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Name:………………………………………………………………………Adm. No…………………..


Instructions to Candidates
1. Write your name and admission number in the spaces provided.
2. This paper consists of TWO sections: A and B.
3. Answer ALL the questions in sections A and B in the spaces provided.

Section Question Maximum Candidates

Score Score
A 1-15 30
B 16 7
17 13
18 13
19 11
20 15
21 11

SECTION A (30 Marks)
1. A student used the instrument below to measure the diameter of a wire in the laboratory.


Write down the correct reading on the instrument if it has a zero error of +0.01mm. (2 Marks)

2. A man bought a cup of tea that was completely full. On adding two spoons of sugar and stirring
completely the level of the tea in the cup reduced. Explain. (2 Marks)

3. State what happens to the volume of water when cooled from 4°C to 0°C. (1 Mark)

4. A body weighs 𝑥 neutrons in air and 𝑦 neutrons when fully immersed in a fluid. Write down an
expression for the upthrust due to the fluid. (1 Mark)

5. A radio wave tuned to a frequency of 100KHz has a speed of 3x108m/s. Calculate its wavelength.
(3 Marks)

6. Racing cars have wide tyres and their engines as low as possible. Explain (1 Mark)

7. The bimetallic strip below is made of two metals A and B.

On heating the strip it’s shape appeared as below. Explain. (2 Marks)

8. The core of the electromagnet below is made of steel.

State with reason the change that would take place if steel to the number of pins is used instead of
soft iron. (2 Marks)

9. When changing an accumulator cells should remain open. Explain. (1 Mark)

10. a) During hot weather, houses roofed with iron sheets become very hot as compared to those roofed
with grass. Explain. (1 Mark)

b) Suggest a possible method of reducing the heat in homes roofed with iron sheets. (1 Mark)

11. The figure below shows a liquid being siphoned from a beaker to another.

Explain what would happen to the flow of the system if it was put in a vacuum. (2 Marks)

12. a) Identify polarities of ends A and B of the pins. (2 Marks)

Bar magnet



b) Explain the behaviour of the pins above. (1 Mark)

13. Draw rays to show how the image of the object is formed. (2 Marks)

Object Image


14. Dentist use concave mirror during their work. Show on the diagram below how it is used.
(2 Marks)


15. Two identical springs constant 3N/cm are used to support a load of 30N as shown below.



Determine the extension of each spring.

SECTION B (70 Marks)

16. a) State Bernoullis principle. (1 Mark)

b) The figure below shows a tube of varying x-section area V1, V2, V3 and V4 represent the speed
of water as it flows steadily through the sections of the tubes.

V1 V3 V4

Arrange the speeds in descending order. (1 Mark)

c) Oil injected at Mombasa with a speed of 12m/s where the diameter of the pipe is 7cm flows at
some point inland where the radius of the pipe is 14cm. Determine the speed of the oil at this
point. (3 Marks)

d) In highlands, buildings with weak roofs are likely to have them blown off. Explain. (2 Marks)

17. a) Define the term principal focus of curved mirrors. (1 Mark)

b) A converging mirror of focal length 10cm and a diverging mirror of focal length 15cm are placed
50cm apart facing each other on a horizontal axis as shown below.

A candle of height 4cm is placed on the axis of the mirror at a distance of 15cm from the first
mirror P. calculate.
i) The position and nature of the image formed by the mirror P. (4 Marks)

ii) The position and nature of the image formed by Q. (4 Marks)

iii) Calculate the magnification of the image in

a) Mirror P (2 Marks)

b) Mirror Q. (2 Marks)

18. a) State Hookes law. (1 Mark)

b) The graph below shows the relation between Force and extension of a spring.

i) From the graph explain whether Hooke’s law is obeyed by the spring. (1 Mark)

ii) Calculate the spring constant from the graph. (3 Marks)

iii) Explain what happens between points A and B. (2 Marks)

iv) From the graph, calculate the work done upto the elastic limit expressing your answer in
standard form. (3 Marks)

v) State three factors that affect the spring constant of a spring. (3 Marks)

19. .

a) Name parts X and Y. (2 Marks)

b) What is the purpose of X and Y above. (2 Marks)

c) When the switch is closed, state the forces acting on the sides of the coil and the direction of
movement of the coil. (2 Marks)

d) State the factors that affect the speed of rotation of the motor. (3 Marks)

e) Give two other applications of an electromagnet. (2 Marks)

20. a) Distinguish between transverse and longitudinal wave. (1 Mark)

b) Give one example in each case above. (2 Marks)

c) The figure below shows displacement-time graph of a wave. The velocity of the wave is 600cm/s.

