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Diunggah oleh Dr. Engr. Md Mamunur Rashid

Rashid, M.M. (2011). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for Chemical Industries, International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology,Vol.1(2), 163-168 (India) ; http://www.ijaest.com/

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Chemical Industries

Md Mamunur Rashid

Faculty, Bangladesh Institute of Management, Dhaka.

mamun87245@gmail.com

Abstract

Simulation is shown a demonstration of the nature or effects of an event without really experience it. The

computer program can simulate the effects of location and remedy equipment problems without causing

production downtime in the process. In the numerical approach a limited number of assumptions are made and a

high –speed digital computer is to solve the resulting governing fluid dynamic equations for fluid flow problems

both in static and rotating equipments. Thus a numerical simulation concept of chemical industries for

continuous production plant has been developed. A case on non-Newtonian fluid flow, Carbopol through a

circular tube by using numerical simulation technique is added here for compliance with chemical industries.

Key words: Numerical simulation; Computational Fluid dynamics, Circular pipe, Chemical Industries

1.0 Introduction

The development of the high speed digital computer has had a great impact on the preventive maintenance

industries by utilizing numerical simulation technique. Maintenance engineering and management is a vital

branch of mechanical engineering in respect that without proper maintenance it is difficult to derive full benefit

from chemical industries [1]. This has become more so with the erection of giant size process plants worldwide

where the outage cost for even an hour is huge in figure. In developing countries its importance is getting

momentum slowly. In the recent past, emergence of faster digital computers together with the development of

more versatile and efficient numerical solution method has led to a substantial increase in number of

mathematical models of fluid flow related to technology. Designers are looking for computational investigation

to seek the optimum design. This is because of experiments with either model, or full-scale prototypes are

generally laborious, expensive and time consuming. A computer package program, which can run on available

personal computer, will be helpful for preventive maintenance of fluid flow equipment. In the field of power

generation the computer program can be used for study of various flows in gas turbine, reciprocating engines,

furnaces and boilers and nuclear reactor. In chemical plants like heat exchangers, blast furnaces, packet reactors

and fluidized beds provides further areas for application. Numerical simulation is one of the ways of fulfilling

this requirement by detection of problem of fluid flow, while equipment is operated before major problem is

developed [2-4]. It permits scheduling repairs without loss of productivity. It provides factual data that is readily

interpreted. Numerical simulation requires mainly the monitoring of machine vibration, lube oil/control oil/ seal

oil (quality, quantity, temperature etc), leakage, corrosion, wear debris, operating parameters and machine

performances. Numerical simulation technique [5] helps maintenance engineer to identify a problem of special

nature, even in the formative stage, with fairly good degree of accuracy, which is beyond the scope of

Md Mamunur Rashid / International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology (IJAEST)

conventional trouble shooting method. Hence, numerical simulation reduces production losses and maintenance

costs (reduced overtime payments for labor, spare parts and stocked inventory costs are decreased). It

enhances efficiency, reliability, safety, environmental programs, availability arrangement and longevity of both

in static and rotating equipments. It improves workload planning. Corrosion is occurred in chemical industries,

like fertilizer factories corrosion occurs in ammonia liquid process pipeline, Benfield section; boiler feed water

(BFW) for ammonia plant and blow down (BD) line etc. The thickness of pipe is reduced due to corrosion and

sometimes leakage may be found in the pipeline and may be occurred plant shut down. Normally scale form in

effluent disposal line and sometimes blow down line. For this reason, flow passage of process pipeline becomes

smaller and factory production is hampered. In both cases, flow problem through pipeline can be predicted by

numerical simulation. Then the flow problem in the pipeline can be resolved by maintenance. In this aspect CFD

is needed study for chemical industries.

2.0 Governing Differential Equation

This work is concerned with steady laminar flow in concentric annuli with center body rotation. The rheological

equation used in this work is well-known power law, viz.

n

u v

rz K (1)

r z

Where, rz in shear stress, n is a temperature independent exponent, and consistency index K, which is also

temperature independent.

