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# 2u sin  5 Circular Motion

Time of flight, T 
2g 5.1 Angular displacement and angular
velocity
u2 2
Maximum range, R  , where  45 T   2f v  r
g 
where T = period,  = angular velocity,
STPM PHYSICS FORMULAE SHEET 2= angular displacement of a complete
3 Dynamics
circle, v = velocity, r = radius of the circle
3.1 Newton’s laws of motion
Name: 5.2 Centripetal acceleration
Newton’s First Law: A body at rest will
a  v
remain at rest, a body that is moving will
TERM 1 continue with constant velocity, unless acted a  r 2
1 Physical Quantities And Units upon by an external force. v2
1.1 Base Units and SI Units / Newton’s Second Law: The rate of change a
1.2 Dimensions of Physical Quantities of momentum of a body is directly r
Quantity SI Unit Symbol Dimension proportional to the resultant force acting on it where a = centripetal acceleration,
time second s T and is in the same direction as the resultant  = angular velocity, v = velocity, r = radius
mass kilogram kg M force. of the circle
length metre m L 5.2 Centripetal force
Force, F = ma (unit: N or kgms 2 )
current ampere A I mv 2 mv 2
temperature kelvin K  Impuls, Ft = mv − mu (unit: Ns or kgms 1 ) F  mv F  mr 2 F T
amount of Newton’s Third Law: Every action has a r r
mole mol N where F= centripetal force, m= mass,
substance reaction which is of the same magnitude but
light opposite in direction.  = angular velocity, v = velocity,
candela cd
intensity r = radius of the circle, T = tension
3.2 Linear momentum and its conservation
Prefix Power Abbreviation Momentum, p = mv (unit: kgms 1 ) 6 Gravitation
peta 1015 P Total linear momentum before collision 6.1 Newton’s law of universal gravitation
tera 1012 T = Total linear momentum after collision m1m2
giga 109 G m1u1  m2 u 2  m1v1  m2 v2 F  G
mega 106 M r2
kilo 103 k
3.3 Elastic and Non-Elastic Collisions where G = 6.67 x 10 11 m 3 kg 1 s 2
hector 102 h Elastic collision is where kinetic energy is 6.2 Gravitational field
deka 101 da conserved. Gravitational field strength,
deci 10−1 d F
centi 10−2 c
m1u1  m2 u 2  m1v1  m2 v2 E
Non-elastic collision is where kinetic energy m
milli 10−3 m Acceleration due to gravity,
micro 10−6  is not conserved.
M
m1u1  m2 u 2  (m1  m2 )v g G (unit: ms 1 )
nano 10−9 n
R2
pico 10−12 p
3.4 Centre of mass 6.3 Gravitational potential
femto 10−15 f
Coordinates of center of mass Mm
Gravitational potential energy, U  G
i n
1.3 Scalar and Vectors r
Resultant vector, C = Vector A + Vector B m1 x1  m2 x 2  ...  mn x n
(mi xi )
M 1
i 1 Gravitational potential, V  G (Jkg )
x-component: F x F cos  x 
m1  m2  ...mn i n r
y-component: F y  F sin mi gR2 = GM
i 1 6.4 Satellite motion in a circular orbit
Fy i n Velocity of satellite,
angle  = tan 1 ( )  (mi yi )
Fx m1 y1  m2 y 2  ...  mn y n gR 2 GM
y  i 1 v or v 
1
( ms )
m1  m2  ...mn i n
r r
F  Fx2  Fy2  mi
Total energy of satellite, E = U + K
i 1
P•Q = PQ cos  , |P  Q| = PQ sin  =  GmM  GmM
3.5 Frictional forces r 2r
1.4 Uncertainties in measurements
Limiting static friction, Fs  s R =  GmM
If l  l, where l is absolute uncertainty 2r
Fractional uncertainty = l / l Kinetic friction, Fk  k R 6.5 Escape velocity
Percentage uncertainty = l / l  100%
2GM
4 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER Escape velocity, ve   2 gR
R
4.1 Work
2 Kinematics And Dynamics Work done W  F  s = Fs cos 
2.1 Linear motion 2.2 Projectile 7 Statics
(Nm, J or kgm2s−2)
s 7.1 Equilibrium of particles
v  (ms 1 ) 4.2 Potential energy and kinetic energy
v  u  2as
2 2
F1 + F2 + F 3 = 0
t 1 6.2 Closed polygon
Kinetic energy, K = mv 2 (J or kgm2s−2)
v  u  at 1
s  ut  at 2 2 F1 + F2 + F 3 + F4 + F5 = 0
2 Potential energy, U = mgh
v u 1 Total energy, E=K+U 7.3 Equilibrium of a rigid body
a (ms 2 ) a  (u  v)t Resultant force on a rigid body = F + (-F) = 0
t 4.3 Power
2 Fd = I 
W = mg, W – F = ma P
W
(unit: Js
1
or W or kgm 2 s 3 ) where I = moment of inertia of the rigid body
u sin 
2 2 t about the axis of rotation
Greatest height, H  3.4 Efficiency Torque produced by a couple = Fd
2g Poutput where d = perpendicular distance between
Efficiency   100%
u sin 2
2
Pinput the two forces of magnitude F
Range, R 
g

