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Physics Notes
Physics: Branch of science dealing with the interaction of Projectile Motion
matter and energy. It can be classified as classical > Motion of a body thrown horizontally and affected by
(mechanics, thermodynamics, etc.) and modern Earth’s gravitational pull
(“quantum” and “relativity theory”) physics. > Trajectory is the path taken by an object in projectile
motion
Basic and Derived Quantities
> Basic Quantities: length, mass, time, electric current,
temperature, amount of substance, luminosity
> Derived Quantities: Quantities defined in terms of
two or more of the basic quantities. Examples of which
are velocity, acceleration, force and work.

## Scalar and Vector Quantities

> Scalar: Has magnitude and unit only (e.g., distance,
The key to analyzing Projectile Motion is to treat the x-
speed, time, energy)
and y-coordinates separately.
> Vector: Has magnitude, unit, and direction (e.g.,
• The velocity in the x-coordinate is constant, thus zero
displacement, velocity, force and acceleration)
acceleration in the x-axis
• The acceleration in the y-coordinate is constant,
Different Forms of Energy 𝑚
Energy: Ability to do work acceleration due to gravity = 10 2
𝑠
 Kinetic Energy: Possessed by a moving body 1. Body Thrown Upward (Free-Fall)
 Potential Energy: Energy of a body due to its position An object is given an initial upward velocity v1. While in
or shape flight, the ball is pulled downward by gravity. Therefore,
a. Gravitational Potential Energy: Energy of an object there is deceleration until it reaches its maximum height.
due to its vertical separation from the earth’s surface Upon reaching the maximum height, the object will
b. Elastic Potential Energy: Energy in a stretched or momentarily stop, V = 0m, before it starts to accelerate
compressed spring down (free-fall).
c. Electric Potential Energy: Energy of electrons inside
an atom Force and velocity are opposite in directions, the speed of
 Internal Energy: the object decreases up to the highest point of its flight.
a.) random kinetic energy of atoms and molecules; Then it falls downward with increasing velocity until it
b.) chemical energy due to bonds and interactions between reaches the ground.
𝑚
atoms and molecules. The net force due to gravity is Fg = mag where ag =10 2.
𝑠

## Kinematics 2. Body Thrown Horizontally

Motion: Change in position of a body As an object is thrown horizontally, an initial horizontal
Distance: Length covered by a body due to its motion force, Fh is applied. Once the object is released no more
Displacement: Distance with direction horizontal force acts on it. But it maintains its horizontal
velocity, vh. This object is being pulled downward by
Speed: Speed (s) is the distance travelled (d) over time gravity so it moves vertically downward with acceleration
𝑚
(t). The unit used is . 𝑚
due to gravity, ag =10 2. The vertical force is
𝑠 𝑠
𝒅 𝑭𝒗 = 𝑭𝒈 = 𝒎𝒂𝒈
𝒔=
𝒕 Thus the object moves in two directions at the same time,
Velocity: Vector quantity which is the ratio of both horizontally (y-axis) and vertically (x-axis).
displacement (x) over time (t). The resultant velocity is
𝒙
𝒗= 𝒗𝑹 = 𝒗𝒚 + 𝒗𝒙
𝒕
Average Velocity
𝑽𝟏 + 𝑽𝟐 Uniform Circular Motion
𝑽𝒂𝒗𝒆 = Consider an object of mass, m, while moving in a circular
𝟐
path at constant speed (Fc = mac). Relating the magnitude
Acceleration: the rate of change in velocity with respect of the centripetal acceleration, ac, with the speed of the
to time. body and radius of the circular path R.
∆𝒗 𝒗𝟐
𝒂= ac =
𝑹
∆𝒕 𝒗𝟐
where: ∆𝑣 = 𝑣𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 Fc = mac = m
𝑹
∆𝑡 = 𝑡𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑙 − 𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙
Forces and Interactions
Force: push or pull. It is measured in unit of Newton. It is
an interaction between two bodies or between a body and
its environment.

