Anda di halaman 1dari 140

UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN

Postgraduate Program of the University of the Aegean


“Archeology of the Eastern Mediterranean from Prehistoric to Late
Antiquity: Greece, Egypt, Near East”

POSTGRADUATE DISSERTATION
Anubis: The God’s Manifestation in the Iconographical and Literary Sources
of the Pharaonic Period
Antoniadou Christina
N.R.: msmarch15004

Rhodes, 2018

1
UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN
Postgraduate Program of the University of the Aegean
“Archeology of the Eastern Mediterranean from Prehistoric to Late
Antiquity: Greece, Egypt, Near East”

POSTGRADUATE DISSERTATION
Antoniadou Christina
N.R.: msmarch15004
Supervisor: Panagiotis Kousoulis, Assosiate Professor of University of
Aegean
Advisory Committee:
Stefanakis Emmanouil, Associate Professor
Syropoylos Spyridon, Associate Professor

Rhodes, 2018

2
[To become] Christina. I am the
daughter of the builder, he who
watches over the door, Dimit(ris),
lord of the house in Drama, the lord
of Pontus, (and) the daughter of the
housemistress, Agathi, she who is
beside the night bier, she who cooks
the divine meals, foremost of Asia.
[…] the sister of the scribe (and)
the immortal-eagle (and) the wife of
chief worker of the ancestors.

3
ACKNOLEDGMENTS
Writing this thesis, as it is logical, was time-consuming and stressful. With its
completion, the second stage of my university life ends with all the necessary
equipment for a new start ... a new pursuit.
All this would not be feasible, without the support of my parents, Demetris and
A g a t h i , a n d m y l i f e - p a r t n e r , T h o m a s , w h o m I n e g l e c t e d t o c o m p l e t e t h i s c yc l e o f
m y l i f e . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k D r . P a n a yi o t i s K o u s o u l i s , w h o s u p p o r t e d m y
project, my two professors, Dr Stefanakis Emmanouil and D r S yr o p o u l o s
S p yr i d o n , as well as my friends Christos, Angeliki for their valuable
corrections. I owe a big thank you to Dreven, who provided me with
bibliographic materials, Ms Kapantzoglou Dimitra Soultana for her help with the
e d i t i n g a n d H a r i s f o r h i s p s yc h o l o g i c a l s u p p o r t .

4
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOLEDGMENTS.............................................................................. 4
TABLE OF FIGURES ....................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
CANID-HEADED HIEROGLYPHICS ....................................................... 13
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................... 15
1. CANIDS AND THE CANID-HEADED DIVINITIES ................................ 18
1.1 Canids and Canids’ Cult .................................................................. 18
1.2 Canid-headed Divinities .................................................................. 20

1.2.1. Wepwawet .................................................................. 20

1.2.2. Khentamentiu ........................................................... 21

1.2.3. Duamutef .................................................................... 21

1.2.4. Seth ............................................................................. 22

1.2.5. Anupet ...................................................................... 22

1.2.6. Wepiu ........................................................................ 23

1.2.7. Sed ................................................................................ 23

1.2.8. The Souls of Pe and Nekhnen .................................. 23

1.2.9. Anubis ..................................................................... 24


FIGURES .............................................................................................. 30
2. THE MANIFESTATIONS OF ANUBIS THROUGH HIS ICONOGRAPHIC
REPRESENTATIONS ............................................................................. 32
2.1 Art in General ................................................................................. 32
2.1.1. The two-dimensional art .............................................................. 32
2.1.2 The three-dimensional art ............................................................. 35
2.2 From the Canines to Anubis’s Iconography ......................................... 37
2.2.1 Funerary manifestations ................................................................ 42
2.2.2. Rebirth manifestations: Anubis with the lunar disk .......................... 45
2.2.3. Anubis’s alternative manifestations ............................................... 46
2.2.4. General manifestations: Anubis in different postures and gestures ..... 48
2.3 The feature variation ........................................................................ 54
FIGURES .............................................................................................. 57
3. THE MANIFESTATIONS OF ANUBIS IN THE LITERARY SOURCES .... 68
3.1 Divine Epithets of Anubis in the Literary Sources ............................... 68
5
3.1.1. Natural epithets .......................................................................... 68
3.1.2. Situational epithets ..................................................................... 72
3.2 Anubis in the Literary Sources .......................................................... 74
3 . 2 . 1 . O l d K i n g d o m : A n u b i s i n P yr a m i d T e x t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4
3.2.2. First Intermediate Period to Middle Kingdom: Anubis in Coffin Texts 80
3 . 2 . 3 . M i d d l e K i n g d o m : T h e B o o k o f T w o W a ys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3
3 . 2 . 4 . S e c o n d I n t e r m e d i a t e P e r i o d ( 1 7 t h D yn a s t y) t o L a t e P e r i o d : A n u b i s i n
Book of the Dead ................................................................................. 84
3.2.5. New Kingdom: Anubis in other Afterlife books ............................... 86
3 . 2 . 6 . N e w K i n g d o m : T h e T a l e o f t h e T w o B r o t h e r s ( P a p y r u s d ’ O r b i n a e y) . . . 8 8
3.2.7. Ptolemaic Period: Jumilhac Papyrus............................................... 90
FIGURES .............................................................................................. 93
4. PRIESTS, RITUALS-FESTIVALS AND RITUAL OBJECTS .................... 95
4.1. Priests............................................................................................ 95
4.2. Rituals-Festvals associated with Anubis .......................................... 100
4.2.1. Anubis and the weighing of the hearts ritual…………………………….100
4.2.2. Anubis and mummification ritual…………………………………………..101
4.2.3. Anubis and the “Opening of the Mouth” ritual…………………………..104
4.2.4. Festivals associated with Anubis………….……………………………….106
4.3. Ritual objects ............................................................................... 106
FIGURES ............................................................................................ 112
5. DIVINE DWELLINGS AND CEMETRIES ........................................... 116
5.1. Divine dwellings ......................................................................... 116
5.2. Cemetries ................................................................................... 117
FIGURES .......................................................................................... 1129
CONCLUSION ..................................................................................... 122
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................. 126

6
ABBREVIATIONS
AEA L e s A m i s d e l ' É g yp t e A n c i e n n e
AIA Archaeological Institute of America
AMICA Art Museum Images from Cartography
Asswociate
BAAM The Bibliotheca Alexandrina Antiquities
Museum
BC Book of Caverns
BD Book of the Dead
BG Book of Gates
BI Bridgeman Images
BM The British Museum
CMA The Cleveland Museum of Art
CN 360o Cities Net
CT Coffin Texts
DC D e s c r i b i n g E g yp t
EC E g yp t C e n t r e - C a n o l f a n E i f f t a i d d
GEM T h e G l o b a l E g yp t i a n M u s e u m
HMA Harrogate Museum and Arts
JARCE Journal of the American Research Center in
E g yp t
JEA The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
KTU Keilalphabetische Texte aus Ugarit
MAA Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry
MAM Milwaukee Art Museum
MET The Metropolitan Museum of Art
MAF Museum of Fine Arts Boston
PT P yr a m i d T e x t s
TMP Thebean Mapping Project
TTB The Tale of the Τwo Brothers
UEE U C L A E n c yc l o p e d i a o f E g yp t o l o g y
WMA The Walters Art Museum

7
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Wepwawet on standard ............................................................... 30
Figure 2. Den’s seal ................................................................................ 30
Figure 3. Duamutef and Imsety on canopic box ............................................ 30
Figure 4. Thutmose III taught by Set the archery ........................................ 31
F i g u r e 5 . S t a t u e o f H a t h o r , M e n k a u r e a n d A n u p e t ( 4 t h D y n a s t y) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1
Figure 6. Inherkhau in front of Souls of Nekkhen ........................................ 31
Figure 7. Gebelein. White Cross-lined bowl ................................................ 57
Figure 8. Gebel Tarif knife ...................................................................... 57
Figure 9 Detail. Hunting scene with canids (?) from tomb 100 in Hierakonpoli 57
Figure 10. Detail. Lion and canid (?) from tomb 100 in Hierakonpolis ............ 57
F i g u r e 1 1 . C a n i d a n d b i r d ( f a l c o n ? ) . T o m b U j a t A b yd o s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7
Figure 12. Seal from Tomb U-j at Abydos ................................................... 58
Figure 13. Seal from the mortuary temple of Senwosret III ........................... 58
Figure 14. Canines in henu gesture (?). Naqqada I ....................................... 58
Figure 15. Souls of Nekhen ...................................................................... 58
F i g u r e 1 6 . 2 n d D y n a s t y’ s b o w l f r a g m e n t w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f A n u b i s ( ? ) . . . . . . . 5 8
Figure 17. The judgment Hall of Osiris in the Book of Gates ......................... 58
Figure 18. The coffin of Tanakhtnettahat .................................................... 59
Figure 19. Detail. The coffin of Tanakhtnettahat ......................................... 59
F i g u r e 2 0 . T h e G r e e n f i e l d P a p yr u s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9
F i g u r e 2 1 . M u m m y C o f f i n o f P e d u s i r i , L a t e D yn a s t i c ( 7 1 2 – 3 2 3 B C ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9
F i g u r e 2 2 . D e t a i l . M u m m y C o f f i n o f P e d u s i r i , L a t e D yn a s t i c ( 7 1 2 – 3 2 3 B C ) . . . . . 6 0
Figure 23. Fragment of coffin ................................................................... 60
Figure 24. Cartonnage with the embalming scene ......................................... 60
Fi gure 25. Tom b of Ro y. The “Openi ng of the Mouth” ritual ....................... . .. 60
F i g u r e 2 6 . D e t a i l . T o m b o f R o y. T h e “ O p e n i n g o f t h e M o u t h ” r i t u a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1
Figure 27. Hunefer’s “Opening of the Mouth” ritual ..................................... 61
F i g u r e 2 8 . “ O p e n i n g o f t h e m o u t h “ r i t u a l f r o m t h e t o m b o f M a ya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1
Figure 29. Anubis rolling the Lunar disk from Dendera ................................ 61
Figure 30. Anubis rolling the lunar disk from the Deir el-Bahari mamissi ....... 62
Figure 31. Anubis from the mammisi of Edfu .............................................. 62
Figure 32. Bes from the New Kingdom’s chair of Satamon ............................ 62
F i g u r e 3 3 . A n u b i s c a r r yi n g t h e l u n a r ( ? ) d i s k f o r M i r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2
Figure 34. Hermanubis ............................................................................ 62

8
Figure 35. Pantheistic posture .................................................................. 63
Figure 36. Ram-headed representation........................................................ 63
Figure 37. Anubis as a Falcon-head bird ..................................................... 63
F i g u r e 3 8 . D o n k e y- h e a d e d A n u b i s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3
Figure 39. Human representation in offerings gesture, from Seti’s I temple at
A b yd o s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3
F i g u r e 4 0 . H u m a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , f r o m R a m e s s e s I I t e m p l e a t A b yd o s . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3
Figure 41. Recumbent posture. Tomb of Nefertari. ....................................... 64
Figure 42. Recumbent posture of Anubis .................................................... 64
Figure 43. Standing posture ...................................................................... 64
Figure 44. Standing posture ...................................................................... 64
Figure 45. Enthroned posture from Nefertari’s tomb..................................... 64
Figure 46. Enthroned posture .................................................................... 64
Figure 47. Squatting posture cartonnage’s fragment ..................................... 65
Figure 48. Winged posture ....................................................................... 65
Figure 49. Detail. Winged posture ............................................................. 65
Figure 50. Anubis with knives .................................................................. 65
Figure 51. Embrasing gesture of the Angeriautef’s tomb statue ...................... 66
Figure 52. Anubis in purification gesture. .................................................. 66
Figure 53. Detail. Anubis in purification gesture. ........................................ 66
Figure 54. Supportive gesture from Horemhed’s tomb................................... 66
Figure 55. Protective gesture of Ramesses’ I tomb ....................................... 66
Figure 56. Procession and Summoning gesture of Anubis from the Tatiaset’s
stela ..................................................................................................... 67
Figure 57. The “breath of life” gesture from Neuserra’s relief ....................... 67
Figure 58. Greeting gesture ...................................................................... 67
Figure 59. Greeting gesture ...................................................................... 67
Figure 60. Tutankhamen’s magical brick .................................................... 93
Figure 61. Anubis of Thebes, the 3rd division ............................................. 93
Figure 62. Book of Amduat, the 5th division ............................................... 93
Figure 63. Book of Gates, the 5th hour...................................................... 93
Figure 64. Book of Caverns, the 4th cavern ............................................... 94
Figure 65. Book of Caverns, the 5th cavern ................................................ 94
Figure 66. Book of Caverns, the 6th cavern ................................................ 94
Figure 67. Book of Caverns, the 6th cavern ................................................ 94

9
Figure 68. Lector-priest, sem-priest and the mourners ................................ 112
Figure 69. The festival of the Navigation of Anubis ................................... 112
Figure 70. The festival of Clothing Anubis ............................................... 112
Figure 71. Priest with Anubis's mask on Osiris temple at Dendera ................ 113
Figure 72. Priest wearing the mask of Anubis ........................................... 113
F i g u r e 7 3 . A n u b i s ' s m a s k o f 1 9 t h D yn a s t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 3
Figure 74 - New Kingdom Anubis's mask .................................................. 113
Figure 75. Late to Ptolemaic Period Anubis's mask .................................... 114
Figure 76. Late Period Anubis's mask ...................................................... 114
Figure 77. Ebony label from Hor-Aha reign, with jmjwt............................. 114
Figure 78. Jmjwt standard ...................................................................... 114
Figure 79. Late Period was-scepte made from faience ................................. 114
Figure 80. Priest holding the 17th nome' scepter ....................................... 115
Figure 81. 7th hour of the BG. Enemies on stakes ...................................... 115
Figure 82. A slab, which held the sacred oils ............................................ 115
Figure 83. Model of equipment for Opening of Mouth ritual ........................ 115
F i g u r e 8 4 . T h e " T r e a s u r y" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 9
Figure 85. Anubis on the "Treasury's" threshold ........................................ 119
Figure 86. The entrance to the Upper Shrine of Anubis at Deir el-Bahari ...... 119
Figure 87. Recontruction of Anubeion by Mariette ..................................... 119
Figure 88. Recontruction of Anubeion by Quibel ....................................... 119
F i g u r e 8 9 . M a p o f a n i m a l ’ s m u m m i f i c a t i o n i n E g yp t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 0
F i g u r e 9 0 . T h e w e l l a n d t h e d o g ' s h yp o g e u m a t A b yd o s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 1
F i g u r e 9 1 . P l a n o f d o g ' s h yp o g e u m a t A b yd o s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 1
F i g u r e 9 2 . B o n e s o f d o g s a t A b yd o s ' s h yp o g e u m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 1

10
TIMELINE1

Predynastic Period 5500-3000 BCE

Early Dynastic Period 3000-2686 BCE

D ynas t y 1 3000-2890 BCE

D ynas t y 2 2890-2686 BCE

Old Kingdom 2686-2181 BCE


D ynas t y 3 2686-2613 BCE
D ynas t y 4 2613-2494 BCE
D ynas t y 5 2494-2345 BCE
D ynas t y 6 2345-2181 BCE
First Intermediate Period 2181-2055 BCE

D yn a s t y 7 - 8 2181-2160 BCE
D yn a s t y 9 - 1 0 2160-2025 BCE
D ynas t y 11 2125-2055 BCE
Middle Kingdom 2055-1795 BCE
D ynas t y 11 2055-1985 BCE

D ynas t y 12 1985-1795 BCE

Second Intermediate Period 1795-1550 BCE


D ynas t y 13 1795-1650 BCE
D ynas t y 14 1760-1650
D ynas t y 15 1650-1550 BCE
D ynas t y 16 1650-1550 BCE
D ynas t y 17 1650-1550 BCE
New Kingdom 1550-1069 BCE

D ynas t y 18 1550-1295 BCE


D ynas t y 19 1295-1186 BCE

D ynas t y 20 1186-1069 BCE

Third Intermediate Period 1069-664 BCE


D ynas t y 21 1069-945 BCE

D ynas t y 22 945-735 BCE

1
Bard, 1999
11
D ynas t y 23 735-730 BCE

D ynas t y 24 727-715 BCE

D ynas t y 25 760-65 BCE


Late Period 664-332 BCE
D ynas t y 26 664-525 BCE
D ynas t y 27 525-404 BCE
D ynas t y 28 404-399 BCE
D ynas t y 29 399-380 BCE
D ynas t y 30 380-343 BCE
D ynas t y 31 343-332 BCE
Ptolemaic Period 332-30 BCE
Roman Period 30 BCE-395 CE

12
CANID-HEADED HIEROGLYPHICS
Table 1: Variations of canid-headed hieroglyphics2
Hieroglyph Transliteration Meaning
jnpw Ideogram for the gods Anubis and
Wepwawet

stX/stS Ideogram for the god Seth

G r e yh o u n d

jw Determinative for the dog

full form Tsm Determinative for the hound

full form
Recumbent canid
jnpw
Ideogram for the god Anubis

full form
jnpw Recumbent canid with feather.
Emblem of 17th nome.
3
A n u b i s ’ n o m e C yn o p o l i s ,

frequently with the sign


Recumbent canid
jnpw
Ideogram for the god Anubis

full form
Hieroglyph Transliteration Meaning

2 Gardiner, 1957, pp. 449, 459, 460, 462, 517 and Allen, 2014, pp. 428, 431, 446
3 Willockx, 2007, p. 37
13
jnpw Recumbent dog
Ideogram for the god Anubis
4

sAb Jackal

wp wAwt Canid on standard.


Ideogram for the god Wepwawet

wp-wAwt Canid on standard.


Ideogram for the god Wepwawet

stX/stS Seth-animal

stX/stS Seth-animal

wsr Staff with canid head

- Sledge with canid head

4 Vygus, 2015, p. 392


14
ABSTRACT
The subject of this work is the manifestations of the god Anubis through the
iconography and literary of the pharaonic period (3000 - 31 BCE). The reason I
c h o s e t h i s t o p i c i s t h a t t h e c a n i d - h e a d e d g o d a l w a ys f a s c i n a t e d m e a n d d r o v e m y
imagination, and as a postgraduate student, I wanted to know and explore his
s t o r y.
Although there are many gaps in the origin of the god, the only certainty is that
it comes from the long-term observation of the nocturnal/carnivorous animals, a
subject that we will discuss in Chapter 1. In this chapter, we will mention, the
o t h e r c a n i d - h e a d e d g o d s o f t h e E g yp t i a n p a n t h e o n , l i k e W e p w a w e t , D u a m u t e f
etc. In addition, we will introduce Anubis and his history from the Old Kingdom
to the Ptolemaic Period.
T h e r u p o n , t h r o u g h t h e i c o n o g r a p h y, w e w i l l s t a t e t h e h u m a n r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e
c a n i d a e f a m i l y d u r i n g t h e P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d a n d h o w t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s a
precursor to the Anubis’s cult. Furthermore, we will report the variety of Anubis
manifestations associated with the funerary and rebirth contexts (the judgement
of the dead, mummification etc), as also his postures and gestures (recumbent,
standing, enthroned etc.), and make an attempt to interpret them.
S ubsequentl y, we wil l tr y t o decip her t he rol es of Anubis from the li t erar y (PT,
CT, BD etc.). From the many epithets that are attached to Anubis, we will
choose the most characteristic for their interpretation, which is part of god's
ro le in the Eg ypt i an world (l ike “he who i n t he pl ace of embal mi ng”, “lord of the
sacerd land”).
Afterwards, we will mention the priesthood and we will cite verses from the
E g yp t i a n l i t e r a r y t h a t i n c l u d e t h e m i n t h e r e l i g i o u s c o n t e x t o f A n u b i s . I n t h e
process the temples and shrines dedicated to the god will be mentioned, as well
a s t h e c e m e t e r i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c a n i d a e f a m i l y. A t t h e s a m e t i m e , b e f o r e
drawing conclusions, we will present the various instruments used in rituals,
such as the “Opening of the Mouth”, as well as the festivals in honor of the god.
The bibliography on Anubis is not great, but many books generally refer to
h i m , b u t d o n o t s p e c i a l i z e i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e g o d , e x c e p t m a yb e t h e r e s e a r c h o f
Terence Duquesne. Many of them mention the same details or little more about
the god. We tried not to concentrate on the general facts that are known, apart
from a small reference to them, and we emphasized in the categorization and
interpretation of his iconography giving examples through the findings of

15
Pharaonic art. We avoided talking about those subjects that we did not have an
e l e m e n t a r y b i b l i o g r a p h y. T h e p u b l i c a t i o n t h a t w a s u s e d f o r t h e P T w a s t h a t o f
Allen and for CT was that of Faulkner. The photographs of this thesis are from
books, archaeological magazines, museums and distinct sites, such as Osirisnet.
ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ
Το θέμα της παρούσας διπλωματικής είναι οι υλοποιήσεις του θεού Άνουβη
μέσα από την εικονογραφία και τη κειμενογραφία της Φαραωνικής Περιόδου
(3000 – 31 π.Χ.). Ο λόγος που διάλεξα αυτό το θέμα είναι ότι πάντα ο
κυνόμορφος θεός με ενθουσίαζε και διοχέτευε τη φαντασία μου, με αποτέλεσμα,
πλέον ως μεταπτυχιακή φοιτήτρια να θέλω να μάθω και να ερευνήσω την ιστορία
του.
Παρόλο που υπάρχουν πολλά κενά σχετικά με την προέλευση του, το πιο
σίγουρό είναι ότι η καταγωγή του θεού εντοπίζεται στη μακροχρόνια
παρατήρηση των νυχτόβιων/σαρκοφάγων ζώων, ένα θέμα το οποίο θα
μελετήσουμε στο Κεφάλαιο 1. Σε αυτό το κεφάλαιο θα αναφερθούμε στους
κυνόμορφους θεούς από το Αιγυπτιακό πάνθεον, όπως ο Wepwawet, ο Duamutef
κτλ. Επιπλέον θα παρουσιάσουμέ το Άνουβη και την ιστορία του από το Παλαιό
Βασίλειο έως την Πτολεμαική Περίοδο.
Έπειτα, μέσα από την εικονογραφία του, θα κάνουμε λόγο για τη σχέση μεταξύ
των ανθρώπων και της οικογένειας των κυνίδων κατά τη διάρκειας της
Προδυναστικής Περιόδου, και πώς αυτή η σχέση συντέλεσε προπομπός της
λατρείας του Άνουβη. Επιπλέον θα κατηγοριοποιήσουμε της διάφορες
υλοποιήσεις του θεού σε ταφικό και αναγενιασιακό πλαίσιο (κρίση των νεκρών,
μουμιοπίηση), καθώς και τις στάσεις και τις χειρονομίες (ανακεκλιμένη, όρθια,
ένθρονη κτλ) και θα προσπαθήσουμε να τις ερμηνεύσουμε.
Στη συνέχεια θα προσπαθήσουμε να αποκρυπτογραφήσουμε τους ρόλους του
Άνουβη μέσα από τις γραπτές πηγές (ΠΚ, ΚΣ, BN κτλ). Από τα πολλά επίθετα
που προσκωλλούνται στον Άνουβη θα επιλέξουμε τα πιο χαρακτηριστικά με
σκοπό την ερμηνεία τους, η οποία εντάσσεται στο ρόλο που είχε ο θεός στον
Α ι γ υ π τ ι α κ ό κ ό σ μ ο ( «α υ τ ό ς π ο υ ε ί ν α ι σ τ η μ ο υ μ ι ο π ο ί σ η », «ο ά ρ χ ο ν τ α ς τ η ς ι ε ρ ή ς
περι οχής »).
Κατόπιν, θα παρουσιάσουμε τους ιερείς της αρχαίας Αιγύπτου και θα
αναφέρουμε στοίχους της αιγυπτιακής κειμενογραφίας που τους εντάσσουν στο
θρησκευτικό πλαίσιο του Άνουβη. Στην πορεία θα γίνει μνεία για τους ναούς και
τα ιερά που ήταν αφιερομένα στο θεό, καθώς και τα νεκροταφεία που

16
συσχετίζονταν με την οικογένεια των κυνίδων. Συγχρόνως, πριν προβούμε σε
συμπεράσματα, θα παρουσιάσουμε τα διάφορα εργαλεία που χρησιμοποιούνταν
σ τ ι ς τ ε λ ε τ ο υ ρ γ ί ε ς , ό π ω ς η τ ε λ ε τ ή «Α ν ο ί γ μ α τ ο ς τ ο υ Σ τ ό μ α τ ο ς », κ α θ ώ ς κ α ι τ α
φεστιβαλ προς τιμήν του θεού.
Η βιβλιογραφία σχετικά με τον Άνουβη δεν είναι μεγάλη, αλλά πολλά βιβλία
τον αναφέρουν σε ευρήτερο πλαίσιό, αλλά δεν εμβαθύνουν στη μελέτη του θεού,
εκτός ίσως από την έρευνα του Terence Duquesne. Πολλά από αυτά αναφέρουν
τα ίδια, ενώ άλλα προσθέτουν κάποια στοιχεία παραπάνω. Στην παρούσα
διπλωματική προσπαθήσαμε να μην επικεντρωθούμε στα γενικά στοιχεία που
είναι γνωστά, πέρα από μια μικρή αναφορά, αλλά να δώσουμε έμφαση στην
κατηγοροποίηση και ερμηνεία της εικονογραφίας του, με παραδείγματα από τη
Φαραωνική τέχνη. Αποφύγαμε να ασχοληθούμε με θέματα για τα οποία δεν
είχαμε μια στοιχειώδη βιβλιογραφία. Η έκδοση που χρησιμοποιήθηκε για τα ΠΚ
είναι του Allen και για τα ΚΣ του Faulkner. Οι φωτογραφίες της διπλωματικής
προέρχονται, από βιβλία, αρχαιολογικά περιοδικά, διπλωματικές, καθώς και από
εκκεκριμένα sites, όπως το Osirisnet.