1
7.4 Frictional forces 10 Thermodynamics Of Gases t
Limiting static friction Fr = s R 10.1 Heat Capacity Vo
V = Voe CR ; Io =
where  s = coefficient of static friction Specific heat capacity, c  C R
m Time constant τ = CR
between the surface areas, R = normal
reaction Molar heat capacity, C  mx c
m 14 Electric Current
1000
(where m= mass of substance, c Current I = dQ = nAve
8 Deformation Of Solids = specific heat capacity, C = heat capacity) dt
8.1 Stress and Strain 10.2 Work Done by a Gas Current density, J = I/A
F e v2 2
Stress = (Nm−2), Strain = (no unit) W   pdV Power P = VI = I2R = V
v1
A l0 R
10.3 First Law of Thermodynamics RA
where F = force, A = cross-sectional area, Resistivity ρ =
Q  U  W 
e = extension, l 0 = original length (where Q = heat energy supplied, U
1 ne 2
8.2 Force-Extension Graph and Stress-Strain = increase in internal energy, W = work done Conductivity σ = =
Graph by gas)
 m
F 10.4 Isothermal and Adiabatic Changes Temperature coefficient of resistance,
Young’s modulus, Stress Fl  = (R – R0)/R0
E  A  0 Cv,m  CV ,m  R
C p.m
Strain e Ae  
CV ,m 15 Direct Current Circuits
l0
(unit:Nm−2, dimensions ML−1T−2) f 2 f Emf E = I (R + r )
C p ,m  R CV ,m  R
Hook’s Law, F = ke 2 2 E Rr
Ratio of principal molar heat capacities =
8.3 Strain Energy V R
Work done, W  Fx C p ,m f 2 Kirchhoff’s Law ∑I = 0 & ∑(IR) = ∑E
  
Work done / Stress energy = 1 Fe C V ,m 2
2 16 Magnetic Fields
11 Heat Transfer Fm = qvB sin θ
9 Kinetic Theory Of Gases 11.1 Conduction = BI  sin θ
9.1 Ideal Gas Equation
dQ d Magnetic field due to current
Gay-  kA where  I
Lussac’s dt dx For a straight wire, B = o
Charles’ 2x
Boyle’s Law Law or k = thermal conductivity ( Wm1 K 1 )
Law o NI
Pressure A = cross-sectional area ( m 2 ) For a circular coil, B =
Law d temperature gradient ( Km 1 ) 2r
 For a solenoid, B = μonI
V1 V2 p1 p2 dx
p1V1  p2V2  
T1 T2 T1 T2 Thermal resistance = l where For two parallel conductors, force per unit length
kA
l= length of rod F  II
= o12
Ideal Gas Equation  2d
k= thermal conductivity
pV  nRT pV  nkT A= cross-sectional area Torque on a coil Г = IBAN
23 1 11.2 Convection / 11.3 Radiation / 11.4 Global
(k=Boltzmann constant, 1.38 x 10 JK Hall voltage VH =
BI
warming nte
9.2 Pressure of a Gas Stefan – Botzman law:
1 1 P = eAT 4, Pnet = eA(T 4 – T0 4) 17 Electromagnetic Induction
p  c 2 or p  nm c 2 Magnetic flux Φ = BAcosθ
3 3
TERM 2 d
12 Electrostatics Faraday Law, E = -
9.3 Molecular Kinetic Energy dt
Average translational kinetic energy of Coulomb’s Law Fe = Q1Q2 Induced emf, E = Bv straight conductor
the random motion 4 0 r 2 E = πR2fB rotating disc
1 3
m c 2  kT E = NBAω sin ωt rotating coil
F
2 2 Electric field strength E = dI
Translational kinetic energy per mole on an q E=-L ; L = self inductance
dt
ideal gas =
3
RT Gauss’s Law ∑Q = 0 Φ ; Φ = EA NΦ = LI
2
Q N 2 A
For a point charge Q, E= Self inductance for a solenoid , L =
9.4 The R.M.S. Speed of Gas Molecules 
40 r 2 Energy stored in an inductor , E = ½ LI2
3kT or
c r.m.s.  c2  Q
m V = 18 Alternating Current Circuits
3RT
4 0 r Capacitor in ac circuit,
cr.m.s.  c 2
 dV r V =Vosin 2πft
m E =-
dx
↔ V=- Edx I = Io cos 2πft = Io sin (2πft +

