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Gums and stabilizers


Not all CMC is the same

30 producers make over 300 types of CMC
Anhydroglucose polymer with 100 to 3,500 units (Degree of polymerization = DP)
Degree of carboxymethyl substitution ranges from 0.4 to 1.2 unit (Type numbers are bout 10
times. DS = 4, 7, 9, 12 etc.)
Dilute solutions have pH about 7.0 with acid group ionized (free acid form at pH < 3.0)

CMC Uses

Binder and thickener

Retards ice crystal growth
Aids emulsion stability

Carboxymethyl cellulose

CMC - Na salt


Syneresis inhibitor
Increases water absorption
Decreases fat absorption
Methyl cellulose


Functional properties of cellulose derivatives

Property CMC Methocel

D.S. 0.7-1.0 1.6-1.9
Digestibility Yes No
Gel formation No Thermal gel at 55-60° C
Reaction with cations Salts formed None
Interactions with proteins Complexes None

Microcrystalline cellulose

Functional properties Water phase stabilizer - functions like oil phase in frozen desserts Forms
colloidal dispersions - controls ice crystal formation Non-metabilizable fat substitute


Galactose backbone Ester sulfate gives negative charge Gels with potassium (Kappa) Gels with
calcium (Iota) Non-gelling (Lambda) Good stabilizer for milk proteins Suspender for chocolate
in milk Milk gels with TSPP Part of ice cream stabilizer mix Water gels

Three main forms - often sold as mixtures. Kappa


Typical Dairy Applications of Carrageenan

Use Level
Use Function Product

Milk Gels
Cooked flans or 0.20 -
Gelation K, K + I
custards 0.30
Cooked prepared
0.20 -
(with TSPP) Gelation K, I, L
Pudding & Pie Fillings
Dry mix cooked with Level starch 0.10 -
milk gelatinization 0.20
Syneresis control, 0.10 -
Ready-to-eat I
bodying 0.20
Whipped creamStabilize 0.05 -
Whipped products
overrun L 0.15
Stabilize overrun & 0.02 -
Aerosol whipped cream K
emulsion 0.05
Cold prepared Milks
Suspension, bodying 0.10 -
Instant Breakfast L
agent 0.20
Suspension, bodying, 0.10 -
Shakes L
overrun 0.20

Comparisons of carrageenans

Property Kappa Iota Lambda

20° C water no no yes
80° C milk yes yes yes
20° C milk no no thickens

With addition
Gelation K+ Ca++ None

Freeze - thaw no yes yes
pH > 5 stable stable stable
Syneresis yes no no
Salt tolerance poor good good

Reaction with proteins

Depends on number and position of sulfate groups Anion forms stable colloidal protein-
carrageenan complex Protein - Carrageenan Interactions

Protein with a negative charge

Protein with a positive charge


Stabilizer for chocolate milk, milk based puddings, emulsions Frozen desserts - inhibits ice
crystal formation and retards melt down Bakery products - dough conditioner

Guar Gum

Galactomannan (Mannose (1-4) + Galactose (1-6) every other Mannose

MW 220,000 ± 20,000
Particle size affects viscosity and hydration
Cold water swelling - Turbid solutions
Pseudoplastic - shear thinning
Hydration increased by heating
High water binding
High viscosity form - up to 100,000 CP
Low viscosity from - up to 10,000 CP
Modifies properties when used with

Food uses

Ice cram (prevents ice crystal formation, slow meltdown, heat shock resistance) Salad dressing
(viscosity) Cheese (improves spreading)

Polymers of Mannuronic and Galacturonic acids varying widely in ratios of the two acids

Viscosity of 1% solution ranges from 10 to 2,000 CP as a function of molecular weight and

calcium ion content
Precipitates below pH 3.0 Degrades above pH 6.5 Forms gels with calcium ions - 0.5 to 1.0%
calcium Propylene glycol derivative improves stability to calcium and acid

Food functionality includes:

Water binding Gelling Emulsifying Stabilizing


Hot water desserts - gel without refrigeration (must account for calcium ions and water hardness)
Dressings - thickening and emulsion stability Bakery products - fruit fillings, texture and gelatin
frozen desserts - resist ice crystal formation

Alginate Gels

Extrude into calcium bath Use sodium alginate with a sparingly soluble calcium salt Regulate
calcium availability by regulating pH Too much calcium gives grainy gels Too slow release gives
weak gels

