Anda di halaman 1dari 5


ISSN: 1998-2003, Volume: 6, Issue: 2, Page: 212-216, November - December, 2011


Md. Mamunur Rashid*1

Md. Mamunur Rashid (2011). Technology for Disable People: Thinking for Bangladesh Perspective.
Bangladesh Res. Pub. J. 6(2): 212-216. Retrieve from

A disability is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations,
and participation restrictions can be an individual for physical, cognitive,
mental sensory, emotional, development or some combination of these. A
disability may occur during a person’s lifetime or may be present from birth.
Disable people can be own self compatible with society through
technology, and can contribute the mainstream society. Technology is the
branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical
means as a combination of four basic components-technoware,
humanware, orgaware and infor ware, all of which together accomplished
and transformation operation towards solving practical tasks for life,
society, and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts,
engineering, applied science, and pure science. In this view, disable
people may use technology for sustaining their life as a normal people and
can contribute the society to achieve the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs). In this paper, technology is studied for disable people Bangladesh
Key Words: Disabilities; Technology; Mainstream Society; Rehabilitation, Millennium
Development Goals.
Roughly 10% of the total population is disabled (142.319 million) of
Bangladesh. 70% of disabled population is totally illiterate. 14% of the population
owning less than 0-1 acre of land (functionality landless) is disabled. Absolute
annual growth of disabled population in Bangladesh is approximately 250,000, of
which half a million are multi-handicapped including 3 million children. The total
figure of disability is increasing with population growth and ageing. Disability on
this scale represents not only a major health issue but also a prime cause of
poverty and underdevelopment. In this perspective the Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) target to end poverty within 2015. It is note that MDGs goals are
eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; achieve universal primary education;
promote gender equality and empower women ; reduce child mortality; improve
maternal health ; combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases; ensure
environmental sustainability and develop a global partnership for development.
It is matter of disappointed that disable people are not specific target in MDGs.
Except the participation of disable people, it is difficult to remove poverty within
2015. Although, at the end of 2010, the MDGs have helped to lift millions of
people out of poverty, save lives and ensure that children attend school, reduced
maternal deaths, expanded opportunities for women, increased access to clean
water, freed many people from deadly and debilitating disease, empowered

*Corresponding Author ‘s Email:

Bangladesh Institute of Management, 4, Sobhanbag, Mirpur Road, Dhaka-1207, Bangladesh
Technology for Disable People 213
women and girls, promoted sustainable development, and protected the most
vulnerable from the devastating effects of multiple crises from the world.
According to the millennium development goal is to ensure that by the year 2015,
children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of
primary schooling and those girls and boys will have equal access to all levels of
education. Children and youth with disabilities will be an integral part of the
population targeted by the millennium development goal of ensuring that by
2015 all boys and girls will complete a full course of primary schooling. At least 75
per cent of children and youth with disabilities of school age will, by 2010, be able
to complete a full course of primary schooling. By 2012, all infants and young
children (birth to four years old) will have access to and receive community-
based early intervention services, which ensure survival, with support and training
for their families. Governments may ensure detection of disabilities as early an
age as possible. In this view, technology can preventing the causes of disability
and the need for disseminate the knowledge of nutrition as many people have
become disabled due to malnutrition, reaching out to persons with disabilities in
rural areas and raising awareness and advocacy for the inclusion of persons with
disabilities in all social, cultural and religious activities like Japan. In this
perspective, Japan has done remarkable work for their disable people. Yet Many
organizations work for disable people through the world wide [Giles, B. (1983),
Smith, N. (2011), Majid A.A., (2008), Cornielje, H., (2009)]. Moreover, a short version
of this paper is presented in the conferences in 2006 [Rashid etal. 2006]. Therefore,
a study is done for disable people considering technology for their rehabilitation
focus on Bangladesh disable people.
Technology is the systematic application of scientific and other organized
knowledge towards solving practical tasks through as a basic combination of four
basic components: technoware, humanware, orgaware and Inforware. In this
section, the author is presented that technology’s component for rehabilitation
the disable people to compatible for mainstream society.
Technoware includes all physical facilities required for the transformation
operation, such as, instruments, equipment, machinery, devices, structures,
factories. Some days ago, people believed that disable persons are separate
from society. Recently this scenario is fully changed. People changed their
believes, norms, ideas and perceptions about disable people. There are many
disable people who are able to do any type of work like an able person in
developed country like Japan. To remove the distress condition of the disable
people can change and bring them into the mainstream of the development by
some technoware development. There is obviously a solution, where the problem
is in this digital world. The technoware equipments can be walker, wheel chair,
digital wheel chair, crutch, elbow crutch, digital pen, disablement software,
disablement hardware, digital wheel chair and other equipments, digital
sunglasses, laptop computer with sensors etc. Disable people can use computer
in their homes and also in office or workplace. Mere special or new software only
for them should be developed. The technology that is used internally in the office
can develop specially developed for them. The interior decoration like door,
window, and floor must be decorated for their proper work. Disable people can
use lift, escalator, AC, and other equipment like normal person. Because of using
technology now a day nobody is disabling. There are so many equipments for the
disable people. An ideal example can be Hawkins (famous scientists). He is a total
disable person. He can’t move his any part of the body without a finger. He
doesn’t say anything to the other people. Apart from the positive thing is his brain
Rashid 214