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Major Types of Forces  Law of Motion and Mass (or Law of Acceleration):
Contact Forces “An unbalanced force acting on an object will cause
 Normal Force: It is a force exerted on an object the object to accelerate in the direction of the force”.
by any surface with which it is in contact. This Acceleration is directly proportional to the net force
force is always perpendicular to the said surface. and inversely proportional to its mass.
 Law of Interaction: “For every action there is an
equal but opposite reaction.”

## Stress and Strain

its original size and shape when the applied external force
 Friction Force: A force exerted on an object
is removed
parallel to the surface, in the direction that
Stress: A component of a force perpendicular to the area
opposes sliding.
it acts on. It is mathematically written as:
𝑭𝒐𝒓𝒄𝒆
Stress =
𝑨𝒓𝒆𝒂
Strain: A measure of deformation, usually it is the
object’s change in length, ∆l

Different Types of Friction Forces Hooke’s Law: Strain is directly proportional to the cause
Static 𝑭𝑺 = 𝑭𝑵 𝝁 𝑺 of deformation (stress). Hence,
𝑭
Force 𝑺𝒕𝒓𝒆𝒔𝒔
Y = = 𝑨
∆𝒍
𝑺𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒊𝒏
𝒍𝒐
Sliding/ 𝑭𝒌 = 𝑭𝑵 𝝁 𝒌
where:
Kinetic Y = Young’s Modulus of Elasticity
Force l0 = the original length of the material
Rolling 𝑭𝒓 = 𝑭𝑵 𝝁 𝒓 ∆l = the change in length
Force Young’s Modulus is a measure of the stretchability or
compressibility of a material within its elastic limit. The
higher Y is, the more elastic the material.
 Tension: The pulling force exerted by a stretched
rope or cord on an object to which it’s attached Pressure: Perpendicular force acting on a unit surface.
𝑭
P=
Long-range Forces 𝑨
 Electromagnetic Force: Attraction or repulsion The unit of pressure is Pascal (Pa)
1𝑁
between electric charges or magnetic poles. 1 Pa = 2
𝑚
Coulomb’s Law of Magnetism Increase in height causes decrease in air density.
𝒒 𝒒
𝑭𝒆 = 𝒌 𝟏 𝟐 𝟐 Increase in molecular collisions causes increase in
𝒓
where k (Coulomb's constant) = 8.99×109 N m2 C−2 pressure.
q1 and q2 = magnitudes of the charges
r = distance between the charges Pascal’s Principle
An external pressure exerted on a static, enclosed fluid is
 Gravitational Force: Attracts bodies toward each transmitted uniformly throughout the fluid.
other.
Law of Universal Gravitation Archimedes’
𝒎 𝒎
𝑭𝒈 = 𝑮 𝟏 𝟐 𝟐 Magnitude of buoyant force, FB, is equal to the weight of
𝒓
𝑁𝑚 2
fluid displaced by the object.
where G (gravitational constant) = 6.67 x 10-11 𝑭𝑩 = 𝑽𝒘 𝑫𝒘 𝒈
𝑘𝑔 2
m1 and m2 = mass of bodies Vw= volume of displaced water V = volume of the object
r = distance between the bodies Dw= density of water D = density of the object
A body will float in a fluid if it is less dense than the fluid.
Weight: The gravitational force that the earth
exerts on the body. Impulse and Momentum
W= Mass (G)
Where G = acceleration due to gravity Momentum: Tendency of a moving object to continue
moving and the difficulty encountered in reducing that
Newton’s Laws of Motion motion
 Law of Inertia: “Bodies at rest will remain at rest 𝒑 = 𝒎𝒗
𝑚
and bodies in motion will continue moving at constant where m is mass and v is velocity. The unit is 𝑘𝑔 ∙ .
𝑠
speed in a straight line unless acted upon by a net Impulse of a force on an object for a time t is:
force”. This law implies that objects will remain at rest 𝑰𝒎𝒑𝒖𝒍𝒔𝒆 = 𝑭𝒕
or moving at a constant rate if the sum of all forces The unit is N∙s
acting on them is zero.

