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Conceptual design floor of 16m spanning

There is super imposed load, live loads and dead loads of the reinforced concrete stages as seen

in the fig (1) transfer to the main beam which is primarily liable to carry loads applied on the

floor of auditorium. This long span and enormous line loads wit applied live loads need to be

addressed by not only proper design consideration to resist external loads on the floor but it

needs to be suitable for architectural concepts as well as adaptable to reduce loads on foundation.

Fig-1 sectional cross section of the reinforced concrete stage


Load calculation on the beam

Self-weight of RC stage = total area of stage x average depth x SPgr of concrete

Area of stage loaded= 0.9x7x13.43=84.6m2

average depth = 0.39m

SPgr of concrete=25 kN/ m3

Self-weight of RC stage=84.6x0.39*25=824.9 kN then SDL= 824.9/16.2= 50.9 kN/ m

Fig-2 plan of the Auditorium level and loading area of Main beam (1200 depth and 650 width)
Live Load on stage= 7.5 kN/ m2 then LL = 7.5 X84.6/16.2= 39.16 kN/ m

Flooring and extra dead loads on stage =5 kN/ m2 then additional load = 5x85/16.2=26.23

unfactored SDL from stage subjected to main beam= 50.9 +26.23=77.13 kN/ m

live load on stage can be applied on the floor of auditorium when under the stage there is no live

load therefore the applied live of stage can be replaced on the Auditorium floor.

A- Design for ribbed slab 750mm thickness perpendicular on the main

beam (650x1200)

the alignment of ribbed beams are important to transferring loads of the slab to the end support,

the drawings show that spacing between two ribs is 800mm at centers and depth of ribs is

750mm to increase capacity for resisting deflection owing to span length.

Fig-3 section of ribbed slab proposed for auditorium floors


Fig-4 plan of ribbed slab perpendicular on beams

While ribbed beam intersect with primary beams loads from the slab transfer to the main beam.

The main beams also subjected to uniform line load comes from dead load in combining with

super imposed dead load of the stage itself as seen in the fig-5

Fig-5 superimposed loads on the primary beams


If go through the fig-1 it can be seen that primary beam in fourth gridline is subjected to line load

of the superimposed loads of the stage whereas the beam in third gridline subjected to half if

compared to adjacent beam in fourth gridline. The amount of super imposed line load is

considered as 77.13 see fig-6

Fig-5 superimposed loads on the primary beams

It can be noted from outcome of the analysis made in SAFE illustrated in fig-6, the deflection of

the beam as well as slab is too high (100mm) in long term serviceability while permissible

deflection for 16m spanning floor is counted to L/240. it means mathematically, allowable

deflection is 67.5mm the


Fig-6- long term deflection of ribbed slab perpendicular on the primary deep beam

PERMISSABLE DEFLECTION OF THE


MAXIMUM DEFLECTION
FLOOR
OF THEONE WAY RIBBED FOR SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
SLAB 750MM THICKNESS
+BEAM 650X1200
𝐿 16200
∆𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝒎𝒎 ∆𝑎𝑙𝑙 = = = 67.5𝒎𝒎
240 240

∆𝒎𝒂𝒙 > ∆𝒂𝒍𝒍 THEN THE FLOOR OF 750MM ONE WAY RIBBED IN COMBINING
WITH DEEP BEAM 1200X650 ARE IRRESISTABLE FOR FLEXURE.
B- Design for ribbed slab parallel to the main beam (650x1200) as seen

in fig (7)

Fig-7- rib beams parallel to primary beams

The same loading and combination maintained to find difference in rib direction . this might help

primary beams to reduce load concentration on the primary beams. This fact can be seen in the

fig-8 as the outcome of long term deflection transmitted to mid spans and beams deflect

obviously less than the case of perpendicular ribs. but the deflection att the slab is too excessive

if compared with permissible deflection


Fig-8- long term deflection of ribbed slab parallel to the primary deep beam

the result of long term deflection as seen in the SAFE file shows that there is too excessive. The

fig -8 depict that deflection is nearly 90mm while the permissible is L/240= 16200/240= 67.5mm

PERMISSABLE DEFLECTION OF THE


MAXIMUM DEFLECTION
FLOOR
OF THEONE WAY RIBBED FOR SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
SLAB 750MM THICKNESS
+BEAM 650X1200
𝐿 16200
∆𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟗𝟎𝒎𝒎 ∆𝑎𝑙𝑙 = = = 67.5𝒎𝒎
240 240

∆𝒎𝒂𝒙 > ∆𝒂𝒍𝒍 THEN THE FLOOR OF 750MM ONE WAY RIBBED IN COMBINING
WITH DEEP BEAM 1200X650 ARE IRRESISTABLE FOR FLEXURE.
Design for WAFFLE (two way ribbed)750mm thickness in combining

with main beam (650x1200) as seen in fig (9)

Fig-9- two way rib (waffle slab)

Identical load case and combinations are applied on the beams (uniform line load SDL=77.13

kN/ m ) and slabs loads (super imposed dead loads=5 kN/ m2 and Live load=7.5 kN/ m2 )
Fig-10- long term deflection of two way rib (waffle slab)

The maximum deflection can be seen in long term combination around 60mm which does not

exceed the permissible deflection 67.5mm. but that means cracks propagates at critical points

due to deflection.

PERMISSABLE DEFLECTION OF THE


MAXIMUM DEFLECTION
FLOOR
OF THEONE WAY RIBBED FOR SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
SLAB 750MM THICKNESS
+BEAM 650X1200
𝐿 16200
∆𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 𝟔𝟎𝒎𝒎 ∆𝑎𝑙𝑙 = = = 67.5𝒎𝒎
240 240

∆𝒎𝒂𝒙 < ∆𝒂𝒍𝒍 THEN THE FLOOR OF 750MM ONE TWO WAY RIBBED IN
COMBINING WITH DEEP BEAM 1200X650 ARE RESISTABLE FOR FLEXURE.
Conclusion:

the design of ribbed slab in two way and depth 750 mm is applicable for the floor of the
Auditorium based on predicting the maximum deflection under the combination for long term
load application but this means beams are prone to be cracked and the case will be visually
inacceptable.

The design of the floor by utilizing post tension slab in combining with post tensioned beams are
more desirable than other design criteria the basic reason behind that the deflection control in
both slab and beams, enhancing more robustness and progressing successive work. In the other
hand, the design of tendons must be left empty for implemented companies. It means that the
detailed drawing cannot be given the tendon size will be unknown, determining the size of
tendons are responsibilities of companies who will be invited for implementing.

Another alternative which was suggested by client is hollow core slab. I think the problem is not
to design the floor to resist uniform loads on the floor but that there are beams in auditorium are
subjected to line loads transferred from reinforced concrete stage. This hollow core slabs can be
used with prestressed beams but compositely, however, this might be uneconomic.

Designer’s alternative prestressed beam composite with cast insitu concrete for slab maintains
the most applicable, economic and buildable choice between other suggested floors by client.
Nevertheless, the post tensioned slab can be designed and be replaced the designer’s choice but
tendon’s size will keep unknown.

Type of Ribbed slab Post Hollow core Prestressed


floor One-way One-way Two-way tensioned floor+ Beams +
ribbed ribbed ribbed slab and post Prestressed cast in situ
perpendicular parallel waffle tensioned beams slab
on beam with beam beams
Long-term 100mm 90mm 60mm Must be Must be “ Zero
deflection “zero” zero”
Permissible 67.5mm 67.5mm 67.5mm 67.5mm 67.5mm 67.5mm
Decision NOT NOT APPLIED APPLIED APPLIED APPLIED
APPLIED APPLIED