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Use of compact fluorescent lamps

EFFICACY ELECTRICITY WHICH TRANSFORMS INTO HEAT

The number of lumens that a lamp and its ballast if any produced from a watt of power is called efficacy
Ballast losses in an efficacy value which can add 20% more to the total loss
Lamp efficacy includes only lost by lamps and not the ballast
FLUORESCENT LAMPS
The lamp is in the form of a long tubular blub with an electrode
sealed to each end, contains mercury vapor at low pressure
with a small amount of inert gas for starting and regulation. The
inner surface is coated with a fluorescent powder or phosphor
the composition of which determines the quantity and color of
the light emitted.

Fluorescent lamps, or fluorescent linear


tubes, are categorized according to their
wattage, shape and diameter.

The "T" in T5 indicates the bulb is


tubular shaped, while the "5" denotes
that it is five eighths of an inch in
diameter. T5 lamps have a diameter
equal to 5 times an eighth of an inch, or
5/8". These lamps are approximately
40% smaller than T8 lamps, which are
one inch in diameter, and almost 60%
smaller than T12 lamps, which are 1½"
in diameter.
FLUORESCENT LAMPS
Fluorescent lamps(tubes) are available in three forms
•Standard fluorescent lamp
•Slim fluorescent lamp
•T5 lamps
Compact Fluorescent lamps

Type Power in Dia in Output CRI Others


W mm (lumen)
Standard 40 38 2450lm - 4300K- Also available in 20W and 80W
fluorescent 2270lm 6500K
lamp
Slim 36 26 2450lm 6500K Also available in 18W and 36W in colors
fluorescent warm(2700K, bright white (4000K), cool
lamp daylight(6500K)
T5 lamps 28 16 2900 Also available in 14W and 28W in colors
warm(2700K, cool daylight(6500K). They have long
life around 18000hrs of standard lamps.
C O M PA C T F L U O R E S C E N T L A M P S
Compact Fluorescent Lamps are miniaturized fluorescent lamps that usually have
premium phosphors which often come packaged with integral or modular ballast, as
shown in the image below
U S E O F C O M PA C T F L U O R E S C E N T L A M P S
EFFICIENCY
compact fluorescent lamps: They combine fluorescent efficiency with incandescent
convenience. CFLs use 20% to 33% less electricity than incandescent bulbs.

LIFE OF LAMP
They consume low energy and have a long life typically 8000 hours. With no filament
to burn out, florescent lights tend to last 8 to 15 times longer than incandescent
bulbs.

COLOR RENDERING INDEX

CRI
Compact Fluorescent emit a crisp, bright light that is well-suited for detailed task
work as well as ambient lighting.
C O M PA C T F L U O R E S C E N T L A M P S T Y P E S
Integrated lamps combine the tube and ballast in a
single unit. These lamps allow consumers to replace
incandescent lamps easily with CFLs. Integrated
CFLs work well in many standard incandescent light
fixtures, reducing the cost of converting to
fluorescent.
Non-integrated CFLs have the ballast permanently
installed in the luminaire, and usually only the
fluorescent tube is changed at its end of life. Since
the ballasts are placed in the light fixture, they are
larger and last longer compared to the integrated
ones, and they don't need to be replaced when the
tube reaches its end-of-life. Non-integrated CFL
housings can be both more expensive and
sophisticated.
ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING SYSTEMS
System design:
Decide luminance value for specified task
Select most efficient lighting system
Implement appropriate lighting controls
Meet effective maintenance requirements

Illuminance value:
Quality and quantity illumination to perform specific
tasks . The recommended levels of illuminance required
are specified in BIS.
200-300 lx for interior lighting
50-150 lx for simple visual tasks
450-1500lx for precision tasks

Selection of energy efficient lamps and luminaire:


Illuminance level of lamp
CRI of lamp
Arrangement of lamps
Type of lamp (life span in hours, watt and lumen output)
Cost
ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING SYSTEMS
Additional parameters for design approach for lighting
•Room surface brightness
•Reduction of glare
•Uniform light distribution
•Good color lamps
•Visual interest
Glare control
Glare from lamps
Use reflectors for indirect lighting and wall washing systems. Small lamps have high
surface brightness. Consequently most efficient lamps also have highest intensity.
Luminaries and shielding
They are effective for fixtures which are in front the worker.
Overhead glare zone
Reduce brightness of source or contrast. The strategies employed could be fixtures
with adequate shielding, semi-specular and light louvers, indirect or cove fixtures,
use of more fixtures with low output
Visual display terminal glare
The simple way to correct these reflections is to position screens at angles that do not
promote reflections of windows or lights. Where the adjustments are not possible anti
glare screens are provided.
ENERGY REDUCTION IN ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION
ENERGY CONSUMPTION REDUCTION