17
1. CANIDS AND THE CANID-HEADED DIVINITIES
1.1 Canids and Canids’ Cult
S e a r c h i n g a n d s t u d y i n g s e p a r a t e l y t h e E g yp t i a n g o d s a n d g o d d e s s e s , a m o n g t h e
many manifestations, we can track animal’s behavior into the same animal in
w h i c h e a c h g o d i s p o r t r a ye d . T h i s i s o n e o f m a n y d i s a g g r e g a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e
variety of ancient religions. In the Mediterranean and Near East world most of
t h e d e i t i e s h a d b e e n h u m a n i z e d , b u t E g yp t i a n s g a v e t o t h e i r g o d s a n i m a l ’ s
h yp o s t a s i s o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f a n i m a l a n d h u m a n f o r m s , a n d o n l y i n s o m e c a s e s
t hey port ra yed t hem in full y hum an form . C ons equent ly, t he i mport ance of the
animal’s divine aspect can be tracked in many mummified animals as in burial
s i t e s a c r o s s t h e l a n d o f E g yp t . L i k e w i s e , t h e P . T . m e n t i o n t h a t a n i m a l s c o u l d
a c c u s e t h e k i n g i f h e m i s t r e a t e d t h e m 5, g i v i n g i n a n i m a l s t h e p o w e r o v e r t h e k i n g
and treating them as equal to him.
We are not sure when the connection between human and animal happened, but
it might have had occured in the early stage of domestication when the animals
were pure and untouched by the human’s control. However, the domestication of
a n i m a l s s t a r t e d t h o u s a n d s o f ye a r s b e f o r e , u s i n g e a c h o n e o f t h e m f o r a d i f f e r e n t
purpose, bovines in aquiculture, sheep for food etc. dogs for several purposes:
c o m p a n i o n , g u a r d i a n s , h e r d e r s 6. I t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e d o g 7 w a s t h e
first domesticated a n i m a l 8. His domestication occured in the Late Upper
P a l a e o l i t h i c ( c a . 1 6 . 0 0 0 B C E ) 9. O t h e r r e s e a r c h s u g g e s t s e v e n e a r l i e r d a t e s a s
2 4 . 0 0 0 10 o r 3 3 . 5 0 0 B C E i n R u s s i a 11. I n t h e e a r l y s t a g e o f d o m e s t i c a t i o n i t i s
difficult to distinguish the different canid species, because they shared the same
morphological characteristics, therefore it is hard to understand if they were
t a m e d o r n o t 12. H o w e v e r , a f t e r f e w g e n e r a t i o n s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i e s
became more secured, because of the rapid morphological changes. In tamed
a n i m a l s , t h e e v o l u t i o n h a p p e n e d s o o n e r t h a n i n t h e t h o s e w h i c h w e r e n o t 13.
F r o m M e r i m b e B a n i S a l a m e i n E g yp t c o m e s o n e o f t h e e a r l i e s t e v i d e n c e o f a
f u l l y d o m e s t i c a t e d d o g , d a t e d i n 4 8 0 0 B C E 14. T h e C a n i d a e f a m i l y 15, b r i e f l y, h a d a

5 Rice, 2006, p. 14
6 Rice, 2006, p. 2
7 Gray wolf (Canis Lupus) perhaps is the ancestor of the dog Larson, Karlsson, & Perri, 2012, p.

8878
8 Larson, Karlsson, & Perri, 2012, p. 8878
9 Perri, 2016, p. 1
10 R i c e , 2 0 0 6 , p .
11 P e r r i , 2 0 1 6 , p . 1
12 L a r s o n , K a r l s s o n , & P e r r i , 2 0 1 2 , p . 8 8 7 1
13 R i c e , 2 0 0 6 , p . 3
14 R i c e , 2 0 0 6 , p . 1 1

18
c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e E g yp t i a n s a n d t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e c a n b e v e r i f i e d f r o m
various depictions in art or from the tombs dedicated to them.
The dog as a companion, in contrast to other animals, carries names, and some
of n a m e s a r e d e l i v e r e d t o u s : “ B r a v e O n e ” , “ R e l i a b l e O n e ” , “ G o o d W a t c h e r ” 16,
etc., and most of the time are represented as a tame animal in hunting scenes or
frequently under the chairs, as a guardian and protector. Herodotus wrote that
“…where a dog has died, the head and the whole body are shaven” (Herodotus
2 . 6 7 ) p r o v i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f d o g i n t h e E g yp t i a n s o c i e t y 17. I n P r e d yn a s t i c
P e r i o d t a m e d d o g s a r e s h o w e d b e i n g s u c k l e d b y w i l d o n e s 18, m a yb e a s t h e n e w -
political thought of the establishment and unity that will occur in the following
y e a r s , p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e w i l d l i f e a n d v a l i d a t i o n t o h a r m o n y.
A n i m a l ’ s c u l t w a s d i m i n i s h e d i n t h e v a s t l e n g t h o f t h e E g yp t i a n h i s t o r y , b u t
w a s i n c r e a s e d a g a i n d u r i n g t h e L a t e P e r i o d , m a yb e a s a r e s t o r a t i o n t o t h e o l d
r e l i g i o n o r a s a n a t o n e m e n t f o r t h e d e t a c h m e n t o f t h e p r e v i o u s ye a r s , g a i n i n g t h e
a p p e a s e m e n t o f t h e g o d s 19. I n t h e e a r l y ye a r s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e a n i m a l s c a n
b e t r a c k e d d o w n f r o m o n e p r i m a l e x a m p l e : t h e C i t i e s P a l e t t e ( o r L i b ya n P a l e t t e )
a t A b yd o s d a t e d f r o m P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d ( 5 5 0 0 - 3 0 0 0 B C E ) 20. The one side of
t h e p a l e t t e s h o w s , o x e s , d o n k e ys , r a m s , o n t h e o p p o s i t e s i d e s e v e n f o r t i f i e d
cities are carved, and above them is their patron animal. This palette is
i m p o r t a n t b e c a u s e i t d e p i c t s t h e d i v i d e d E g yp t w i t h i t s l o c a l r u l e r s , i n t h e f o r m
of lion, scorpion, falcon, each one holding a hoe, a symbol of foundation or
d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e c i t y- e n e m i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s p a l e t t e , w e c a n s a y w i t h
caution, outlines the connection’s dawn between animals and gods. The Cities
Palette holds another major historical moment; it is considered as one of the
first writing documentation, since the fortified cities are a group of
h i e r o g l yp h i c s , w h i c h b e a r s t h e n a m e s o f t h e c i t i e s .
A n i m a l s ’ m u m m i f i c a t i o n e x i s t e d f r o m t h e P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d a n d c a n b e
d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n f o u r c a t e g o r i e s 21:

15 Throughout the Egyptian iconography, it is difficult to identify, if Anubis is portrayed as a


jackal or as a dog so here we will affiliate the god with the general Canidae family and we refer to
him as canid-headed god. However, even the ancient Egyptians did not always distinguish the
Canidae species, as they did with other animals.
16 H o u l i h a n , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2 2 9
17 H e r o d o t u s , 1 9 2 0
18 B a i n e s , 1 9 9 3 , p . 6 6
19 N i c h o l s o n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 4 9
20 E l - S h a h a w y & A t i y a , 2 0 0 5 , p . 2 0
21 I k r a m , 2 0 1 5 , p p . 1 - 1 5

19
 P e t m u m m y: a p e t u s u a l l y b u r i e d w i t h i t s m a s t e r i n t h e t o m b , i n o r d e r t o
be with him/her in the Afterlife; it was carefully mummified, buried in
separate coffin, or sometimes shared the same coffin with its master.
 F o o d / v i c t u a l m u m m y: w a s a m u m m i f i e d a n i m a l o f f e r i n g a s a n e t e r n a l f o o d
supply of the deceased to the Afterlife.
 S a c r e d m u m m y: w a s a c h o s e n a n i m a l , w h i c h w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e
m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a g o d ; w h e n t h e a n i m a l d i e d , i t h a d a r o a ya l b u r i a l a n d
c e r e m o n y.
 V o t i v e m u m m y : w a s a p r a ye r s ’ d o n a t i o n t o t h e g o d s , i t w a s s t o r e d b y a
p r i e s t a n d w h e n a ye a r p a s s e d a f e s t i v a l t o o k p l a c e i n w h i c h a l l t h e
donations were buried and sealed until the forthcoming festival.
F u r t h e r m o r e , m u m m i f i e d a n i m a l s c a n b e l o c a t e d t h r o u g h o u t E g yp t ; i n d i v i d u a l
burials were excavated at Badari, Deir Tasa such as goats and sheep dated to the
B a d a r i a n C u l t u r e 22. D o g c e m e t e r i e s c a n b e f o u n d a t A s yu t , A b yd o s , S a q q a r a , e t c .
devoted to Anubis, Werwawet and Khentamentiu (see Chapter 5).
Anci ent Eg yp t i ans were acquai nt ed wit h cani d an im al s, and t hi s famili ariz ation
led to the creation of different canid gods with funerary aspects.
1.2 Canid-headed Divinities

1.2.1. Wepwawet
Wepwawet (Figure 1) was a funerary deity like Anubis, featured as canid with
w h i t e o r g r a y h e a d . B e yo n d h i s f u n e r a r y r o l e , W e p w a w e t c a r r i e s a l s o a w a r l i k e
concept. This thought comes from his frequent depictions atop a standard (the
s h d - s h d e m b l e m ) 23 a c c o m p a n i e d w i t h u r a e u s , w h i c h i s i n f r o n t o f t h e k i n g 24. T h i s
emblem might also be connected to the ascension of a monarch to the sky or the
r o ya l p l a c e n t a 25. H i s n a m e , m e a n s “ O p e n e r o f t h e W a y s ” , r e f e r r i n g t o h i s
t e r r e s t r i a l v i c t o r i e s a n d t o h i s f u n e r a r y r o l e i n t h e U n d e r w o r l d 26.
From the inscription, dated back to Old Kingdom, Wepwawet was born in the
s h r i n e ( p r - n w ) o f W a d j e t 27. O n e o f t h e f i r s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f W e p w a w e t c o m e s
from the Narmer Palette. Wepwawet is on a standard, which is held by a bearer.
The other three bearers hold falcons and an animal skin (the placenta). These
bearers represent the areas ruled by Narmer. Wepwawet is often depicted with a

22 Daine, 1999, p. 9
23 Wilkinson, 2003, p. 192
24 Houser-Wegner, 2001, p. 497
25 Hart, 2005, p. 162
26 Hart, 2005, p. 162
27 Hart, 2005, p. 162
20
g r e y 28 o r w h i t e h e a d 29, p e r h a p s w i t h t h i s c o l o r a n c i e n t E g yp t i a n s w a n t e d t o v e r i f y
h i s s p e c i e s . H e i s t h e l o r d o f A s s u yt ( L y c o p o l i s b y t h e G r e e k s ) t h e 1 3 t h n o m e o f
E g yp t a n d o t h e r c e n t e r s o f h i s c u l t c a n b e f o u n d a t Q u b a n , e l - H a g a r s a M e m p h i s
a n d S a i s 30.
In the PT Wepwawet is called “Ra”, who arose from the horizon to bring the
l i g h t o f d a w n 31. I n t h e l a t e r ye a r s , h e i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a c o m p a n i o n o f t h e
deceased to the underworld with his assistance in the “Opening of the Mouth”
r i t u a l 32. O n S h a b a q o S t o n e ( 2 5 t h D yn a s t y ) , w h i c h i s a c o p y f r o m t h e P yr a m i d E r a ,
W e p w a w e t i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e p h a r a o h , t h r o u g h h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h H o r u s 33.

1.2.2. Khentamentiu
His name means “Foremost of the Westerners”, in which the last is referring to
the dead. The earliest entitled example of the god comes from the necropolis’
seals of Den (Figure 2) and Qaa at Abydos, in which the first temple for the god
was built. Wilkinson suggests that was already an epithet for Osiris, but
D u Q u e s n e s a y s t h a t K h e n t a m e n t i u w a s f i r s t t h e e p i t h e t A n u b i s 34. T h e o p i n i o n o f
DuQuense is most likely correct, if we consider that for both gods, the
det erminative hi erogl yphi c is the recumbent canid, a det erminative that full y
characterizes Anubis.
K h e n t a m e n t i u w a s t h e f u n e r a r y g o d o f A b yd o s , a n d a s a s i n g l e g o d i s a t t e s t e d
f r o m t h e 5 t h D y n a s t y 35. I n t h e M i d d l e K i n g d o m ( 2 0 5 5 - 1 7 9 5 B C E ) w e c a n s e e t h e
name of Khentamentiu used both as a single god, as an epithet to Osiris, and
o n l y f e w e x a m p l e s o f o f f e r i n g f o r m u l a s r e p o r t s e p a r a t e l y t h e t w o g o d s 36. A f t e r
t he 13th Dyn as t y, Khent am enti u, as a god, is full y connect ed with Osi ri s, but as
e p i t h e t i s a l s o s t i l l u s e d f o r A n u b i s i n a l l D yn a t s t i c P e r i o d t o t h e R o m a n A g e 37.

1.2.3. Duamutef
H i s n a m e m e a n s “ H e w h o p r a i s e h i s m o t h e r ” 38 ( F i g u r e 3 ) a n d i s o n e o f t h e f o u r
s o n s o f H o r u s ( t h e o t h e r s o n s a r e I m s e t y, H a p y, Q e b e h s e n u e f ) , w h i c h a r e
worshiped from the Old Kingdom to Roman Era. He and his brothers were

28 Wilkinson, 2003, p. 191


29 Houser-Wegner, 2001, pp. 496-497
30 Houser-Wegner, 2001, p. 497
31 Hart, 2005, p. 163
32 Hart, 2005, p. 163
33 Hart, 2005, p. 162 and Wilkinson, 1999, p. 257
34 DuQuesne, 2005, p. 28
35 Hays, 2011, p. 8
36 Smith, 2017, p. 241
37 Smith, 2017, p. 243
38 Hart, 2005, p. 151
21
p o r t r a ye d o n t h e t h e c a n o p i c j a r s , w h e r e t h e o r g a n s o f a m u m m y w e r e p l a c e d ; i n
D u a m u t e f ’ s j a r t h e l u n g s 39 o r s t o m a c h 40 w e r e p l a c e d .
From the Spell 151a of the Book of the Dead we learn the role of Duamutef, as
also of his brothers:
“Words spoken by Duamutef. I am your son, Osiris, I am your son Horus, your
beloved I have come to rescue my father Osiris from his assailant. I place him
u n d e r y o u r l e g s , e t e r n a l l y ” 41

1.2.4. Seth
S e t h 42 ( F i g u r e 4 ) i s t h e g o d o f c h a o s a n d t h e g o d o f f o r e i g n e r s 43. H a v i n g t h e s e
a s p e c u e t s i n m i n d i t i s s c r u t a b l e w h y a n c i e n t E g yp t i a n s c h o s e h i m a s t h e m a i n
vilan in their religions. Chaotic forces and mostly foreigners are considered as
t h e e n e m i e s o f t h e E g yp t , t h o s e t h a t b r i n g d i s o r d e r a n d u n b a l a n c e . T h i s
maleficent aspect of Seth can be seen from his very first breath, where he tore
a p a r t h i s m o t h e r N u t t o c o m e t o l i f e 44 a t O m b o s - N a g a d a r e g i o n ( U p p e r E g yp t ) .
Therefore, Seth killed Osiris and fought with Horus, for the domination of the
world. While fighting each other, Seth and Horus, the first lost the semen of his
t e s t i c l e s a n d t h e o t h e r t h e l i g h t o f h i s e ye s 45. A t t h e e n d , H o r u s w o n o v e r t h e
b a t t l e , a n d b e c a m e l o r d o f E g yp t . L e a v i n g b a c k t h e c o n f l i c t , S e t h l i v e d w i t h R a ,
a s h i s s o n , a n d b e c a m e t h e g o d o f t h u n d e r a n d s t o r m s 46. A c c o m p a n i e d b y R a h e
f o u g h t a g a i n s t A p o p h i s . F i n a l l y, w e s e e S e t h a s t h e s t r e n g t h t h a t l i v e s i n
p h a r a o h , a n d c a l l e d “ S e t h o f N u b e t ” 47.

1.2.5. Anupet
H e r n a m e m e a n s “ O p e n e r o f t h e W a y s ” a n d i n e a r l y d y n a s t i c ye a r s A n u p e t w a s
t h e t i t l e o f g o d d e s s N e i t h 48. S h e w a s t h e f e m a l e c o u n t e r p a r t o f A n u b i s 49 a n d s h e
w a s w i t h W e p w a w e t , t h e p r o t e c t o r g o d d e s s o f L y c o p o l i s 50.
In iconograph y from the Ptolemaic Period, Anupet (Figure 5) carried knives for
t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f O s i r i s a n d g e n e r a l l y t h e d e c e a s e d 51 a n d i n h e r h e a d h a d t h e

39Dodson, 2001, p. 562


40Hart, 2005, p. 150
41 D d mdw jn dwA mwt.f jnk sA.k wsjr ink sA.k Hr mry.kjj.n.j nD.j jt.j
wsjr m a jr nk.f dj.j sw Xr rdwy.ky Dt. (UCL, 2002), Renouf & Naville, 1904, p. 311
42 I t i s a d e b a t e a b o u t h i s a n i m a l f o r m . I t m i g h t b e a j a c k a l , p i g , d o n k e y , h i p p o p o t a m u s e t c . H a r t ,

2005, p. 145
43 t e V e l d e , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2 6 9
44 H a r t , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 4 4
45 t e V e l d e , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2 6 9
46 H a r t , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 4 4
47 H a r t , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 4 3
48 B u d g e , 1 9 0 4 , p . 4 5 4
49 R i c e , 2 0 0 6 , p . 1 5 2 a n d P i n c h , 2 0 0 2 , p . 1 0 4
50 M ü l l e r , 1 9 1 8 , p . 1 3 1 , R i c e , 2 0 0 6 , p . 1 5 2

22
s u m b o l o f A n u b i s 52. A f i n e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f A n u p e t c o m e s f r o m t h e 5 t h D yn a s t y,
alongside king Menkaure and the Goddess Hathor. She is in human form having a
s t a n d a r d w i t h a f e a t h e r o n h e r h e a d . T h e s t a n d a r d d e p i c t s a r e c u m b e n t j a c k a l 53.
The feather may be used to distinguish Anupet’s image from that of Anubis.

1.2.6. Wepiu
He might be a solar god associated with Ra. The name Wepiu means “Opener”,
“ D i v i n e r ” o r “ J u d g e ” 54. I n t h e P T t r a n s l a t i o n o f A l l e n 55, W e p i u c a r r i e d t h e n a m e
Parter (wpjw) and thought to be an alternative aspect of Wepwawet. Wepiu is
a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A b y d o s a n d H e l i o p o l i s 56 a n d s o m e t i m e s i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e
d e a d k i n g 57. H e i s a t t e s t e d i n f e w A f t e r l i f e B o o k s , l i k e t h e B o o k o f G a t e s ,
A m d u a t a n d B o o k o f D a y 58.

1.2.7. Sed
S e d ’ s e a r l y e v i d e n c e t r a c k b a c k t o P a l e r m o S t o n e ( 5 t h D yn a s t y) , w h e r e h e i s
attested as the theophoric name of the king, a characteristic that lasted until
M i d d l e K i n g d o m . A f t e r t h a t h e w a s r e p l a c e d b y W e p w a w e t 59. H e w a s a s s o s s i a t e d
w i t h t h e k i n g s h i p a n d t h e S e d f e s t i v a l m i g h t b e n a m e d a f t e r t h e g o d ’ s n a m e 60.
His epithet xnty-wsrt.f “He who is foremost of his court” suggests his duty
a s j u d g e 61.

1 . 2 . 8 . T h e S o u l s o f Pe a n d N e k h n en
T h e S o u l s o f P e a n d N e k k h e n s ym b o l i z e d t h e o l d r u l e r s o f B u t o a n d H e l i o p o l i s .
In representation, the Souls of Pe was depicted with the head of falcon, and the
Souls of Nekkhen (Figure 6) with the head of canid. The most known illustration
of them is in the henu (=praise) posture greeting the newborn sun in the sky or
celebrating the animated soul of the king during the “Recitation of the
Glorifications” ritual. This posture combines the jubilation and rejoicing

51 DuQuesne, 2007, p. 20
52 Rice, 2006, p. 152
53 Rice, 2006, p. 152
54 DuQuesne, 2007, p. 398
55 Allen, 2005, p. 439
56 DuQuesne, 2007, p. 398 and Allen, 2005, p. 439
57 Simpson, 2003, p. 274
58 DuQuesne, 2007, p. 399
59 Wilkinson, 2003, p. 190
60 DuQuesne, 2007, p. 401 and Wilkinson, 2003, p. 190
61 DuQuesne, 2007, pp. 401,402
23
g e s t u r e 62. These ancestral kings supported the living king and served the
d e c e a s e d k i n g b y h e l p i n g h i m t o l a d d e r i n t h e s k y 63.

1.2.9. Anubis
“Lord of the sacred place”, “he who is in the place of embalming”, “he who is
upon his mountain”, are some of the many different epithets of the god Anubis.
The origin of the canid-headed god is possible to be found in all canid animals,
w h i c h w e r e c a u g h t s e a r c h i n g t h e t o m b s t o e a t . C o n s e q u e n t l y, f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n
o f t h e d e c o m p o s i n g b o d i e s o f t h e b e l o v e d o n e s 64, E g yp t i a n s s t a r t e d t o b u i l d t h e i r
e a r l i e s t t o m b s . D u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e a n c i e n t E g yp t i a n s o b s e r v e d t h e b e h a v i o r
of these animals, it might be possible to think them as devourers of the dead’s
s o u l . W e d o n o t k n o w e x a c t l y w h e n , b u t a l r e a d y i n t h e P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d t h e
E g yp t i a n s h a d e m b r a c e d t h e i r u n i q u e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e
d e c e a s e d ’ s b o d y. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s u n k n o w n w h e t h e r i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h e i r
w o r s h i p t h e y a c t u a l l y f e a r e d A n u b i s 65, a s s o m e c o l l e g u e s b e l i e v e , o r n o t . T h e
only thing that is certain is that if they ever feared Anubis, this fear was never
delivered to us. However, Anubis, or the idea of his worship, might had started
during the Early D yn a s t i c Period (3000-2686 BCE) and then arosed and
e s t a b l i s h e d s t e a d i l y i n t h e ye a r s t h a t c a m e .

It is remarkable that his name might come from the verb (= jnp), which
m e a n s “ t o d e c a y ” 66. T h i s o r i g i n o f h i s n a m e i s n o t e n t i r e l y a c c e p t e d , a n d
colleagues have provided different meanings, like, “child”, “young prince”, or
even to “lie down (on the stomach)” 67
. Examples of the vocal pronunciation of
t h e g o d ’ s n a m e w a s a t t e s t e d i n t h e b e g i n n i n g o f 6 t h D y n a s t y 68, b u t o n e t h i n g i s
certain, if the origin of his name (“to decay”, or “to lie down (on the stomach)”)
is correct, it will full y correlate with his manifestations and roles. In addition,
f r o m J u m i l h a c P a p y r u s 69, A n u b i s w a s n a m e d b y I s i s a f t e r t h e w o r d s w i n d f o r j ,
water for n and Gebel for p. Regarding to Isis’ relationship with the name of
A n u b i s , a s a l s o t o t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f A n u b i s a n d H o r u s , t h e p a p yr u s m e n t i o n e d

62Wilkinson., 1992, p. 17
63Wilkinson, 2003, p. 89
64 T h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e d e a d b e c a m e o n e o f t h e i r d a i l y l i f e a c t i v i t i e s a n d , d u r i n g a t i m e w h e n

other reces, as Greeks, Romans and Mesopotamian races, feared death, Egyptians embraced this
concept to their upcoming religion. Faith in the afterlife, as also the power of the universe were
equ ally i mpo rtant to th eir worship , which was asso ciated with th e natural en viron men t and its
elements.
65 E v a n s , 2 0 0 8 , p . 1 9
66 D o x e y , 2 0 0 1 , p . 9 7
67 W i l l o c k x , 2 0 0 7 , p . 4 0
68 D u Q u e s n e , 2 0 0 5 , p . 7 5 , D a w o o d , 1 9 9 8 , p . 3 4 a n d E l - K h a d r a g y , 2 0 0 1 , p . 1 9 1
69 V a n d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p p . 1 0 2 - 1 0 3 , 1 1 7

24
that when the goddess found Horus in the swamps of Akhmim she asked “Is it
he?” (=jn pw); These words constructed the name of Anubis mening “royal
child”. Ra also claims Anubis naming: "As for this one, it is I who created his
name of Anubis"; further it is mentioned that Anubis was named by Seth.
F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e b l a c k c o l o r o f a d e c o m p o s i n g b o d y b e c a m e a s ym b o l o f t h e
A f t e r l i f e , w i t h r o o t s b a c k t o t h e N i l e s ’ f e r t i l i t y s i l t 70, a n d c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e
circle and animation of environment.
Α problem that scientists come across is about the nature of Anubis’ animal,
t h a t e v e n , t h e a n c i e n t s k n e w h i s f o r m w a s s o m e k i n d o f m ys t e r y: “ P e p i
Neferkare, whose form is secret as Anubis on his belly, for you have received
y o u r f a c e o f a j a c k a l ! ” 71 ( N 4 1 2 ) . T h e f o r m o f A n u b i s i s p r o b l e m a t i c d u e t o t h e
fact that the researchers could identify more than one species from the Canidae
f a m i l y 72. Head, muzzle, sometimes even tail are correspondingly from foxes,
j a c k a l s a n d d o m e s t i c d o g s 73. A d d i t i o n a l l y, t h e e a r s r e s e m b l e t o f o x e s ’ o r j a c k a l s ’
and his body shape with domestic dogs’. These characteristics from various
species makes it difficult to recognize which is the one prevailing species of
A n u b i s ’ a n i m a l . T h i s h yb r i d f o r m 74 o f A n u b i s m a yb e w a s c r e a t e d t o e s t a b l i s h h i s
gruesome activities and to amplify his image as the god of the underworld, since
all these species have something in common, they are scavengers.
During the Ptolemaic Period the ancient Greeks considered Anubis a dog and
n a m e d t h e g o d ’ s n o m e C yn o p o l i s , m e a n w h i l e t h o u g h t W e p w a w e t a s a w o l f ,
therefore his nome was named Lycopolis. Diodurus Sicilus wrote about those
gods naming Anubis as the one who wears the dog’s skin, and Macedon
(Wepwawet) wears the wolf’s skin: “τὸν μὲν γὰρ Ἄνουβιν περιθέσθαι κυνῆν, τὸν
δὲ Μακεδόνα λύκου προτομήν: ἀφ᾽ ἧς αἰτίας καὶ τὰ ζῷα ταῦτα τιμηθῆναι παρὰ
τ ο ῖ ς Α ἰ γ υ π τ ί ο ι ς ” ( D i o d . 1 . 1 8 . 1 ) 75. A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e r e a l n a t u r e o f t h e g o d
i s n o t ye t e s t a b l i s h e d , b u t t h e G r e e k s w i t h t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e g o d a s a
dog formed the god Hermanubis (Hermes and Anubis), during the cultural
interaction between the two civilizations.
Anubis is identified in many passages with the king’s face and with other of his
body parts and through that he is established as an important god. Regarding the

70Hart, 2005, p. 25
71Allen, 2005, p. 277
72 T h e r e a r e s e v e n d i f f e r e n t s p e c i e s f o r c a n i d a e f a m i l y t h a t l i v e s i n E g y p t : t h e g o l d e n j a c k a l , t h e

African wild dog, the wolf, the Blanford's fox, the fennec fox, the red fox, the Ruppell's sand fox
Hoath, 2009, pp. 69-81 and Evans, 2008, p. 22
73 E v a n s , 2 0 0 8 , p . 1 8
74 E v a n s , 2 0 0 8 , p . 2 2
75 B e k k e r , L u d w i g , & V o g e l , n . d .