still working and for this plus point. A Microsoft corporation develops software and
added with Hawkins wheel chair. Now whatever Hawkins think that comes into
the monitor and auto speech machine can speak those things. Now Hawkins can
deliver his lecture in the Harvard University and can as so attend much
conference and deliver his speech. Through usages of technology now a day
every disable man becomes like normal people. Technology is the main arm for
disable people.
Humanware includes all acquired abilities necessary for the transformation
operation, such as, expertise, proficiencies, dexterity, creativity, perseverance,
diligence, ingenuity. Every people belong in a global world, where they are
working for their own betterment. For different disable people the government
can take action which is helpful them. Suppose in Bangladesh for the blind
people government take different treatment. The main thing is that this disable
people may be included and their own creativity can be raised for Bangladesh
development. There are some processes to develop the humanware or disable
people. At first, the following work can be done for disable people: to motivate
them every work and to increase their knowledge about everything, and consider
these people are human, they have also mind, power, and personality. These
people can be trained about software, hardware, working process and
technology. These people must have some jobs, from where they can earn
money and live a standard life in society. They are not useless, it can be
considered and to create an environment like normal people and also to give a
society for their own choice. If anyone is specific blind disable, to train them for
sitting work so that they can work without any problem.
Inforware includes all accumulated facts and figures required for the
transformation operation, such as designs, specifications, observations, relations,
equations, charts, theories. The disable people are generally considered as
burden in the society. They are neglected everywhere. As a result, they lose all
the potentiality and opportunity to develop them. In real world, the disable
people are very much potential for the society though they are not considered.
Thus, if they have proper assistance and guidance they will certainly contribute to
the wellbeing of the any country. If the society continue to ignore the huge
number of these potential people, the development of the country is difficult.
Accordingly, the people must be brought to the mainstream of development to
attain the Bangladesh‘s millennium development goals. To do so, information will
act as an important and helpful factor. Information can play a vital in these
purposes. Disable people can train for use and operate the necessary tool to find
the information. The tools can be internet, media, newspaper, articles etc. The
government and other organization who work for the disable people, they can
get their required information about these people by the information technology.
It is a helping tool to develop the current situation. If the organization and the
disable people get proper information, it is certain to develop the country. If all
get required information, they get organized knowledge to develop and the work
and other tasks will be easier to them. Therefore, their productivity will increase.
Orgaware includes all necessary arrangements required for the
transformation operation, such as practices, groupings allocations,
systematizations, organizations and networks. The disable people are deprived
and ignored in all sector of our society. They cannot do any development work or
participate in such work though they have enough potentiality to do so.
Technology for Disable People 215
Nevertheless, the conscious people of the society can think for development of
these people and establish some organization for them. It is why no one is
concerned about their development. Orgaware can come forward to help and
share the ideas, sorrows and happiness of disable persons. Orgaware plays a vital
role to develop and establish them like a normal person. There is lot of essential
elements but orgaware is most effective integrants that can make the dreams
truth of a disable person. Orgaware is a place, where a disable person can show
their capability, skill, knowledge, expertise, experience etc and ensure their strong
position in the organization easily. There are many organizations and associations
in where the disable person can easily get any type of related information and
some of them are working for their education training, employment and related
other activities that can help themselves at the moment and in future. The
amount or quantity of this type of organization increasing than past. Various
orgaware like educational institute, hospital, training centers, Bank, NGOs,
company, research institutions, media etc. can play a vital role to overcome this
situation. In this perspective, both government and private sector can involve
mutually enhancing the development. The educational institutions can educate
and train the disable people for coping with other people of the world. Different
type organization/company can provide job facility for them. The facilities may
be quota system, transportation amenity, training program, supportive activities
etc. The training institutes can train the disable people to increase their skill and
competitiveness. NGO, bank and other government organizations can provide
loan and create scope to work for them. Hospitals assimilate with research
institutions to invent new technology, equipment and medicine to eradicate their
disablement. Media can create public consciousness and also can concern the
authority about the disable people by continuous and mass publicity. Orgaware
can reward the disable persons who act any development oriented work as an
acceptance of their work to motivate them.
Bangladesh has taken more efforts to establish protection and promotion
of the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities. With regard to the Biwako
framework, Bangladesh has been able to initiate some interventions, but it would
require a lot of inputs and resources from national and international sources with
effective and efficient policies, strategies, programs and action plans to change
the quality of life of people with disabilities in the country as like Japan. Japan has
promoted based on the following four basic concepts: rehabilitation, equalization
of opportunities, normalization, full participation and equality for disable people.
The first survey of physical disable persons was conducted in Japan in 1951.For this
purpose a rule was made in Bangladesh 2008 according to disable welfare act
2001. In Bangladesh around 70 NGO’s working for disable people [Majid A.A.,
(2008), Cornielje, H., (2009) and Rashid etal. (2006)]; such as , National forum of
organizations working with the Disable (NFOWD), Action Aid Bangladesh,
Manusher Jonno, Center for the rehabilitation for the paralysed (CRP) ,
CDD,VARC, Handicraft disable, PPKS and Sweet Bangladesh etc. Different actors
and players including people with disabilities, their families and the communities
need appropriate technology to be involved in all the areas from primary to
tertiary sectors in the country’s effort to build a better nation to achieve MDGs
through Biwako Millennium Framework (BMF).
The following recommendations are made for rehabilitation the disable
people of Bangladesh:
Rashid 216