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> The relationship between impulse of a force and the On moving Charges in Vacuum
change in momentum is given by 𝑭 = 𝒒∙𝒗∙𝑩
𝐿
𝑭𝒏𝒆𝒕 = 𝒎 𝒗𝒇 − 𝒎𝒗𝒊 where: q = no. of charges; v = velocity =
𝑡
where 𝒗𝒇 is the final velocity and vi is the initial velocity. Electromagnetic Induction
This states that the sum of the impulses of all forces Current is induced when a conductor moves across a
acting on an object for a certain time is equal to the magnetic field or when a magnetic field moves with
change in momentum of the object during that time. respect to a stationary conductor.

## Conservation of Momentum Factors of Induced Current

If no external force (like friction) acts on a body, the  Relative velocity of the conductor and magnetic
momentum of the body will not change. fields
Let p = mv1 + mv2  The strength of the magnetic field.
(the momentum of the system before collision)  Length of the conductor in the field
where: m1 = mass of object 1; v1 = velocity of object 1  Current is produced when a potential difference
m2 = mass of object 2; v2 = velocity of object 2 between two points in a circuit exist.
Let p’ = m1 v1’ + m2v2’  Can magnetism induce current? This is shown by the
(the momentum of system after collision) following equation.
The law of conservation of momentum states that: 𝑽=𝒗 ∙𝑩 ∙𝑳
∆𝒑 = 𝒑𝟏 − 𝒑 = 𝟎 𝒐𝒓 𝒑′ = 𝒑 Note that the current (l) is proportional to voltage (V).
Thus as current increases, v, B, and L increases.
Work, Power and Mechanical Energy ∆𝒑
Work: Done when a force causes displacement. The unit 𝑽=
𝒕
of work is joules. The induced voltage is numerically equal to the rate of
𝑾 = 𝑭𝒙 change of the magnetic flux. As the flux changes, current
Power: The rate at which work is done. is induced.
∆𝑾
𝑷=
∆𝒕 Wave and Energy
Kinetic Energy: Energy Transfer
𝟏
𝑲𝑬 = 𝒎𝒗2  Waves are classified as mechanical and
𝟐
where m = mass and v = velocity electromagnetic waves. They either move in circular
or straight motion.
Potential Energy  There are two types of waves:
𝑷𝑬 = 𝒎𝒈𝒉 o Transverse - Movement of the particles of the
where m = mass of the object, g = 10
𝑚
, and h = height medium are perpendicular to the direction of the
𝑠2 wave motion.
of the object
o Longitudinal - Movement is parallel to the
direction of the wave.
Conservation of Mechanical Energy
 Waves have different characteristics
𝑲𝑬𝟏 + 𝑷𝑬𝟏 = 𝑲𝑬𝟐 + 𝑷𝑬𝟐
𝟏 𝟏 o Wavelength: Distance between two
𝒎𝒗𝟏2 + 𝒎𝒈𝒉𝟏 = 𝒎𝒗𝟐2 + 𝒎𝒈𝒉𝟐 corresponding points on a wave train.
𝟐 𝟐
o Wave Frequency: Expressed in hertz which
Magnetic Field corresponds to the number of times the wave
source completes a vibration in one second.
Magnetic field is a region in space where the magnet o Period: Time it takes the wave source to make
affects another magnet. Magnetic fields can affect current- one complete vibration. It is the reciprocal of
carrying conductors and moving charges in vacuum. frequency.
o Amplitude: Highest or lowest displacement from
On Current- Carrying Conductors a wave’s equilibrium position. Increase in
If a current carrying conductor is in a magnetic field, it amplitude causes a transfer of more energy.
moves to a direction at right angle to both the direction of o Speed: Directly proportional to frequency
I and B 𝑠 = 𝑓𝜆
Doppler Effect
Magnetic Force: Magnetic force (F) is maximized when Occurs when the speed of the wave is greater
current I and magnetic field directions are perpendicular than the speed of the source.
to each other. The magnitude of the force F depends on
the following:
a) Current (I);
b) Strength of magnetic field (B);
c) Length of the conductor that lies in magnetic field (L).
In equation, magnetic force is:
𝑭 = 𝑩 ∙ 𝑰 ∙ 𝑳