25
face, this might be referring to the moment of death, before the resurrection took
place and the deceased became a manifestation of Anubis, or, in other passages
H o r u s 76, W e p w a w e t 77, e t c . F r o m t h e p a s s a g e s o f J u m i l h a c p a p yr u s T h o t h , H o r u s ,
Osiris and other gods are the manifestion of Anubis; this might have happened
due t o t he stor yt ell ing and not actual l y becaus e of t he exis t ed notion of t hat
time.
F r o m o t h e r P e p i I ’ s p a s s a g e ( P 5 2 0 ) 78, t h e k i n g i s i d e n t i f i e d a s O s i r i s , A n u b i s
and Milk Goddess (Hesat?) “Osiris Pepi, you should not go away in those
eastern lands, but you should go away into those western lands, in the path of
t he Sun’s followers […] . Since you are t he one who prevents t hem from sl ipping
from within your arms, you should take hold of them, in your identity of the
north wind; they will take account of you, in your identity of Anubis; and the
gods will not go down against you, in your identity of the Milk-Goddess”. It is
very intriguing the point that both Hesat and Osiris were regarded as the parents
of Anubis.
Whereas in CT, Spell 185 is Anubis: “What I doubly detest, I will not eat.
Faeces is my detestation, and I will not eat; I will not consume filth, because I
a m A n u b i s , B u l l o f h i s S i d e ( s i c ) ” 79.
Having established the general notion of the creation of the god, another
problem we face_ is his parenting. It is claimed that Anubis was the son of
d i f f e r e n t g o d s a n d g o d d e s s e s , O s i r i s , S e t h o r R a , f o r t h e f a t h e r h o o d , H e s a t 80,
B a s t e t , N e p h t h ys 81, f o r t h e m o t h e r h o o d . A n u b i s i s m o s t l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e s o n o f
O s i r i s a n d N e p h t h y s , i n f o r m a t i o n c o m i n g f r o m 1 9 t h D y n a s t y s t e l a 82. P l u t a r c h
wrote about Anubis’s birth and life: “Γεννώσης τῆς Νέφθυος τὸν Ἄνουβιν Ἶσις
ὑποβάλλεται· Νέφθυς γάρ ἐστι τὸ ὑπὸ γῆν καὶ ἀφανές, Ἶσις δὲ τὸ ὑπὲρ τὴν γῆν καὶ
φανερόν, ὁ δὲ τούτων ὑποψαύων καὶ καλούμενος ὁρίζων κύκλος ἐπίκοινος ὢν
ἀμφοῖν Ἄνουβις κέκληται καὶ κυνὶ τὸ εἶδος ἀπεικάζεται· καὶ γὰρ ὁ κύων χρῆται τῇ
ὄψει νυκτός τε καὶ ἡμέρας ὁμοίως. καὶ τοιαύτην ἔχειν δοκεῖ παρ' Αἰγυπτίοις τὴν
δύναμιν ὁ Ἄνουβις, οἵαν ἡ Ἑκάτη παρ' Ἕλλησι, χθόνιος ὢν ὁμοῦ καὶ Ὀλύμπιος.
ἐνίοις δὲ δοκεῖ Κρόνος ὁ Ἄνουβις εἶναι· διὸ πάντα τίκτων ἐξ ἑαυτοῦ καὶ κύων ἐν
ἑαυτῷ τὴν τοῦ κυνὸς ἐπίκλησιν ἔσχεν. ἔστι δ' οὖν τοῖς σεβομένοις τὸν Ἄνουβιν

76 Allen, 2005, p. 45
77 Allen, 2005, p. 102
78 Allen, 2005, p. 184
79 Faulkner, 1973, p. 155
80 Hart, 2005, p. 24
81 Budge, 1904, p. 261, Doxey, 2001, p. 98 and Hart, 2005, p. 28
82 Willockx, 2007, p. 54
26
ἀπόρρητόν τι, καὶ πάλαι μὲν τὰς μεγίστας ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ τιμὰς ὁ κύων ἔσχεν· ἐπεὶ δὲ
Καμβύσου τὸν Ἆπιν ἀνελόντος καὶ ῥίψαντος οὐδὲν προσῆλθεν οὐδ' ἐγεύσατο τοῦ
σώματος ἀλλ' ἢ μόνος ὁ κύων, ἀπώλεσε τὸ πρῶτος εἶναι καὶ μάλιστα τιμᾶσθαι τῶν
ἑ τ έ ρ ω ν ζ ῴ ω ν ” 83. T h e s e v e r s e s c i t e t h e d o w n f a l l o f A n u b i s ; h e i s c o n n e c t e d , a p a r t
f r o m H e r m e s , w i t h H e c a t e a n d C r o n o s . H e c a t e a n d H e r m e s a s p s yc h o p o m p o s , a r e
considered cthonic deities, therefore the connection of Anubis with these deities
i s a fai r analogy. The connect ion of Anubi s wit h Cronus mi ght have happened
for two reasons: A. Cronus was the rebellion son of Uranus, who won his father
and became the ruler of cosmos. B. Seth, the god of chaos, transformed as
Anubis in many passages of Jumilhac Papurus and in other passages Anubis had
a S e t h i a n 84 a s p e c t . A l t h o u g h t h e J u m i l h a c P a p yr u s w a s c o m p o s e d i n t h e P t o l e m a i c
P e r i o d , i t m i g h t b e a s yn t h e s i s o f a n c i e n t E g yp t i a n m yt h s , t r a n d i t i o n s a n d
legends.
A n o t h e r k n o w n A n u b i s ' s r e l a t i v e i s h i s d a u g h t e r , Q e b e h u t 85, t h e o n e w h o
liberated the deceased’s soul with water.
As already mentioned above, other canid divinities had the same aspect with
Anubis and many colleagues consider them as the early manifestation or epithets
of the god. Whether it is true or not, Anubis prevailed over them and during the
Old Kingdom became the lord of the Underworld equal to Osiris. The Htp-dj-
n s w t ( C h a r t 1 ) 86 f o r m u l a a t t e s t e d b o t h f o r A n u b i s a n d O s i r i s , b u t t h e a n c i e n t s
started to focus more to Osiris’s cult and in the end Anubis joined the Osirian
m yt h 87 a n d b e c a m e t h e f i r s t e m b a l m e r , m u m m i f i e d O s i r i s , w h o w a s k i l l e d b y h i s
o w n b r o t h e r , S e t h : “ A n u b i s [ c a m e] f r o m B u s i r i s . H e h a s e m b a l m e d O s i r i s i n t h e
P l a c e o f P u r i f i c a t i o n ” 88. T h e r e a s o n o f t h i s c h a n g e m i g h t b e f o u n d i n t h e n e e d
for a divine origin of the pharaoh. Therefore, the slaughtered Osiris, the dead
who came back to life, and Horus his mighty offspring gave a strong background

83 Π λ ο ύ τ α ρ χ ο ς , 2 0 0 3 , σ σ . 2 2 1 - 2 2 3 . T r a n l a t i o n b y t h e a u t h o r : “ W h e n N e p h t h y s g a v e b i r t h t o A n u b i s ;

Isis treated him, as he was her own. Nephthys is that which is beneath the earth and invisible, Isis
that which is above the easth and visible and that which touches these, the cicle horizon, is common
to both, called Anubis, and represented in the form of dog; because the dog can see both in the
night and in the day alike. And for this reason, Anubis is thought, among Egyptians, has such power
as Hekate for the Greeks, since at the same time he is cthonic and Olympic (deity). Some are
thought that Anubis is Cronus; And because the dog gestation (κύων) everything of himself, took the
name of “dog” (κυνὸς). Those who venerated Anubis, was a mystery and in the ancient times in
Egypt, the dog was highly honoured. But, when Cambyses had kill Apis and scattered him away,
nothing came near the body or taste from the body only the dog, thereby he lost his supremacy and
his honours among the other animals”.
84 V a n d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p . 9 6
85 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 5 8
86 M u r r a y , M i l n e , & C r u m , 1 9 0 4 , p . 3 4 a n d D a w o o d , 1 9 9 8
87 ( P i n c h , 2 0 0 2 , p . 1 0 4 )
88 B r o o k l y n P a p y r u s , C o l u m n X , O ' R o u r k e , 2 0 0 2 , p . 1 8 8

27
to Osiris, a history with a beginning and an end, necessary for their worship and
its anthropocentric aspect.

Chart 1
Htp-dj-nswt formula
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Anubis Anubis and Osiris Anubis, Osiris and other gods

4th 5th 6th 7th-11th

H o w e v e r , i n t h e v a s t h i s t o r y o f E g yp t , A n u b i s g a i n e d a p l a c e i n p e o p l e ’ s m i n d ,
having an active role in the ritual of the “Opening of the Mouth”, in which the
deceased could “breathe” again, as also in the “Weighing of the hearts” (see
Chapter 4). The latter was the final “gate” between the deceased and the welfare
of the Afterlife and occurred from Old Kindfom to Roman Period.
Havi ng m ys t erio us l ife and form, Anubi s durin g t he New Kingdom (1550-1069
BCE), also took part in the sequence of the king’s reborn spirit (see Chapter 2)
in the mammisi (birth temples). In a political stage, as some collegues think,
A n u b i s h a d a r i v a l , B a t a , f o r t h e o w n e r s h i p o f 1 7 t h n o m e 89 a n d t h e “ T a l e o f t h e
T w o B r o t h e r s ” , c o u l d b e n a r r a t i n g t h i s r i v a l r y, e n d i n g i n a c o n c e p t o f e q u a l i t y
between the two gods/brothers (see Chapter 3). Source for his military aspect
could be found in the Jumilhac Papyrus (Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 BCE), in
w h i c h A n u b i s i s p o r t r a ye d a s a w a r r i n g g o d a l o n g s i d e H o r u s ( s e e C h a p t e r 3 ) .
T h e P a l e r m o S t o n e ( 5 t h D yn a s t y) m e n t i o n e d t h e s o - c a l l e d “ B i r t h o f A n u b i s ” t h a t
were statues which specified a ceremonial ye a r 90; temples, chapels and
sanctuaries devoted to Anubis found at Saqqara, Kahun, Deir el-Bahari etc. and
1 7 t h n o m e 91 ( v i c i n i t y o f S a m a l u t , C yn o p o l i s b y t h e G r e e k s ) 92 o f U p p e r E g yp t w a s
dedicated to him.

89Simpson, 2003, p. 92 and Willockx, 2007, p. 43


90Hart, 2005, p. 25
91 K h e n t a m e n t i u ’ s t o w n w a s t h e 8 t h ( A b y d o s ) a n d W e p w a w e t ’ s w a s t h e 1 3 t h n o m e ( A s y u t ) , H a r t ,

2005, p. 106.
28
L a s t l y, t h e n a m e o f A n u b i s i s a t t e s t e d a s p a r t o f p e r s o n a l n a m e s ( t h e p h o r o u s
n a m e s ) a n d w a s c o n n e c t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h t h e d e i t y 93. I t a l s o g i v e s u s
i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h e p r e v a i l i n g c u l t o f t h e p e r i o d 94 a n d e x a m p l e s r e g a r d i n g A n u b i s
c a n b e f o u n d f r o m O l d K i n g d o m , A n u b i s e m a n e k h 95, A n u b i s h o t e p 96, P a d i n p u 97 e t c .

92 Hart, 2005, p. 107


93 Pinch, 2002, p. 9
94 Wilkinson, 1999, p. 226
95 Clagett, 1989, p. 152
96 Clagett, 1989, p. 173
97 Labudek, 2010, p. 109
29
FIGURES
Figure 1. Wepwawet on
standard
© Museo Arqueológico
Nacional, Hispania.
Invertory number: 16062

Figure 2. Den’s seal © Wengrow, 2006, p. 132

Fig ure 3. Dua mute f and Imsety


on canopic box
© from (TGEM, n.d.) Museo
Archaeologio Nazionale/Museo
Egizio Museum. Invertory
number: 2184

30
Fig ure 4. Thut mose III taught by Set the archery Figure 5. Statue of Hathor,
© te Velde, 2001, p. 270 Menkaure and Anupet (4th
Dynasty)
© Cairo Museum. Invertory
number: JE 46499

Figure 6. Inherkhau in front of


Souls of Nekkhen
© OsirisNet

31
2. THE MANIFESTATIONS OF ANUBIS THROUGH HIS ICONOGRAPHIC
REPRESENTATIONS
2.1 Art in General
T h e E g yp t i a n s t yl e i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , s c u l p t u r e a n d p a i n t i n g w a s b a s e d o n a s e r i e s
o f s t r i c t l a w s . T h e s e l a w s r e s u l t e d i n a s e n s e o f b a l a n c e a n d s t r i c t h a r m o n y. T h e
E g yp t i a n a r t d i d n o t c h a n g e m u c h t h r o u g h t h e ye a r s , g i v i n g u s a t o n e o f s t a b i l i t y
a n d a v i e w o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e a n c i e n t s o c i e t y. A l l f i g u r e s w e r e
constructed with the same characteristics, however the identity of each one
figure can be understood by the size, color, emblems and generally by the
thematic concept of the scene. For example, the pharaoh and the divinities
a l w a ys w e r e d e p i c t e d l a r g e r t h a n c o m m o n p e o p l e w e r e 98, a n d t h e w o m e n , e v e n i f
t h e y w e r e g o d d e s s e s , w e r e a l w a ys a s t e p b e h i n d f r o m t h e m a l e g o d o r p h a r a o h .
T h e a n c i e n t E g yp t i a n a r t c a n b e d i v i d e d i n t o t w o c a t e g o r i e s :
 The two-dimensional and
 The three-dimensional
2.1.1. The two-dimensional art
The two-dimensional art mainly depicted the ideal elements of an object or a
figure. It was about their quintessence of things and not a faithful
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s s e l e c t i o n c l a s s i f i e s t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l E g yp t i a n a r t i n t h e
c o n t e x t o f m o d e r n d a y’ s a b s t r a c t a r t , s i n c e e x t e r n a l p h ys i c a l r e a l i t y i s n o t
t h e r e 99. I n t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l a r t a r e i n c l u d e d b o t h r e l i e f s c u l p t u r i n g a n d w a l l
painting.
The Two-dimensional representation had two techniques, painting (coloring and
d r a w i n g ) 100 a n d t h e r e l i e f s c u l p t u r i n g ( b a s o r r a i s e d a n d s u n k r e l i e f ) 101. D u r i n g
the Old Kingdom (2705-2180 BCE) the artist to create a work of art, whether it
w a s a w a l l p a i n t i n g o r a r e l i e f , p a i n t e d h o r i z o n t a l a n d v e r t i c a l g u i d e s 102 t o s h a p e
the scene. From the Middle Kingdom and afterwards the use of the grid
t e c h n i q u e w a s p r a c t i c e d , w h i c h w a s b e i n g u s e d o n t h e w a l l p a i n t i n g s 103. I n t h e
e n d o f 1 8 t h D y n a s t y , t h e f i g u r e s w e r e d o n e b y h a n d 104. T h e u s e o f g u i d e s o r g r i d
aim ed at creating s ym m etr y and gro upi ng the fi gures . The hum an fi gure was

98 Watts, 1998, p. 44
99 Chilvers, 2009, p. 2 and Manley, 1996, p. 83
100 B r y a n , 2 0 1 4 , p . 9 9 4
101 H a r t w i n g , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2
102 W a t t s , 1 9 9 8 , p . 3 8
103 H a r t w i n g , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2 , R o b i n s , 1 9 9 7 , p . 2 7
104 R o b i n s , 2 0 0 1 , p . 6 1 , Κ ε κ έ ς , 2 0 1 5 , p . 2 1

32
s e p a r a t e d i n 1 8 s q u a r e s , f o r t h e s t a n d i n g , a s a l s o f o r s e a t i n g f i g u r e s 105, f r o m t h e
l e g s u p t o t h e h e a d 106, p r o v i d i n g s t a b i l i t y o f b o d y a n a l o g y. T h e f o r e h e a d w a s n o t
part of the square because there were plenty of crowns and hair accessories. In
the painting, lines were used to separate the colors and to create the desirable
f o r m 107. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , w h i l e o b s e r v i n g t h e E g yp t i a n p a i n t i n g s , t h e i n t e n s e u s e
of the contour and the coloring is being perceived.
The relief sculpturing, most of the time, before painted was carved and
s m o o t h e d w i t h a l a ye r o f p l a s t e r 108. O t h e r w i s e , i f t h e s u r f a c e w a s n o t c a r v e d
b e f o r e p a i n t e d , t h e a r t i s t a p p l i e d s e v e r a l l a ye r s o f m u d p l a s t e r t o c r e a t e a f l a t
plane. The ancient artist was interested more in what was vital and not in what
w a s o b j e c t i v e 109 a n d h e p a i n t e d e v e r yt h i n g f r o m t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e 110. L e g s ,
arms depicted from the inner side, the head was in profile, but the torso and the
e ye w e r e p a i n t e d f r o n t a l . T h i s w a s t h e t yp i c a l c a n o n a n d t h e i d e a l f o r m . T h e
f i g u r e s a n d t h e s c e n e s w e r e p l a c e d i n h o r i z o n t a l z o n e s 111 i n o r d e r t o h a v e
balance, an element that stems from their own religion. Besides, we should
remember that the funerary art was made in order to be seen by the gods and the
deceased and not by the living.
I n b o t h b a s a n d s u n k r e l i e f t h e d e p t h o f e n g r a v i n g , w a s m a i n l y 2 . 5 0 c m 112, a n d
t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e a l w a ys c r e a t e d u s i n g t h e b a s - r e l i e f t e c h n i q u e . E x a m p l e s
of the first technique have been found in the early Dynasties and already in the
3 r d D y n a s t y t h e r e l i e f s c u l p t u r i n g w a s c o v e r i n g t h e t e m p l e s a n d t h e t o m b s 113. O n
t he cont rar y, wi th t he pai nt ing t ech niq ue t he reli ef s culpturi ng was a t eamwork.
One artist made the sketch, using brush and ink, another made the sculpture and
s o m e o n e e l s e p a i n t e d i t 114.
The colors were placed to give life and to contribute to the story of the scene.
T h r o u g h t h e h u e o f c o l o r s , o n e c a n d i s t i n g u i s h t h e d e i t y, P h a r a o h a n d t h e
foreigners too. Colors can also show the knowledge gained through long-term
o b s e r v a t i o n , a s i t h a p p e n e d i n t h e c a s e o f t h e b l a c k c o l o r , w h i c h s ym b o l i z e s
f e r t i l i t y a n d r e g e n e r a t i o n . T h i s s ym b o l i s m d e r i v e s f r o m t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f t h e

105 Bunson, 2002, p. 49


106 Manley, 1996, pp. 82-83
107 Bryan, 2014, p. 994
108 Hartwing, 2001, p. 2 and James, 1985, p. 19
109 Gombrich, 1952, p. 34
110 Gombrich, 1952, p. 36
111 Watts, 1998, p. 38
112 Watts, 1998, p. 45
113 Muller, 2001, p. 133
114 Muller, 2001, p. 134
33
black fertile of Nile sludge during the flood season. Color can also indicate age
a n d g e n d e r . R e d c o l o r i m p l i e s v i g o r , y o u t h 115 a n d m a n , w h i l e t h e ye l l o w o r p a l e
p i n k 116 i m p l i e s t h e w o m a n 117.
A l t h o u g h t h e d r a w i n g s s e e m t o u s a s p r i m i t i v e a r t i s t i c d e p i c t i o n s 118, i t i s w r o n g
to believe that this was actually the case. It is remarkable that through the
s k e t c h e s o f a n c i e n t E g yp t i a n s , t o d a y' s s c i e n t i s t s c a n i d e n t i f y s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l s
and plants. This identification strengthens the view that they painted onl y what
was considered important and worthwhile to give in detail.
The portraits were rigid and lacking in plasticity (especially during the Old
Kingdom, 2686-2181 BCE). The power and the meaning of the scene were
i m p r i n t e d b y t h e s t a t i c i c o n o g r a p h y. A n a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e t h a t h e l p e d i l l u s t r a t e
a scene was the gesture and the posture in which each figure was depicted. The
g e s t u r e s i n E g yp t i a n a r t w e r e s t a n d a r d a n d t o d a y w e a r e a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r
meaning. Thus, we can see a figure make a gesture of worshiping, summoning,
p r a i s i n g , p r e s e n t i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g o f f e r i n g s , r e j o i c i n g 119 a n d p r o t e c t i n g .
A l l P h a r a o h s l o o k e d l i k e e a c h o t h e r , e x p r e s s i n g i n t h i s w a y, t h e i r g e n e a l o g i c a l
continuity with the divine substance, since they were the incarnation of god
Horus, Ra or Atun. An exception to this rule, which did not last long, was the
a r t d e v e l o p e d a t t h e A m a r n a E r a , d u r i n g t h e r e i g n o f A k h e n a t e n 120 ( 1 8 t h D yn a s t y,
New Kingdom). The sense of movement and naturalism can be recognized from
t h e a r t o f A m a r n a P e r i o d . A k h e n a t e n a n d h i s w i f e , N e f e r t i t i , w e r e p o r t r a ye d v e r y
realistically and with unique characteristics. Some figures were painted frontal,
o t h e r s h a v i n g t h e i r h e a d s r a i s e d , o v e r l a p p i n g , c r o w d e d a n d b u s y, g i v i n g a n
active role to the scene and thet are far from the traditional art of the previous
years.
The “rules”, which were applied in this period, were:
 A k h e n a t e n a n d h i s w i f e N e f e r t i t i p o r t r a ye d w i t h r e a l i s t i c a n d u n i q u e
features.
 Figures painted in frontal or with heads raised.
 Overlapping, crowded and busy figures.

115 Watts, 1998, p. 45


116 Bryan, 2014, p. 994
117 Manley, 1996, p. 83
118 Gombrich, 1952, p. 42
119 Watts, 1998, p. 37
120 Munro, 1964, p. 21
34
 W o m e n p a i n t e d w i t h d a r k c o l o r s 121.
 T h e g r i d s ys t e m w a s 2 0 s q u a r e s 122.
All of the above were concepts that deviated from the traditional rule of
previous centuries. However, already at the time of Tutankhamen, traditional
depiction returned, only to change again, in the Greek-Roman Period.
2.1.2 The three-dimensional art
The three-dimensional art had to do with the real world; it meant things in their
true form. The three-dimensional artwork involves statues, figurines, and
models.
A s t a t u e f o r t h e a n c i e n t E g yp t i a n w a s t h e h o m e i n w h i c h t h e s p i r i t o f t h e
deceased lived and was made to last forever. Therefore, it is not odd that the
E g yp t i a n w o r d f o r t h e s c u l p t o r – o n e o f t h e m a n y – w a s “ h e w h o k e e p s a l i v e ” 123
o r “ l i f e g i v e r ” 124. T h e c u l t s t a t u e s a n d t e m p l e d e c o r a t i o n s w e r e t h e m a i n
p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e p h a r a o h 125 a n d w e r e a m a s s i v e i n d u s t r y t h a t r e q u i r e d t h e w o r k o f
p a i n t e r s , m e t a l w o r k e r s , s c r i b e s , m i n e r s 126 e t c . I n P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d , c l a y a n d
mud brick were used for sculpture. After that period, they were using materials
s u c h a s m e t a l s , w o o d s , f a i e n c e , a n d i v o r y 127, b u t m o s t l y g r a n i t e a n d l i m e s t o n e 128.
I n g e n e r a l , a s t a t u e m a d e w i t h t h e g r i d s ys t e m w a s d e s t i n e d t o b e s e e n f r o m t h e
side, especially if it was an animal statue. This happened for one reason: for the
i m i t a t i o n o f t h e h i e r o g l yp h i c 129 s i g n . T h e f i g u r e s ’ b a c k w a s m o s t l y s u p p o r t e d b y
p i l l a r s o r s l a b s t o b e m o r e s t a b l e a n d t i m e l e s s 130. A r m s a t t a c h e d f i r m l y t o t h e
b o d y, a s a l s o t h e l e g s t o t h e c h a i r 131.
By watching t he Egypt i an statues, the difference between sculpture and
painting is understandable. The first was realistic and we actually see different
features in the pharaoh’s portraits. The latter used standardized forms and had a
n a r r a t i v e a s p e c t 132 a n d t h e d i f f e r e n t r e g i s t e r s p r o v i d e d a c h r o n o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u u m

121Eaverly, 2004, p. 53, Κεκές, 2015, p. 23


122Robins, 2001, p. 151, Κεκές, 2015, p. 22
123 G o m b r i c h , 1 9 5 2 , p . 3 4
124 V y g u s , 2 0 1 5 , p . 1 8 8 2
125 K o z l o f f , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2 1 8
126 Μ i n e r a l s a n d w o o d h a d a s y m b o l i c a s p e c t ; g o l d w a s t h e s k i n o f t h e g o d s a n d f o r t h a t r e a s o n

considered a divine metal. Hathor’s sacred ore was turquoise. A solar substance can be identified in
red gran it e. Black was asso ci ated with fert ility an d und erwo rld. Wood was sacred for Isi s, Nun and
Hathor, Kozloff, 2001, p. 219
127 K o z l o f f , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2 1 9
128 B u n s o n , 2 0 0 2 , p . 4 8
129 K o z l o f f , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2 2 0
130 B u n s o n , 2 0 0 2 , p . 8 7 5
131 K o z l o f f , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2 1 9
132 B a k i r , 1 9 6 7 , p . 1 6 0

35
t o t he s tory, a be gi nni ng and an end. However, even st atues had t he s ame
p r i n c i p a l s f o r b a l a n c e a n d s ym m e t r y.
There were many statue categories, those of humans and human’s world (royal,
private statues) and those of the divine (cult, votive, guardian statues). The
o l d e r e x a m p l e o f a r o ya l s t a t u e w a s t h e s p h i n x , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f h u m a n a n d
a n i m a l e l e m e n t s 133, e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e k i n g a n d h i s d i v i n e
lineage. Other forms were the mummiform k i n g 134, his coronation, the
o f f e r i n g / a d o r i n g k i n g b e f o r e t h e g o d s 135 a n d t h e o n e w i t h a m a g i c a l e n g r a v e d
f o r m u l a 136.
Many artists and different workshops can be identified by the statue’s facial
d i f f e r e n c e s . U p p e r E g yp t f o l l o w e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t yl e a n d w a s l e s s o p e n t o
a r t i s t i c i n n o v a t i o n t h a n L o w e r E g yp t . H o w e v e r , d i f f e r e n t s t yl e s w e r e i n t r o d u c e d
during the ruling of each pharaoh, from a pessimistic (e.g. Senwosret III,
A m e n e m h e t I I I ) a n d e x a g g e r a t e d s t yl e ( e . g . A k h e n a t e n ) t o N e g r o i d a n d f i n a l l y,
t o t h e G r e e k s t yl e 137.
T he non-ro yal st atues rel ated to t hos e of t he nobl es as well as to t he m ass
p r o d u c t i o n o f f i g u r i n e s o f e v e r yd a y l i f e , w h i c h d i d n o t r e l a t e t o a n y p a r t i c u l a r
person. These figurines were perhaps created either for an individual use or for a
votive one. The noble’s statuary had various representations but never depicted
w i t h r e g a l i a o r s p h i n x ; t h e s e t w o w e r e f u l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e k i n g 138.
T h e d i v i n e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s m o r e c o m p l e x t h a n t h a t o f t h e r o ya l ; d e i t i e s c a n b e
depicted in full y human or animal form, half-human and half-animal. In some
cases, when they are in fully human form they can be identified only by their
h i e r o g l yp h i c n a m e . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y a l s o e x i s t s d u r i n g t h e N e w K i n g d o m a n d
afterwards, when many gods manifested themselves in the form of other gods, or
manifested themselves at an older age.
The cult statues were placed in the sanctuary of the temple, and were only seen
b y t h e h i g h p r i e s t s 139. T h e v o t i v e s t a t u e s w e r e t h e m o s t c o m m o n s t a t u e t h a t
a r c h a e o l o g i s t s c o m e a c r o s s 140, d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t h u m a n i t y a l w a ys n e e d s
s o m e t h i n g t o p r a y t o a n d a l w a ys h a s t h e n e e d t o b e h e a r d .

