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Advancement in Lighting Technology

It comes as no surprise to any grower that advancements in lighting technology

are being made at a feverish pace. Choosing a light source is a very different
experience now than it was a few years ago. Today, incandescent light bulbs are
being phased out by more energy efficient alternatives, including compact
florescent bulbs (CFL) and light emitting diodes (LED), available in a full range
of shapes and sizes depending on intended use.
When purchasing lighting, it's important to understand the differences between
various light sources and the terminology included on the packaging. The right
bulbs could not only lower your electric bill, but impact flock performance. And
the light you choose will depend on whether you are rearing broilers, pullets or
The key selection criteria include the type of bulb, its wattage, lumen output or
intensity, lumen/watt ratio, temperature (°K), cost, lifespan and warranty.

Major changes are rapidly taking place in the world of commercial lighting.
Revolutionary new lighting technologies are impacting the traditional realm of
HID lighting systems. The clear advantages of these new light sources represent
the future of lighting, and relegate HID lamps as inefficient, fragile and
antiquated. Major consumers now require light sources that perform more
efficiently, save on energy costs, reduce long term maintenance costs, can be
easily controlled, are more durable, provide better color, reduce hazardous
waste, and reduce carbon emissions to help protect the environment.
Types of Lamps

 Incandescent Lamps
 Xenon Arc Lamps
 Mercury Vapour Lamp
 Sodium Vapour Lamp
 Fluorescent Lamps
 Electrodeless Lamps
 Magnetic Induction Lamps
 Plasma lamps
The Induction Lamp Revolution

Induction lamp technology is rapidly gaining success as the best choice for high
lumen applications such as street lighting, high ceilings, difficult to access
installations, and applications with long operating hours. Featuring
extraordinary 100,000 hour lamp life, Induction provides 3 to 10 times the
service life versus HID lighting and twice that of LED. Induction delivers 50%
energy savings using half the wattage of HID lamps, high 85 lumens per watt
efficiency, minimal lamp lumen depreciation with 88% light output maintained
over the life of the system, excellent 90 CRI colour, instant on performance, no
restrike delay, and cold temperature operation down to minus 40 degrees C/F.
Induction features electrodeless lamps, and the absence of electrodes (filaments)
is the reason for their exceptional longevity, durability and vibration resistance.

Introduction to Magnetic Induction Lamps

Magnetic Induction Lamps offer an economically viable and environmentally

friendly way to improve lighting conditions while reducing energy
consumption, reducing CO2 production from power generation, and reducing
operational and maintenance costs. Cost and energy reductions can be between
35% to 70% depending on the application.

Mercury vapour in the discharge vessel is electrically excited to produce short-

wave ultraviolet light, which then excites internal phosphors to produce visible
light. While still relatively unknown to the public, these lamps have been
available since 1990. Unlike an incandescent lamp or conventional fluorescent
lamps, there is no electrical connection going inside the glass bulb; the energy is
transferred through the glass envelope solely by electromagnetic induction.

There are two main types of magnetic induction lamps: external core lamps and
internal core lamps. The first commercially available and still widely used form
of induction lamp is the internal core type. The external core type, which was
commercialized later, has a wider range of applications and is available in
round, rectangular and "olive" shaped form factors.
External & Internal Induction Lamps

External inductor lamps are basically fluorescent lamps with magnetic induction
coils wrapped around a part of the tube (see diagram on right). High frequency
energy, from the electronic ballast, is sent through wires which form a coil
around the ferrite inductor .

The induction coil produces a very strong magnetic field which travels through
the glass envelope/tube walls and excites the
mercury atoms causing them to emit UV light inside the tube. The UV light is
up-converted to the visible light we see by the phosphor coating on the inside of
the tube.

The system can be considered as a type of transformer where the inductor is the
primary coil, while the mercury atoms within the tube from a si
ngle-turn secondary coil; thus electrical energy is coupled through the glass wall
of the tube to excite the mercury atoms.

In a variation of this technology, a light bulb shaped glass lamp, which has a
test-tube like central re-entrant cavity (glass tube), is coated with phosphors on
the inside and filled with inert gas and a pellet of mercury amalgam (see
diagram on left). The induction coil is wound around a shaft which is inserted
into the central test-tube like cavity and excited by high frequency energy
provided by an external electronic ballast, to produce a strong magnetic field.
Advantages of Magnetic Induction Lamps

•Very long lifespan compared to conventional lighting technologies - 85,000

to 100,000 hours for external inductor lamps.
• High energy conversion efficiency ranging from 70 L/W in low wattage
models to 90 L/W in high wattage models.
• Provides substantial energy savings of between 40% and 70% in most
• Typically, induction lamps are guaranteed for 5 years but with an expected
lifespan of between 85,000 to 100,000 hours (between 9.7 and 11.5 years of
24/7 operation), they substantially reduce maintenance and re-lamping
• Induction lamps have excellent lumen maintenance characteristics
producing higher light output for a much longer time than competing
lighting technologies.
• Mganttic induction lamps are “instant-on” type. They initiate at between
70% and 80% of output and take 45-120 seconds to reach full output.
This instant on characteristic makes them ideal for use in applications
with occupancy or motion sensors.
•Induction lamps provide “hot re-strike” (instant re-start) eliminating long
lamp re-start times associated with other HID lighting technologies.
• Induction lamps operate at high frequencies and are flicker-free reducing
eyestrain and improving workplace safety.
• Induction lamps have a high Scotopic/Photopic (S/P) ratio which improves
visual acuity, reduces fatigue and eye strain thereby improving working
• Magnetic induction lamps are environmentally friendly, as they help reduce
CO2 emissions from power generation thereby assisting in reducing
global warming, and they contain a solid amalgam mercury which is
completely recyclable, while other commercial lighting types contain
hazardous liquid mercury.