Lighting upgrade technology Daylight harvesting Energy management in lighting

Fluroscent luminaire
delamping

Specular reflectoes
with delamping

Lens/ louvre
upgrade

Task lighting with


delamping

Group relamping and Conversion to high-


cleaning with delamping efficient lamps
Reduced HID
Incandescent upgrades wattage
High intensity discharge High pressure
update sodium lamps
LIGHTING UPGRADE TECHNOLOGY
Fluorescent luminarie de lamping
Remove one or more lamps from luminaire. When light levels need to be reduced
through out the workspace so as to maintain appropriate lighting level. Relocate
lamps so that they are centered on each half of the luminaire to make them more
presentable.
De-lamping can be combined with use of higher output lamps, reflectors, lens
upgrades and luminaire cleaning.
Specular reflectors with de-lamping
A specular reflector ‘mirror like’ used behind the lamp can improve luminaire efficiency
up to 17%, by removing one or more lamps.
Lens or louvre upgrade
Efficient glare shielding materials such as translucent diffusers or small scale louvers
should be replaced with either clear acrylic lenses or large cell parabolic louvers. Small
cell parabolic louvers provide high visual comfort but significantly affect efficiency.
Task lighting with de-lamping
Provide light at specific locations leading to energy savings. Compact fluorescent
task lights are efficient sources of task lighting.
LIGHTING UPGRADE TECHNOLOGY
Group re-lamping and cleaning with re-lamping
Re-lamping and cleaning luminaires according to schedule determined by lamp life,
lumen depreciation characteristics and ambient dirt conditions.
Incandescent upgrades
Replace the standard incandescent lamps with others as they are energy efficient and
long lasting. Even more so with the recent advances in CFLs and halogen lamps. CFLs
are not point sources and are ineffective in projecting light over distances. They are
also not appropriate when dimming is required.
High intensity discharge upgrades
The retrofit include reduced wattage HID lamps and high pressure sodium lamps for
mercury ballasts. Conversion to high efficient, high intensity discharge systems – these
retrofits include complete luminaire replacement including lamp and ballast . Less
efficient incandescent, fluorescent or mercury vapour with metal halide, high pressure
sodium or low pressure sodium systems.
Reduced wattage HID lamps
reduced wattage metal halide and high pressure sodium lamps deliver comparable
illumination with up to 10% reduction in energy usage.
High pressure sodium lamps of existing mercury ballast. They can be used for specific
wattage of mercury vapor lamps with out requiring ballast change.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN LIGHTING BY CONTROL DEVICES

Occupancy sensors:
These devices also known as motion detectors turn lights on and off in response
to human presence. They can be calibrated for sensitivity and have multiple
settings that govern when the lights are to be extinguished. Once the sensitivity
and coverage area are established sensors are selected from two predominant
types.
•Passive infrared sensors
These detect the motion or heat between vertical and horizontal detection zones
works good in small spaces where there is direct line of sight.
•Ultrasonic sensors
These detect movements by sensing disturbance in high frequency ultrasonic
patterns. These systems emits ultra sonic waves that are reflected across the
room they dint require direct line of sight. They are useful in layer enclosed
areas. Like offices which have cabins.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN LIGHTING BY CONTROL DEVICES

The switch controls


Timers:
these are most basic type of automation. They are very popular for outdoor
applications. Timers can be very simple either having one single setting or several
settings that go into effect over time. The lights get switched on and off during set
times. They can be daily, weekly and seasonal types.
Photo electric switches:
These measure the amount of natural light available and suitable for both indoor
and outdoor applications. It is used in cases where light is required through out
the period of darkness. Sometimes they are combined with time switch.
Time delay switches:
They are programmed to switch off at a set time after being switched on.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN LIGHTING BY CONTROL DEVICES