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Overview: Sound vs. Light around a corner to help keep people from running
Sound Waves Light Waves into one another.
Longitudinal Transverse Convex Mirror Uses: Sunglasses
Mechanical Electromagnetic  Convex mirrors are used to make sunglass lenses.
Propagated with medium: Can be propagated without These mirrors help reflect some of the sunlight
a medium: away from the wearer's eyes.
can be propagated in Convex Mirror Uses: Vehicles
vacuum  Convex mirrors are often found on the passenger
Gas(slowest) Gas (fastest) sides of motor vehicles. These mirrors make objects
Liquid Liquid appear smaller than they really are. Due to this
Solid (fastest) Solid(slowest) compression, these mirrors to reflect a wider image
area, or field of vision.
Convex Mirror Uses: Security
Sound
 Convex mirrors are often placed near ATMs to allow
Characteristics of Sound Waves
bank customers to see if someone is behind them.
o Loudness or Intensity: Loud sounds have
This is a security measure that helps keep ATM
greater amplitude
users safe from robbery of any cash withdrawals
o Pitch: Highness or lowness of sound
and helps keep ATM users' identity more secure.
o Quality: Distinguishes sounds from one another
Convex Mirror Uses: Magnifying Glass
 Two convex mirrors placed back to back are used
Light
to make a magnifying glass.
Reflection in Plane Mirrors
The image is reversed in a plane mirror. The virtual image
Application of Concave Mirrors
is of the same size as the object in front of the mirror.
Concave Mirror Uses: Vehicle
Reflection in Curved Mirrors
 Concave mirrors are used in vehicle headlights to
A curved mirror has a vertex V, a center of curvature c,
focus the light from the headlight. The light is not
and a principal focus F. The focal length, f, is the distance
as diffused and the driver can see better at night.
from V to F.
Summary of Lens and Mirrors
Concave Mirror Uses: Light Concentration
Type of Image
 Concave mirrors are used to focus light for heating
Diverging Mirror Convex Mirror Virtual,Upright,Reduced purposes.(e.g. solar cooker)
Diverging Lens Concave Lens
Converging Mirror Concave Virtual,Upright,Enlarged Application of Lens
Mirror Real,Inverted,Enlarged Convex Lens Uses: Eye defects
Converging Lens Convex Lens Real,Inverted,Same size  Convex lens are used in eyeglass prescribed for
Real,Inverted,Reduced individuals with hyperopia (far-sightedness).

## Concave Lens Uses: Eye defects

 Convex lens are used in eyeglass prescribed for
individuals with myopia (near-sightedness).

Refraction
Bending of light at the boundary between different media.
The index of refraction is:
𝒄
n=
𝒗
where n = index of refraction, c = speed of light
𝑚
(3 × 108 ), and v = speed of light in the medium
𝑠

Law of Reflection
- “It states that the angle of incidence is equal to
the angle of reflection.”
- In symbols, Ɵi = Ɵr
where: Ɵi – angle of incidence
Additional notes Ɵr – angle of relection
 When object is placed at an infinite distance, The normal line is always drawn perpendicular with the
image is a point at F. reflecting surface. Angle of incidence and reflection is
 When object is placed at F, the image is at measured from the normal line.
infinity.
Multiple Reflection of Light
Application of Convex Mirrors When light hits reflecting surfaces several times, multiple
Convex Mirror Uses: Inside Buildings images will be formed. If the angle between two reflecting
 Large hospitals, stores and office buildings often surfaces such as mirror decreases, the number of images
use convex mirrors to allow people to see what is formed increases. To determine the number of images