133 Mysliwiec, 2001, p. 229


134 Mysliwiec, 2001, p. 230
135 Mysliwiec, 2001, p. 234
136 Mysliwiec, 2001, p. 232
137 Mysliwiec, 2001, p. 235
138 Tefnin, 2001, p. 236
139 Kozloff, 2001, p. 242
140 Kozloff, 2001, p. 243
36
During the reign of a king, the facial features of the gods were changed
according to his own characteristics, but sometimes, when the reign was short-
t e r m e d , t h e k i n g r e p l a c e d h i s n a m e o n h i s p r e d e c e s s o r ’ s s t a t u e 141.
T h e g u a r d i a n s t a t u e s w e r e a n i m a l o r h yd r i d e ( h a l f - h u m a n , h a l f - a n i m a l ) , w i t h
t h e m o s t f a m o u s b e i n g t h e s p h i n x o f G i z a 142 a n d t h e m o s t o m n i p r e s e n t b e i n g t h e
f i g u r i n e s o f t h e f o u r s o n s o f H o r u s 143.
2.2 From the Canines to Anubis’s Iconography
T h r o u g h o u t t h e P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d t h e r e w e r e m a n y h u n t i n g s c e n e s . S o m e o f
them, like the ones with hippopotamus which are closely related to protection,
a n d s o m e o t h e r s , l i k e t h e c a n i n e s t h a t s ym b o l i z e t h e p o w e r o r m a yb e r e f l e c t t h e
m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e h u n t e r a n d t h e e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o f t h e p e r i o d 144.
I n a r t , B a i n e s 145 s e p a r a t e s c a n i d ’ s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s :
 Jackals: the head of the jackal is that of a domesticated dog, with erect
pointed ears; its muzzle and legs are small and slender; its tail is short and
b u s h y a n d h a s s h a g g y c o a t 146.
 African wild dog: It has a large but light-built somatotype; its legs are long
and slim and has characteristic round ears. The coat of African wild dog is also
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , b e c a u s e o f t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s ( b l a c k , ye l l o w -
brown, white); for this reason its Latin name is Lycaon pictus, meaning painted
d o g 147.
 D o m e s t i c a t e d d o g s : I n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s d o m e s t i c a t e d d o g s a r e a l w a ys d e p i c t e d
w i t h a c o l l a r , c u r l e d o r s c r e w - l i k e d t a i l a n d w i t h l o o s e e a r s 148. S c i e n t i s t s c a n
r e c o g n i z e v a r i o u s s p e c i e s l i k e B a s e n j i , G r e yh o u n d , I b i z a n , P h a r a o h , S a l u k i ,
Whippet, Molossian.
A p e t r o g l y p h i c e x a m p l e o f W a d i B a r r a m i ya 149 d e p i c t s s c h e m a t i c a l l y a p a c k o f
hounds hunting an antelope with their owners holding leashes; whereas the
Gebelein’s white cross bowl shows a hunting scene with dogs (Figure 7). In the
red surface of the bowl, the artist painted only the silhouette of the animals and
the inside of them is filled with triangle patterns. The prey could be antelopes
and the hunting by canines seems to be indirectly including a man, although his

141 Kozloff, 2001, p. 244


142 Kozloff, 2001, p. 245
143 Kozloff, 2001, p. 246
144 Bryan, 2014, p. 828
145 Baines, 1993, p. 58
146 Hoarth, P. 70
147 Woodroffe & McNutt, 2004, p. 174
148 Baines, 1993, p. 58
149 Rice, 2006, p. 26
37
presence does not occur in the scene; the hunter is indirectly mentioned by the
semi spiral leashes, which are around the dogs’ neck. The rest of the empty
space is filled with floral pattern and with what seems to be two mountains.
In White Cross-lined, the absence of man in dogs’ hunting scenes could be
l i n k e d t o t h e e l i t e s 150 a n d t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e o f t h e s e a n i m a l s , b o t h i n t h e
e c o n o m i c a n d i n t h e s o c i a l m o d e l l i n g . M a yb e , i n t h e s e p a i n t i n g s , t h e e a r l y b r e e d
farms could also be identified, which had become a massive breed production in
t he l at er dynas t i c years . There are only t wo i ll us trations depi ct ing a m an hol di ng
s t r i p s o f d o g s 151.
Hunting scenes are not the only piece of information that we have on the
illustration of canines. Canines appeared to be on vessels row with no beginning
or end, s ym bo liz ed t he et ernal bei ng, t o accomp any ot her anim als in t he end of
e a c h r o w 152. B o t h d e p i c t i o n s c o u l d b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c a n i n e f u n e r a r y r o l e
and the rebirth.
I n N a q q a d a I I C , t h e D e c o r a t i v e P o t t e r y d o m i n a t e d a s t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t yl e , i n
which the funerary concepts are affiliated. The absence of canids during that
period turn away the link between the animal and the afterlife and the reason
why this happened is unknown. However, with further research indications could
be found on the connection between the animals’ row, the Decorative Pottery and
t h e D e c o r a t i v e i v o r i e s 153. T h e G e b e l T a r i f i v o r y k n i f e h a n d l e i l l u s t r a t e s f o u r
rows of animals, in which a canid can be recognized (Figure 8). It is
understandable that the canine has an important status, because the other three
a n i m a l s a r e t h e p a n t h e r , t h e l i o n a n d a m yt h i c a l o n e 154. These animals were
c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e k i n g ’ s p o w e r o v e r t h e a n i m a l s 155.
Evidence for the continuity of the canid’s association with power and the
a f t e r l i f e 156, a s a l s o m i l i t a r y, c a n b e s e e n o n t h e m u r a l p a i n t i n g f r o m T o m b 1 0 0 i n
H i e r a k o n p o l i s 157, ( 3 5 0 0 B C Ε ) ( F i g u r e 9 ) . T h e p a i n t i n g s h o w s i n d i v i d u a l s c e n e s
with animals (dogs or canids?), people and ships. Although there is no space
arrangement and the scenes seem to be isolated from each other, the elements

150Hendrickx, 2009, p. 246


151Hendrickx, 2006, p. 723
152 H e n d r i c k x , 2 0 0 6 , p . 7 2 4 . T h e e n d o f t h e r o w h a s a f i s h , a r o s e t t e , a b i r d , o r c a t f i s h H e n d r i c k x ,

2006, p. 736 and Cialowicz, 1991, p. 249.


153 H e n d r i c k x , 2 0 0 6 , p . 7 2 8
154 H e n d r i c k x , 2 0 0 6 , p . 7 2 8
155 B a i n e s , 1 9 9 3 , p . 6 5
156 H e n d r i c k x , 2 0 0 6 , p . 7 2 8
157 B r y a n , 2 0 1 4 , p . 9 9 2 . F u r t h e r r e a d i n g : C a s e , H . a n d C r o w f o o t , J . P a y n e . 1 9 6 2 . “ T o m b 1 0 0 : T h e

Decorated Tomb at Hierakonpolis”. JEA. Vol. 48. pp. 5-18.


38
t h a t l a t e r c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e E g yp t i a n a r t c a n b e i d e n t i f i e d . T h e s e e l e m e n t s a r e
the figures in profile, the smiting of the king-leader towards his enemies, as
well as the scenes of submission, power and protection (lion and dog (?)
surround a human figure, Figure 10).
W h a t s e e m s t o b e a p p e a r i n g a s o n e o f t h e f i r s t e x a m p l e s o f h i e r o g l yp h i c s i s t h e
s e a l s t h a t w e r e f o u n d o n T o m b U - j a t A b yd o s , c a 3 3 0 0 B C E 158. T h e s e a l s h a v e a
canid depiction with a plant above their head or beside them, as also the sun and
the moon. In another seal a bird (Figure 11), which we assume it is a falcon,
a c c o m p a n i e s t h e c a n i d . T h e s e s e a l s ’ l a b e l s a r e p h o n e t i c s i g n s 159 a n d h a v e
a r r a n g e m e n t a s i t h a p p e n e d w i t h t h e h i e r o g l yp h i c s i n t h e l a t t e r ye a r s . F r o m o n e
label, a canid and a falcon (?) can be identified and although it is extremely
e a r l y, t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f H o r u s - A n u b i s c o m e s i n m i n d .
A P r e d yn a s t i c e v i d e n c e o f A n u b i s - a n i m a l i m a g e ( F i g u r e 1 2 ) c o m e s f r o m t h e
t om b U-j in Ab ydos , alongside other seals of cani ds , which are m enti oned above.
D r e ye r , i n h i s r e s e a r c h f o r t h e o r i g i n o f t h e A b yd o s ’ s t o p o n ym s , s u p p o r t s t h a t
this seal, as well as a few others from the same tomb, depicts the Predynastic
r u l e r o f A b y d o s , k i n g E l e p h a n t ( A b - D w = E l e p h a n t m o u n t a i n ) , 160. K a h l u n d e r l i n e s
t h a t s o m e f o r m s l o o k l i k e a n e a r l y d e p i c t i o n o f S e t h - a n i m a l 161. O t h e r c o l l e a g u e s
suggest that this form belonged to Khentamentiu. However, comparing the seal
from the tomb U-j with the seal of Anubis (Figure 13) from the mortuary temple
o f S e n w o s r e t I I I ( n o r t h A b yd o s ) , t h e r e s e m b l a n c e i s o b v i o u s 162. K n o w i n g t h a t
Khentamentiu was the protective deity of the necropolis of Umm el-Gaab
( A b yd o s ) , a n d t h a t t h e d e t e r m i n a t i v e o f h i s n a m e w a s t h e r e c u m b e n t c a n i d ( a s i n
the case of Anubis), it is possible that this seal depicts him or Anubis’s epithet
“ K h e n t a m e n t i u ” 163. M o r e o v e r , t h e r e c u m b e n t c a n i d a l s o r e p r e s e n t s o t h e r e p i t h e t s
of Anubis, which are “he who is upon his mountain” and “he who is upon the
secrets”. However, a sincere thought is that Anubis has inherited this image over
t h e ye a r s , j u s t l i k e t h e e p i t h e t “ K h e n t a m e n t i u ” . T h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e g o d d i d
not occur in the early periods and he has a strong and continuous link with the
primary concept.

158 Rice, 2006, p. 35


159 Rice, 2006, p. 36
160 Wegner, 2007, p. 482
161 Wegner, 2007, p. 483
162 Wegner, 2007, p. 486
163 DuQuesne, 2005, p. 28
39
The importance of canids can be identified on the Two Dogs Palette. Two large
canids (the round ears suggest that it is the African wild dog) facing each other
with combined paws surrounding a hunting scene. This evidence might be an
e x a m p l e o f t h e c a n i d s ’ c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e o r d e r o f c o s m o s 164 a n d c h a o s 165,
a c o n c e p t t h a t o c c u r s i n t h e L a t e P r e s yn a p t i c P e r i o d . F r o m t h e L i b ya n P a l e t t e
(3100 B.C.E.) comes the first evidence of the animals’ connection with the
cities. Each one of the seven fortified cities has an animal depiction with hoe,
s u g g e s t i n g t h e c i t i e s ’ f o u n d a t i o n 166. C o n t i n u i n g t o t h e E a r l y D yn a s t i c P e r i o d w i t h
the Palette of Narmer (3000 B.C.E.), the canid god Wepwawet takes part in the
scene alongside other animals. The symbolism of animals in the cities’ names
continues, but this time they are attached on a staff held b y the human figure. It
might be an echo of the previous aspect of animals but also it could be the
manifestation of the human nature. From here on, the scenes have a more
anthropocentric angle than the previous zoomorphic one.
T h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f E g yp t i a n r e l i g i o n s a n d l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e P r e d yn a s t i c a n d
t h e D yn a s t i c P e r i o d i s r e m a r k a b l e . R i c e s u g g e s t s t h a t f r o m t h e G o l e n i s h c h e f d i s h
( F i g u r e 1 4 ) m i g h t h a v e c o m e a n e a r l y e x a m p l e o f t h e “ S o u l s o f N e k h e n ” 167
(Figure 15). In the oval dish, the back feet of the four leashed canines are held
down, while the torso is looking upwards. Again, the space arrangement does not
exist. Their front feet are sketched to the side in the offering or praising
gesture. The human figure has its hands raised holding the leashes with one hand
and a bow with the other. The scene is surrounded by mountains. The “Souls of
N e k h e n ” w e r e t h e o l d k i n g s o f E g yp t ( H i e r a k o n p o l i s b y t h e G r e e k s ) 168 a n d h a d
canid heads.
In the Early Dyn astic Period, the gods Wepwawet and Khentamentiu are
introduced in iconography as the “Opener of the Ways” the first and “Foremost
of the Westerners” the latter, two characteristics that Anubis absorbed into his
o w n h yp o s t a s i s t h e ye a r s t h a t c a m e , e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f K h e n t a m e n t i u .
Anubis is depicted in art in amulets and pectorals as also in stelae and wall
paintings. It is worth mentioning that Anubis’s figure with a canid head and a
b o d y o f a h u m a n w a s t h e f i r s t o f t h e g o d s , w h i c h w a s d e p i c t e d i n a m u l e t 169 ( O l d
Kingdom). Searching the earlier evidence of him, someone can come across from
164 Baines, 1993, p. 57
165 Hendrickx, 2006, p. 723
166 El-Shahawy & al-Miṣrī, 2005, p. 20
167 Rice, 2006, p. 29
168 Hart, 2005, p. 153
169 Andrews, 2001, p. 78
40
a simple unformed and clumsy illustration of Anubis to a bright and esthetic
one.
A n e a r l y e v i d e n c e o f A n u b i s , a l t h o u g h i t i s n o t c e r t a i n , i s f r o m a 2 n d D yn a s t y’ s
bowl fragment (Figure 16), from an unknown providence, showing a canid in the
s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e w i t h a w a s - s c e p t e r a n d t h e a n k h 170 ( s e e b e l o w C h a p t e r 2 . 2 . 4 ) .
Another example, but this time confirmed, comes from the wall painting of
K h a b a u s o k e r ( 3 r d D y n a s t y) a t h i s t o m b i n S a q q a r a . K h a b a u s o k e r w e a r s a c o l l a r ,
which might be depicting a protective canid aspect, reffering on the well known
recumbent posture of Anubis. The belief that that is the god Anubis, the one who
i s portra yed o n t he co ll ar, deri ves from the fact that the owner, Khabausoker,
w a s a h i g h p r i e s t o f A n u b i s 171. F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s c o l l a r m i g h t b e t h e s o u r c e o f
t h e A n u b i s ’ e p i t h e t “ [ … ] a j a c k a l u p o n h i s s h o u l d e r s [ … ] ” 172.
Many passages of PT refer that the king’s faces are that of a jackal. This
reference shows a close association of the canid with the kingship and king’s
p o w e r , a n e c h o o f t h e P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d . T h i s c o n n e c t i o n b e c o m e s s t r o n g e r i n
T e t i ’ s P T ( T 1 4 4 ) 173 “ Y o u r f a c e i s t h a t o f a j a c k a l , y o u r t a i l i s t h a t o f a w i l d
lion. You will sit on that chair of yours and govern the akhs”. The king is the
e m b o d i m e n t o f c a n i d a n d l i o n , t w o s p e c i e s w h i c h , i n t h e P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d ,
w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r o ya l p o w e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e f a c e f e a t u r e s s h o w t h e
manifestation of a human as a canid and the identity of the king as a mortuary
canid.
There are many early representations with the characteristic recumbent posture
of Anubis and it is difficult to identify whether it is actually his image or that of
other deities related with canid form and funerary connection. The reason lies in
the fact that the name of Anubis is being pronounced vocall y from Pepi II’s
r e i g n ( 6 t h D y n a s t y ) a n d a f t e r 174.
However, Anubis’ iconography could be distinguished in four themes:
 Funerary manifestations: Anubis and the weighing of the hearts, Anubis
and the mummification, Anubis and the ritual of the Opening of the Mouth
 Rebirth manifestation: Anubis and the sun disk
 Alternative manifestations: Pantheistic representation, Other animal-
headed representation, Human representation

170 DuQuesne, 2005, p. 84


171 Rice, 2006, p. 149, Rice, 2002, p. 92 and Murray & Sethe, 1937, pp. 2, 5
172 Faulkner, 1973, p. 64
173 Allen, 2005, p. 72
174 DuQuesne, 2005, p. 75, Dawood, 1998, p. 34 and El-Khadragy, 2001, p. 191
41
 General manifestations: Anubis in different postures and gestures
2.2.1 Funerary manifestations
 Anubis and the judgment hall of Osiris
The weighting of the hearts aimed at judging the life of the deceased. If they
succeeded in passing the trial, then their soul would live forever alongside the
gods (see Chapter 4).
A judgment representation comes from the alabaster sarcophagus of Seti I
( F i g u r e 1 7 ) w h i c h d e p i c t s t h e 6 t h H o u r o f t h e B o o k o f G a t e ( 1 9 t h D yn a s t y, 1 2 9 5 -
1186 BCE). In the upright corner, the god Anubis is in the Judgment Hall of
Osiris; in the middle Osiris with his regalia is enthroned. In front of Osiris is
the scale of Truth in the form of Thoth (?). The heart (?), is represented by a
rectangular box and is against the symbol of evil (bird). A ladder leads to the
s c a l e a n d i n e v e r y s t e p i s a d e i t y 175. A b o v e t h e l a d d e r i s a s h i p w i t h a p i g s m i t t e n
b y a n a p e , a h y p o s t a s i s o f T h o t h 176.
T h e c o f f i n o f T a n a k h t n e t t a h a t , a C h a n t r e s s o f A m u n a t K a r n a k 177 ( 2 1 s t D yn a s t y ,
1069-945 BCE) depicts the Spell 125 of the Book of the Dead (Figure 18-19).
T h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e c o f f i n i s w o o d , w h i c h w a s v a r n i s h e d 178 a n d p a i n t e d w i t h
brown-red, blue and green pigments.
Tanakhtnettahat (she is not shown in detail) is on the left of the goddess
Bastet, who is holding a scepter. In front of the latter is the scale with Anubis in
the middle, adjusting the scales’ chain with his one hand and with the other
testing the tongue of balance; he is wearing the ceremonial kilt with belt and
u s e k h c o l l a r 179. H e i s f u l l y g r e e n w i t h a b l u e n e m e s a n d t h e c r o w n o f L o w e r a n d
Upper Egypt . His fi gure s eems painted by force to fi t i n the s cene, s om et hi ng
that does not happen with the other figures. The goddess Maat is on the left side
and on the right side is the heart of Tanakhtnettahat in the vessel. Thoth is in
front of the scale writing the positive outcome, before Horus, Ammit, Osiris and
Isis.
A n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f t h e B o o k o f t h e D e a d ’ s s p e l l c o m e s f r o m t h e p a p yr u s o f
N e s t a n e b e t i s h e r u 180 ( F i g u r e 2 0 ) , k n o w n a s t h e G r e e n f i e l d P a p yr u s . I t i s d a t e d i n
t he 22nd D yn as t y ( 94 5-735 BCE ) and fo und at Dei r el -Bahari , at Thebes . It i s a
black and red vignette of the high Priestess of Amun, daughter of Painetchem II.

175 Budge, 1908, p. 72


176 Manassa, 2006, p. 122
177 Emory, n.d.
178 Emory, n.d.
179 According to Vygus, 2015, p. 1719 means “breath”.
180 BM, n.d.
42
The illustration shows the god Anubis, who is holding the jar of
Nestanebetisheru’s heart, which is hung up from a chain on the top of the scale;
i n t h e l a t t e r i s a b a b o o n w h i c h s ym b o l i z e d T h o t h . O n t h e s c a l e f r o m t h e r i g h t i s
Maat against the jar of Nestanebetisheru’s heart, on the left and behind is
A n u b i s , I s i s a n d N e p h t h ys a r e h o l d i n g a s c e p t e r a n d a n k h 181. N e s t a n e b e t i s h e r u i s
seating on the top of the ladder, in a greeting pose, and behind her is Ammit.
A b o v e A m m i t a n d N e s t a n e b e t i s h e r u i s t h e “ L a k e o f F i r e ” 182, w h i c h i s s u r r o u n d e d
b y f o u r a p e s 183 o r b a b o o n s . I n t h i s s c e n e A n u b i s i s t r a n s p a r e n t , s o i t i s u n k n o w n
if he stands in front or behind the scale. His face is black and the rest of his
b o d y i s i n t h e c o l o r o f p a p yr u s . H e i s w e a r i n g t h e c e r e m o n i a l k i l t w i t h t h e b e l t ,
a strap in his chest and the usekh collar.
 Anubis and the mummification
The concept of mummification had already been established in the minds of
E g yp t i a n s i n t h e P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d . I t w a s t h e s o l u t i o n f o r t h e d e c o m p o s i n g
body to gain a timeless aspect in order for the soul live (see Chapter 4).
A n e m b a l m i n g s c e n e f r o m P e d u s i r i ’ s c o f f i n ( L a t e D y n a s t y, 6 6 4 - 3 3 2 B C E ,
Figures 21-22) depicts Anubis (or a priest with Anubis’s mask) in front of the
m u m m y t a b l e . H i s i s f u l l y b l a c k s k i n n e d a n d h i s c l o t h e s a r e a ye l l o w a n d
greenish ceremonial kilt with belt and a gold usekh collar. He has the one hand
r a i s e d w i t h a v e s s e l , m a yb e a p u r i f i c a t i o n j a r t o c l e a n t h e b o d y a n d t h e o t h e r
h a n d a t t e n d s t h e b o d y. T h e r e s t o f t h e s c e n e d e p i c t s t h e g o d d e s s I s i s o n o n e s i d e
o f t h e r e g i s t e r a n d t h e g o d d e s s N e p h t h ys o n t h e o t h e r , t w o p r i e s t s w i t h t a i l o n
t h e r i g h t , w e a r i n g a t u n i c b e l o w t h e k i l t a n d o n e p r i e s t o n t h e l e f t , m a yb e t h e
h i g h p r i e s t , w h o i s a p p r o a c h i n g w i t h t w o p i e c e s o f l i n e n t o w r a p t h e d e a d b o d y.
Another scene comes from the 5th century BCE (Figure 23), from a coffin
f r a g m e n t , w h i c h s h o w s i n t h e s e c o n d l a ye r a p r i e s t w h o i s w e a r i n g t h e m a s k o f
t h e g o d A n u b i s 184. H e i s r e m o v i n g t h e b r a i n o f a b o d y u s i n g a l o n g m e t a l h o o k .
This hook is inserted from the sinus cavity directly into the skull. In the scene,
Anubis wears only the long kilt, with fully black skin and has a white nemes; the
deceased is upon the lion bier and the canopic jars are underneath. The scene is
f i l l e d w i t h t h e f i g u r e s o f I s i s a n d N e p h t h ys o n b o t h s i d e s . T h e r e g i s t e r i s
separated from the other scenes by two decorative horizontal lines. The coffin

181 Budge, 1912, p. 73


182 This lake acts like a jud ge, wh ich caut erizes th e evil and main tains th e good Qui rke, 2001, p.
214
183 Budge, 1912, p. 74
184 MFA, n.d.
43
colors are brown-red, blue, white and black. Although the fragment belongs to
t h e L a t e P e r i o d ( c a . 5 t h - 2 n d B C E ) , t h e f i g u r e s a r e c l u m s y. A n u b i s s e e m s s q u e e z e d
and is put in the register, in contrast to the other illustrations of the coffin,
especiall y the one with the depiction of Isis.
If we consider the whole fragment, we can find a continuation in the scenes
starting from the bottom to the top. The two servants take the coffin with the
dead at the mummification workshop, where the rituals take place. After that,
the weighing of the heart occurs and the soul, as the image of scarab is reborn
again.
A s a m e t h e m e c o m e s f r o m a c a r t o n n a g e 185 o f t h e P t o l e m a i c P e r i o d 186 ( 3 3 2 - 3 0
BCE, Figure 24). The colors of the theme are white, blue, black and red-brown.
The main theme is the embalming rites during the mummification by Anubis,
who wears a long kilt, with full y black skin. The two goddesses, Isis and
N e p h t h ys i n a d o r a t i o n g e s t u r e , f i l l t h e r e g i s t e r , w h i c h i s s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e
others by decorative lines. Down the main theme are the Four Sons of Horus, and
the rest of the register is filled by the winged scarab and the goddess Nut. This
textile was laid over the body of the deceased.
 Anubis and the “Opening of the Mouth” ritual
The purpose of the “Opening of the Mouth” ritual was for the deceased
“breathe” again. In order to achieve that, the priest used specific objects and
oils (see Chapter 4).
T h e t o m b o f R o y ( 1 9 t h D yn a s t y, 1 2 9 5 - 1 1 8 6 B C E . F i g u r e 2 5 - 2 6 ) h a s a w a l l
painting of the ritual of the “Opening of the Mouth”. Anubis holds the
s a r c o p h a g u s o f t h e d e c e a s e d , w e a r i n g t h e u s e k h c o l l a r w i t h ye l l o w , l i g h t a n d
d a r k b l u e b e a d s , w h i t e a n d ye l l o w c e r e m o n i a l k i l t w i t h b e l t i n ye l l o w a n d d a r k
blue color, as also a corselet. Before the elaborate sarcophagus is a female
mourner with her breasts outside, hauling her hair. Behind her are two priests,
o n e o f t h e m i s a s e m p r i e s t h o l d i n g w i t h o n e h a n d t h e M e s k h e t yu i m p l e m e n t a n d
with the other one a ritual vessel.
A n o t h e r r i t u a l s c e n e i s f r o m H u n e f e r ’ s B o o k o f t h e D e a d ( 1 9 t h D yn a s t y. F i g u r e
27). The mummy of the king’s scribe, Hunefer, is held by Anubis or Anubis’s
p r i e s t w h o i s w e a r i n g t h e u s e k h c o l l a r , a ye l l o w ( g o l d ) a n d w h i t e c e r e m o n i a l k i l t
and a green corselet. In front of the sarcophagus are two mourners hauling their