Scheduling controls:
They are two main switching systems:
1. Zone switching
Used in large spaces. Its disadvantage is it limits movement, this is because the
tasks can not occur in more than one zone sequentially without switching
on lights while an individual moves from one task zone to the next.
1. Split switching
Split switching or inboard/outboard switching is used in place of zone
switching to provide three levels of even illumination where 3 lamp
fluorescent luminaries are used. The advantage is light levls can be reduced
while maintaining even lighting through out room.
ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN LIGHTING BY CONTROL DEVICES
Dimming controls:
An incandescent lamp dimmed to 50% light output used 65% of its rated energy. Fluorescent lamps require
rapid start, solid state ballast for effective dimming. HID lamps such as mercury vapor, high pressure sodium
and metal halide can be dimmed provided the circuit is compatible.

Dimmer types:
•Manual dimmers
Step and continuous dimmers available for incandesecnts. HID dimmers are limited by color redeition and
flicker problems.
•Photosensor activated dimmers
It is included with day lighting systems to produce constant illuminance. They require careful integration of
control systems and sensors
•Programmable dimmers
It is adjusted to predetermined levels set by the user

Dimming configuration:
Tuning : they reduce power supply to lights
Day lighting : use of photo sensors linked to dimming units
Lumen maintenance: a photo cell maintains constant illuminance across an entire maintenance cycle.
Demand limiting: by saving non essential lighting loads
Adaptation compensation:
OTHERS

Electronic ballast :
Efficiency of fluorescent tubes increases when working at higher frequencies. A ballast provides an
instant start. In using these ballast a saving of about 20%-25% is achieved.

Voltage controllers:
A slight reduction in operating voltage for fluoroscent tubes results in considerable consumption
savings with a marginal reduction in lighting levels. A separate voltage regulator to the lighting
circuit will lead to energy savings.

New lighting technologies


Efficient appliances
Use of renewable systems
REDUCTION AND REUSE OF WATER

Water efficiency methods include reduction


and reuse and recycling of water
REDUCTION OF WATER

Reducing water loss:


Avoid water intensive applications
A new washing machine uses about half the amount of water used by a 10 year old
machine.
Water efficient faucets
ultra low flow flush toilets with flow rate of 3 lits per flush, water less urinals, EFS-
coupled urinals with flow rate of 0.5lits per flush, faucet aerators, and low flow
shower heads (flow rate of 9 liters per minute)
water efficient urinals
conventional urinals use water at 7.5-11lits per flush low flow urinals use water at the
rate of 3.7 lits per flush. The use of magic eye sensor can reduce the flow of water to
0.4 lits per flush.
REDUCTION OF WATER

WATER LESS URINALS Water efficient toilets


conventional toilets use 13.5 lits of water per
flush. Low flush toilets use 6 lits per flush.
And ultra low flush use 3 lits of water per
flush.

An over all reduction of water consumption


of 40%-50% is possible due to use of low
flush toilets. Water consumption could also
be reduced with flush valves operated by
user. Dual flushing adapters can also be used.
This can result in a saving of 2.2-4.5 lits per
flush. In addition flush values with 20-25 mm
inlets can be used for restricting water flow.
Magic eye operated flush valves with an auto
on/off facility(sensor based) are other
options to save water.
REDUCTION OF WATER

WATERLESS TOILETS
This is possible by providing either a
composting or an incinerating mechanism.
REDUCTION OF WATER

Electronic flush systems(EFS) :


The system is hygienic and its operation is hand free . Ideal for hotels, restaurants,
and offices. Its functioning is dependent on sensors that sense when user moves
away and then automatically activate the flush for 10 seconds.
Sensor taps for urinals :
The system is hygienic and efficient for maintenance cleanliness and have
automatic programmed on and off flow control for every use.

Water taps:
Conventional taps have flow rate of 11.35-18.9 lpm. EPACT (energy policy act)
recommended a flow rate of 9.46 lmp. Low flow systems with flow rate of 7.5
lpm are available. Water control can be further reduced by use of auto
control valves. And pressure reducing devices.

