat while the other stream loses heat (hence, heat exchanger)
Heat transfer takes place across wall of inner tube
Both streams may flow in the same or opposite directions 78

26
Heat Transfer in a Double Tube HX
(Hot water heating a product)
Q = hoAo [Thot water - Twall (outside)] Hot water
Tho ho .
Thi, mh, cp(h)
Q = kAlm [Twall (outside) - Twall (inside)]/r
U Q = hiAi [Twall (inside) - Tproduct]
Product hi rii roi
.
Tci, mc, cp(c) Tco

Subscripts for T: ‘c’ for cold, ‘h’ for hot, ‘i’ for inlet, ‘o’ for outlet 79

Heat Transfer from Hot Water to Product

• Convection
 From hot water to outside surface of inner tube
 Q = hoAo [Thot water - Twall (outside)]
• Conduction
 From outside of inner tube to inside of inner tube
 Q = kAlm [Twall (outside) - Twall (inside)]/r
• Convection
 From inside surface of inner tube to bulk of product
 Q = hiAi [Twall (inside) - Tproduct]
80

Resistances to Heat Transfer from Hot


Water to Product

Hot water
ho
Convective resistance (1/ho Ao)
Conductive resistance (r/k Alm)
Convective resistance (1/hi Ai)
Product hi

81

27
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U)
Q = T / [(1/hoAo) + (r/kAlm) + (1/hiAi)]
Thermal resistances have been added

Denominator: Total thermal resistance


1/UAlm = (1/hoAo) + (r/kAlm) + (1/hiAi)
Thus, Q = UAlm Tlm U: W/m2 K

U: Accounts for all modes of heat transfer from hot water to product
U is NOT a property; it is NOT fixed for a HX; it depends on material
properties, system dimensions, and process parameters
82

Determination of U: Theoretical Method

• 1/UAlm = (1/hoAo) + (r/kAlm) + (1/hiAi)


• hi and ho are usually determined using empirical
correlations
• ‘k’ is a material property of the tube of HX
• Ai, Ao, and Alm are determined based on dimensions
(length & radii) of heat exchanger tubes
• Once Ai, Ao, Alm, hi, ho , and k are known, U is
calculated using the above equation

83

Determination of U: Experimental Method


(Hot Water as Heating Medium)
. .
Q = mc cp(c) Tc = mh cp(h) Th
= UAlm Tlm
Assumption: Heat loss = zero

Once the mass flow rates and temperatures of the


product and hot water are experimentally
determined, U can be calculated

If there is heat loss,


Qlost by hot water = Qgained by product + Qlost to outside
84

28
Tubular Heat Exchanger (Co- and Counter-Current)
1/UAlm = (1/hoAo) + (r/kAlm) + (1/hiAi) and Q = UAlm Tlm

h: Hot
c: Cold h: Hot
i: Inlet c: Cold
i: Inlet

Temperature
Temperature

o: Outlet
o: Outlet

Used only when rapid initial cooling is needed Most commonly used
Lower heat transfer efficiency Higher heat transfer efficiency
Tco ≤ Tho always Tco can be greater than Tho
T btwn hot & cold fluid dec. along length T btwn hot & cold fluid does not
Ai = Inside surface area of inner pipe = 2  rii L change significantly along length
Ao = Outside surface area of inner pipe = 2  roi L
Alm = Logarithmic mean area of inner pipe = (Ao – Ai) / [ln (Ao/Ai)]
= 2L (roi – rii)/[ln (roi/rii)]
Tlm = Logarithmic mean temperature difference = (T1 – T2)/[ln(T1/T2)] 85

Co-Current Arrangement
Q3
Hot water . ho Tho
Thi, mh, cp(h) Q2

Product U
. hi Q1 Tco
Tci, mc, cp(c) rii roi

L r = roi - rii

Q1: Energy transferred from heating medium to product (= energy gained by product)
Q2: Energy lost by heating medium (= energy gained by product and surroundings)
Q3: Energy transferred from heating medium to surroundings (= energy gained by surroundings)
Note: Q2 = Q1 + Q3
Common approximation: Q3 = 0 (valid if HX is insulated)
In this case, .
. . Subscripts for m, cp, T, T:
Q1 = mc cp(c) (T)c = Q2 = mh cp(h) (T)h = UAlm Tlm ‘h’ for hot, ‘c’ for cold
with 1/UAlm = 1/hiAi + r/kAlm + 1/hoAo ‘i’ for inlet, ‘o’ for outlet
Note 1: (T)c = (Tco – Tci); (T)h = (Thi – Tho) Subscripts for h, A:
Note 2: (T)1 = (Thi – Tci); (T)2 = (Tho – Tco) ‘i’ for inside, ‘o’ for outside 86