185 Layers of plastered, painted and varnished linen wrapped around the deceased’s body.
186 EC, n.d.
44
h a i r s w i t h t h e i r b r e a s t s o u t s i d e . H u n e f e r ’ s w i f e , N e s h a 187, i s t h e o n e k n e e l i n g .
Behind them are two smer p r i e s t s 188, holding the rituals implements and
purification vessels and the sem priest is at the end of the scene. The elaborate
i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s p a p yr u s d e r i v e s f r o m t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f a p a l e p i n k s k i n u n d e r
t h e d r e s s 189.
T h e l a s t s c e n e c o m e s f r o m t h e t o m b o f M a ya a t S a q q a r a 190 ( 1 9 t h D yn a s t y. F i g u r e
2 8 ) . T h e b a s - r e l i e f d e p i c t s t h e g o d A n u b i s h o l d i n g t h e m u m m y o f M a ya 191, t h e
vet nurse of Tutankhamen. Before the mummy of Maya is a priest holding the
M e s k h e t yu i m p l e m e n t ; a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e m u m m y a r e p r a ye r s g i v i n g h e r
offerings. At the top is another priest holding a vessel for purification purposes
and alongside him is another one in a summoning gesture.
2.2.2. Rebirth manifestations: Anubis with the lunar disk
The scene of Anubis rolling the lunar disk confused many Egyptologists about
its real nature. As Naville underlines, this scene of Anubis can be found in all
mammisi (birth-temples). In addition, he points out that it is the depiction of the
m o o n 192. Rolling the disk, Anubis rejuvenates the moon, meaning the
a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e g o d s ’ t i m e 193 a n d c yc l i c a l r e b i r t h 194. M o r e o v e r , t h e m o o n h a s a
close association with Osiris and a stela of Ramesses IV states that “is the body
o f O s i r i s ” . T h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e m o o n w i t h t h e d e a d o c c u r s a l s o i n P T , C T 195
a n d B D 196, b u t t h i s t h o u g h t i s n o t f u l l y a c c e p t e d . H o w e v e r , n o o n e c a n d e n y t h e
fact that Anubis was the one who attended Osiris, mummified and resurrected
him, therefore, an Osiris-moon connection could the case. A close parallel of
t h i s s c e n e i s a n s w e r e d i n t h e B o o k o f t h e E a r t h f r o m t h e s u n - g o d R a 197.
From the temple of Dendera (Figure 29) and Deir el-Bahari (Figure 30) comes
an image of Anubis rolling the lunar disk. In the latter, Anubis takes part in

187 James, 1985, p. 54


188 Smith, n.d.
189 J a m e s , 1 9 8 5 , p . 5 4
190 M o r t i m e r , 2 0 1 5
191 A l a i n Z i v i e , s u g g e s t s t h a t M a y a i s t h e s i s t e r o f t h e k i n g T u t a n k h a m e n . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n d e r i v e s

from their facial characteristics. Specifically, he said, “The extraordinary thing is that they are
very similar. They have the same chin, the eyes, the family traits” Mortimer, 2015.
192 T h e m o o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f t h e g o d T h o t h t h a t a p p e a r s i n t h e e a r l y e v e n i n g

Richter, 2012, p. 89. Also it was thought to be the god Khonsu, a moon god, whose manifestation
was a baboon Hart, 2005, p. 86. Moreover, in a cosmic aspect, Horus’s left eye is the moon and his
right is the sun Hart, 2005, p. 74. This links to the rejuvenation of royal power after the battle with
Seth, in which he gained his eyes back Kaper, 2001, p. 481.
193 N a v i l l e , 1 8 9 7 , p . 1 8
194 R i t n e r , 1 9 8 5 , p . 1 5 1
195 R i t n e r , 1 9 8 5 , p . 1 5 3 , K a p e r , 2 0 0 1 , p . 4 8 1 , “ I k n o w t h e s o u l s o f t h e N e w m o o n : t h e y a r e O s i r i s ,

Anubis and Isdes (Thoth)” Faulkner, 1973, p. 134


196 “ I h a v e m a d e m y w a y t o t h e l i g h t o f O s i r i s ” . N a v i l l e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e w o r d S s p , V y g u s , 2 0 1 5 ,

p. 1615, usually used for the moon, Renouf & Naville, 1904, p. 299.
197 R o b e r s o n , 2 0 1 4 , p . 2 2 8 a n d R o b e r s o n , 2 0 0 7 , p . 2 5 0

45
H a t s h e p s u t ’ s d i v i n e b i r t h 198. I n a n o t h e r d e p i c t i o n f r o m E d f u , w h i c h i s t h o u g h t t o
b e t h e l u n a r d i s k , A n u b i s ( F i g u r e 3 1 ) i s i n f r o n t o f O s i r i s a n d I s i s i s h o l d i n g 199 a
s m a l l d i s k 200. I n t h i s s c e n e , m o s t l i k e l y a s D a u m a s b e l i e v e d , A n u b i s i s h o l d i n g a
tambourine and not actually the lunar disk, for the pleasure of Isis’s son. This
belief comes from his posture’s difference with the other two scenes, in which
Anubis is rolling the disk. In the first two, Anubis is bending over the disk, as
h e u s u a l l y d o e s d u r i n g t h e e m b a l m i n g o n t h e d e c e a s e d b i e r 201. A p a r t f r o m t h e s e ,
i f w e c o m p a r e t h e i m a g e o f t h e g o d B e s 202 f r o m t h e N e w K i n g d o m ’ s c h a i r o f
Satamon (Figure 32), to Edfu’s scene,we can easily see the similarities between
t h e t w o g o d s . B e s w a s t h o u g h t a s t h e p r o t e c t o r o f c h i l d b i r t h 203 a n d h e r e , o n a
series of musical scenes, he is holding a tambourine. Therefore, in the Edfu
c a s e , A n u b i s i s d e p i c t e d a s p a r t o f a m u s i c a l t h e m e t o c o m f o r t t h e yo u n g s o n o f
I s i s . S p e a k i n g a b o u t p o s t u r e d i f f e r e n c e s , a c a r t o n n a g e s c e n e 204 f r o m M i r ( L a t e
P e r i o d ) d e p i c t s A n u b i s c a r r yi n g t h e l u n a r ( s o l a r ? ) d i s k ( F i g u r e 3 3 ) , i n w h a t
seems to be the echo of the rejoice gesture. Here, Anubis is in a different
posture from all the previous ones. It is like he is giving or bringing the light
(life?) to the dead one.
2.2.3. Anubis’s alternative manifestations
 Pantheistic manifestations
T h e m o s t k n o w n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s p a n t h e i s t i c f o r m i s H e r m a n u b i s 205, a
combination of Anubis and the Hellenic god Hermes. Although Hermes is
considered the Egyptian god Thoth, his divine role as psychopompos related him
to Anubis. An example of this union is a marble statue (Figure 34), 125 cm high,
d a t e d i n t h e 2 n d c e n t u r y B . C . E . , w i t h H e l l e n i c s t yl e f e a t u r e s a n d t u n i c . I n h i s
h e a d h a s a v e s s e l n a m e d “ κ ά λ α θ ο ς ” , w h i c h w a s a H e l l e n i c c r a t e r t yp e v e s s e l a n d
he holds a palm fan. In Hermanubis’s feet a dog is looking towards him. Its feet
t o u c h g e n t l y h i s f o o t , i n a j u b i l a t i o n g e s t u r e ( ? ) 206.

198 Ritner, 1985, p. 149


199 Similar scene occurs on north wall of the Room 3, at the temple in Deir el-Medina, Wilson &
Allen, 1940 Pl. 228D.
200 B l a c k m a n s u g g e s t s t h a t i s a s i e v e u s e d i n l a b o r b y w o m e n , M o r e n z s a i d t h a t i s a s o l a r d i s k

Ritner, 1985, p. 151


201 R i t n e r , 1 9 8 5 , p . 1 4 9
202 D a v i s , M a s p e r o , N e w b e r r y , 1 9 0 7 , p . 3 9
203 H a r t , 2 0 0 5 , p . 4 9
204 G E M , n . d . a n d E t e r n a l , n . d .
205 B u d g e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s n a m e w a s f i r s t r e f e r e n c e d b y P l u t a r c h , c o m e s f r o m H r w - m - i n p w

(Horus as Anubis), Budge, 1904, p. 265 and Budge, 2014, p. 221


206 J u b i l a t i o n ( o r h e n u ) g e s t u r e : T h i s g e s t u r e w a s p e r h a p s u s e d d u r i n g t h e r i t u a l o f “ R e c i t a t i o n o f

the Glorifications”, Wilkinson, 1999, p. 193. One arm was bent parallel to the torso and the palm
closed to a punch, while the other was raised and closed to a punch, was bent parallel to the
shoulders and the head was at the side. This gesture mi ght be for welcoming or to applause, Reidy,
46
A unique piece of statue showing Anubis in pantheistic representation (Figure
35) comes from the Ptolemaic period. The bronze statue. The figure, 18.4 cm
h i g h , w e a r s t h e a t e f c r o w n 207 o f O s i r i s , w i t h t h e n a k e d b o d y o f B e s 208. I t h a s t w o
heads, one of a jackal (Anubis) and one of a ram (Re) and a falcon’s tail
(Horus), which can be seen at the back of the figure, as also the remains of an
attribute in its right hand. The figure stands on two crocodiles, on a corroded
r e c t a n g u l a r b a s e 209.
 Other animal-headed manifestations
An unusual representation of what it seems to be Anubis comes from the tomb
of Ramesses I (KV16). In the niche beneath the 4th Hour of the Book of Gates,
behind Rammeses-Osiris, is a ram-headed deity (Figure 36) in the protective
gesture. In front of Ramesses-Osiris is a uraeus, named Mereret. The thought
that this deity is the god Anubis comes from the epithet “he who is in the divine
b o o t h ” , a n e p i t h e t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A n u b i s a n d h i s e m b a l m i n g r o l e s 210.
From Osiris’s chapel at Dendera, Anubis (Horus-Anubis of This) is depicted
f a l c o n - h e a d e d a l o n g s i d e A n u b i s o f C yn o p o l i s a n d A n u b i s o f e l - H i b a 211. T h e
chapel’s frieze depicts the first spirits being sent by Osiris to protect the
res urrect ion from the Typhoni an one. Thes e s pi rit s are repres ent ed i n the form
o f b i r d s a n d t h e y a r e t h e f i r s t n o m e s o f E g yp t 212 ( F i g u r e 3 7 ) .
L a s t l y, a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f A n u b i s w i t h a d o n k e y- l i k e ( ? ) h e a d i s s h o w n o n t h e
d o o r p i l a s t e r o f N t e m k h e r ’ s p yr a m i d i n t h e n e c r o p o l i s o f K u s h ( 3 r d c e n t u r y
B.C.E.). The donkey-head Anubis (Figure 38) is wearing a long kilt with his legs
slightly bent; in his hands he holds a purification jar, with its liquid fallen to
t h e g r o u n d 213.
 Human manifestations
The depictions of Anubis in fully human form are very rare. An example comes
f r o m S e t i ’ s h y p o s t y l e h a l l a t h i s t e m p l e a t A b yd o s , d a t e d i n 1 2 9 0 - 1 2 7 9 B . C . E .
( 1 9 t h D yn a s t y , N e w K i n g d o m ) . I n t h e 1 s t a n d t h e 2 n d h yp o s t yl e h a l l i n t h e b o t t o m
r e g i s t e r a r e t h e 4 2 n o m e s o f t h e a n c i e n t E g yp t , r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e i r p a t r o n

2010, p. 216 the pharaoh or the sun god Hodel-Hoenes, 2000, p. 136. The gesture means “praise”,
Wilkinson, 1999, p. 193 and it was mostly performed by the “Souls of Pe and Nekhnen”.
207 D u r i n g t h e c e r e m o n i e s w a s u s e d t h e w h i t e c r o w n w i t h o s t r i c h f e a t h e r s i n e i t h e r s i d e .
208 A s i m i l a r i m a g e i s d a t e d a t 2 5 0 - 1 0 0 B . C . E . a n d d e p i c t e d B e s , A m u n ’ s c r o w n , H o r u s a n d A n u b i s .

WMA, n.d.
209 C h r i s t i e s , 2 0 1 6 , p . 5 8
210 B e n d e r i t t e r , n . d .
211 K a p e r , 2 0 0 8 - 2 0 0 9 , p p . 3 5 - 3 6
212 M a r i e t t e , 1 8 7 5 , p . 2 7 6
213 d i L u i g i , 2 0 1 6 , p . 2 4

47
d e i t y 214, a n d e a c h o n e i s k n e e l i n g i n a f u l l y h u m a n f o r m ( F i g u r e 3 9 ) . E a c h g o d i s
in the offering gesture, giving gifts to the king, as a propagandistic evidence of
unity and of the king’s power. The upper registers depict Seti and his son,
R a m e s s e s I I . A n u b i s i n h i s h u m a n f o r m i s i n t h e 2 n d h y p o s t yl e h a l l o f S e t i ’ s I
temple, bringing a lotus gift (?) to the king. On his head he has the sign of the
1 7 t h n o m e - s y m b o l o f U p p e r E g yp t ( C y n o p o l i s ) 215, a r e c u m b e n t c a n i d a t t a c h e d o n
t h e n o m e ’ s h i e r o g l y p h i c ( t h e s i g n N 2 4 ) 216.
Another example of Anubis’s human form (Figure 40) comes from Ramesses II
c e n o t a p h t e m p l e a t A b y d o s ( 2 n d O c t o s t yl e C o u r t ) 217. I t i s d a t e d i n 1 2 7 9 - 1 2 1 3
B.C.E. (19th D yn a s t y , New Kingdom), made from a ye l l o w - w h i t e glazed
l i m e s t o n e 218, u s i n g t h e b a s - r e l i e f t e c h n i q u e . A n u b i s i s e n t h r o n e d i n a b l o c k
throne holding the ankh and the was-scepter. It is a splendid ex ample, in which,
e v e n n o w , w e c a n f e e l t h e w a r m c o l o r , a s i f i t w a s p a i n t e d t o d a y. T h e c o l o r s a r e
so real that we can understand even the material that is being depicted, e.g. the
turquoise was-scepter is like mimics the faience. The figures, more than ever,
have plasticity and stand imposing in the area.
2.2.4. General manifestations: Anubis in different postures and gestures
 Recumbent posture
The most recognized posture of Anubis is the recumbent one, especially that of
T u t a n k h a m e n , a n d h e u s u a l l y w o r e a c o l l a r a n d h a d f r a i l a t t a c h e d t o h i s b a c k 219.
This depiction was also used as a seal in order to protect the tombs from the
looting. In the tomb of Nefertari (Figure 41) in the corridor to Chamber C
A n u b i s i s s e a t e d o n a s h r i n e w i t h g o l d m a g i c a l c o l l a r 220, r e d s a s h a n d g o l d f r a i l
on his back and is represented on both walls of the corrindor (west and east) to
e n s u r e h e r a d u p l e x p r o t e c t i o n t o t h e A f t e r l i f e 221. T h i s p o s t u r e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
t h e r i t u a l s o f m u m m i f i c a t i o n a n d w a s c o n s i d e r e d s a c r e d a n d s e c r e t 222.
Another depiction comes from the Middle Kingdom amulet (Figure 42) of
A n u b i s o n a s h r i n e . I t i s d a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y i n t h e 1 2 t h D yn a s t y o r t h e e a r l y
1 3 t h a n d f o u n d a t A b yd o s ( C e m e t e r y V , T o m b V 2 1 ) . T h e s k e t c h y a m u l e t i s m a d e

214 A similar example is attested in the temple of Ramesses II at Abydos, located in the 1st
Octostyle court Ossian, 2008, p. 44.
215 V i s i t 3 6 0 o , n . d .
216 G a r d i n e r , 1 9 5 7 , p . 4 4 8
217 O s s i a n , 2 0 0 8 , p . 4 6
218 O s s i a n , 2 0 0 8 , p . 3 9
219 D o x e y , 2 0 0 1 , p . 9 7
220 H a r t , 2 0 0 5 , p . 2 5
221 M c D o n a l d , 1 9 9 6 , p . 8 7
222 P i n c h , 2 0 0 2 , p . 1 0 4

48
from silver and its height is 6.8. The ears are addressed semicircular and the
thin body ends to a bushy tail. Up to his right feet has a small rectangular hole,
for the strap. The shrine is made only schematically with two horizontal bases
and two vertical surbases forming a square. The interior of the square has two
opposite openwork spiral.
 Standing posture
T h e s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e i s u s e d f r o m t h e 2 n d D yn a s t y a n d o n w a r d s a n d m a yb e w a s
thought to give hope and wellbeing, considering the depiction of the ankh which
generally the god holds.
A bronze statuette of Anubis, 20.8 x 14.4 x 5.3 cm (H x W x D) depicts the god
i n s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e . I t i s d a t e d i n 7 4 7 - 5 2 5 B C E ( 2 5 t h - 2 6 t h D yn a s t y, T h i r d
Intermediate Period-Late Period) and found at Karnak. Anubis stands in front of
p r a ye r ( F i g u r e 4 3 ) m a k i n g a s t e p f o r w a r d w i t h h i s l e f t f e e t . I n t h i s s t a n d i n g
posture he usually holds an ankh and the was-scepter, both of them now lost. He
stands on two structures. The one ends in two cobras, which are wearing the Red
Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt. The other structure
e n d s t o t h e k n e e l i n g p r a y e r , w h o s t a n d s u p o n a r e c t a n g u l a r b a s e . A n u b i s ’ s e ye s
w e r e i n l a i d w i t h g o l d a s w e r e s o m e o t h e r p a r t s o f h i s b o d y . H e w e a r s t h e s h e n d yt
kilt and has bracelets in his arms. This statue is a dedication to Wdja-Hor-
r e s n e t , w h o i s h o p i n g A n u b i s t o g i v e h i m a g o o d l o n g l i f e 223. I n a s a m e s c e n e
from the Horemhed’ wall painting, Anubis stands before the latter ready to
r e c e i v e h i s o f f e r i n g s 224.
A n o t h e r t y p e o f s t a n d i n g p o s t u r e ( F i g u r e 4 4 ) c o m e s f r o m a l i m e s t o n e p yr a m i d a l
s t e l a , 2 7 . 5 x 3 4 . 5 ( H x W ) , d a t e d i n 1 8 t h D yn a s t y ( N e w K i n g d o m ) 225. O s i r i s a n d
Anubis are standing on a base, with their backs turned to each other. Between
them is the djer pillar with the ankh on the top. The two gods are holding a
scepter and are looking at the two worshipers who are masking in the adoration
g e s t u r e . T h e i n s c r i p t i o n s a ys “ A d o r e O s i r i s , b y t h e g o l d s m i t h ’ s f o r e m a n . ( A d o r e )
Anubis, by the goldsmith’s foreman”.
 Enthroned posture
T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e k i n g , r o ya l m e m b e r s a n d d e i t i e s a r e a l s o d e p i c t e d i n t h e
enthroned posture, in which only they could ever sit; commoners were sitting on

223 WMA, n.d.


224 TMP, n.d.
225 GEM, n.d.
49
the g r o u n d 226 or in standing posture, etc… The throne’s illustration is
c a t e g o r i z e d i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s 227:
 T h e b l o c k t h r o n e w i t h t h e e n c l o s u r e h i e r o g l yp h i c .
 The throne with knotted-plant motif
 The lion throne and
 The nine bows throne
F r o m t h e t o m b Q V 6 6 , o f N e f e r t a r i , c . 1 2 9 5 - 1 2 5 5 B . C . E . ( 1 8 t h D yn a s t y, N e w
Kingdom), Anubis seats on a block throne (Figure 45) and Nefertari seats
b e t w e e n A n u b i s a n d O s i r i s 228. T h e f i g u r e o f A n u b i s i s i n f r o n t o f t h e o t h e r t w o ,
having his one hand around Nefertaris’s shoulders and with the other holds the
ankh. Although, it is an enthroned representation, it also combines the protective
and supporting gesture (see bellow).
Another enthroned posture, which deserves to be mentioned, is the one from
B a k e n m u t ’ s c o f f i n ( F i g u r e 4 6 ) , d a t e d i n 1 0 0 0 - 9 0 0 B . C . E . ( 2 1 s t D yn a s t y – T h i r d
I n t e r m e d i a t e P e r i o d ) 229. T h e w o o d e n c o f f i n i s p a i n t e d w i t h g r e e n , b r o w n - r e d , r e d ,
white, black and yellow gesso. The inner side of the coffin has an enthroned
depiction of Anubis, with a combination of different gestures and postures
(enthroned mummiform and receiving offering getsure). Anubis seats on a block
throne (the throne seems to mimic the false door’s pattern) holding the crock
and frail, as a mummiform Osiris. In front of him is Bakenmut making the
offering and adoration gesture.
These two representations show the importance of Anubis. In the first one, he
is sitting alongside the queen and the ulitimate god of the Underworld. In the
second the green flesh is par excellence the color of Osiris, therefore it could be
i n t e r p r e t e d a s a n e c h o o f h i s o l d g l o r y, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h O s i r i s o r t o
emphasize that they are relatives (father and son).
 Mummiform seating posture
T h i s p o s t u r e i s t h e h i e r o g l yp h i c s i g n ( C 6 ) 230 a n d i t i s l i k e i t m i m i c s t h e m u m m y
when wrapped with the linen and has a close association with the god Osiris.
This posture was used for representing the 42 deities, who watched the
d e c e a s e d ’ s o u t c o m e i n t h e J u d g m e n t ' s H a l l o f O s i r i s 231; s o m e t i m e s t h e d i e t i e s
held a kni fe pla yi ng t he rol e of t he guardi an. Depixtion on thi s post ure m i ght
226 Graham, 2001, p. 163 and Κεκές, 2015, p. 35
227 Graham, 2001, pp. 163-164
228 McDonald, 1996, p. 100
229 AMICA, n.d.and CMA, n.d.
230 Gardiner, 1957, p. 449
231 Wilkinson, 1992, p. 31
50
also suggest the secured soul after being mummidied. From the Third
Intermediate Period comes a cartonnage’s fragment of Anubis in this posture.
T h e c a r t o n n a g e i s p a i n t e d w i t h b r o w n - r e d , w h i t e , ye l l o w , b l a c k a n d b l u e g e s s o
(Figure 47).
 Winged posture
Anubis in a winged posture (Figures 48-49) comes from a mummy bandage on
black, white, red brown, ocher and green color (Ptolemaic Period). Looking the
s c e n e f r o m r i g h t t o l e f t , t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e s c e n e i s o b v i o u s . F i r s t l y, i n t h e
middle is Anubis attending, as a priest, the mummy of Osiris in front of a bluff
p yr a m i d . B e h i n d h i m a r e I s i s a n d N e p h t h ys m o u r n i n g o n t h e i r k n e e s . I f w e
consider this, the semicircular strokes of the brush are water and the scene might
be associated with the Opening of the Mouth ritual, although the rituals’
implements are not included. The rest of the gods are in line rear to the two
m o u r n i n g d e i t i e s , h o l d i n g a s t a f f 232.
T h e s c e n e a f t e r t h e p yr a m i d d e p i c t s a w i n g e d A n u b i s i n r e j o i c e p o s t u r e h o l d i n g
the ankh and the was-scepter surrounded by two trees. These trees might suggest

the epithet of Anubis “He who belongs to the wrappings”. The


association with the trees occur in their product, which is resin used in the
m u m m i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s 233. I n f r o n t o f h i m a r e o t h e r d e i t i e s i n l i n e 234. T h i s s e c o n d
scene, as a continuation of the first, might be an echo of the ritual’s aftermath,
the rebirth of the dead one, and Anubis depicted as the representation of the
l i v i n g b A o f t h e d e c e a s e d 235 w i t h h i s h a n d s i n a r e j o i c i n g g e s t u r e .
 Warrior posture
From the terrasse chamber of Osiris’s chapel at Dendera, Anubis is depicted
w i t h k n i v e s ( F i g u r e 5 0 ) . T h i s r e p r e s s a n t i o n i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e m ys t e r y o f
Osiris resurrection, which is represented by a grain of wheat. Anubis is a part of
v e n g e f u l l d i v i n i t i e s o f U p e r E g yp t n o m e s t h a t t h e k i n g b r i n g s t o h e l p O s i r i s a n d
prevent evil to enter his tomb (the image in Anubis’s feet). Each depiction
announced Genies, which are sent by the nomes and they are responsible of
O s i r i s ’ s p r o t e c t i o n 236.