The continuity and momentum equations for an incompressible fluid in cylinder co-ordinate (r, , z) system are:

Continuity:

vr v z Vr

0 (2)

r z r

Momentum:

Vr Vr rr zr rr

Vr Vz

r z r z r

V V r z 2 r

Vr Vz

r z r z r

V z V z zr zz

Vr Vz zr (3)

r z r z r

For an example, non-Newtonian fluid flow problem can be studied through a circular tube using numerical

simulation technique. The presented study was deal with the computational analysis of the flow characteristics

of non-Newtonian fluid. The analysis is concerned with the radial velocity profile for Carbopol, a non-

Newtonian, flowing through a circular tube having the same temperature profiles for the same fluid flowing

through the same tube but in this case at a higher temperature than that of the fluid. This analysis is also

concerned with the comparison of obtained results with that obtained by F. Popovska and W.L Wilkinson

[1976].

Md Mamunur Rashid / International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology (IJAEST)

A general computer program “TEACH-T” [6] has been modified for this purpose. The program was used after

sufficient justification. The computer program was used for the prediction of the no heat transfer condition using

flat velocity profile and heating condition using fully developed parabolic by solving the modified Navier-

Stokes equations. For numerical simulation, considering a tube where fluid was pumped and heated. Also

considering, tube wall temperature was higher than fluid temperature. Thus, fluid was heated by means of tube.

The tube for the flow of test fluid, which was Carbopol, a non-Newtonian fluid, was 17.4 mm in diameter and

different lengths were chosen for the two different conditions. For no heat transfer condition the length taken

was 435 [25 times of dia.] and heating condition the length taken was 65.25 mm [3.75 times of dia.]. The wall

of the tube was maintained at a constant temperature. The simulation was started with the assumption that the

flow is uniform. The inlet velocity was 0.018993 m/s, the inlet temperature of the fluid was 40°C and the wall

temperature was 112.93°C. Although at the entry the velocity profile was a flat one, the test section in such way

that for no heat transfer condition, the flow is fully developed at the exit and the heating condition at the entry of

the test section the velocity profile was parabolic and fully developed. At the test section velocity, temperature,

viscosity and pressure were measured at different locations. From the results obtained from the numerical

simulation is now ready for comparison with that obtained by F. Popovska and W.L Wilkinson.

For this analysis flat profile of Carbopol was chosen and the length of the tube is taken 25 times of diameter of

the tube is taken 25 times of diameter of the tube and grid is taken 220 X 20. At 2.5 times of diameter the flow

becomes fully developed. While carrying out this numerical simulation both the temperature of the wall of the

tube and temperature of the Carbopol at inlet is 40°C. At the end of the tube the velocity profile that was

obtained from the equation of fully developed velocity profile for non-Newtonian fluid. The data for no heat

transfer condition and flat velocity profile is shown in table 1. The result for fully developed velocity profile is

shown in figure 1.

Table 1: Data for no heat transfer condition and flat velocity of Carbopol at inlet.

3 2

Inlet velocity in m/s Mass flow rate in Kg/s Inlet fluid temperature ,°C Reynolds number, Re Prandtl number , Pr Fluid density in Kg/m Laminer viscosity in N-s/m

-05 -03 -02

9.496875 X 10 2.5524399 X 10 40 21.62 72.5 1130 1.420 X10

Md Mamunur Rashid / International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology (IJAEST)

The fully developed velocity profile obtained from the no heat transfer condition into the test section. The test

section was 3.75 times of diameter in length and the wall of the tube at a temperature at 112.93°C and that of

Carbopol at inlet was 40°C. For this analysis the grid is taken as 60 X 20. The data obtained for heating

Carbopol is shown in table 2 and the velocity and temperature profiles are shown respectively in figures 2 and 3.

In the first case the flow characteristics of Carbopol is found expected. The temperature of both the wall of the

fluid is maintained identical. Thus the effect of temperature on viscosity is not so dominant. A uniform flat

profile at the inlet starts developing gradually. At the beginning section of the tube the flow could not be

developed due to entrance effect. A short axial distance from the entry that was 2.5 times of diameter in length

the flow becomes fully developed. Thus velocity profile remains unchanged up to 25 times of diameter in

length. This behavior was similar to that of Newtonian fluid.