Counter-Current Arrangement
Q3
Tho Q2 ho
.
Thi, mh, cp(h) Hot water

Product U
. Q hi Tco
Tci, mc, cp(c) 1 rii roi

L r = roi - rii

Q1: Energy transferred from heating medium to product (= energy gained by product)
Q2: Energy lost by heating medium (= energy gained by product and surroundings)
Q3: Energy transferred from heating medium to surroundings (= energy gained by surroundings)
Note: Q2 = Q1 + Q3
Common approximation: Q3 = 0 (valid if HX is insulated)
In this case, .
. . Subscripts for m, cp, T, T:
Q1 = mc cp(c) (T)c = Q2 = mh cp(h) (T)h = UAlm Tlm ‘h’ for hot, ‘c’ for cold
with 1/UAlm = 1/hiAi + r/kAlm + 1/hoAo ‘i’ for inlet, ‘o’ for outlet
Note 1: (T)c = (Tco – Tci); (T)h = (Thi – Tho) Subscripts for h, A:
Note 2: (T)1 = (Tho – Tci); (T)2 = (Thi – Tco) ‘i’ for inside, ‘o’ for outside 87

29
Insulation

88

Effect of Insulation
• Air has a lower ‘k’ value than most insulating materials.
Why do we use insulation then, to minimize heat loss
from a heated pipe?
• Does the addition of insulation around a hot pipe
surrounded by a cold fluid always decrease the heat loss
from the pipe?
– Not always!
• Addition of insulation
– Increases the thermal resistance to heat transfer by conduction
(x/kA)
– Decreases the thermal resistance to heat transfer by
convection (1/hA)
– The net effect may be an increase or decrease in heat loss 89

Heat Loss (Q) without and with Insulation


Without Insulation With Insulation
ho
ho To
To

Ti hi r1 r2 r3 r2 r1 hi Ti

Q = T / [(1/hoAo) + (r/kAlm)pipe + (1/hiAi)] Q = T / [(1/hoA’o) + (r/kAlm)insulation +


(r/kAlm)pipe + (1/hiAi)]
rpipe = r2 – r1 and Ao = 2r2 L rinsulation = r3 – r2 and A’o = 2r3 L
(Alm)pipe = 2L (r2 – r1) / [ln (r2/r1)] (Alm)insulation = 2L (r3 – r2) / [ln (r3/r2)]
Adding insulation inc. conductive res. & dec. convective res.
Setting dQ/dr3 = 0, and ensuring that d2Q/dr32 is –ve, yields Qmax
This happens when r3 = kins/ho = rcritical = rc
Thus, as insulation is added, heat loss increases till r3 = kins/ho; then it decreases
If r2 > kins/ho, heat loss decreases even if a small amount of insulation is added 90

30
Qins/Qbare versus Thickness of Insulation
Outside Radius of Pipe = 2.25 cm
2

1.8

1.6
k/h = 0.01 m
1.4 k/h = 0.03 m
k/h = 0.05 m
1.2
k/h = 0.1 m
Qins / Qbare

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2
Zero benefit
0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3

Insulation Thickness (m)


91

Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer

92

Dimensionless Numbers in Heat Transfer

• Reynolds number

• Nusselt number For circular


cross-section
pipes

• Prandtl number

• Grashof number
93

31
Dimensionless Numbers (contd.)
• Biot number

s = k/( cp)
• Fourier number = Thermal diffusivity (m2/s)

Reynolds number: Ratio of inertial & viscous forces


Nusselt number: Ratio of heat transfer by convection & conduction
Prandtl number: Ratio of momentum & thermal diffusivities
Grashof number: Ratio of buoyancy & viscous forces
Biot number: Ratio of internal & external resistance to heat transfer
Fourier number: Ratio of heat conduction & heat storage
Subscripts: ‘f’ for fluid & ‘s’ for solid
dc (for free convection): Look up notes/slides based on shape of object
dc (for forced convection pipe flow) = 4 (Across-section)/(Wetted perimeter)
Dc: (for unsteady state heat transfer): Distance btwn hottest & coldest points in solid object
94

Nusselt # (NNu) and Biot # (NBi)

• Both are denoted by hd/k


• Nusselt #
– Used in STEADY state heat transfer (to determine ‘h’)
– dc: Characteristic dimension (= pipe diameter for flow in a pipe)
– kf: Thermal conductivity of FLUID
• Biot #
– Used in UNSTEADY state heat transfer (to determine the relative
importance of conduction versus convection heat transfer)
– Dc: Distance between hottest and coldest point in solid object
– ks: Thermal conductivity of SOLID 95

Unsteady State Heat Transfer


(Heat Conduction to the Center of a Solid Object)

96

32
Basics of Unsteady State heat Transfer
• Temperature at one or more points in the system
changes as a function of time
• Goal of unsteady state heat transfer
– Determine time taken for an object to attain a certain
temperature
OR
– Determine temperature of an object after a certain time