232GEM, n.d.
233Willockx, 2007, p. 52
234 G E M , n . d .
235 T w o w i n g e d p o s t u r e s c o m e s f r o m O s i r i s ’ s c h a p e l a t D e n d e r a , i n w h i c h A n u b i s h a s a c a n i d a n d

falcon head and body of bird, symbolizing the first nomes of Egypt, Mariette, 1873, pp. 43, 44, Pl.
40.08 and PL. 41.18.
236 M a r i e t t e , 1 8 7 5 , p p . 2 8 4 - 2 8 5

51
Another representation that depicts Anubis as warrior comes from the walls of
Alexandria’s catacombs. Anubis is the armored guardian of Osiris with his lower
b o d y b e i n g t h a t o f a s n a k e 237.
 Embraced gesture
A n u n u s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o m e s f r o m t h e s t a t u e o f A n g e r i a u t e f , a r o ya l s c r i b e
o f R a m e s s e s I I ( F i g u r e 5 1 ) , a t S a q q a r a ’ s n e c r o p o l i s , d a t e d i n 2 4 t h D yn a s t y . T h e
limestone statue, 129 x 43 cm (H x W), represents a seated Angeriautef holding
a block, which depicts the enthroned Anubis and Hathor, embracing each other.
This statue seems to be an artistic rebel, with the two embracing gods, declaring
a u n i t y a n d e q u a l i t y . W i t h a q u i c k s u r v e y o f a n c i e n t E g yp t i a n a r t , i t i s
conceivable that the female figures, even if they were goddesses or queens, were
a l w a ys a s t e p b e h i n d t h e k i n g o r g o d .
 Purification gesture
The purification of the deceased was a stage in both mummification and rituals.
An elaborate statue of Anubis depicts him, with raised hands and the palms
l o o k i n g d o w n m a k i n g t h e p u r i f i c a t i o n a n d t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n g e s t u r e 238 ( F i g u r e 5 2 ) .
The statue, 42.3 x 0.1 x 20.7 cm (H x W x D), from unknown provenance, dated
in 304-30 B.C.E. (Ptolemaic Period). It is made of wood painted and plastered,
with intense colors like blue, red, gold and black. He has a colorful corselet and
a ceremonial multicolor kilt painted with geometric motifs. He wears golden
brassards and blue long nemes. Anubis stands upon a rectangular base decorated
wit h a s ym boli c “f als e door ” patt ern. However, this gesture might be the
adoration gesture (or a combination of purification and adoration getsure),
which usually is encountered in false door’s pilaster, as also in stelae and
c h a p e l s 239. I t w a s u s e d f r o m t h e l a t e O l d K i n g d o m a n d w a s a l w a ys r e f e r r i n g t o a
g o d ’ s n a m e m a i n l y t o O s i r i s o r A n u b i s a n d t h e o f f e r i n g f o r m u l a 240. Anubis is
making this gesture in front of Osiris or some other god, who is pictured larger
i n s c a l e , m e a n i n g t h a t t h e y a r e m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a n h e i s 241.
Another purification gesture comes from the Tentosorkon’ Book of the Dead
( F i g u r e 5 3 ) , d a t e d i n T h i r d I n t e r m e d i a t e P e r i o d , m a yb e f r o m T h e b e s . T h e
p a p yr u s i s p a i n t e d w i t h b l a c k , b l u e , y e l l o w , w h i t e a n d r e d p i g m e n t s . A n u b i s i s a t
the top of the papyrus with blue nemes, black face, his naked parts red-brown,

237 Hart, 2005, p. 28


238 Arnold, 1995, p. 15
239 El-Khadragy, 2001, p. 287
240 El-Khadragy, 2001, p. 201
241 Wilkinson, 1992, p. 29
52
wearing a yel l ow an d whit e kil t and cors el et . He hol ds a puri fi cation vess el and
t h e l i q u i d i s s u r r o u n d i n g T e n t o s o r k o n , p u r i f yi n g h e r .
 Protective and Supportive gesture
These gestures can be found in different depictions. The supportive figure has
t h e o n e h a n d r a i s e d w i t h t h e p a l m s u p w a r d s 242, o r t h e o n e o r b o t h h a n d s
out st ret ched vert i call y, and touching or not, the fi gure who needs support or
p r o t e c t i o n 243. T h i s g e s t u r e i s a l s o u s e d b y N e p h t h ys , H o r u s o r I s i s t o s u p p o r t t h e
mummiform god.
A supportive gesture of Anubis comes from the tomb K57, of Horemhed (Figure
5 4 ) . M o s t o f t h e w a l l p a i n t i n g s o f t h e t o m b h a v e a g r e y- b l u e b a c k g r o u n d w i t h
b e a u t i f u l a n d i n t e n s e c o l o r s 244. H e r e , A n u b i s s t a n d s b e h i n d a n e n t h r o n e d O s i r i s 245
and has his one hand raised touching Osiris (the supportive gesture). He wears a
blue nemes and colorful ceremonial clothing and jewelries. It is a strong and
powerful depiction, which derives from his steady look, the intense color and his
m us cul ar bod y, gi vi n g a s ens e of di gni t y and a pro per encouragem ent.
A similar gesture, but perhaps with a different meaning, comes from the
Ramesses’ I tomb (Figure 55), in which Horus and Anubis have one hand raised
a n d o n e t o u c h i n g R a m e s s e s ’ w r i s t s r e s p e c t i v e l y 246 ( p r o t e c t i v e g e s t u r e ) .
 Escord and Summoning gesture
The escord gesture is associated with the deceased's path to the scale of truth,
led by Anubis. Anubis is in front of the deceased, holding their hand and looking
d i r e c t l y a t t h e m o r s t r a i g h t a h e a d . T h e s u m m o n i n g ( o r i n v o c a t i o n ) g e s t u r e 247 i s
depicted with the arm extended and the palm open facing directly at the figure
( g o d o r p h a r a o h ) w h o s e s o u l w a n t s t o b e s u m m o n e d t o a c c e p t t h e o f f e r s 248.
In the stela of Tatiaset, Mistress of the House and the Chantress of Amun,
Anubis leads the deceased to a seated Horus (Figure 56). It dates in 825–712
B . C . E . ( 2 2 n d D yn a s t y - T h i r d I n t e r m e d i a t e P e r i o d ) . T h i s s t e l a , 2 3 . 4 c m h i g h ,
m a d e b y p a i n t e d w o o d w i t h g r e e n , r e d , ye l l o w a n d b l a c k c o l o r s o n a w h i t e g e s s o
(Deir el-Bahri, Tomb MMA 801). Anubis wears the ceremonial kilt with corselet
and golden bracelets in his muscular arms touching gently Tatiaset, who carries
an offering to Horus; his other hand summoning the god to accept the offer of

242 Wilkinson, 1999, p. 207


243 Wilkinson, 1999, p. 197
244 Adams, 2015 and TMP, n.d.
245 Wilkinson, 2001, p. 23
246 TMP, n.d.
247 Watts, 1998, p. 37
248 Wilkinson, 1999, p. 195
53
Tatiaset. Τhe image of Anubis, seems to be materializing. Comparing his image
t o o n e o f H o r u s a n d T a t i a s e t , t h e i m a g e o f A n u b i s h a s b u l k a n d i n t e n s i t y. A
similar depiction comes also from the tomb of Ramesses II.
 “ B r e a t h o f l i f e ” 249 g e s t u r e
This gesture (Figure 57) is one of the most known representations, not only of
Anubis, but also of many deities, showing the king’s acceptation/acceptance by
t h e g o d s 250; i t c o u l d a l s o i n d i c a t e t h e m o m e n t o f b r e a t h , d u r i n g t h e O p e n i n g o f
t h e M o u t h r i t u a l . A l i m e s t o n e r e l i e f , d a t e d i n 2 4 5 5 - 2 4 2 0 B . C . E . ( 5 t h D y n a s t y,
O l d K i n g d o m ) , s h o w s A n u b i s ( o r e v e n a n o t h e r c a n i d d e i t y) i n f r o n t o f t h e
enthroned king Neuserra. He holds in one of his hands ankhs, aiming to give life
t o t h e P h a r a o h 251. I n t h e o n e o u t s t r e t c h e d h a n d h e h o l d s t h r e e a n k h s , w h i c h h e
gives to Neusera, who is in a receiving gesture; his other hand holds an ankh,
raised in Neusera’s face.
The importance of this gesture is recognized by the fact that in the vast
i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e a n c i e n t E g yp t , t h i s d e p i c t i o n s e r v e d a s a p r o m i s e o f t h e
a f t e r l i f e , w h i c h w a s t h e m a i n p u r p o s e o f t h e a n c i e n t E g yp t i a n s .
 Greeting gesture
An example of this gesture comes from the tomb QV 44, of prince Khaemwaset,
the son of Ramesses III (Figure 58). In this wall painting Ramesses is face to
face with the god Anubis. Both have the one hand raised and the other hand
straight down touching each other’s palms. This gesture is a variation of the
e m b r a c e o n e , m e a n i n g t h e c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e k i n g a n d t h e g o d 252. In
t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , A n u b i s , a p a r t f r o m t h e s h o r t k i l t a n d t h e j e w e l r y, a l s o h a s a
tail. Although the scene is elaborate, the figures are motionless and the natural
muscular bulk is not attested.
From a statue comes a gesture similar with the above. The statue is well
preserved (Figure 59), although the legs and one arm are missing. Anubis is
fully green with black head, wearing yellow kilt and red nemes. His outstretched
a r m w i t h t h e p a l m l o o k i n g u p w e l c o m e s t h e d e c e a s e d t o t h e u n d e r w o r l d 253.
2.3 The feature variation
A s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e C h a p t e r 1 , t h e f o r m o f A n u b i s i s h yb r i d , w h i c h
means he borrows features from jackals, foxes and dogs. Over the centuries, the
face of Anubis lost his wild appearance and became doggier, especially during
249 Wilkinson, 1992, p. 177
250 Robins, 1997, p. 18
251 James, 1985, p. 42
252 Wilkinson, 1992, p. 51
253 Scalf, 2017, p. 345
54
the Ptolemaic Period. Quertinmont suggested a dating method based on the
a r t i c u l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m u z z l e a n d t h e f o r e h e a d , n a m e d t h e “ s t o p ” 254. I n T a b l e 2
we can see the progress of the “stop” from flat to sharp.
Anubis’s feature variation occurred in his ears and tail. From the Late to
Ptolemaic Period, the ears were also depicted in more semi-round shape.
E v i d e n c e o f t h e s e m i - r o u n d s h a p e c a n a l s o b e f o u n d i n e a r l i e r ye a r s , b u t i t i s
rarer. Regarding to his tail, a few examples are attested. Mostly the shape of his
t a i l w a s n a r r o w a s t h e j a c k a l s 255 w i t h a f e w e x a m p l e s o f b u s h y a s t h e f o x e s o r
c u r v e d 256 l i k e s o m e s p e c i e s o f d o g s ( T a b l e 3 ) .
Although these variations, especially the features of the face, are evidence of a
s t yl i s t i c p r o c e s s , i t i s n o t t h e c a n o n . M o s t o f t h e t i m e t h e v a r i e t y o f t h e f e a t u r e s
c a n o c c u r i n t h e s a m e p e r i o d a n d t h e o l d s t yl e c o - e x i s t s w i t h t h e n e w o n e . M o r e
complex is in painting, where different artists improvised, depending also on the
material on which they drew.
Table 2. The “stop” variation
Old Kingdom 4th Dynasty Meresankh III
© OsirisNet

Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty


1952 B.C.
© The Metropolitan Mueseum of Art Inventot y Number:
08.200.5
New Kingdom © Liverpool Museum
Inventot y Number: 1973.2.10

Late Period © Liverpool Museum


Inventot y Number: 1973.2.13

Late to Ptolemaic Period 6th-3rd B.C.


© Pelizaeus
Inventot y Number: 2124

Table 3. The tail variation

254 Quertinmont, 2008, p. 115


255 Evans, 2008, p. 18
256 Ischlondsky, 1966, p. 17
55
Bushy tail
© Demas & Agnew, 2012, p. 51

Curved tail
© Ischlondsky, 1966, p. 27

Narrow tail
© T he Fitzwilliam Museum.
Inventory number: E.GA.4315.1943

56
FIGURES

Figure 7. Gebelein. White Cross-lined bowl © Figure 8. Gebel Tarif knife


© Hendrickx, 2006, p. 732
Hendrickx, 2009, p. 238

Fig ure 9 Det ail. Hunting scene wit h ca nids (?) from t omb 10 0 in Hierakonpo lis © Case
& Crowfoot, 1962, p. 6 (modified by the author)

Figure 10. Detail. Lion and canid (?) Figure 11. Canid and bird (falcon?). Tomb
fro m to mb 100 in Hierakonpolis © Case Uj at Abydos © Rice, 2006, p. 35
& Crowfoot, 1962, p. 6, (modified by the
author)

57
Fig ure 12. Seal from Tomb U- j at Figure 13. Seal from the mortuary temple of
Abydos © Wegner, 2007, p. 482 Senwosret III © Wegner, 2007, p. 486

Figure 14. Canines in Figure 15. Souls of Figure 16. 2nd Dynasty’s bowl
henu gesture (?). Naqqada Nekhen © Hart, 2005, frag ment with repr esentat ion of
I © Rice, 2006, p. 29 p. 153 Anubis (?) © DuQuesne, 2005, p. 94

Figure 17. The judgment Hall of Osiris


in the Book of Gates © Budge E. A.,
1908, p. 72

58
Figure 18. The coffin of
Tanakhtnettahat © Michael C.
Carlos Museum. Inventory Number:
1999.001.017C

Figure 19. Detail. The coffin of Tanakhtnettahat © Michael C. Carlos Museum. Inventory
Number: 1999.001.017C

Figure 20. The Greenfield


Papyrus © The Trustees of the
British Museum. Inventory
number: EA10554.80

Fig ure 21. M ummy Cof fin of Pe dusiri, Late Dy na stic (712–
323 BC) © Milwaukee Art Museum. Inventory number:
M1967.20. Photo credit: Michael Tropea

59
Fig ure 22. Detail. Mummy Coffin of Pedusiri, Late Dynastic (712 –323 BC) © Milwauke e
Art Museum. Inventory number: M1967.20. Photo credit: Michael Tropea

Fig ure 23. Fra gme nt of coff in © Museum of Fine Figure 24. Cartonnage with the
Artsin Budapest. Invertory number: M19 67.20. P ho to embal ming scene © Egypt Ce ntre
credit: Michael Tropea - Canolfan Eifftaidd. Inventory
number: W894

Fig ure 25. To mb of Roy. The


“Opening of the Mouth” ritual
© Mick Palarczyk and Paul Smit

60
Figure 26. Detail. Tomb of
Roy. The “Opening of the Figure 27. Hunefer’s “Opening of the Mouth” ritual
Mouth” ritual. © Mick © James, 1985, p. 55
Palarczyk and Paul Smit

Figure 28. “Opening of the mouth“ ritual from the Figure 29. Anubis rolling the
Lunar disk from Dendera
tomb of Maya © Mortimer, 2015
© Ritner, 1985, p. 150

61
Fig ure 30. Anubis rolling the lunar disk fro m the Deir el-Ba hari ma missi
© Naville, 1897, p. 18

Figure 31. Anubis from the mammisi Figure 32. Bes from the New Kingdom’s chair of
Sata mon
of Edfu © Ritner, 1985, p. 150
© Davis, Maspero, Newberry, 1907, p. 39 (modified
by the author)

Figure 33. Anubis carrying the Fig ure 34. Her manubis © T he Bib liotheca
lunar (?) disk for Mir Alexandrina Antiquities Museum. Inventory
© Kunsthisto risches Museum. number: T0019
Inventory number: 3855

62
Figure 35. Pantheistic posture Figure 36. Ram-headed representation
© Christies, 2016, p. 58 (modified by the © Unidia-Bruno Sandkühler
author)

Figure 37. Anubis as a Falcon-head bird Figure 38. Donkey-headed Anubis


© Mariette, 1873, Pl. 40.8
© di Luigi, 2016, p. 24

Fig ure 39. Human repr esentation in off ering s Fig ure 40. Human
repr esentation, from Ramesses
gesture, from Seti’s I temple at Abydos © Visit 360o
II t emple at Abydos. © (Dunn &
Rome, n.d.)

63
Fig ure 42. Rec umbent postur e
Fig ure 41. Rec umbent postur e. To mb of Nefe rtari. ©
of Anubis. © The Metropolitan
3d representation (Hirst, n.d.) for OsirisNet
Museum of Art. Inventory
Number: 04.18.9

Figure 43. Standing posture © The Figure 44. Standing posture © from T GEM, n.d.
Walters Museum of Art. Inventory Museo Archaeologico Nazionale. Invetrory Number:
number: 54.400 2570

Figure 45. Enthroned posture from Figure 46. Enthroned posture


Nefertari’s tomb © The J. Paul Getty Trust © AMICA, n.d. Inventory Number:
1914.561.a/b

64
Figure 47. Squatting posture
cartonnage’s fragment © The
Trustees of the British Museum.
Inventory number EA66641

Figure 48. Winged posture © from T GEM, n.d. Kunsthistorisches Museum. Inventory
number: 3855

Figure 49. Detail. Winged posture Figure 50. Anubis with knives
© from TGEM, n.d. Kunsthistorisches
© Mariette, 1873, p. 64. Pl. 61a, (modified
Museum. Inventory number: 3855
by the author)

65
Figure 51. Embrasing gesture of Figure 52. Anubis in Figure 53. Detail.
the Angeriautef’s tomb statue © purification gesture. © The Anubis in
di Luigi, 2016 Metropolitan Museum of Art. purification
Inventory Number: 38.5 gesture. © The
Trustees of the
British Museum.
Inventory Number:
EA 9919.2,
(modified by the
author)

Figure 54. Supportive gesture from Fig ure 55. Pro tect ive gesture of Ramesses’ I
Horemhed’s t omb © Ber na rd M. Adams tomb © Unidia-Bruno Sandkühler

66
Fig ure 56. Escord and Summoning Figure 57. The “breath of life” gesture from
gesture of Anubis from Tatiaset’s Neuserra’s relief © Robins, The Art of Ancient
stela © The Metropolitan Museum of Egypt, 1997, p. 18
Art. Inventory Number: 22.3.33

Figure 58. Greeting gesture © Scalf, Figure 59. Greeting gesture © Demas & Agnew,
2017, p. 346 2012, p. 70

67
3. THE MANIFESTATIONS OF ANUBIS IN THE LITERARY SOURCES
3.1 Divine Epithets of Anubis in the Literary Sources
The role of the epithets is to frame the manifestation, the appearance,
genealogy and the cult of the deity and often multiple deities could share the
same epithet. The epithets (Table 4) were distinguished by Kurth in two
c a t e g o r i e s , t h e p e r s o n a l e p i t h e t s ( t h e d e i t y’ s a s p e c t a n d a p p e a r a n c e ) a n d t h e
s i t u a t i o n a l e p i t h e t s ( e p i t h e t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e d e i t y) 257.
3.1.1. Natural epithets
N a t u r a l a n d f u n c t i o n a l e p i t h e t s 258: t h e s e e p i t h e t s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e m e a n i n g
o f t h e d e i t y ’ s n a m e , i n n e r d i v i n e a n d h u m a n a s p e c t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e d e i t y, a s
t h e d e i t y’ s r o l e . E p i t h e t s f o r t h e i n n e r a s p e c t d e d i c a t e d t o A n u b i s a r e “ A n u b i s i s
s a t i s f i e d ” , “ A n u b i s i s s t r o n g ” , “ A n u b i s i s m i g h t y ” 259, a n d “ A n u b i s i s g l a d ” 260.
O s i r i s w a s t h e f i r s t m u m m i f i e d e n t i t y, a n d t h i s a c t o c c u r r e d b y A n u b i s . W i t h t h e
mummification, Osiris never fell into the eternal death, since, according to the
E g yp t i a n c o n c e p t , t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e b o d y w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e n e c e s s a r y
because the deceased continued to live and move perpetually in Duat. Therefore,
epithets for Anubis’ role are “he who is upon his mountain”, regarded again as
t h e g u a r d i a n w h o o v e r l o o k s t h e n e c r o p o l i s f r o m t h e d e s e r t c l i f f s 261. S e n w o s r e t ’ s
III tomb is named “Mountain of Anubis”, refering to both in the tomb’s eclosure
and the epithet “he who is upon his mountain”, thus meaning the protector of the
t o m b s 262. A n o t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s e p i t h e t c o m e s f r o m L a t e D e m o t i c l i t e r a t u r e ,
depicting a healing role: “Anubis who is upon his mountain will come to you and
r e n e w e v e r y l i m b o f y o u r s ” 263.
In this category it is justified to be the mummification epithet of Anubis jnpw
w t , w h i c h c a n b e f o u n d o n C T I V , 3 7 5 ( S p e l l 3 4 5 ) 264 “ H o N ! A n u b i s t h e e m b a l m e r
has mummified you with his best embalming”. In addition to that, an epithet
refering the guardian role of Anubis during the mummification is jmj wt “he
w h o i s i n t h e p l a c e o f e m b a l m i n g ” 265 o r “ A n u b i s i n t h e p u r e p l a c e ” 266. T h e “ p u r e

257 Budde, 2011, pp. 2-4


258 Budde, 2011, p. 1
259 Willockx, 2007, p. 46
260 Faulkner, 1973, p. 50
261 Hart, 2005, p. 26
262 Wegner, 2006, p. 18
263 Love, 2016, p. 130
264 Faulkner, 1973, p. 281
265 Hart, 2005, p. 26
266 Faulkner, 1973, p. 50
68
place” is the place where the mummification took place, w a b t 267. A l t h o u g h
this epithet is a complex one, because it has many functions, it can be referring
t o mumm y-wrappings or to t he hi gh pri est (w t) of the em balm ing. However,

looking at the oldest form of the word , the word‘s determinative is the
t o w n - s i g n . T h i s m i g h t a l s o b e r e f e r i n g t o t h e a r e a w h e r e t h e r i t u a l t o o k p l a c e 268.
T h e n e c r o p o l i s i s a h i g h l y p o t e n t i a l a r e a f o r t h i s a c t i v i t y, t h e s o u r c e o f w h i c h i s

the Ptolemaic word (wt) indicating the necropolis of Anubis’ 17th


n o m e . T h e J u m i l h a c P a p yr u s m e n t i o n e d t h a t A n u b i s g a i n e d t h i s e p i t h e t w h e n h e
h i d a n d g u a r d e d t h e yo u n g H o r u s i n a t h i c k o f p a p yr u s i n t h e s w a m p s o f A k h m i m
( a k a C h e m m i s ) 269.
Considering the mummification procedure sacred, Anubis, as a chief of this
occupation, took the epithet Hry sStA “he who is upon the secrets” (or “Master
o f s e c r e t s ” ) 270. T h e e p i t h e t m a y h a v e i n h e r i t e d t h e s i g n o f r e c u m b e n t c a n i d t o
seal and protect the nature of mummification, as this is the role of Anubis.
T h e r e f o r e , t h i s e p i t h e t i s a l a t t e r a d d i t i o n t o A n u b i s ’ s e p i t h e t s 271. T h e r e c u m b e n t
canid onto the shrine could also be referring to the canopic chest, in which the
canopic jars with the deceased’s internal organs were stored. The function of
this epithet can be understood from the following passage “he who is upon the
secrets enters to the sanctuary and these is nothing which the god shuts away
f r o m h i m ” 272. T h i s p a s s a g e s h o w s t h e c o n n e c t i o n o f t h e p r i e s t s ( i s a l s o a p r i e s t l y
title) with the gods, as also the sacred role of Anubis as Hry sStA.
An epithet with close association with his duty in the Judgement Hall (BG) is
the jp j b = w 273 “ A s s e s s o r s o f h e a r t s ” 274, w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o t h e “ A n u b i s w h o
a l l o t s o f h e a r t s ” ( P 5 1 9 ) 275 a n d j r j m x A t “ h e w h o b e l o n g s t o t h e s c a l e s ” 276.
“ A n u b i s f o r e m o s t o f t h e w e s t , g r e a t g o d w h o s w a l l o w s h i s f a t h e r O s i r i s ” 277. T h i s
verse comes from Ramesses VI’s tomb pillar. The shallow acts as an apotropaic

267 David, 2001, p. 441 and Vygus, 2015, p. 2385


268 Murray & Sethe, 1937, p. 6 and DuQuesne, 2005, p. 157
269 Vandier, 1962, p. 102
270 Orlin, 2015, p. 61
271 DuQuesne, 2005, p. 255
272 Beatty, 1999-2000, p. 70
273 Manassa, 2007, p. 112
274 Manassa, 2006, p. 121
275 Allen, 2005, p. 183
276 Janák, 2003, p. 201
277 Manassa, 2006, p. 121
69
f o r c e m e a n t t o h i d e O s i r i s f r o m h i s e n e m y, t h e r e f o r e i t i s a n e p i t h e t o f A n u b i s
declaring his role as the protector.
O r i g i n a n d t o p o n y m i c a l ( c u l t ) e p i t h e t s 278: t h e s e e p i t h e t s d e p i c t n o m e s a n d
o t h e r l a n d s r e l a t e d t o t h e f u n e r a r y t e r r i t o r y, w h i c h b e l o n g t o A n u b i s a n d c a n
also be priestly titles, with the opening words “Lord/Mistress”, “Foremost” etc.
Epithets depicting Anubis’s ownership/patron god are “Anubis of Lower
E g y p t ” 279, “ A n u b i s f r o m G e b e l e i n ” 280
, “ L o r d o f S e p a ” , “ L o r d o f T h i n i t e n o m e 281” ,
“Lord of Roqereret” etc.
Anubis, a leading figure among those who are buried in the necropolis, (the
West) can be seen in the epithets Hnty j m n t y w 282 “Foremost of the
W e s t e r n e r s ” 283 a n d wp-wAwt “Opener of the Ways”. Regarding the Hnty
jmntyw epithet, an important distinguish between life and death comes from
U n i s ( W 1 3 5 ) 284 “ a s A n u b i s a t t h e f o r e o f t h e w e s t e r n e r s , a s A n d j e t i a t t h e f o r e o f
the eastern nomes”. Anubis is identified as the first of those who live (the dead)
in the west (necropolis) and Andjeti as the first of those who are in the living
l a n d s ( e a s t e r n n o m e s ) . T h e t o m b s o f t h e E g yp t i a n s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e w e s t s i d e
of the Nile, are regarded as the twilight of the life on earth, in contrast to the
e a s t w h i c h w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e n e w l i f e a n d r i s e o f t h e g o d R a t o t h e s k y. F o r
that reason, Anubis, also took the epithets “Lord of the Sacred Land” and “Lord
o f t h e D e s e r t ” , r e f e r i n g t o t h e c e m e t e r i e s , a s t h e l a t e r ye a r e p i t h e t “ L o r d o f
Rosetau”. A source of the latter is a statue’s inscription that mentioned “The
revered before Ptah-Sokar, the prophet-priest of Anubis of Rosetau, the leader
of the houses (of Neith of Sais), the great one of the Two Lands, his beloved son,
t h e p r i e s t o f N e i t h . . . H o r - w e d j a ” 285. A n o t h e r s o u r c e w h e r e R o s e t a u i s r e l a t e d w i t h
A n u b i s c o m e s f r o m C T I I I , 3 2 6 ( S p e l l 2 4 1 ) 286 “ I h a v e c o m e t o R o s e t a u i n o r d e r
to know the secret of the Netherworld into which Anubis is initiated”. Although
at first Rosetau was associated with Sokar, it later became an epithet of Anubis
a n d t h e w o r d “ R o s e t a u ” m e a n s t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e p a s s a g e t o t h e U n d e r w o r l d 287.