™ Disable welfare Act 2001 and Rules 2008 can functional with specific targets
with compatible MDGs.
™ An online file server can implement to upgrade and management the
information of disable people.
™ Disabled people before age 20 can receive the basic disability pensions from
age 20 with generous income test. A thorough medical check-up can run
before the qualification. The budget can fully financial by transfers from
general revenue.
™ Technology can considered for disable people for rehabilitation, which are
described in Act 2001 and Rules 2008 of Bangladesh and also considered the
fully implemented technology for disable people in Japan according to
Japan Disabled Person’s Fundamental Law 1993 with along 13 associated laws
for disable people can considered.
™ BMF can functional with compatible MDGs
In globe roughly 700 million people are approximately disable. Among
them Bangladesh 142.319 million people are roughly disable. In this perspective
world community/UN with respective government can rethink for disable people
for their rehabilitation program as like MDGs program setting. Moreover,
technology can be considered as a tool for disable people to cope their life with
Cornielje, H., (2009). The role and position of disabled people’s organizations in
community based rehabilitation, Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation
Journal; 20 (1):1-12.
Giles, B. (1983). Help for disabled people, British Journal of Visual Impairment;
Majid A.A., (2008). Employment of disabled people and the British protective
legislation, Journal of Legal Technology Risk Management; 3(1):36-55.
Rashid, M.M., Ayan, R.M., Mamun, D.A., Tonny, C.E., Habib, S., and Rahman, R.
(2006). Technology for Disable People Achieves Millennium Development
Goals: Bangladesh Perspectives, Proceedings of the Twenty-first Indian
Engineering Congress, December 22-24, 2006, Guwahati, Assam, India, 315-
Smith, N. (2011). The face of disability in Nigeria: A disability survey in Kogi and
Niger states, Disability, CBR and Inclusive Development; 22(1):35-47.