Shower heads:
A typical shower head provides 20lpm of water. Flow restrictors and aerators
can reduce it. Flow rate of 2.3-6.9 lpm can be achieved for minimum pressure
and smaller diameters. Automatic shut off nozzles can also be used.
REUSE OF WATER

Rain water harvesting:


The runoff water from roof tops falling
onto the roof tops is collected via
guttering into the down pipes that link
into a water reservoir or underground
tank. Examination of potential saving
before installation is vital.
USE OF GREY WATER
GREY WATER

Greywater
Used water from your bathroom sinks, showers, tubs, and washing machines.
Greywater may contain traces of dirt, food, grease, hair, and certain household cleaning products.

Greywater is:
•a source of irrigation water all year round
•a relatively easy and safe source of water to access and use
•a good source of important nutrients for many plants.

With proper treatment greywater can be put to good use. These uses include water for laundry
and toilet flushing, and also irrigation of plants. Treated greywater can be used to irrigate
both food and non food producing plants. The nutrients in the greywater (such as phosphorus
and nitrogen) provide an excellent food source for these plants.
GREY WATER - sources

From the Washing Machine


greywater can be diverted without cutting into existing plumbing.

From the Shower:


Showers are a great source of greywater- they usually produce a lot of relatively
clean water. To have a simple, effective shower system consider a gravity-based
system (no pump).

From the Sinks


Kitchen sinks are the source of a fair amount of water, usually very high in organic
matter (food, grease, etc.). Kitchen sinks are not allowed under many greywater
codes
This water will clog many kinds of systems. To avoid clogging, we recommend using a
branched drain system with mulch basins, organic matter collects in the woodchips and
decomposes. Since bathroom sinks don’t typically generate much water, they can often
combine flows with the shower water.
GREY WATER - system
WASTE RECYCLING
WASTE MANAGEMENT

“waste hierarchy” is the order of priority of


actions to be taken to reduce the amount of waste
generated, and to improve overall waste
management processes and programs.

The waste hierarchy consists of 3 R’s as follows:


•Reduce
•Reuse
•Recycle
WASTE RECYCLING

The Third ‘R’ – Recycling


The last stage of the waste hierarchy is to recycle. To recycle something means that it will be
transformed again into a raw material that can be shaped into a new item. There are very few
materials on the earth that cannot be recycled.
By recycling materials, the embodied energy they contain is preserved. The energy used in the
recycling process for most materials is far less than the energy used in the original manufacturing.
Aluminum, for example, can be recycled for 10–20% of the energy required to transform raw ore
into finished goods.
2 Key building materials that have potential for recycling include glass, plastics, metals, concrete or
brick, and wood.
WASTE RECYCLING IMPORTANCE

RECYCLING ?
SCARCITY
COSTLY EXTRACTION
UNSUSTAINABLE RESOURCE
RECYCLED CONSUMPTION
WASTE DISPOSAL
WASTE PREVENTION
CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION RECYCLING
ARCHITECTURAL REUSE
DESIGN FOR MATERIALS RECOVERY

RECYCLABILITY FOR A CLOSED LOOP MATERIAL CYCLE


Only recycle when you cant reduce or reuse
GREEN BUILDING CONCEPTS
GLOBAL WARMING
CLIMATE CHANGE

Environmental pollution
Green house gas emissions
ECOLOGICAL FOOT PRINT
CARBON FOOT PRINT GREEN BUILDING DESIGN Energy consumption

A green building rating system is an evaluation


tool that measures environmental performance
of a building through its lifecycle

DESIGN CONSTRUCTION OPERATION


GREEN BUILDING ?
‘A green building is an environmentally sustainable building, designed,
constructed and operated to minimise the total environmental impacts’

Green building is an approach towards constructing environmentally


sensitive buildings considering energy use, water use and impact on
environment during planning, design, construction and operation of
buildings, with minimal generation of non-degradable waste for a
sustainable human life.

GREEN BUILDING
R AT I N G S Y S T E M ?
There is an urge and imminent need to introduce green building techniques and
concepts in the building sector with the growing building sector at a rapid pace.

This rating programme is a tool which enables the designer to apply green
concepts and reduce environmental impacts that are measurable. The
rating programme covers methodologies to cover diverse climatic zones
and changing lifestyles
United States Green Building Council
USGBC

Leadership in Energy and environmental Design-India


LEED India (2007)
I N D I A N R AT I N G

Adopted from USGBC LEED


Run privately by IGBC

Green-rated Integrated Habitat Assessment


GRIHA(TERI)
SYSTEMS

Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)


BEE (ECBC)
LEED INDIA

Thus, green building practices have been evolved, which can substantially reduce or eliminate
negative environmental impacts and improve existing unsustainable design, construction and
operational practices. As an added benefit, green design measures also reduce operating costs,
enhance building marketability, increase worker productivity and reduce potential liability
resulting from indoor air quality problems.