From the graph above, determine:

i) the amplitude of the wave. (1 Mark)

ii) the period of the wave. (1 Mark)

iii) the wavelength of the wave. (3 Marks)

d) On the same diagram show a wave with half amplitude but in phase to the one already shown.
(1 Mark)

e) A soldier standing between two cliffs fires a gun. He hears the first echo after 3s and the next
after 7s. Speed of solid 330m/s.

i) Calculate the distance between the two cliffs. (3 Marks)

ii) After how long does he hear the third echo? (1 Mark)

f) State two factors that affect the speed of sound. (2 Marks)

21. a) State the principle of moments. (1 Mark)

b) A uniform metal strip is 3.0cm wide, 0.6cm thick and 100cm long. The density of the metal is
i) Determine the weight of the strip. (3 Marks)

ii) The strip is placed in pivot and kept in equilibrium by forces as shown below.

20cm 15cm


Determine the value of F and R. (3 Marks)

c) Describe how to:
i) Locate the centre of gravity of the plane below. (3 Marks)

C hole


ii) State one real life situation where moments are applied. (1 Mark)



1. Eleeve scale 1.5
Thimble scale 0.36
1.86 1

Correct Reading 1.86


1.85mm 1

2. Water and sugar molecules are made of molecules of different sizes so the sugar molecules(smaller)
 will occupy the spaces between the water molecules.

3. Volume increases 

4. Upthrust = Weight in air – Weight in fluid

= 𝑥– 𝑦

5. Frequency = 100,000
V = 300 m/s
V = fλ
𝑣 300𝑚/𝑠
λ = 𝐹 = 100,000

= 0.003m 

6. To lower the c.o.g. increasing the stability. 

7. When heated the metals expand.  However B expands more than A.

8. Its easier to magnetise soft iron than steel and therefore the pins may drop.

9. To allow escape of hydrogen and oxygen gases released. 

10. a) Iron is a good conductor of heat while glass is a poor conductor of heat.

b) - Putting a ceiling
- Ventilation

11. The liquid will continue flowing1. The atmospheric pressure does not affect the working of a
siphon. The pressure difference due to the height does.

12. A – South

B – North

b) C and B acquire the same polarity and like poles repel.

13. .

14. .

15. 𝐾𝑝 = 𝑛𝐾1 or 𝐹 = 𝐾𝑒
𝐹 30𝑁
2 𝑥 3𝑁/𝑚 e = 𝐾 = 3𝑁/𝑚 = 10𝑐𝑚

= 6𝑁/𝑚 Since there are 2 springs in parallel then each spring extends by
= 5𝑐𝑚

𝐹 = 𝐾𝑝𝑒
30 = 6𝑁/𝑚𝑒
𝑒 = 5 𝑐𝑚

16. For a streamline flow an increase of speed of a fluid causes a corresponding decrease in pressure
and vice versa.

b) V2 → V4  V1  V3

c) A1V1 = A2V2
22 0.07 0.07 22 0.14 0.14
× × × 12 = × × × 𝑉2
7 2 2 7 2 2
𝑉2 = 0.035 × 12 × 0.035 = 0.07 × 0.07 × 𝑉2
0.035 × 0.035 × 12
𝑉2 =
0.07 × 0.07
𝑉2 = 3𝑚/𝑠

d) Wind blows over the roof at a high velocity leading to a decrease in pressure. The pressure below
the roof is high and therefore the difference in pressure makes the roof to blow.