Table 2: Data for Carbopol heating

3 2

Fluid density in Kg/m Laminer viscosity in N-s/m

3

Q in m /s X in m Tube wall temp in °C

-03 -03 -02

2.5524399 X 10 1.899 X 10-02 54.47 28.83 3337.8 1130 5.65 X 10-03 2.556 X 10 1.233 6.531 X 10 112.93

Md Mamunur Rashid / International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology (IJAEST)

Normalized Temperature Theta

4.0 Discussion

The main reason for this similarity is that the viscosity of the fluid remains constant due to the constancy of

temperature of the tube wall and the fluid. As soon as the fully developed velocity profile is introduced into

heated tube the velocity is distorted from the developing condition due to great influence of temperature on

viscosity of Carbopol [7]. As the axial distance increases this distorted velocity profile again tends to be

organized and at a distance of nearly almost infinity where the temperature of the tube and fluid is the same, the

velocity profile may again be fully developed. The experiment performed by F. Popovska and W.L Wilkinson

[8] was for Reynolds number of a remarkably wide range (2-700). The results obtained from this experiment

were made by them. Here all other parameters could be properly selected except the Reynolds number, because

it was such a wide range. The Reynolds number here is the only function of the length of the tube because all

other parameters in the expression of Reynolds number remain constant. By choosing the proper Reynolds

Md Mamunur Rashid / International Journal of Advances in Engineering, Science and Technology (IJAEST)

number by changing the proper the suitable length of observed section the actual result obtained by F. Popovska

and W.L. Wilkinson would have been found.

The results of this numerical simulation do not agree to those prediction made by F. Popovska and W.L

Wilkinson. Accurate results could have been obtained by further investigation by changing the Reynolds

number. The same investigation can be carried out in an annular tube. The same prediction can be carried out for

the turbulent cases by incorporating the turbulent transport equations and giving the inner body rotation with

vibration. Similar study can be made for eccentric annular with center body rotation and for different fluid

different cooling or heating condition, size, length, diameter and rotational speed. Higher order schemes (e.g.

LUDS, Quick Scheme) [5, 6, 9] can be used to have better accuracy in this type of prediction.

5.0 Conclusion

In continuous chemical process plants, like urea fertilizer factories produce ammonia and carbon-di-oxide for

the production of urea. Ammonia and carbon-di-oxide are extremely hazardous. Therefore, in any problem of

both static and rotating equipments, it is possible to prevent accidents and shut down of plants by utilizing

numerical simulation technique.

References

[1] Rashid MM, and Naser J.A., Computational Fluid Dynamics For Newtonian Fluid Flow Through Concentric Annuli With Center

Body Rotation, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, December,26-28, 2001, Dhaka,

Bangladesh, Volume-II, Section –IV (Fluid Mechanics), pp. 119-123

[2] Rashid MM, and Naser J.A., Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Through Concentric Annuli, Proceedings of the First BSME-ASME

International Conference on Thermal Engineering, 31 December, 2001-2 January 2002, Dhaka, Bangladesh; pp. S46-S51

[3] Rashid MM, , Numerical Simulation - A Modern Concept of Chemical Industries, In the Proceedings of the 1st Annual Paper Meet and

International Conference on Chemical Engineering, February 12, 2002, IEB Chandpur, Bangladesh , Paper No-7, pp.72-77

[4] Rashid MM, Numerical simulation of non-Newtonian fluid flow through concentric annuli with center body rotation, M.Sc in

Mechanical Engineering Thesis, BUET, 1996.

[5] Anderson DA, Tannehill JC, and Pletcher RH, Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, Hemisphere Publishing

Corporation, Washington DC, 1984

[6] Gosman AD, and Iderials FJK, TEACH-T: A general computer program for two dimensional turbulent re-circulating flows,

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College, London, SW7,1976

[7] Patankar SV, and Spalding DB, Heat and Mass transfer in Boundary layers, 2nd Edn. Intertext Books, London, 1970

[8] Popovska F, and Wilkinson WL, Laminar heat mass transfer to Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in tubes, Chemical engineering

Science, 32, 1154-1164,1977

[9] Yuan SW, Foundations of Fluid mechanics, Prentice-Hall of India Private limited, New Delhi,1969

m Mass flow rate , Kg/sec

Non-dimensional temperature profiles

r radical location in or tube

R Half diameter of the pipe or tube

u Mean axial velocity component, m/s

µ Laminar viscosity, N-S/m2

Q Volumetric flow rate, m3/s

Gz Graetz number

Pr Prandtl number

U Bulk axial velocity

Fluid density, Kg/m3

X Axial distance, m

Re Reynolds number

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