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that can be formed between two mirrors hinged together from the normal from denser to less dense medium. When
at an angle is the critical angle is reached, the angle of refraction is
360 along the interface of the two media which is equal to 90
𝑛𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑒𝑠 = −1
𝜃 degrees from the normal line. Using Snell’s Law.
Where Ɵ = angle between two mirrors
𝑛1 sin 𝜃1 = 𝑛2 sin 𝜃2
Refraction of Light 𝑛1 sin 𝜃𝑐 = 𝑛2 sin 𝜃2
Light bends when it travels obliquely from one transparent 𝑛2 sin 𝜃2
sin 𝜃𝑐 =
medium to another. Light is bent toward or away from the 𝑛1
normal as it changes its speed when traveling through −1
𝑛1
𝜃 = sin ( )
different optical media. A measure of how fast or slow 𝑛2
light travels from one medium to another is called the Incident angle (Ɵi) is equal to the critical angle (Ɵ c) when
index of refraction (optical density). the refracted ray moves parallel to the boundary when Ɵ 2
𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑜𝑓 𝑟𝑒𝑓𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛(𝑛) = 90O. One of the applications of total internal reflection is
𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑣𝑎𝑐𝑢𝑢𝑚 the used of the flexible pipe in fiber optics industry.
=
𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑓 𝑙𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑖𝑛 𝑎 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑚𝑒𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑚 Images can be transferred from one point to another
𝑐 resulting to multiple internal reflection using the bundle of
=
𝑣 parallel fibers in constructing transmission line. Another
application is seen in the medical field, physician utilize
Index of refraction is a dimensionless quantity and its optical fiber devices to examine internal organs of the
value is always greater or equal to 1 since light travels body or to perform surgery without making large incisions.
fastest in a vacuum than any other media. When the first Electrical wirings such as copper wiring and coaxial cables
medium has greater index of refraction than the second are being replaced by optical fibers since these can carry
medium, light bends away from the normal. If medium 2 greater volume of telephone calls or other forms of
is denser than medium 1, light bends towards the normal. communication (Serway, 2004)

Snell’s law is the basic law of refraction that shows the Diffraction of Light
relationship between the angles of incidence and It is the bending of light waves around the objects it
refraction passes and spreads out after passing through the narrow
𝑛1 sin 𝜃1 = 𝑛2 sin 𝜃2 slits which give rise to a diffraction pattern due to
Where, n1 – index of refraction of the first medium interference between light rays that travel different
n2 – index of refraction of the second medium distances (Giancolli, 200_).
Ɵ1 – angle of incidence
Ɵ2 – angle of refraction When light passes through an opening that is large
compared with the wavelength of light, a shadow will be
caste on the screen with sharp boundary between the
Dispersion of White Light dark and light areas of shadow. But when light waves pass
A separation of white light into several rainbow colors through thin silt, it diffracts which produces bright and
after passing a prism is called dispersion. Dispersion dark areas. Longer waves diffract more since the amount
occurs because the indices of refraction are wavelength of shadow depends on the wavelength of the wave
dependent (Nowikow et al., 2002) compared with the size of the obstruction that casts the
The speed of light in vacuum is the same for all
wavelengths but the speed in a material substance is Interference of Light
different for different wavelengths. Dispersion is the Interference of wave is the meeting or superimposing of
dependence of wave speed and index of refraction on one wave on another wave.
wavelength. In most materials, light of longer wavelength Types of interference:
has greater speed than light of shorter wavelength since  Constructive Interference – At points where the waves
the value of the index of refraction decreases with arrive in phase. As seen from the figure at the right,
decreasing frequency and increasing wavelength. when a crest meets another crest or a trough meets
another trough (waves are in phase), the resulting
A ray of white light incident on a prism separates it to wave is being reinforced forming a supercrest or
rainbow colors – R, O, Y, G, B, V. Red light is deviated supertrough.
least while violet light is deviated most since deviation  Destructive Interference – At points where the waves
(change in direction) produced by a prism increases with arrive in opposite phase. Figure at the right shows the
increasing frequency and index of refraction and meeting of waves with the same amplitude which are
decreasing wavelength. out of phase (crest meets trough) resulted to a
cancellation of wave.
Total Internal Reflection
Total Internal Reflection happens when the incident angle Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave which exhibits
is greater than the critical angle, this is possible only when interference. Striped Interference pattern was produced
light travels from denser to less dense medium such as when a monochromatic light passes through closely
diamond to air. As the angle of incidence increases, the spaced – slits. Series of bright and dark lines results from
angle of refraction also increases since light bends away the different path lengths from the slits to the screen. The