Studies of workers in green buildings reported productivity gains of up to 16%, including


reductions in absenteeism and improved work quality – based on “people- friendly” green
design. In other words, green building design has environmental, economic and social elements
that benefit all building stakeholders, including owners, occupants and the general public.

The first LEED India rating programme, referred to as LEED India Version 1.0, was launched
during the Green Building Congress Conference in 2001.

The intent of LEED 2011 for India is to assist in the creation of high performance, healthful, durable,
affordable and environmentally sound commercial and institutional buildings.
LEED INDIA
LEED RATING SYSTEM
Indian Green Building Council (IGBC)

Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) formed the Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) in year
2001. IGBC is the non-profit research institution licensed the LEED Green Building Standard from the
USGBC. IGBC facilitates Indian green structures to become one of the green buildings.

FOR BUILDING TYPES


1. LEED India for New Construction
R AT I N G C AT E G O R I E S

2. LEED India for Core and Shell


3. IGBC Green Homes
1. Sustainable architecture design 4. IGBC Green Factory Building
5. IGBC Green SEZ
2. Site selection and planning
6. IGBC Green Townships
3. Water conservation
4. Energy efficiency
5. Building materials and
resources Different levels of green building certification are awarded based
on the total credits earned. Every green new building should
6. Indoor environment quality meet certain mandatory requirements, which are non-negotiable.
7. Innovation and development
LEED INDIA

The environmental impact of the building industry is significant. Buildings annually consume more
than 20% of the electricity used in India.
LEED INDIA

Summary of Credit Points under Different Categories 3%


􀂃 100 possible points under the five core categories – 5%
SS, WE, EA, MR & IEQ 24%
􀂃 6 possible points under ‘Innovation in Design’
􀂃 4 possible points under ‘Regional Priority’ 14%

Credit Point Thresholds for Different Levels of


Certification
Certified – 40 - 49 points
Silver – 50 - 59 points 9%
13%
Gold – 60 - 79 points
Platinum – 80 points and above

32%

SS WE EA MR IEQ ID RP
GRIHA RATING
SVA GRIHA (small versatile affordable):
GRIHA eligibility:

All buildings, which are in the design stage SVAGRIHA is a guidance-cum-rating system being
and have built up area more than 2,500 m2, developed for small stand alone buildings like residences,
are eligible for certification under GRIHA. commercial offices, motels, dispensaries, schools etc.
and/or set of buildings with a cumulative built-up area of
2500 sq.m. or less.
•The rating system has 14 criteria. •The criteria are divided
into 5 broad sub-groupsnamely: architecture & energy,
water & waste, materials, landscape and lifestyle
•The total points that a project can achieve are 50
•The rating will be done on a 1-5 star scale.

GRIHA – Prakriti Rating for Existing Day Schools

GRIHA LD (large developments) Large scale housing


projects
•Site Planning
•Energy
•Water and waste water
•Solid waste management
•Transport
•Social
GRIHA RATING
GRIHA RATING

Site Selection On-site water reuse


Low-impact design Rain water recharge
Design to mitigate UHIE Utilization of BIS recommended waste materials in
building structure
Site Imperviousness Factor
Reduction in embodied energy of building structure
Air and water pollution control
Use of low-environmental impact materials in
Preserve and protect landscape during construction building interiors
Construction Management Practices Avoided post-construction landfill
Energy efficiency
Treat organic waste on site
Renewable energy utilization
Labour safety and sanitation
Zero ODP(Ozone depletion potential) materials
Design for Universal Accessibility
Achieving indoor comfort requirements (visual/thermal/acoustic)
Dedicated facilities for service staff
Maintaining good IAQ
Increase in environmental awareness
Use of low-flow fixtures and systems
Smart metering and monitoring
Use of low-VOC paints and other compounds in building interior
Operation, Maintenance Protocols
Reducing landscape water demand
Performance Assessment for Final Rating
Water Quality Innovation