)
9.5 Degrees of Freedom and Law of 2
Equipartition of Energy 13 Capacitors Vo 1
Reactance Xc = =
Average total energy of a molecule with f Energy stored in capacitor, Io 2fC
degrees of freedom = f ( kT )
1 E = ½ CV2 = ½QV = ½ Q2/C Inductor in ac circuit,
2 E I = Io sin 2πft
Charging capacitor: Io =
9.6 Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas R 
 1  f V =Vo cos 2πft = Vo sin(2πft + )
f
U  N A  f ( kT )  ( N A k )T  RT t t t 2
 2  2 2 I  I o e CR CR CR Vo
; Q = Qo(1- e ); V = E (1- e ) Reactance XL = = 2π f L
v mp  v av  v rms and the ratio
t
Io
v mp : v av : v rms Discharging capacitor : I = Ioe CR ; Q = Qo e
is 1.00 : 1.13 : 1.23 t
CR ;

2
TERM 3 20 Wave Motion 23 Wave Optics
19 Oscillations 1 x ax
Period, T v  f   2 ( ) Interference  
For SHM, −a =  2 x (  2 = positive constant)
F = − kx ( k = positive constant)
f  D

2 where f = frequency, v = velocity, = Single slit diffraction sin θ = for 1st minimum
Angular frequency,  
a
wavelength,  = phase difference Diffraction grating d sin θn = nλ ; highest order nmax
T
Period, T = 1/f Equation of progressive wave d

Displacement, x  x0 sint x 2 
y  a sin(t  x) intensity of transmitted polarized wave I = Io cos2θ
dx 
Velocity, v   x0 cos t (+) for negative Ox=direction and Speed of light c =
1
dt (-) for positive Ox-direction  o o
Acceleration, a   2 x0 sin t   2t 1
Wave Intensity, I  a2  2 Interference  
ax
r D
Velocity, v   x0  x
2 2
(where I = intensity, a = amplitude, r =radius 
Single slit diffraction sin θ = for 1st minimum
Total energy, E = U + K of sphere) a
1 Principle of Superposition: Diffraction grating d sin θn = nλ ; highest order nmax
Kinetic Energy, K m 2 ( x02  x 2 )
= Displacement of y at the point due to two d
2 ≤
waves, y  y1  y2 
1
Internal Energy, U = m 2 x 2 Standing wave equation intensity of transmitted polarized wave I = Io cos2θ
2 2
1 y  (2a cos x) sin t
Total energy, E = m 2 x02  24 Quantum Physics
2
hc
dU 21 Sound Waves
= − m x
2 Energy of photon E = hf =
Force, F = − 
dx Fundamental frequency
Einstein’s photoelectric equation
Spring-mass system , Along a stretched spring
v 1 1 T (unit: Hz) hf = W + 1 mv max
2 where
m e f0    2
Period, T = 2  2 2l 2l 2l  work function W = hfo ; fo = threshold frequency
k g
v v 1 2 = eV ; V = stopping potential
Vibrating air column, f 0   mv max s s

Simple pendulum, T  2
l 0 4l 2
g v v h h
Tube open at both ends, f 0  de Broglie wavelength: λ = =
 p mv
0 2l
Simple pendulum, f  1 g
2 l Intensity level,   10 log10
I
25 Nuclear Physics
dB
(l = length of pendulum, I0 Work function, hf = Ef - Ei
g = acceleration due to gravity)
(where I = intensity of sound, Shortest wavelength, λmin =
hc
Spring-mass system, f  1 k
I 0  1  10 12
Wm2 ) eV
2 m Bragg’s Law: 2d sinθ = nλ
(k = force constant, m = mass of load Beat Frequency, f  ( f1  f 2 ) E = mc2 ; m = mass defect
Torsional pendulum, T  2 I Doppler Effect: dN ln2
Radioactivity,  - N ; Half life T½ =
C Apparent frequency, v  u0 dt 
f' ( )f
v  us N = No e-λt 1 n
= ( ) No where n = no of half life
2
22 Geometrical Optics Reaction energy, Q = [(Mx + mx)  (My + my)]c2
r
f=
2
refraction at curved surface,
n1 n 2 n 2 - n 1
 
u v r
1 n 1 1
lens maker’s formula,  ( 2 - 1 )(  )
f n1 r1 r2
1 1 1
lens formula,  
f u v