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central bright fringes are the results of the in phase waves The two refracted rays passing through the Iceland Spar
that reinforced each other (Constructive Interference) crystal are polarized with perpendicular orientations.
while the dark fringes are produced from the meeting of
the waves that are out of phase (Destructive Polarization by Scattering
Interference). As light strikes the atoms of a material, the electrons of
the atoms set into vibration which later produce their own
Polarization of Light electromagnetic wave radiated outward in all directions.
Polarization of light waves shows that light is really a The newly generated wave strikes other neighboring
transverse wave. All EM waves exhibits polarization. There atoms that forces their electrons to vibrate at same
are many applications of polarized light such as: original frequency, and then produces new
a. Polarized light is useful in determining the size electromagnetic waves radiated outward in all directions.
and shape of virus. The absorption and reemission of light waves causes the
b. Polaroid is a trademark for glare – reducing light to be scattered and partially polarized about the
plastic which is used in sun glasses. Polaroids cut medium. Polarization by scattering is observed as light
down the horizontally polarized light to reduce passes through our atmosphere which often produces a
the glare and intensity. glare in the skies.
c. Polaroids with perpendicular axes are used in
special types of glasses for three dimensional Geometric Optics
viewing (3-D view) Images can be formed either by reflection of light as it hits
d. Photo elastic stress analysis uses polarized light. an opaque or transparent medium respectively. The image
formation can be illustrated by ray diagrams in geometric
Polarization by Transmission optics and can also be proven mathematically using the
It is the most common method of polarization which mirror or thin lens equation and magnification.
utilizes Polaroid filter that blocks one of the two planes of Some important quantities/terms needed in the image
vibration of an electromagnetic wave upon transmission of formation by lens or mirror.
the light through it. Unpolarized light vibrates in all  Object distance (do) – distance of the object from
directions. Vertical and horizontal components of light the mirror/lens.
have equal intensities but after passing through a  Image distance (di) – distance of the image from the
polarized, one of the components is eliminated and light mirror/lens.
intensity is reduced to half. Unpolarized light can be  Focal length (f) – half of the radius of curvature (R)
entirely stopped when the two polaroids are crossed of the reflecting or refracting surfaces; the distance
having perpendicular polarizing axes (Polarizer and between the center of the mirror/lens to the focal point
Analyzer). (F)
 Focal point (F) – the point where incident parallel
The second Polaroid, the analyzer, then eliminates this rays to come to a focus after reflection/refraction
component since its transmission axis is perpendicular to  Principal Axis – straight line perpendicular to the flat
the first. You can try this with Polaroid sunglasses. Note or curved reflecting or refracting surfaces
that Polaroid sunglasses climinate 50% of unpolarized  Magnification (M) – dimensionless quantity which
light because of their polarizing property: they absorb tells whether the image formed is maximize, diminish
even more because they are colored. or same size as the object.
 Image size (h’) – size of the image
Polarization by Reflection  Object’s size (h) – size of the object
When light strikes a nonmetallic surface at any angle To determine the location of the object or image, a
other than perpendicular, the reflected beam is a polarized mirror/thin lens equation is used.
preferentially in the plane parallel to the surface. 1 1 1
= +
Furthermore, the component with polarization in the plane 𝑓 𝑑𝑜 𝑑𝑖
perpendicular to the surface is preferentially transmitted Images formed by a mirror/lens can be real or virtual,
or absorbed. People who go fishing wear polaroid erect or inverted. Real images are usually inverted while
sunglasses to see beneath the water more clearly since it virtual images are erect/
eliminates the reflected glare from the surface (Giancolli).  Real images is formed when light rays pass through
and diverge from the image point and can be displayed
Reflection of light off of non-metallic surfaces results in on the screen.
some degree of polarization parallel to the surface.  Virtual image do not pass through the image point but
only appear to diverge from that point and cannot be
Polarization by Refraction displayed on the screen.
Refraction is the bending of light as it passes obliquely  Erect image is an image formed in upright position.