Disadvantages of Magnetic Induction Lamps

 Some models of internal inductor lamps that use high frequency ballasts
can produce radio frequency interference (RFI) which interferes with
radio communications in the area. Newer, external inductor type lamps
use low frequency ballasts that usually have FCC or other certification,
thus suggesting compliance with RFI regulations.
 Some types of inductor lamps contain mercury, which is highly toxic if
released to the environment.
Induction Lighting Application Examples

Roadway/Walkway Lighting:

The photo shows Magnetic Induction Lamps used for walkway illumination at
one of the IKEA stores in Shanghai, China. Based on information from the
lighting installers, the 120W induction lamp fixtures replaced 250W HPS
fixtures saving 161.5W of energy per pole. With 26 walkway poles,
IKEA is saving 3.3 Kilowatts of electricity each hour the system operates.
With an average use of 10 hours per day, 365 days per year, total power saving
are thus about 12.045 kWh per annum!


A 70W High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Wallpack fixture (left of photo). The
insert photo of the watt meter shows that it is consuming 119W of energy
ballast Included) while producing 4,389 Visually Effective Lumens (VEL).
A 40W magnetic induction light Wallpack (right of photo). The watt meter
shows it is only consuming 46W of energy (ballast included) while producing
5,994 Visually Effective Lumens (VEL) of light. The magnetic induction
lighting technology Wallpack produces over 26% more light while
using 62.2% less energy!
Plasma Lamp

A plasma globe or plasma lamp (also called plasma ball, dome, sphere, tube or
orb, depending on shape) is (usually) a clear glass sphere filled with a mixture
of various noble gases with a high-voltage electrode in the center of the sphere.
Plasma filaments extend from the inner electrode to the outer glass insulator,
giving the appearance of multiple constant beams of colored light (see corona
discharge and electric glow discharge). Plasma globes were most popular
as novelty items in the 1980s.

The plasma lamp was invented by Nikola Tesla after his experimentation with
high-frequency currents in an evacuated glass tube for the purpose of
studying high voltage phenomena, but the modern versions were known to be
first designed by Bill Parker. Tesla called this invention an inert gas discharge

Description of Plasma Lamps

Although many variations exist, a plasma lamp is usually a clear glass sphere
filled with a mixture of various gases (most commonly neon, sometimes with
other noble gases such as argon, xenon and krypton) at nearly atmospheric
pressure. They are driven by high-frequency alternating current energy at
approximately 35 kHz, 2–5 kV.[1] This energy comes from a lower-voltage DC
power supply usually connected to mains power, and flows through a high-
voltage transformer combined with a high-frequency electronic oscillator circuit
which together output a high frequency and high voltage AC to the electrode.
Therefore, the circuitry inside the electrode can be considered as a
specialized power inverter. The high-frequency high-voltage power, or radio
frequency energy, is transmitted into the gas within the globe through an
electrode at its center.

Much of the movement of the filaments is due to heating of the gas around the
filament. When gas along the filament is heated, it becomes more buoyant and
rises, carrying the filament with it. If the filament is discharging into a fixed
object (like a hand) on the side of the globe, it will begin to deform into a
curved path between the central electrode and the object. When the distance
between the electrode and the object becomes too great to maintain, the filament
will break and a new filament will reform between the electrode and the hand.
Advantages of Plasma Lamps

Warm-up time (run-up time): The time required for a lamp to reach 90% of
its stabilized light output when it is started.

Restrike time: The time required for a lamp to start and return to 90% of its
stabilized light output after the lamp is extinguished.

Rated dimming (percentage of maximum power or light output): For HID

lamps and induction lighting systems, lighting manufacturers define dimming as
a percentage of full power; for LED packages and plasma lighting systems,
lighting manufacturers define dimming as a percentage of full light output.

Rated lumen depreciation: For HID lamps, most lighting manufacturers report
mean lumens to show rated lumen depreciation. Typically, mean lumens are
evaluated at 40% of rated life for MH and LPS lamps, at 40-50% of rated life
for MV, and at 40-67% of rated life for HPS lamps.

Hazards of Plasma Lamps

Bringing conductive materials or electronic devices close to a plasma globe may

cause the glass to become hot. The high voltage radio frequency energy coupled
to them from within the globe may cause a mild electric shock, even through a
protective plastic casing. The radio frequency field produced by plasma lamps
can interfere with the operation of touchpads used on laptop computers, digital
audio players, cell phones, and other similar devices. Some types can radiate
sufficient radio frequency interference (RFI) to interfere with cordless
telephones and Wi-Fi devices several feet or some meters away.

If a tinfoil hat is placed on the globe, capacitive coupling can transfer enough
current through the foil to give a small arc burn or light a small lamp connected
to earth ground. This is possible because the globe's glass acts as a capacitor
dielectric: the inside of the lamp acts as one plate, and any conductive object on
the outside acts as the other capacitor plate.This is dangerous to do, can damage
the globe, and presents a fire hazard.
Application of Plasma Lamps

Plasma lamps are mainly used as curiosities or toys for their unique lighting
effects and the "tricks" that can be performed on them by users moving their
hands around them. They might also form part of a school's laboratory
equipment for demonstration purposes. They are not usually employed for
general lighting. However, as of recent years, some novelty stores have begun
selling a nightlight plasma lamp that can fit into a standard light socket.