Propylene Glycol Alginate Ester Reduces

Precipitation at low pH Interaction with Ca ions Some interaction with fat "Slimy" mouth feel
can substitute for fat Good foam stabilizer


Unbranched polymers of 200 - 1,000 Galactose units, linked beta1-4 Glucosidic bonds

Degree of esterification controls setting rate

>50% High Ester Pectins (HM) <50% Low Ester Pectins (LM) 70 - 85% = Rapid Set 44 - 65% =
Slow Set

Calcium required to gel LM Pectins Amidatied LM Pectins used to gel natural fruit preserves
High ester (HM) Pectins stabilize sour milk drinks - react with casein Low ester (LM) Pectins
used for milk gels

Forms of Pectin
Locust Bean Gum

Galactomannan (D-Mannose (1-4) with Galactose (1-6) every 4th mannose

Molecular weight 330,000 ±30,000
Neutral - relatively unaffected by ions, pH.
Not soluble in cold water
Fully hydrated if heated 10 minutes at 80° C
Solutions are cloudy, off-white
Pseudoplastic - shear thinning, zero yield value
Modify properties of
Xanthan Gum

Food uses similar to Guar Gum (See below) Locust Bean Gum
Guar Gum galacto-mannan ( 1-4) beta-D manno-pyranosyl, (1-6) alpha-D-galacto-pyranosyl
polymer Guar Gum

Synergism in viscosity with wheat starch

High viscosity in cold water
High concentrations of sucrose reduce viscosity
Viscosity not affected by pH
Elimination of syneresis
body and texture in frozen desserts
Dressings - viscosity and mouthful
Microbial polysaccharides

Xanthan - secreted by Xanthomonas camperstis

D-glucose 2.8 moles

D-mannose 3.0 moles
D-glucuronic 2.0 moles
All beta (1-4) linkages
Molecular weight - 2 - 50 x 106 Daltons
Backbone same as cellulose (1-4 Glucose)
Trisaccharide side chain at 3 position of alternated glucose monomer units.

Acid groups are beta-D-Glucuronic acid and pyruvic acid on 1/2 of terminal mannose units.

High degree of interaction between chains.

Molecular weight about 15 million.
Cold and hot water soluble
High viscosity at low concentration
Strongly pseudoplastic
Independent of concentration and shear rate
1% solutions gel-like at rest, but pour readily
Properties affected by ions
Freeze stable
Retort unstable - improved by 0.1% NaCl.

Uses of xanthan

Pastry fillings - 0.2% - low syneresis

Sauces and gravies - thermal stability, viscosity
Pourable salad dressings - pseudoplasticity
Dairy products - emulsion stability, viscosity control

Viscosity of Xanthan and Locust Bean Gums

Gum Arabic (Acacia)

Highly branched with beta-Galactose backbone
Molecular weight 250,000 - 750,000
Water soluble, fat insoluble
Low viscosity gum
Viscosity affected by pH and salts

Food uses:

Stabilizer for flavor emulsions

Encapsulated flavors
Water binding
Inhibit sugar crystallization

Gum Tragacanth

Polymer of Galacturonic Acid + Galactose + Galactose + Arabinose + xylose

Two components
70% Bassorine - swelling
30% Tragacanth - cold water soluble
Acid stable
High viscosity (varies with grade) 600 -4,000 CP at 1%
High cost

Food uses include:

Salad dressing (emulsifier)

Pickle relish (Increases drained weight)
Milkshake (reduce calories, thickener)
Pulpy beverages (stabilize solids - enhanced by Gum Arabic)
Ice Cream (surface tension related)


Introduced as a Tragacanth substitute

Molecular weight about 950,000
Acetylated Galacturonic acid + Rhamnose + Galactose
Swells in aqueous environments
Used as adhesive
Food Uses include:
Powdered doughnuts
French dressing
Ice pops (prevents ice crystals, bleeding of free water)
Cheese spread (improves spreading)
Ground meats
With Gum Arabic as protective colloid

From seaweed
Insoluble in cold water
1.5% gel doesn't melt below 85° C
Temperature reversible gels
Used for gels in confectionery
High temperature tolerant gels


Produced by Pseudomonas elodea

Composed of 2 beta-Glucose units + beta-Glucuronic Acid + Rhamnose
Molecular Weight 1,000,000
Insoluble in cold water
Gels with heat and Calcium
Typical use level 0.1 - 0.35%
Hard Gels
More tender gels with added Locust Bean or Xanthan