– Sometimes, it is used to determine ‘h’


• The dimensionless numbers that come into play for
unsteady state heat transfer are Biot # (NBi = hDc/ks
and Fourier # (NFo = st/Dc2) Note: s = k/( cp) 97

Categories of Unsteady State Heat Transfer


Categories are based on the magnitude of Biot # (NBi = hDc/ks)

1. Negligible internal (conductive) resistance


 NBi < 0.1 (also called lumped capacitance/parameter method)
2. Finite internal and external resistances
 0.1 < NBi < 40
3. Negligible external (convective) resistance
 NBi > 40
Dc for unsteady state heat transfer: Distance between points of maximum
temperature difference within solid object
Dc for sphere: Radius of sphere
Dc for an infinitely long cylinder: Radius of cylinder
Dc for infinite slab with heat transfer from top & bottom: Half thickness of slab
Dc for an infinite slab with heat transfer from top: Thickness of slab 98

Modes of Heat Transfer from Air to the


Center of a Sphere
• Consider hot air (at 100 °C) being blown over a cold
sphere (at 20 °C)
h
20 °C

20 °C
100 °C air

– The two modes of heat transfer are


• Convection (external) Q = hA T = T/(1/hA)
• Conduction (internal) Q = kA T/x = T/(x/kA)

99

33
Significance of Magnitude of NBi

• NBi < 0.1 (Cat. #1) => Conductive resistance is low


– Occurs when ks is very high (metals) OR Dc is very small
t = 0 min t = 2 min

100 °C air 100 °C air


20 °C 20 °C 50 °C 49 °C

• NBi > 40 (Cat. #3) => Convective resistance is low


– Occurs when ‘h’ is very high (NRe is high) OR Dc is large
t = 0 min t = 2 min

100 °C air 100 °C air


20 °C 20 °C 95 °C 55 °C 100

Significance of Magnitude of NBi (contd.)

• 0.1 < NBi < 40 (Cat. #2) => Neither conductive nor
convective resistance is negligible (both are of the same
order of magnitude)
– Occurs when neither ‘h’ nor ‘k’ is very high
t = 0 min t = 2 min

100 °C air 100 °C air


20 °C 20 °C 70 °C 45 °C

101

Category #1

The above equation can be used to determine temperature, T, at time, t


OR
Based on time-temperature data, the equation can be used to determine ‘h’
Ti: Initial temperature of solid object (K)
T∞: Temperature of surrounding fluid (K)
h: Convective heat transfer coefficient (W/m2 K)
A: Surface area for heat transfer (m2) Shape Area Volume
: Density of solid object (kg/m3) Brick 2 (LW+LH+WH) LWH
V: Volume of solid object (m3) Cylinder 2RL + 2R2 R2L
cp: Specific heat of solid object (J/kg K) Sphere 4R2 (4/3)R3
Note: V = mass of object (kg) L: Length of brick or cylinder
W, H: Width, height of brick resp.
R: Radius of cylinder or sphere 102

34
Category #2
• Need to use Heisler charts
– TR on y-axis and Fourier number (NFo) on x-axis
• Several straight lines based on different values of 1/NBi

• Knowing temperature, T (and thus TR), and value of


1/NBi, we can determine x-axis value (or NFo) and
hence time, t
OR
• Knowing time, t (and hence NFo or x-axis value),
and value of 1/NBi, we can determine y-axis value
(or TR) and hence temperature, T
103

Sample Heisler Chart


1

1/NBi = 100
0.1

0.01

1/NBi = 0
0.001
0 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Note: s = k/( cp) = Thermal diffusivity of solid object in m2/s 104

Heisler Chart (For Finite Sphere)


TR [=(T-T∞)/(Ti-T∞)]

NFo (= t/Dc2) 105

35
Heisler Chart (For Infinite Cylinder)
TR [=(T-T∞)/(Ti-T∞)]

NFo (= t/Dc2) 106

Heisler Chart (For Infinite Slab)


TR [=(T-T∞)/(Ti-T∞)]

NFo (= t/Dc2) 107

Category #3
• Need to use Heisler charts to determine time-
temperature relation
– These charts are a way to approximate the exact solution
(equation) that represents how temperature (T) changes
as a function of time (t)
• Similar approach as category #2
• Since NBi > 40, 1/NBi is very small (~ 0)
• Thus, we use Heisler charts with the line
corresponding to 1/NBi = 0
– Note: 1/NBi = k/(hDc)
108