3
STPM Physics Syllabus

## TERM 1 TERM 2 TERM 3

1 Physical Quantities And Units 12 Electrostatics 19 Oscillations
1.1 Base Units and SI Units / 12.1 Coulomb’s law 19.1 Characteristics of simple harmonic
1.2 Dimensions of Physical Quantities 12.2 Electric field motion
1.3 Scalar and Vectors 12.3 Gauss’s law 19.2 Kinematics of simple harmonic motion
1.4 Uncertainties in measurements 12.4 Electric potential 19.3 Energy in simple harmonic motion
19.4 Systems in simple harmonic motion
2 Kinematics And Dynamics 13 Capacitors 19.5 Damped oscillations
2.1 Linear motion 13.1 Capacitance 19.6 Forced oscillations and resonance
2.2 Projectile 13.2 Parallel plate capacitors
13.3 Dielectrics 20 Wave Motion
3 Dynamics 13.4 Capacitors in series and in parallel 20.1 Progressive waves
3.1 Newton’s laws of motion 13.5 Energy stored in a charged capacitor 20.2 Wave intensity
3.2 Linear momentum and its conservation 13.6 Charging and discharging of a capacitor 20.3 Principle of superposition
3.3 Elastic and Non-Elastic Collisions 20.4 Standing waves
3.4 Centre of mass 14 Electric Current 20.5 Electromagnetic waves
3.5 Frictional forces 14.1 Conduction of electricity
14.2 Drift velocity 21 Sound Waves
4 Work, Energy And Power 14.3 Current density 21.1 Propagation of sound waves
4.1 Work 14.4 Electric conductivity and resistivity 21.2 Sources of sound
4.2 Potential energy and kinetic energy 21.3 Intensity level of sound
4.3 Power 15 Direct Current Circuits 21.4 Beat
3.4 Efficiency 15.1 Internal resistance 21.5 Doppler effect
15.2 Kirchhoff’s laws
5 Circular Motion 15.3 Potential divider 22 Geometrical Optics
5.1 Angular displacement and angular 15.4 Potentiometer and Wheatstone bridge 22.1 Spherical mirrors
velocity 22.2 Refraction at spherical surfaces
5.2 Centripetal acceleration 16 Magnetic Fields 22.3 Thin lenses
5.3 Centripetal force 16.1 Concept of a magnetic field
16.2 Force on a moving charge 23 Wave Optics
6 Gravitation 16.3 Force on a current carrying conductor 23.1 Huygens’s principle
6.1 Newton’s law of universal gravitation 16.4 Magnetic fields due to currents 23.2 Interference
6.2 Gravitational field 16.5 Force between two current-carrying 23.3 Two-slit interference pattern
6.3 Gravitational potential conductors 23.4 Interference in a thin film
6.4 Satellite motion in a circular orbit 16.6 Determination of the ratio e/m 23.5 Diffraction by a single slit
6.5 Escape velocity 16.7 Hall effect 23.6 Diffraction gratings
23.7 Polarisation
7 Statics 17 Electromagnetic Induction 23.8 Optical waveguides
7.1 Equilibrium of particles 17.1 Magnetic flux
7.2 Closed polygon 17.2 Faraday’s law and Lenz’s law 24 Quantum Physics
7.3 Equilibrium of a rigid body 17.3 Self induction 24.1 Photons
7.4 Frictional forces 17.4 Energy stored in an inductor 24.2 Wave-particle duality
17.5 Mutual induction 24.3 Atomic structure
8 Deformation Of Solids 24.4 X-rays
8.1 Stress and Strain 18 Alternating Current Circuits 24.5 Nanoscience
8.2 Force-Extension Graph and Stress-Strain 18.1 Alternating current through a resistor
Graph 18.2 Alternating current through an inductor 25 Nuclear Physics
8.3 Strain Energy 18.3 Alternating current through a capacitor 25.1 Nucleus
18.4 R-C and R-L circuits in series 25.2 Radioactivity
9 Kinetic Theory Of Gases 25.3 Nuclear reactions
9.1 Ideal Gas Equation
9.2 Pressure of a Gas
9.3 Molecular Kinetic Energy
9.4 The R.M.S. Speed of Gas Molecules
9.5 Degrees of Freedom and Law of
Equipartition of Energy
9.6 Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas

10 Thermodynamics Of Gases
10.1 Heat Capacity
10.2 Work Done by a Gas
10.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
10.4 Isothermal and Adiabatic Changes

11 Heat Transfer
11.1 Conduction
11.2 Convection / 11.3 Radiation / 11.4 Global
warming