from one transparent medium to another. Light ray bends  Inverted image is an image formed which turns
which acquires some degree of polarization. As light upside-down.
enters a transparent medium such as Iceland spar, it Images can also be diminished, maximized or same size
refracts the incident light into two different paths which as the object.
are polarized. The double refraction of light can produce  Diminished image is the image formed that is smaller
two images. than the object.
 Maximized image is the image formed that is larger
than the image.
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 Same size image is the image formed that is similar to Astigmatism: when the cornea or the lens or both are
the size of the object. not perfectly symmetric, this resulted to an eye defect that
According to the magnification formula (M): prevents the light rays from meeting at a single point,
−𝑑𝑖 ℎ′ producing an imperfect image. In order to correct this eye
𝑀= =
𝑑𝑜 ℎ defect, lenses with different curvatures in two
When the absolute value of perpendicular directions can be used.
 M = 1, object is same size as the image
 M < 1, diminished image Light and Colors
 M > 1, maximize image White light is not a color rather it is the presence of all
frequencies of visible light while Black is the absence of
In solving for the different unknowns, some sign the visible light spectrum. White is capable of reflecting all
conventions are important to remember to determine the visible light spectrum white and black is capable of
kind of image that will be formed after reflection of light absorbing all visible light spectrum and converted it to
from mirror and refraction of light from lens. heat energy. When the colors of light with varying degrees
of intensity are mixed/added, another color will be
Sign Conventions for Mirrors and Lenses produced.
Description of Image
Virtual or Primary Colors of Light Secondary Colors of Light
Focal Erect or 1. Red (R) 1. Yellow (Y) = R + G
Real Same/Max/Dim
Length Inverted 2. Blue (B) 2. Cyan (C) = B + G
Image
Real 3. Green (G) 3. Magenta (M) = B + R
(positive Inverted
Same (M = 1) White light can also be formed when the three primary
Converging di) (negative h’)
Max (M > 1) colors with same intensity are added.
(+) Virtual Erect
Dim (M < 1) W=R+B+G
(negative (positive h)
di)
Virtual Complementary Colors of Light
Diverging Erect 1. Red + Cyan = White
(negative Dim (M < 1)
(-) (positive h) 2. Green + Magenta = White
di)
3. Blue + Yellow = White
Eye is the most remarkable optical device necessary to
see the things around us in the presence of the visible The color of objects is not in the object but rather in the
light spectrum. It is also similar to a camera that focuses light which reflects off or transmits through the object. In
light and produces a sharp image. color subtraction, the ultimate color appearance of an
object is determined by beginning with a single color or
Camera-Eye Analogy mixture of colors and identifying which color or colors of
 Lens – Cornea/Lens light are subtracted from the original set.
 Aperture – Pupil W – B = (R + G + B) – B
 Film – Retina = R+G=Y
 Shutter - Eyelid The object is capable of absorbing Blue under the White
light. The object appears Yellow to the observer since blue
Eye Defects light was cancelled and transformed to heat energy.
Farsightedness (Hyperopia): is the inability to see R–B=R
nearby objects clearly. Since the images is formed behind The object is capable of absorbing Blue under the Red
the retina, a converging lens is needed to correct this eye light. The object appears Red to the observer since blue
defect. In order to focus the image on the retina, the light cannot be cancelled and transformed to heat energy
converging lens refracts more the incoming rays toward from Red light.
the principal axis before entering the eye. M – B = (R + B) – B
= R
Nearsightedness (Myopia): is the inability to see far The object is capable of absorbing Blue under the
objects clearly. Since the image is formed in front of the Magenta light. The object appears Red to the observer
retina, a diverging lens is needed to correct this eye since blue light was cancelled and transformed to heat
defect. In order to focus the image on the retina, the energy.
diverging lens refracts more the incoming rays toward the
principal axis before entering the eye. Electromagnetic Wave
Electromagnetic waves consist of a changing electric field
Old-age vision (Presbyopia): it is due to a reduction in and a changing magnetic field. James Clerk Maxwell
accommodation ability as the ciliary muscle weakens and (1831-1879) theorized that electromagnetic induction
the lens hardens. The cornea and lens do not have happens in space even without the presence of a
sufficient focusing power to bring nearby objects into conductor.
focus on the retina. Converging lens can be used to
correct this eye defect.

