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SYNOPSIS

ON

“TO STUDY ADAPTIVE FILTER AND REDUCTION


OF NOISE USING DIFFERENT ALGORITHMS”

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for


the award of the degree of

Master of Technology
In
Electronics & Communication Engineering

Under Guidance of: Submitted by:


Sh. Shiv Ram Meena Abhishek Anand
(Assistant Professor, ECE Deptt.) (07016412811)

UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF INFORMATION AND


COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
GURU GOBIND SINGH INDRAPRASTHA
UNIVERSITY, NEW DELHI-110078 (2017-2019)
ABSTRACT: -
Adaptive filters play an important role in modern day signal processing with
applications such as noise cancellation, signal prediction, adaptive feedback
cancellation and echo cancellation. The adaptive filters used, LMS (Least Mean
Square) filter and NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) filter, are the most
widely used and simplest to implement. The main application of this work will
be noise cancellation. Noise variance was another factor that will be considered
to learn its effect. Also parameters of adaptive filter, such as step size and filter
order can be varied to study their effect on performance of adaptive filters.

INTRODUCTION: -

Fig 1: Basic Adaptive Filter

Adaptive filters consist of the three basic components: the adaptive filter h(n); the
error e(n); and the adaptation function: y(n)=x(n)*h(n) and e(n)=d(n)-y(n) as
shown in Fig 1. The filter works in such a way that the input digital signal x(n),
is filtered to produce an output signal, y(n), that will minimize the error signal
,e(n), when subtracted from the desired signal, d(n). The arrow through the
adaptive filter is standard notation to indicate that the filter is adaptive. This
means that all of the filter coefficients can be adjusted in such a way that the mean
square error(MSE) is to be minimized. The adaptive filter can be an FIR or IIR
filter or even a non-linear system. To ensure the stability of the adaptive
algorithm, most adaptive filters use an FIR type.
SIGNIFICANCE: -
The study of active noise cancellation is a rapidly developing area. With the
concern for noise pollution on the rise, methods of reducing noise are in greater
demand. Active noise cancellation systems with adaptive filters are considered an
effective method for reducing unwanted information (i.e., noise).

APPLICATIONS: -
The adaptive filters are widely used in areas such as control systems,
communications, signal processing, acoustics, and others to deal with random
signals with stationary or quasi stationary statistics. Although these applications
are quite different, they have input, output, error, and reference signals. The
applications of the adaptive filters can be classified into four fundamental classes
based on the architecture of the implementation: adaptive identification, adaptive
inverse, adaptive prediction, and active noise cancellation.

EXPECTED WORK:
The noise cancellation mainly depends upon different algorithms which include
Least mean square (LMS) algorithm and Normalized Least mean square (NLMS)
algorithm.

REFERENCES: -
1.Jafar Ramadhan Mohammed, “A New Simple Adaptive Noise Cancellation
Scheme Based on ALE and NLMS Filter”, IEEE Transactions, pp 657-662, 2007.

2.Thakor N.V. and Zhu Y.S. (2001), „Applications of adaptive filtering to ECG
analysis: noise cancellation and arrhythmia detection‟ , IEEE Transaction on
Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 38, No. 8, pp. 785-794.
3.Bernard. Widrow, “Adaptive Noise Cancelling: Principles and Applications”
Proceedings IEEE, vol. 63, pp. 1692-1716, 2012.
4.Hon Wan, Rongshen Fu and Li Shi, “The elimination of 50Hz power line
interference from ECG using a variable step size LMS adaptive filtering
algorithm”. Life Science journal, Vol. 3, No. 4, pages 90 – 93. 2006.
5.M. K. Islam, A. N. M. M. Haque, G. Tangim, T. Ahammad, and M. R. H.
Khondokar , Member, IACSIT “study and analysis of ecg signal using matlab &
labview as effective tools” International Journal of Computer and Electrical
Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 3, June 2012.