17. This is the point where all rays parallel and close to the principal axis converge after reflection for
concave or appear to diverge from in convex.


i) f = 10cm
u = 15cm
1 1 1
= +
𝑓 𝑢 𝑉
1 1 1
− =
𝑓 𝑢 𝑉
1 1 1
− =
10 15 𝑉
3−2 1
30 𝑉
1 1
30 𝑉
𝑉 = 30𝑐𝑚 from P
The image is magnified – Real and Inverted

ii) 𝐹𝑤 𝑄
𝑓 = −15𝑐𝑚
𝑢 = 35𝑐𝑚
Using the mirror formula.
1 1 1
− =
−15 35 𝑉
−7 − 3 1
105 𝑉

−10.5 = 𝑉
The image is virtual, diminished and upright and formed the other side of Q.
𝑣 30𝑐𝑚
iii) Magnification for P = 𝑢 = 15𝑐𝑚 = 2
𝑉 10.5
b) Magnification for Q = 𝑢 = = 0.3

18. a) For a helical spring or any elastic material force applied is directly proportional to the extension
provided the elastic limit is not exceeded.

b) i) Hookes Law is obeyed between O and A.

∆𝑦 4−2 2
ii) Spring constant = ∆𝑥 = 0.2−0.1 = 0.1 = 20𝑁/𝑚𝑚

iii) The spring has undergone plastic deformation Hookes Law is no longer obeyed.

iv) W. done = 2 𝐹𝑒 (e should be in m)
= 2 × 4𝑁 × 0.0002

= 0.0004𝐽 𝑜𝑟 4.0 × 10−4 𝐽

v) Nature of the springs

Area of the cross section
Diameter of the wire any 3 correct
Number of turns
Length of the spring

19. a) X – Commutators / Split rings

Y – Brushes

b) X – To reverse the current in the coil

Y – To provide electrical connection to the coil

c) AB – Force downwards
CD – Force upwards (1 mk)

The direction is anticlockwise

d) The current
The increase the area
The number of turns
The strength of the magnetic field

e) Morning coil
Loud – speaker
Electric bell

20. – In transverse wave the vibration of particles is perpendicular to the direction of wave travel while
in longitudinal wave the vibration of particles is parallel to the direction of wave travel.
- Transverse is characterized by crests and troughs while longitudinal is characterized by
compressions and rarefactions. (any 1 a mark)

b) Transverse – water wave; light

Longitudinal – sound, slinky spring

c) i) amplitude = 0.6cm

ii) period = 2 sec.

iii) V = fλ
V = 60 cm/s
1 1
F = 𝑇 = 2 = 0.5𝐻𝑧
𝑣 60𝑐𝑚/𝑠
λ =𝑓 = 0.5

= 120cm or 1.2m



d1 d2

2𝑑 2𝑑
i) S= = 330 =
𝑡 7
2𝑑 330 ×7
330= 3 d= 2

2d = 330 × 3 d = 1155m
330 ×3
d = 2

𝑑1 = 495𝑚

Total distance = 495 + 1155 = 1650m

ii) He hears the third echo after ( 7 + 3 ) = 10 𝑠𝑒𝑐

f) Temperature
Humidity Any two

21. At equilibrium the sum of the clockwise moments equal to the sum of anticlockwide moments.

b) i) D = 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒

𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 = 3𝑐𝑚 × 0.6𝑐𝑚 × 100𝑐𝑚

= 180𝑐𝑚3
𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 2.7𝑔/𝑐𝑚3

M𝑎𝑠𝑠 = 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 × 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒

= 2.7𝑔/𝑐𝑚3 × 180𝑐𝑚3
= 486𝑔
𝑊𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 = 4.86𝑁

ii) Clockwise moments = Anticlockwise moments

𝐹 × 0.2𝑚 = 4.86𝑁 × 0.15𝑚
𝐹 = 3.645𝑁

𝑅 = 3.645𝑁 + 4.86𝑁
= 8.505𝑁

c) Suspend the lamina through hole A on a stand.

Suspend a bob through the same hole and wait until it stops swinging. Put a mark at the other
end and join the mark to the hole A. Do the same to the other holes B and C. The point where
the three lines intersect gives the c.o.g.

ii) - Weighing balances
- Opening doors
- Closing and opening water taps
- Steering wheels.