36
Summary of Categories of Unsteady
State Heat Transfer

Category 1 Category 2 Category 3


NBi NBi < 0.1 0.1 < NBi < 40 NBi > 40
This category is ‘k’ is high OR Neither ‘k’ nor ‘h’ are ‘h’ is high OR
encountered Dc is small high and Dc is not too Dc is large
when….. small or too large
Resistance that Conductive None Convective
is negligible (Internal) (External)
T that is small Btwn center and None Btwn fluid and
surface of solid surface of solid
Solution Lumped Heisler chart(s) Heisler chart(s)
approach parameter eqn. (with 1/NBi = 0)
109

Heisler Charts
• For a finite sphere
• For an “infinitely” long cylinder
• For a slab “infinitely” long in two dimensions &
finite in one dimension

• Heat transfer in one dimension/direction only


• Temperature at ONLY center of object can be
determined
– Use Gurney-Lurie charts for temperatures at other
locations within object
Rule of thumb: If one dimension of an object is at least 10 times another of its dimension,
the first dimension is considered to be “infinite” in comparison to the other 110

Finite Objects
Finite brick: Intersection of 3
infinite slabs

Finite cylinder: Intersection of


infinite cylinder & infinite slab

111

37
Finite Objects
• Finite objects (such as a cylinder or brick can be
obtained as an intersection of infinite objects)

Heisler charts have to be used twice or thrice respectively to determine


temperatures for finite cylinder (food in a can) and finite brick (food in
a tray)

Note: (t)finite cylinder ≠ (t)infinite cylinder + (t)infinite slab


(t)finite brick ≠ (t)infinite slab, width + (t)infinite slab, depth + (t)infinite slab, height
112

Calculations for Finite Cylinder (Heisler Chart)


Infinite Cylinder Infinite Slab
Characteristic
dimension (Dc)
Biot number (NBi) If both NBi < 0.1, the lumped parameter method (eqn) can be used
NBi = h Dc/ks
1/NBi
Thermal diffusivity ()
s = ks/(s cp(s))
Fourier number (NFo)
NFo = st/Dc2
Temperature ratio (TR)
from Heisler chart
(based on values of NFo
& 1/NBi)

Solve for “T” from the above equation 113

Calculations for Finite Brick (Heisler Chart)


Infinite Slab #1 Infinite Slab #2 Infinite Slab #3
Characteristic
dimension (Dc)
Biot number (NBi)
If all 3 NBi < 0.1, the lumped parameter method (eqn) can be used
NBi = h Dc/ks
1/NBi
Thermal diffusivity (s)
s = ks/(s cp(s))
Fourier number (NFo)
NFo = st/Dc2
Temperature ratio (TR)
from Heisler chart
(based on values of NFo
& 1/NBi)

Solve for “T” from the above equation 114

38
Temperature Ratio (TR)

• At time t = 0, T = Ti and hence TR = 1


• At time t = ∞, T = T∞ and hence TR = 0
• Thus, TR starts off at 1.0 and can at best reach 0.0

• Low values of TR (closer to 0.0) indicate a significant


change in temperature (from Ti) of the object
• High values of TR (closer to 1.0) indicate a minimal
change in temperature (from Ti) of the object
115

Summary
• Categories of steady state heat transfer
 Conduction, convection, radiation
• Conduction: Fourier’s law of heat conduction
 Q = - kA (T/x); replace A & T by Alm & Tlm resp. for cyl.
• Logarithmic mean area
 Alm = (Ao – Ai) / ln (Ao/Ai) = 2L (ro – ri) / [ln (ro/ri)]
• Logarithmic mean temperature difference
 Tlm = (1 – 2) / [ln (1 / 2)]
• Convection: Newton’s law of cooling
 Q = h A (T)
• Free convection: Due to density differences within a fluid;
Forced convection: Due to external agency (fan/pump)
 NNu = f(NGr & NPr) for free; NNu = f(NRe & NPr) for forced 116

Summary (contd.)
• Thermal resistances to heat transfer by conduction
(x/kA) and convection (1/hA) are additive
• Overall heat transfer coefficient (U) combines the
effect of all forms of heat transfer taking place
between any two points in a system
• Q = UAlm Tlm is the most generic form of equation
for steady state heat transfer involving conduction
and/or convection
• Tubular heat exchanger calculations are based on:
. .
 Q = mp cp(p) Tproduct = mhw cp(hw) Thot water (for no heat loss)
= UAlm Tlm
117

39
Summary (contd.)
• Thermal properties
 Specific heat: Important in determining T of an object
 Latent heat: Important in determining energy required for
phase change
 Thermal conductivity: Important in determining rate of heat
conduction in an object
• For unsteady state heat transfer, the lumped capacitance
method (for NBi < 0.1) or Heisler charts (for NBi > 0.1)
are used to establish time-temperature relations
 Heisler charts are applicable only for 1-D heat transfer to
determine center temperature
 Use multiple 1-D objects to create 2-D or 3-D objects
 Characteristic dimension in unsteady state heat transfer
• Distance between the hottest and coldest point in object 118

40