21

## Electromagnetic Spectrum Ohm’s Law

Current is directly proportional to voltage and inversely
proportional to resistance.
𝑽 = 𝑰𝑹
where V = voltage, I = current, and R = resistance
Note: Ohm’s law applies only to metallic conductors and
not to transistors or electrolytes.

## Factors of Wire Resistance

o Length of Material: Longer path for electric
current results to greater resistance
o Wire Diameter: Greater cross-sectional area of
conductor results to lesser resistance.
Nature of Matter and Energy o Kind of Material
The photon’s having energy and momentum is expressed o Temperature: Higher temperature results to
by greater resistance.
𝑬 = 𝒉𝒇 o Resistivity: Ability of the substance to conduct
where h=Planck’s constant(6.63x10-34J-s) and f= electric current. The resistance is equal to the
frequency product of resistivity and length of wire divided
𝒉𝒇
𝒑= =𝒉𝝀 by its cross-sectional area.
𝒄
where p = the momentum 𝝆𝑳
𝑹=
𝑨
Radioactivity where L = length of conductor and A = cross-sectional
The spontaneous emission of radiation from the nuclei of area of the conductor, and ρ (rho) = resistivity of the
atoms of certain substances termed as radioactive. material.
Radiation is of three main types: alpha (fast-moving
helium nuclei); beta (fast-moving electrons); gamma Electrical Power and Energy
(high-energy, highly penetrating protons). Beta and
gamma radiation are both damaging to body tissues, but Power Input: Rate at which an appliance uses up
are especially dangerous if a radioactive substance is electrical energy. It is measured in watts.
ingested or inhaled. When radiation takes place, there is 𝑷 = 𝑽𝑰
loss of energy.
Circuits
Electricity
Series Circuits: Current passes to only one route from
Electromagnetic Energy Circuit: Any arrangement of the source through the several loads and back to the
materials that permits electrons to flow. It is composed of source. The current is the same in every part of the
a source of electrical energy, load, and connecting wires. circuit.

Electric Current: The net flow changes along a material. Parallel Circuits: General loads are connected to the
The unit used is ampere. The electron charge’s unit is same voltage source and current is divided among these
coulomb. In equation form, electric current is: loads.
𝒒
I=
𝒕
where I = electric current, q = number of charges passing
Series Parallel
through a perpendicular cross section of a conductor, and
Voltage V1 + V2 + … + Vn V1 = V2 = … = Vn
t = time
𝑐𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑜𝑚𝑏 (VT)
1 ampere = 1
𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 Current I1 = I2 = … =In I1 + I2 + … +In
6.3 x 1018 electrons pass a cross-section of a conductor in (IT)
1 second. Resistance R1 + R2 +...+ Rn 𝟏
Voltage: Potential difference between points when work (RT) 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝐽 + +⋯
is done to move charge between points. The unit is . 𝑹𝟏 𝑹𝟐 𝑹𝒏
𝐶
In equation form, Diagram
𝑾
𝑽=
𝒒

## Resistance: Tendency of the unit to resist the passage of

electric current. The unit is ohm (Ω).