278 Budde, 2011, p. 3


279 Leitz, 2002, p. 396
280 Leitz, 2002, p. 395
281 DuQuesne, 2005, p. 371
282 DuQuesne, 2005, p. 168
283 Hart, 2005, p. 25
284 Allen, 2005, p. 28
285 WMA, n.d. and Leitz, 2002, p. 396
286 Faulkner, 1973, p. 190
287 Willockx, 2007, p. 56
70
Another locality epithet that has indirect connection to Anubis is given by the
e p i t h e t “ N i l e - v a l l e y ’ s j a c k a l ” . N i l e - v a l l e y i s t h e U p p e r E g yp t 288, i n w h i c h t h e
n o m e s o f A n u b i s , W e p w a w e t a n d K h e n t a m e n t i u a r e l o c a t e d . A d d i t i o n a l l y, t h i s
epithet might be showing the influence of the canid gods. The identity of the
N i l e - V a l l e y j a c k a l a s A n u b i s m i g h t c o m e f r o m P e p i I ( P 4 8 0 ) 289 “ T h e y w i l l
pr event [ you] from decompos ing, wi th r esp ect t o your identi t y of Anubis . T hey
will prevent your decay from oozing to the ground, with respect to your identity
of the Nile-Valley jackal”. From the Ptolemaic Period, the epithet “Master of
hawk’s nome with wigs spread” gives a close association between Anubis and
H o r u s , a n d h i s i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e 1 8 t h n o m e 290.
A w e l l - k n o w n c u l t e p i t h e t ( p r i e s t l y t i t l e ) i s x n t y s H n T r 291 “ F o r e m o s t o f t h e
D i v i n e B o o t h ” 292. T h e D i v i n e B o o t h w a s e i t h e r t h e a r e a i n w h i c h m u m m i f i c a t i o n
t o o k p l a c e o r t h e b u r i a l c h a m b e r o f t h e d e c e a s e d 293 a n d c a n a l s o b e t r a n s l a t e d a s
“ d i v i n e h a l l ” , “ g o d ’ s b o o t h ” 294, “ d i v i n e p a v i l i o n ” , “ g o d ’ s t e n t ” 295 a n d a l l t h e s e

t i t l e s a r e c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e v a r i e t y o f h i e r o g l yp h i c s i g n .
G e n e a l o g i c a l e p i t h e t s 296: t h e g e n e a l o g y r o o t s o f t h e d e i t y w i t h w o r d s a s
“father/mother/son of”. Epithets for the genealogy of Anubis comes from a
p a p yr u s ( L o u v r e N 3 1 7 6 ) w h e r e h e i s t h e s o n o f O s i r i s a n d B a s t e t , f r o m E d f u ’ s
mammisi comes the passage “Your (the king’s) purification is the purification of
A n u b i s , b o r n o f H e s a t ” 297 a n d f r o m M i d d l e K i n g d o m c o f f i n o f H e n u i : “ A n u b i s …
h i m w h o w a s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e m i d - h e a v e n , f o u r t h o f t h e s o n s o f R a … ” 298
From Pepi I (P 463) his daughter’s name is confirmed, “This Pepi will find
Q e b e h u t , A n u b i s ’ s d a u g h t e r , m e e t i n g h i m w i t h t h o s e f o u r w a t e r - j a r s o f h e r s ” 299.
T h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e f r o m C T ( I , 2 2 8 - 2 2 9 ) 300 , a p a r t f r o m t h e r e f e r e n c e t o
Anubis’s father, who might be Osiris, as the lord of the gods, is also using other
epithets of Anubis as function and ownership epithets: “Thus has Atum said:
Awake, Anubis, Lord of Rokeret, because of this god, son of the Lord of the

288 Allen, 2005, p. 438


289 Allen, 2005, p. 165
290 Vandier, 1962, p. 33
291 DuQuesne, 2005, p. 248
292 Orlin, 2015, p. 41
293 Hart, 2005, p. 26
294 Willockx, 2007, p. 51
295 Hart, 2005, p. 116
296 Budde, 2011, p. 4
297 Willockx, 2007, p. 41
298 Ensminger, 2015
299 Allen, 2005, p. 158
300 Faulkner, 1973, p. 47
71
gods! Isis has put her arms around you as she did for the Lord of All. Awake,
you paths! Arise early, you gates! The god appears that he may see the nobles
who give praise in the Sacred Booth, who look on the god who drives out the
rebel I and who imprisons for himself those who spoke of frightening him”.
From the Book of Gates comes the passage “Anubis foremost of the west, great
g o d ( s a m j t = f ) 301 w h o s w a l l o w s h i s f a t h e r O s i r i s ” 302. T h e a n a l ys i s o f t h e v e r s e
gives the different epithets. “Anubis foremost of the west” is ownership/patron
god epithet, “great god” is a status epithet, “who swallows” function epithet (see
above) and “his father Osiris” a genealogy one.
3.1.2. Situational epithets
S t a t u s a n d a g e e p i t h e t s 303: a p r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e d e i t y’ s h i e r a r c h y, c o n t a i n i n g
words as “great”, “small” “first” etc. An ex ample from Pepi I’s PT (P 553) is
“ [ … ] a s A n u b i s f i r s t o f h i s s h r i n e [ … ] ” 304 w h i c h p o i n t s o u t A n u b i s ’ s p r i m a r y i n
t h e s e c r e t s o f m u m m i f i c a t i o n . T e t i ’ s P T ( T 1 4 4 ) 305 a n e p i t h e t “ A n u b i s - w r a p p e r ” ,
which refers to the priest involved in the mummification.
Another status epithet as also a function one is “Foremost of the West” and
another one, which may come from the priestly title, “director of troops (?) of
A n u b i s , h e o f t h e d i v i n e b o o t h ” 306. T h i s e c h o e d a m i l i t a r y a s p e c t o f A n u b i s , w h o
needs to protect the divine booth and its sacred procedures.
I c o n o g r a p h i c a l e p i t h e t s 307: t h e s e e p i t h e t s i s c o r r e l a t e d t o t h e o u t e r f e a t u r e s a n d
the variet y of deity’s postures. From PT of Unis (W 146) the deceased king has
t h e b o d y o f A t u m b u t t h e f a c e o f A n u b i s 308 a n d f r o m P e p i I ’ s P T ( P 3 1 ) A n u b i s i s
depicted in his famous posture: “Raise yourself as Osiris, as the akh who is
G e b ’ s f i r s t s o n , a n d t a k e u p y o u r p o s i t i o n a s A n u b i s o n t h e s h r i n e ” 309. A s a m e
o n e i s t h e e p i t h e t “ A n u b i s o n h i s b e l l y ” 310. O t h e r i c o n o g r a p h i c e p i t h e t s d e r i v e
f r o m t h e m o m e n t t h e n e w s p i r i t t r a v e l s t o s k y a s “ A n u b i s i s s e i z i n g y o u r a r m ” 311
( N 5 9 3 ) a n d t h e “ f o r e m o s t e o f g r i p ” r e f e r i n g t o t h e c a n i d ’ s t e e t h 312.

301Manassa, 2007, p. 112


302Manassa, 2006, p. 121
303 B u d d e , 2 0 1 1 , p . 4
304 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 9 4
305 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 7 2
306 F i s c h e r , 1 9 9 6 , p . 4 9
307 B u d d e , 2 0 1 1 , p . 3
308 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 3 1
309 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 0 5
310 H o w e v e r , t h e s e t w o e p i t h e t s a l s o c o u l d b e f u n c t i o n a l e p i t h e t s , a s t h e H r y sStA epithet (see
above).
311 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 3 0 1
312 D u Q u e s n e , 2 0 0 5 , p . 3 7 0

72
M y t h i c a l a n d c o s m o g o n i c a l e p i t h e t s 313: t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s e e p i t h e t s i s t o s h o w
t h e g o d ’ s s p l e n d i d n e s s . A m yt h o l o g i c a l e p i t h e t a s a l s o a c u l t o n e i s t h e e p i t h e t
“ A n u b i s r u l e r o f t h e B o w s ” 314. T h i s e p i t h e t e c h o e d t h e n i n e e n e m i e s o f E g y p t
(Haw nHw, Sat, tA Smaw, sxt jAm, tA mHw, pDtjw Sw, THnw,
j w n t y w s t j a n d m n t y w s t t 315) a n d h i s v i c t o r y u p o n t h e w i c k e d f o r c e s o f
D u a t 316. A n u b i s i s d e p i c t e d o v e r n i n e b o w s i n a s e a l , w h i c h u n d e r l i n e s h i s c o n t r o l
o v e r t h e i n t r u d e r s o f t h e t o m b 317.
The PT of Pepi I (P 31) mentioned that Anubis has the power to enlighten the
d e c e a s e d ’ s s p i r i t ( a k h i f y) b y c o m m a n d : “ T h e h o r i z o n s ’ d o o r h a s b e e n o p e n e d t o
you. Geb’s door has been pulled open to you. You shall emerge at Anubis’s
voice, and he will akhify you as Thoth, that you may part the gods and set the
borders of the (sky’s) arcs between the two Controlling Powers, by virtue of this
akhification that Anubis has commanded” 318
. In this passage, we also see Anubis
acting like Thoth, or a correlation of the two gods, to ensure the ankification.
The words “horizon”, “akhify”, which we sometimes see in the epithets, outline
resurrection abilities, sacred for and secret from the common people, knowledge
only for the gods and the priests. To establish his role, he carries epithets which
are associated with the deceased’s final places “desert”, “wt”, “west”, etc. The
face of Anubis, which a king has, might suggest the protective aspect of Anubis
during the animation of the soul. The commands of Anubis might be the divine
words full of magic to create a new life or an offering to feed the eternal soul.
All these epithets of Anubis prove his important role in the funerary rituals, as
also in rebirth and in the contexts of the Osirian circle.
Table 4. List of Anubis’s epithets
Transliteration Translation Category
jnpw wt Anubis the embalmer Functional
jmj wt He who is in the place of
embalming
Hry sStA He who is upon the secrets
jnpw tA wab Anubis in the pure place
jnpw Hr Anubis on his belly Functional/ Iconographical
Xt=f
jrj-mxAt He who belongs to the
scales
Tpy ḏw=f He who is upon his mountain Functional/ Iconographical

313 Budde, 2011, p. 4


314 Orlin, 2015, p. 61
315 Anthony, 2016, p. 39
316 Hart, 2005, p. 26
317 Wilkinson, 2003, p. 187
318 Allen, 2005, pp. 46,105
73
Transliteration Translation Category
jp jb=w Assessors of hearts
jnpw jp jbw Anubis who allots hearts
sam jt=f He who shallows
Hnty jmntyw Foremost of the Westerners Topographical
Xnty sH nTr Foremost of the Divine Booth
nb qrs Lord of burial
nb Xrt nTr Lord of the necropolis
wp wAwt Opener of the Ways
nb tA Lord of the Sacred Land
Dsrt
nb smjt Lord of the Desert
nb rA sTA.w Lord of Rosetau
nb spA Lord of Sepa
nd tA wr Lord of Thinite nome
nb rA qrrt Lord of Roqereret
nTr aA Great god Status
jnpw hny Anubis on the shrine Iconographical
HqA pDt Ruler of the Bows M yt h i c a l
psDt
3.2 Anubis in the Literary Sources
3.2.1. Old Kingdom: Anubis in Pyramid Texts
T h e P yr a m i d T e x t s w a s a g r o u p o f s p e l l s ( o r u t t e r a n c e s ) f o r t h e d e c e a s e d
pharaoh’s soul assentation to the Afterlife.
A n u b i s i s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e P yr a m i d T e x t s 6 7 t i m e s ( C h a r t 2 ) a n d h a s a f e w
r o l e s a n d p o w e r s a n d h i s r o l e , a s i t h a p p e n s i n t h e P yr a m i d T e x t s , i s e p i c ,
illustrated with mythical ingredients.

Chart 2
Anubis's Name PT Citation

Unis

Teti

Pepi I

Merenre

Pepi II

Neith

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

As it has already been mentioned in the Chapter 3.1, Anubis can akhify the
deceased’s spirit by command. This is an important role during the resurrection
74
a n d a d d r e s s e d t o A n u b i s , a n d m i g h t m e a n t h a t A n u b i s c a n u s e m a g i c 319 t o
transform the spirit. Other passages with Anubis’s magic come again from Pepi
I, where Anubis’s magic is stronger through repetition. Moreover, they state that
he can make the deceased a star and a morning god, achieving, for the
deceased’s soul, life in both day and night.
P e p i I ( P 3 3 4 ) 320 “ A s p e e c h ( a b o u t y o u ) h a s c o m e b e f o r e A n u b i s a n d y o u r
privilege has come from the mouth of Anubis: (your privilege of) Horus Thighs-
Forward, the one of the hobbles, lord of Rebellion-town; and the Nile-Valley’s
Jackal, administrator of the Elder Ennead”.
P e p i I ( P 4 8 4 ) 321 “ A n u b i s , f o r e m o s t o f t h e g o d ’ s b o o t h , h a s c o m m a n d e d t h a t y o u
descend as a star, as the morning god”.
P e p i I ( P 5 2 6 ) 322 “ A n u b i s a t t h e f o r e o f t h e g o d ’ s b o o t h w i l l c o m m a n d y o u r a k h
(to be) about you and your control within you, as you remain at the fore of the
controlling powers”.
A connection of Anubis with the sun’s course in the sky comes from Pepe I’s
P yr a m i d T e x t s ( P 4 8 4 ) 323 “ A n u b i s , f o r e m o s t o f t h e g o d ’ s b o o t h , h a s c o m m a n d e d
that you descend as a star, as the morning god. You shall wander southern
Horus’s mounds, you shall wander northern Horus’s mounds, and those of
estimation will lay down their arms for the stairway to your seat”.
A p a s s a g e f r o m P e p i I ’ s P T ( P 1 4 ) 324 d e p i c t s t h e f a t e o f O s i r i s ’ s e n e m i e s , b u t
also the role of Anubis in the judgement: “Horus has been untied from his
breastband for you, that he might catch those in Seth’s following. Seize them,
remove their heads, sever their forelegs, and gut them, take their hearts, and
slurp their blood. Allot their hearts in this your identity of Anubis who allots
hearts”. The meaning of this might be the identification (allocation) of the
h e a r t s ( t h e c e n t e r o f a l l t h o u g h t s a n d s e n t i m e n t s 325) b y t h e k i n g ( a s A n u b i s ) , o f
t h o s e w h o a r e t h e e n e m i e s . A s a m e o n e c o m e s f r o m U n i s ( W 1 5 0 ) 326 “ T h i s U n i s
has come, an imperishable akh, arrayed on the neck as Anubis at the head of the
western height, that he may claim (the king as Anubis) minds and control hearts.
The one he wants to live, he will live; the one he wants to die, he will die”, in

319 P T i n h e r e d t h e c o n c e p t o f H k A , w h i c h i s α f o r m o f m a g i c t h a t w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e l a t e r

years.
320 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 3 1
321 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 6 8
322 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 8 7
323 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 1 6 8
324 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p p . 1 0 2 - 1 0 3
325 Κ ο υ σ ο ύ λ η ς , 2 0 0 4 , σ . 4 8
326 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 3 3

75
which Unis is considered a good spirit. Here the controlling aspect of Anubis
over the minds and hearts passed to the king’s possession and might mean the
state of Anubis’s knowledge on the deceased life.
The importance of the following passages might rely on the thought which
underlines Anubis’s warfare and protection.
P e p i I ( P 3 2 2 ) 327 “ H o r u s ’ s f o l l o w e r s , A n u b i s ’ s t h r o w s t i c k a n d b o w , s h a l l c l e a n
this Pepi”.
M e r e n r e ( M 3 4 2 ) 328 “ H o r u s ’ s f o l l o w e r s , A n u b i s ’ s t h r o w s t i c k a n d b o w , s h a l l
clean you and make for you the spell of emerging and make for you the spell of
proceeding”.
Throw-stick and bow are identified as Anubis’s implements, or weapons.
Furthermore, throw-stick h i e r o g l yp h i c 329 refers to foreigners that were
c o n s i d e r e d e n e m i e s o f E g yp t . T h e s e t w o i m p l e m e n t s a r e u s e d i n t h i s p a s s a g e f o r
the deceased’s liberation, to be a pure spirit and any noxious elements (as
enemies) will be set aside with the help of the divine followers and implements.
I n a d d i t i o n , w i t h t h a t t h e P e p i I ’ s p a s s a g e ( P 4 8 9 ) 330 c l a r i f i e s t h a t t h o s e w h o a r e
malevolent and come to Anubis’s territories (necropolis, underworld) shall die
for the king as Osiris continues his journey to rebirth “You who are dangerous
for him when the king journeys over Anubis’s places!”—anyone who hears this
will not live”. Enemies of the resurrecting spirit can also be found in Neith’s
P yr a m i d T e x t s ( N t 2 4 0 ) 331 i n w h i c h a g a i n A n u b i s s e e m s t o g i v e t h e m e a n s t o
impugned: “Stand at the fore of the Dual Shrines, at the fore of the jackal gods,
and strike your arm against your opponents that Anubis at the fore of the god’s
booth gave you when he put you, Neith, at the fore of the westerners”. Moreover,
t h e p a s s a g e f r o m P e p i I ( P 3 6 1 ) 332 o u t l i n e s A n u b i s a s a g u a r d i a n w h o c a u t i o n s
against the evil forces penetrating the Underworld. For this reason, since this
particular recitation is done during the morning ritual, bread is offered to pacify
him and, in fact, to be invoked to acknowledge the soul that is good. Anubis as a
warrior of the evil can be calm down with offerings: “My father, become sound;
defend those therein as one whose character is hidden, and you will be defended
to perfection. Become calm, Anubis, with the bread. Induct the owner of the
bDA-bread so that he is perfect, sweet of tooth and pleasant of love. The sound

327 Allen, 2005, p. 126


328 Allen, 2005, p. 228
329 Gardiner, 1957, p. 513 and Allen, 2014, p. 497
330 Allen, 2005, p. 172
331 Allen, 2005, p. 321
332 Allen, 2005, p. 141
76
owner with heart made pleasant, he is one in your knowledge, as ka at rest”.
F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s a m e i d e a c o n t i n u e d i n C T V I , 3 1 6 ( S p e l l 6 8 6 ) 333 “ [ … ] t h r o w -
sticks have been presented to me by the great West, and the' hearts of the gods
are glad when they see me on that day of smashing the heads of the mottled
s n a k e s w i t h t h e s e t h r o w - s t i c k s w h i c h b e l o n g t o m e ” . F i n a l l y, a h i e r o g l y p h i c
attested on Ptolemaic Period (creation of new hieroglyphic signs) depicts this

figure of canid 334


holding what seems to be a throwstick and bow.
Other implements addressed to Anubis come from the passage of Pepi II (N
1 0 0 ) 335 u s e d d u r i n g t h e O p e n i n g o f t h e M o u t h r i t u a l ( s e e C h a p t e r 4 ) : “ [ H o w
sweet is your mouth, for your mouth has been adjusted for you to your bones.
Your mouth has been parted for you, your eyes have been parted for you. Ho,
P e p i N e f e r k a r e] ! Y o u r m o u t h h a s b e e n p a r t e d w i t h A n u b i s ’ s a d z e , t h e m e t a l
Striker that parted the mouth of the gods”.
Anubis’s role as embalmer can be found on the following passages, which
c l a r i f y t h a t A n u b i s i s t h e o n e w h o a t t e n d s t h e b o d y, a k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d w h e n h e
performed it for Osiris.
P e p i I ( P 3 1 ) 336 “ [ … ] a s t h e J a c k a l , a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f t h e ( s k y ’ s ) a r c s ; a s A n u b i s
at the fore of the clean land—that he might put you as the morning god in the
midst of the Marsh of Reeds, seated on your chair, your disassembled parts
having been elevated by the Dual Crown of the lord of the (sky’s) arcs”.
P e p i I ( P . 4 6 2 ) 337 “ H i s e n t r a i l s h a v e b e e n w a s h e d b y A n u b i s , a n d H o r u s ’ s
service in Abydos—Osiris’s purification—has been performed”.
P e p i I I ( N 4 6 6 ) 338 “ H o , P e p i N e f e r k a r e ! R a i s e y o u r s e l f t o t h o s e o l d e r t h a n y o u .
You shall eat figs and drink wine, with your face that of a jackal, as Anubis who
is banded [with it] ”.
In the above passages, Anubis is the main leader of the mummification but Teti
and Pepi II PT state the involvement of a priest in the procedure, citing the
h u m a n p r e s e n c e i n t h e d i v i n e w o r k a n d m ys t e r y:

333 Faulkner, 1977, p. 251


334 Mariette, 1873, PL 69. Modified by the author.
335 Allen, 2005, p. 252
336 Allen, 2005, p. 105
337 Allen, 2005, p. 158
338 Allen, 2005, p. 285
77
T e t i ( T 1 4 4 ) 339 “ T o m e s h o u l d y o u c o m e , t o m e s h o u l d y o u c o m e ; y o u s h o u l d
indeed come to me, who am Horus who tends his father, oh Teti, and your
Anubis-wrapper”.
P e p i I I ( N 4 1 1 ) 340 “ R a i s e y o u r s e l f , P e p i N e f e r k a r e , a n d s i t o n y o u r m e t a l c h a i r ,
for Anubis at the fore of the god’s booth has commanded that you be cleaned
with those eight water-jars of yours, the eight washing-jars that came forth from
the god’s palace, and so, you will be washed with natron”.
During the Old Kingdom the offering formula was addressed mostly on Anubis.
T h e H t p - d j - n s w t f o r m u l a i s f o u n d o n c h a p e l s , f a l s e d o o r s , s t e l a e , e t c 341 a n d w a s
i n fact a prayer whi ch asked t he gods t o provi de offerings t o the deceas ed. The
form ul a al ways s t art ed wi th Ht p-dj-nswt phras e t o be followed up b y t he
addressed god (Osiris or Anubis). After the name of the god, the list of goods
f o r t h e k a w a s g i v e n a n d f i n a l l y e n d e d w i t h t h e d e c e a s e d ’ s n a m e 342. T h e l i s t o f
g o o d s w a s g i v e n b y t h e l i v i n g k e e n s o f t h e d e c e a s e d . I n t h e c a s e o f r o ya l t y , t h e
l i v i n g P h a r a o h 343 r e a d t h e g o o d s o u t l o u d s o t h a t t h e d e c e a s e d w o u l d b e p r o v i d e d
w i t h m a g i c a l p o w e r 344. The communities, such as beer, bread, oxen, fowl, oil
a n d c l o t h i n g 345 w e r e t h e n e e d f u l t h i n g s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e d e c e a s e d t o l i v e i n D u a t
w i t h d e c e n c y 346.
The formula was used from Early Dynastic Period to Roman Period and the
u s u a l s t r u c t u r e w a s 347:

 H t p - d j - n s w t “ a n o f f e r i n g w h i c h t h e k i n g g i v e s ” 348

 prt-xrw “an invocation offering… (list of goods)”

 n kA n jmAxy “for the ka of the honored… (Citation of the


d e c e a s e d n a m e a n d t i t l e s ) ” 349.
I n t h e c a s e o f A n u b i s , w e c a n f i n d t h e f o r m u l a i n t h e s e f o r m s 350:
 Htp-dj-nswt n jnpw “a royal offering of Anubis”

339 Allen, 2005, p. 72


340 Allen, 2005, p. 276
341 Κουσούλης, 2015, σ. 90
342 Allen, 2014, pp. 365-367
343 Gardiner, 1957, p. 171
344 Leprohon, 2001, p. 572
345 Gardiner, 1957, p. 171
346 Κουσούλης, 2015, σ. 90
347 Allen, 2014, p. 367 and Gardiner, 1957, p. 172
348 It is the same with “A boon which the king gives”, or “A king-given offering”.
349 Κουσούλης, 2015, σ. 92
350 Allen, 2014, p. 366
78
 Htp-dj-jnpw “an offering that Anubis gives”
 Htp-dj-nswt Htp-dj-jnpw “an offering that the king gives and an
offering that Anubis gives”
I n t h e P y r a m i d T e x t s t h e o f f e r i n g f o r m u l a i s f o u n d i n T e t i ( T 2 2 5 ) 351 “ T h e
offering that Anubis, foremost of westerners, will give is your thousands of
bread, your thousands of beer, your thousands of ointment, your thousands of
linen, your thousands of clothing, your thousands of cattle”; and on Pepi I (P
3 1 ) 352 “ A k i n g - g i v e n o f f e r i n g , a n A n u b i s - g i v e n o f f e r i n g : y o u r t h o u s a n d o f r a i s e d
oryxes from the deserts coming to you in obeisance. A king-given offering, an
Anubis-given offering: your thousand of bread, your thousand of beer, your
thousand of great-bread that comes from the broadhall, your thousand of
everything sweet, your thousand of cattle, your thousand of everything you might
eat or set your heart on”.
Examples of offering formulas from other sources:
F r o m g r a n i t e s a r c o p h a g u s o f t h e 4 t h D yn a s t y ( 2 5 2 0 – 2 4 7 2 B . C . E . ) , l o c a t e d a t
Giza, Eastern Cemetery (Mastaba G7760):
Htp Dj nswt jnp.w xnt.j-sH-nTr qrs m s(my).t jmn.t(j).t m
nb jmAx xr nTr aA jr.j-pa.t xtm(.tj)-bj.tj mnj.w-nxn sA
nswt Mnw-Dd=f
“Offering which the king gives (and) Anubis (presiding) over the divine booth,
(and) burial in the western desert as a possessor of reverence before the great
god, (to) the sealer of the King of Lower Egypt, the guardian of Nekhen
( H i e r a k o n p o l i s ) , t h e k i n g ' s s o n , M e n d j e d e f ” 353.
From tomb-stela dated in 6th-8th D yn a s t y (ca. 2323–2100 B.C.E.) from
D e n d e r a 354:
Htp dj nswt jnp.w pr.t-xrw n Xkr.t-nswt wa.tjt Hm(.t)-nTr
Hw.t-Hr nb.t-jwn.t jmAx.wt xr nTr aA nb-p.t Htp-sj
“Offering which the king gives (and) Anubis, invocation offering, for the Sole
Royal Ornament, Priestess of Hathor, Mistress of Dendera, the one who is
revered before the great god, lord of heaven, Hetepsi”.
F r o m l i n t e l o f K a m e n i 355, d a t e d i n 5 t h D yn a s t y ( c a . 2 5 0 0 – 2 3 5 0 B . C . E . ) , l o c a t e d
at Giza (Tomb 7142 A):

351 Allen, 2005, p. 86


352 Allen, 2005, p. 106
353 MET, n.d.
354 MET, n.d.
355 MFA, n.d.
79
“ A n o f f e r i n g w h i c h t h e k i n g g i v e s t o A n u b i s 356, L o r d o f t h e S a c r e d L a n d a n d
burial for the ka of the king’s acquaintance, (to) remain in the western desert,
a n i n v o c a t i o n o f f e r i n g f o r s u n g o d d e s s ( f o r ) e v e r y d a y t o e t e r n i t y 357” .
3.2.2. First Intermediate Period to Middle Kingdom: Anubis in Coffin Texts
The Coffin Texts are a group of spells written mostly on coffins, they were a
guide for the deceased's journey as well as a guide to prepare him for the threats
that would occur in the Underworld; the CT democratized the Underworld for
b o t h r o ya l a n d c o m m o n p e o p l e .
Anubis’s name in the Coffin Texts is being mentioned 127 times (Chart 3),
although, in many passages, the name of Anubis is mentioned with no particular
r e a s o n o n l y t o s e r v e a n e p i t h e t 358, h i s r o l e i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . P e r h a p s t h i s
h a p p e n s b e c a u s e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e h i e r o g l yp h i c s ys t e m , i n w h i c h t h e
s e n t e n c e a n d t h e s t o r yt e l l i n g s t r u c t u r e b e c a m e s t r o n g e r t h a n i n t h e p r e v i o u s
period. Moreover, the Coffin Texts have many parallels to the PT, but the
Coffin Texts spells seem to be deepening and becoming more powerful with
many gruesome references. Here Anubis, can be said that has a more
a n t h r o p o c e n t r i c a n d n a t u r a l a p p r o a c h t h a n i n t h e P yr a m i d T e x t s . E v e n i f h e h a s
the same role (guardian, embalmer, etc), the following passages define him more
cl earl y as entit y.

Chart 3
Anubis's Name CT Citation

PT CT

Anubis’s ability to transform the deceased’s soul to akh can be found in:
C T I , 2 3 8 ( S p e l l 5 1 ) 359 “ [ … ] y o u s h a l l h a v e l i f e f r o m A n u b i s [ … ] ”

356 Htp-dj-nswt jnpw.t nb tA Dsrt qrst.f rx-nsw kA n mn.f m smyt.t Hr.t jAw
ntr wrt prt-xrw n.f ray t ran b Dt. Transliteration and translation by the author.
357 W h a t i s r e p e a t e d i n p e r p e t u i t y ( l i n e a r t i m e ) .
358 W i l l o c k x , 2 0 0 7 , p . 5 9
359 F a u l k n e r , 1 9 7 3 , p . 5 0

80
C T I V , 3 8 0 ( S p e l l 3 4 7 ) 360 “ T h o t h p e r f o r m i n g t h e r o l e o f R e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
command which Anubis made”.
C T S p e l l 7 8 5 361 “ O N , A n u b i s i n d e e d f o r m s y o u , s o t h a t y o u m a y b e o n e a r t h
through him, you being alive so that you may travel about daily; your vision is
restored so that you may see the sun; be a spirit”.
These three examples are powerful not only because they underline Anubis’s
magic, but also because Anubis has the ability to make Thoth act as Ra. The
Spell 785 clarifies that after the formation by Anubis the deceased,who is now
an akh, is capable of seeing the sun, meaning the restoration of certain senses
useful in the Afterlife.
The warfare aspect of Anubis, which is found on PT continues to the Coffin
Texts.
C T V I , 4 7 ( S p e l l 4 8 1 ) 362 “ O A n u b i s , L o r d o f A s y u t ( ? ) , w h o s p e a r s a n d t r a p s i n
the place of the wounded one, I have escaped from it”.
C T V I , 3 6 9 ( S p e l l 7 4 1 ) 363 “ S e e , R e h a s i m p o s e d a n o b s t a c l e [ . . .] h e s p e a k s t o
t he gods w ho are about hi s shrine, and they have smi tt en […] myst erious
[ w o r d s ( ? )] w h i c h a r e i n t h e m o u t h o f A n u b i s . T h e t e r r o r o f y o u i s i n f r o n t o f m y
s h a p e , [ a n d I s e e ( ? )] w h a t h a s b e e n d o n e t o y o u b e c a u s e o f y o u r e v i l a f f a i r ” .
These two passages are filled with violence “spears”, “traps”, “wounded”,
“smitten” and “evil affair”. Both passages seem to depict the damnation of the
enemy and of evil souls, an act made by Anubis or by the words spoken by him.
They give a more direct role to Anubis and in the case of the first spell a more
active role with the verbs “spears and traps”.
The role of Anubis in mummification in the CT is sanctioned and strengthened.
In man y passages, Anubis is portrayed as the embalmer or as the source from
which the deceased gained his knowledge of mummification. However, if we
compare the references to the Old Kingdom, the process of mummification is
more humanized and its narrative becomes darker.
C T I I , 3 0 0 - 3 0 4 ( S p e l l 1 5 5 ) 364 “ I k n o w w h a t i s l a c k i n g f r o m t h e c o r p s e i n t h e
hand of Anubis on that night of covering his testicles (?), and on that day of
bandaging what is in his mouth. It is something which was not out of Osiris, the
front of which was joined to its back in woodwork of planking”.

360 Faulkner, 1973, p. 282


361 Faulkner, 1977, p. 307
362 Faulkner, 1977, p. 12
363 Faulkner, 1977, p. 281
364 Faulkner, 1973, p. 13
81
C T I I I , 3 0 4 - 3 0 5 ( S p e l l 2 3 6 ) 365 “ O y o u t e r r i b l e o n e s , y o u m e s s e n g e r s o f O s i r i s
who close the mouths of the spirits because of what is in them, I you are
powerless to close my mouth, you cannot take away the movement of my legs, for
I am one who will go in and out, the mover of the Pure Place, who kindles a
flame for Anubis on the day of treating him who is in his putridity”.
I n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t i n C T V I , 3 8 5 ( 7 5 5 ) 366 “ [ … ] d o n o t d e c a y i n t h i s y o u r n a m e
of Anubis; do not drip on the ground in this your name of 'Jackal'”, the name of
Anubis is used as invocation and emphasis on the prevention of disintegration.
The association of the priest with the mummification is new evidence of the
embalming procedure. What seems to be a reference to the masks wearing by the
priest is in the following spell:
C T V I , 1 0 3 ( S p e l l 5 1 6 ) 367 “ H o N ! R a i s e y o u r s e l f f o r t h o s e w h o a r e g r e a t e r t h a n
you! You shall eat figs and drink wine, for your face is (that of) the jackal of
Anubis; be covered with it”.
Anubis’s role in the judgment comes from the following spells:
C T V I , 4 1 2 ( S p e l l 7 8 1 ) 368 “ O N , A n u b i s s t a n d s u p , h a v i n g s t o c k e d h i m s e l f w i t h
milk which he will give, and he allots its jars to you; he cuts off what those who
are over the watchers may do against you”.
C T I I I , 8 8 ( S p e l l 1 8 7 ) 369 “ W h a t I d o u b l y d e t e s t , I w i l l n o t e a t . F a e c e s i s m y
detestation, and I will not eat; I will not consume filth, for to me belongs this
white bright crown of Anubis”.
T h e s e t h r e e s p e l l s g i v e s t r a i g h t n e s s i n t h e s t o r yt e l l i n g a n d t h e S p e l l 1 8 7 o n c e
again depicts vividly the fate of the damned.
Regarding to the Htp-dj-nswt formula, during the Middle Kingdom it is
further developed:
 list of commodities and deceased’s epithets

 more emphasis on god’s offer with the verb or , dj.f prt xrw
“ t h a t h e m a y g i v e a n i n v o c a t i o n o f f e r i n g ” 370
 emphasis of deceased’s ka
 alread y from First Intermediate Period the phrase “he who honored by
( n a m e o f t h e g o d ) ” 371 e m p h a s i s t h e d i v i n e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e d e c e a s e d .

365 Faulkner, 1973, p. 185


366 Faulkner, 1977, p. 28)
367 Faulkner, 1977, pp. 146-147
368 Faulkner, 1977, p. 305
369 Faulkner, 1973, p. 156
370 Gardiner, 1957, p. 172 and Κουσούλης, 2015, σ. 95
82
These are two examples of the CT:
C T V , 1 6 5 ( S p e l l 3 9 9 ) 372 “ A b o o n w h i c h t h e k i n g g r a n t s ( t o ) A n u b i s w h o i s o n
his mountain, who is in the place of embalming, Lord of the Sacred Land, in all
his pure and fair places, (namely) invocation offerings for one who is honoured
with the great god, Lord of the sky, for N, the worthy and vindicated; a thousand
of bread and beer, a thousand of cattle, poultry, wild game, alabaster, clothing,
the funeral meal, and a thousand of all pure and good things of which the spirits
wi sh t o eat, f or N […] ”.
C T V I I , 1 1 2 ( S p e l l 9 0 8 ) 373 “ A b o o n w h i c h t h e k i n g g r a n t s ( a n d a l s o ) A n u b i s w h o
presides over the god's booth, Lord of the Netherworld, to whom the Westerners
g i v e w o r s h i p ; L o r d o f S e p a , p r e - e m i n e n t i n t h e S a c r e d L a n d ; [ . . .] w h o d w e l l s i n
the middle sky, the fourth of the Children of Re, who was caused to descend from
the sky to put Osiris in order, because he was so highly regarded 'by Re and the
gods. May he grant that N's tomb will benefit”.
3.2.3. Middle Kingdom: The Book of Two Ways
T h e b o o k o f t h e T w o W a ys i s a t t e s t e d o n t h e c o f f i n f r o m D e i r e l B a r s h a d u r i n g
t h e M i d d l e K i n g d o m , c o n t a i n i n g a “ m a p ” t o U n d e r w o r l d r e a l m 374 a n d i s t h e n o n -
r o ya l C o f f i n T e x t c o m p o s i t i o n 375 ( C T 1 0 2 9 - 1 1 8 5 ) . T h e r o l e o f A n u b i s i s n o t
important and in the few passages which he is attested, he is dealing with rituals
and the akhification.
C T 5 1 3 , V I 9 8 i s a l s o a t t e s t e d o n B o o k o f t h e T w o W a ys , i n w h i c h A n u b i s i s
addressed again with the power of akhification. This passage deals with the
deceased state before the animation and the aftermath of the akhification by
Anubis.
“My dissolution was caused yesterday, I have returned today, a path has been
prepared for me, and I will go up and take possession of the shape of Anubis. I
am one who is tousled (?), I who went up into his horizon; I am one who is
dishevelled, who went up with his scepter; I am Lord of my wrrt-crown; I am the
third of the magicians, I being one whom Maret protects; I am the Red One, the
protector of his Eye. I died yesterday, I raised myself today, I returned today,

371 Dawood, 1998


372 Faulkner, 1977, p. 41
373 Faulkner, 1978, p. 59
374 Sherbiny, 2017, p. 1
375 Lesko, 1977, p. 2
83
and a path has been prepared for me, (even me) the door-keeper of the great
w a r s h i p ” 376.
CT 1047, VII 300: “What Anubis bewails is the offerings in the day of straw!
a m o n g t h o s e w h o m a k e x n m t - c a k e s 377 f o r O s i r i s . I a m h e w h o i s a t t h e h a n d o f
Thoth, I am he who cooks a bnmt-cake for Osiris among those who make
o f f e r i n g s ; w h a t A n u b i s b e w a i l s i s t h e o f f e r i n g s o n t h e d a y o f s t r a w 378” . I n t h i s
passage, Anubis is “mourning the offerings” of the deceased suggesting the
preparation of the funeral meals from the deceased in the name of Osiris. The
p a s s a g e i s p l a c e d o n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e o f f e r i n g f o r m u l a 379 a n d A n u b i s s e e m s t o
be waiting for the meal to be received.
3.2.4. Second Interme-0diate Period (17th Dynasty) to Late Period: Anubis in
Book of the Dead
In the Book of the Dead, the face and the parts of the deceased’s bod y are still
a d d r e s s i n g t o A n u b i s a n d h i s d i v i n e e p i t h e t s o f t h e p r e v i o u s ye a r s c o n t i n u e t o b e
carried by the god. Despite the fact that in the New Kingdom the representation
of Anubis is rich, many examples exist in literature of his name not being
mentioned but his representetion is being used as a supplement to the text.
What seems to be a refference to Anubis’s magic is in the BD 147: “I have
come today, I have come today. Make way for me, (that I may proceed), (O you)
whom (I) Anubis created I am lord of the Coil, one who has planned magic,
saved truth, and saved his eye. I have brought Osiris' eye to him. Make way for
m e , t h a t I m a y p a s s ” 380.
The fate of the damned comes from BD 144: “Anubis ordered to the bearers of
offerings, that there should be offerings to N. of his own, and that they should
n o t b e t a k e n f r o m h i m b y t h o s e w h o a r e i n c a p t i v i t y ” 381. A s a l r e a d y s e e n i n P T
and CT, those who were unfaithful were sentenced to a series of punishments.
Here the offerings, which are needed for the soul’s nurishment never reach them.
Once again the protective aspect of Anubis is revealed from the BD 17: “And as
for those 7 blessed ones, (they are) Imset, Hapi, Duamutef, Qebehsenuf, He
whom his father sees, He who is under his Moringa Tree, and Horus with No

376 Faulkner, 1977, p. 145


377 Leskso translated it as fragrant-cook Lesko, 1977, p. 52
378 Faulkner, 1978, p. 136
379 Sherbiny, 2017, p. 213
380 Allen, 1960, p. 251 and Renouf & Naville, 1904, p. 298
381 Renouf & Naville, 1904, p. 288
84
Eyes in his forehead. Anubis made them the magical protection of the burial of
O s i r i s ” 382. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p a s s a g e r e f e r s t o h i s m a g i c a l a b i l i t i e s .
A passage of Anubis affirming him as the protector is from BD 151: “Said by
Anubis in his divine hall, the lord of the Sacred Land. I keep watch over thy
head. Awake, thou on the mountain. Thy wrath is averted. I have averted thy
f u r i o u s w r a t h . I a m t h y p r o t e c t o r ” 383. T h i s p a s s a g e i s f l l e d w i t h r a g e a n d s e r v e s
as an invocation for the enemies to be prepared for his deeds as the protector.
T h e B D 1 2 5 384 i s a n artistic flourishment that represents the deceased's
judgment (see Chapter 2 and Chapter 4). In this chapter Anubis leads the
deceased in front of the gods to make his Negative Confession. Already BD 30
mentioned that Anubis is one of those who takes part in the judment: “Speech of
one who is in the place of embalming: Pay good heed, O righteous Judge to the
B a l a n c e t o s u p p o r t [ t h e t e s t i m o n y] 385
”. Even though, his name is not cited the
epithet “who is in the place of embalming” is refering to him.
In addition to this, before entering the Hall of Truth, as Anubis leads the
deceased there he requires the secret words from the deceased so as to open the
door to the hall of justice.
“And the Majesty of Anubis shall say unto me: "Do you know the name of this
door and can you say it?" And the Osiris the scribe Ani, whose word is truth, in
peace, whose word is truth, shall say, "Khersek-Shu" is the name of this door.
And the Majesty of the god Anubis shall say unto me: "Do you know the name of
the upper leaf and the name of the low er leaf? "[And the Osiris the scribe Ani]
shall say: "Neb-Maat-heri-retiu-f" is the name of the upper leaf and "Neb-pehti-
thesu-menment" [is the name of the lower leaf. And the Majesty of the god
A n u b i s s h a l l s a y] : " P a s s o n , b e c a u s e y o u h a v e t h e k n o w l e d g e , O O s i r i s t h e
scribe, the assessor of the holy offerings of all the gods of Thebes. Ani, whose
w o r d i s t r u t h , t h e l o r d o f l o y a l s e r v i c e [ t o O s i r i s ] ” 386.
The involvement of Anubis during the mummifation continues in the Book of
t h e D e a d , b u t , o t h e r t h a n i n t h e C o f f i n T e x t s , t h e E g yp t i a n s a v o i d e d g i v i n g l u r i d
details about what happened during the procedure. Any references that we come
across are very simple and highlighted with his epithets.

382 Allen, 1960, p. 90, Budge, 1898, p. 53 and Budge, 1913, p. 388
383 Renouf & Naville, 1904, p. 310
384 I t i s d i s t i g u i s h e d i n t h r e e c h a p t e r s : T h e c h a p t e r e n t e r i n g i n t h e H a l l o f M a a t , t h e c h a p t e r o f

Negative Con fession, and the ch ap ter enterin g to the gods who are in the Duat.
385 B u d g e , 1 9 1 3 , p . 3 7 3
386( B u d g e , 1 9 1 3 , p . 5 7 )

85
BD 26 illustrates Anubis giving back the deceased’s heart. In the Anubis’s
shrine at Tutankhamen’s tomb the god adrressed to the deaceased “I bring you
y o u r h e a r t a n d g i v e i t t o i n i t s p l a c e i n y o u r b o d y ” 387.
BD 145: “I have washed myself in the water wherein the god Anuubis washed
w h e n h e h a d p e r f o r m e d t h e o f f i c e o f e m b a l m e r a n d b a n d a g e r [ … ] " 388
BD 151: “T he god Anubis, who dwelles in the [city of] embalmment, the
governor of the divine house, places his two hands upon the lord of life of
Nebseni, the scribe and draughtsman of the Temple of Ptah, the lord of piety, the
son of the scribe and designer Thena, triumphant, born of the lady of the house
Mut-resth, triumphant, and he furnishes him with the things which belong to
h i m ” 389.
The BD 151 was carved on clay bricks, placed on the four sides (north, south,
east and west) of the burial chambers as an apotropaic amulet, and were being
u s e d f r o m t h e N e w K i n g d o m t o t h e 3 0 t h D yn a s t y 390 ( F i g u r e 6 0 ) .
F i n a l l y, a H t p - d j - n s w t f o r m u l a i s a t t e s t e d i n a v e r y s i m p l y f o r m :
“A royal offering to Anubis the embalmer, that he may give goodly burial in the
g o d ' s d o m a i n t o O s i r i s N ” 391.
3.2.5. New Kingdom: Anubis in other Afterlife books
The representation and references to Anubis can be found almost in all
Afterlife books, but his role is centered in his protective aspect. The most
known books, besides the Book of the Dead, are the Book of Amduat and the
Book of Gates, which are very similar to each other. Both depict the journey of
the sun-god Ra to Duat during the night hours. The Book of Amduat is divided
into 12 divisions and the Book of Gates in 12 hours. The god, with the help of
other divinities and entities, defeats the demon Apep who threatens the world
and these actions take place in the 7th division in the Book of Amduat, but in the
Book of Gates the battle against Apep is through the 3rd, 6th, 10th, 11th and 12th
h o u r 392. F i n a l l y, i n t h e e n d o f R a ’ s t r a v e l / j o u r n e y t h e g o d i s r e s u r r e c t e d a s t h e
new sun.
In the 3rd division (Figure 61) on the first register of Amduat, Anubis of
Thebes (Ramesses VI’s tomb) is one of the gods that with their voice and praise
to the god Ra will help Nu to be born, Nile to flow and Ra to avenge his
387 Assmann, 2001, p. 102
388 Budge, 1898, p. 247
389 R e n o u f & N a v i l l e , 1 9 0 4 a n d B u d g e , 1 8 9 8 , p . 2 7 5
390
Scalf, 2017, p. 311
391 A l l e n , 1 9 6 0 , p . 2 8 7
392 Κ ο υ σ ο ύ λ η ς , 2 0 1 5 , σ . 7 8

86
e n e m i e s 393. F u r t h e r m o r e , A n u b i s a n d t h e o t h e r g o d s w i l l h e l p t h e g o o d s o u l t o
p a s s t h e d i v i s i o n w i t h s a f e t y. I n t h e 4 t h d i v i s i o n , A n u b i s i s d e p i c t e d a s a h a u l e r
o f t h e s o l a r b o a t o f R a 394; c a n i d e n t i t i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y d e p i c t e d a s h a u l e r s 395:
“they who guard Anubis in his form of hauler when he pass by them in their
s a c r e d l a n d ” . H e i s a l s o p o r t r a ye d i n t h e 5 t h d i v i s i o n ( F i g u r e 6 2 ) i n t h e m i d d l e
of the scene of the 1st register before the mountain of darkness from which
K h e p r i w i l l d e b o u c h 396, c a r r yi n g t h e e p i t h e t “ A n u b i s o f t h e c h e s t ” . A t t h e e n d o f
b o t h s i d e s o f t h e r e g i s t e r a r e N e p h t h ys a n d I s i s t a k i n g p a r t i n t h e c e l e s t i a l s c e n e .
Anubis is depicted in the 3rd hour of the Book of Gates from the decorated
alabaster sarcophagus of Seti I, declares himself as “he who in the place of
embalming” and “foremost of the divine booth”. He praises Osiris and his true
w o r d s s h i e l d h i m f r o m t h o s e w h o w o r k a g a i n s t h i m 397. I n t h e 5 t h h o u r ( F i g u r e 6 3 )
the judgment hall of Osiris (see Chapter 2) and his damned enemies in the form
o f a p i g a r e p o t r a y e d 398 ( R a m e s s e s V I ’ s t o m b ) . A n u b i s s t a n d s u p r i g h t a n d h e
invokes Thoth to judge the deceased’s words and he, himself, protects his father
b y e a t i n g h i m , a n a c t i o n v e r y s i m i l a r t o s w a l l o w i n g 399.
Another afterlife book is the Book of the Caverns, in which the Underworld is
divided in 6 caverns. The concept is the same with the previous books but its
difference lies on the fate of the cursed ones. The last register of this book
underlines the torture of the damned, delivered with ghoulish detailed
r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s 400.
Regarding to Anubis (Ramesses VI’s tomb), the sun-god Ra advises and
i n s t r u c t s A n u b i s o n h o w t o c e a s e a d e a d b o d y f r o m t h e d e c o m p o s i t i o n 401.
M o r e o v e r , h e i s p o r t r a ye d i n t h e 3 r d c a v e r n i n s i d e t h e c o f f i n b e f o r e O s i r i s ’ s
s h r i n e 402, a s a l s o i n t h e 4 t h c a v e r n ( F i g u r e 6 4 ) w i t h t h e c o m p a n y o f H o r u s b o t h
a t t e n d i n g t o t h e b o d y o f O s i r i s 403. I n t h e 5 t h c a v e r n ( F i g u r e 6 5 ) A n u b i s i s i n f r o n t
o f a s h r i n e c o n t a i n i n g t h e s c e p t e r o f A t u m 404 a n d b e h i n d o f f o u r m u m m i f i e d
h a w k - h e a d e d f i g u r e s 405. T h e s e m u m m i f i e d f i g u r e s r e i n f o r c e h i s r o l e a s g u a r d i a n .

393 Budge, 1905, p. 51


394 Budge, 1905, p. 69
395 Manassa, 2007, p. 119
396 Darnell, 2004, p. 74, Roberson, 2014, p. 282 and Manassa, 2007, p. 123
397 Budge, 1906, pp. 50,52
398 Hornung, 1999, p. 62
399 Budge, 1906, p. 163
400 Κουσούλης, 2015, σ. 82
401 Hart, 2005, p. 26
402 Roberson, 2014, p. 282
403 Roberson, 2007, p. 147, Manassa, 2007, p. 42 and Hornung, 1999, p. 94
404 Hornung, 1999, p. 89
405 Billing, 2006, p. 66
87
A n o t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f A n u b i s a t t e n d i n g / h i d i n g 406 the corpse of Osiris comes
from a sequence of depictions from the 6th cavern (Figure 66-67). In the first
o n e , A n u b i s i s b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o r p s e s o f O s i r i s 407 , w h i c h a r e i n a s a r c o p h a g u s ,
with his ba over them and in the second one he is standing behind the
sarcophagus. In the last cavern, Anubis is identified as the one who hid the
corpse of Osiris: “My corpse and my head are in her cavern, Anubis hides that
w h i c h h e h a s g a t h e r e d t o g e t h e r ” 408.
In Scenes from the Litan y of Ra and the Book of Earth, Anubis is depicted
watching over a chest, as also attested above, which might be a reference to the
c a n o p i c c h e s t , a n d h i s e p i t h e t H r y s S t A 409. T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n e m a n a t e s f r o m t h e
word sStA, which follows the text and means “conceals”, or “hide”. The hidden
action is attested, as mentioned before, for the protection of Osiris’s corpse
f r o m h i s e n e m i e s . F i n a l l y, i n t h e B o o k o f N i g h t , A n u b i s ’ s r o l e i s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t
and a passage is addressed to his role during the judgement “May your bas
p r o t e c t y o u , w h e n A n u b i s r e c k o n s y o u r h e a r t s ” 410.
3.2.6. New Kingdom: The Tale of the Two Brothers (Papyrus d’ Orbinaey)
T h e p a p y r u s i s d a t e d a t t h e e n d o f t h e 1 9 t h D yn a s t y a n d r e c o u n t s t h e s t o r y o f
t w o b r o t h e r s , A n p u , t h e e l d e r a n d B a t a , t h e yo u n g e r b r o t h e r . T h e r e i s a
c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r t h e s t o r y o n w h e t h e r i t i s a m yt h o r a f o l k l o r e . D u n d e s s t a t e s 411
t h a t t h e s t o r y i s a f o l k l o r e o n e a n d u n d e r l i n e s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m yt h a n d
folklore, in which the first speaks about the creation of the world and the latter
about a hero’s wonder, in which gods can take part in. He also emphasizes on the
idea that the attempt of Bata’s seduction by his brother’s wife is a projective
i n v e r s i o n o f B a t a ’ s o w n d e s i r e s 412. P a r t s o f t h e T a l e o f t h e t w o B r o t h e r s a r e
s i m i l a r t o t h e U g a r i t t e x t ( K T U ) 413 a n d t h e l a t e r t a l e s o f “ J o s e p h a n d P o t i p h s a r ’ s
W i f e ” , “ T h e F a i t h l e s s W i f e ” a n d “ T h e T r e a c h e r o u s W i f e ” 414.
T h e s t o r y g o e s a s f o l l o w s 415:
Bata lived with Anpu and his wife, but one day she tried to seduce Bata. After
her rejection from the latter the unnamed wife ran to Anpu and said that Bata
tried to seduce her. Anpu furious tried to kill his brother. Bata, after being

406 Manassa, 2007, p. 385, D.E., n.d.and C.N., n.d.


407 Hornung, 1999, p. 87
408 Manassa, 2007, p. 380
409 Darnell, 2004, p. 74 and Roberson, 2014, p. 282
410 Manassa, 2007, p. 162
411 Dundes, 2002, p. 381
412 Dundes, 2002, p. 386
413 Schneider, 2008, p. 316
414 Dundes, 2002, p. 386
415 Abstract from Moldenke, 1900
88
informed by the cow about the intentions of his brother, prayed to Ra-Horakhti,
for his salvation and the god created a crocodile infested river for Bata between
the two brothers. Then Bata had the time to tell the truth. To ensure of his
words’ truth he cut off his genitalia and threw them in the water, where a
catfish ate them.
Bata informed his brother that he will go to the Valley of the Pine and he will
place his heart upon a blossom of acacia tree. If the tree was ever cut down,
Anpu would be able to bring Bata back to life. In addition, if Anpu was ever
given a jar with foam beer, he would know that Bata is dead.
With this plan, Bata left and was finally established in the Valley of Cedar,
with a wife, who was created by Khnum. Anpu, after the true confession of his
younger brother, went to his home, killed his wife and her body was eaten by
dogs.
When the pharaoh learned of Bata’s wife divine origin, he took her for his own
pleasure. The wife told the pharaoh to cut down the tree, leading Bata to death.
Far from the Valley of Cedar, Anpu received the foretelling beer and
understood that his brother was dead. He immediately flew to the Valley of
Cedar and when he finally found his brother’s heart, he put it in a bowl of cold
water. Bata was resurrected as a bull and went to his wife, who immediately
asked the pharaoh to sacrifice him. Bata died again but two drops of his blood
fell and two Persea trees grew. Again, he tried to speak with his wife, but once
more Bata died when the pharaoh cut the trees. The pharaoh made a furniture of
the trees’ woods. However, a splinter fell in his wife’s mouth and impregnated
her. When the son, who was Bata resurrected, was born, the pharaoh made him a
prince and when the pharaoh died, Bata became king and appointed Anpu as a
hereditary prince. Bata ruled in peace for many years and when he died, Anpu
ascended to the throne.
There are many opinions on the story of two brothers and we will look at each
one s eparat el y.
Assmann’s opinion is about “the reverberation of conflict between sedentary
f a r m e r s a n d n o m a d s ” 416. A n p u w a s t h e m a s t e r o f t h e h o u s e , h e h a d f i e l d s ,
livestock and a wife, meanwhile Bata was at his brother’s work and home. Bata
w a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l a n d a n i m a l h u s b a n d r y, a n d a s t h e s t o r y g o e s , i n

416 Schneider, 2008, p. 315


89
his adventures he is regarded as the nomad and Anpu as the sedentary farmer
who was challenged by him.
In this political theme we could also add Schneider’s opinion that the tale is
told to legitimize the succession to the throne for first or other blood
r e l a t i v e s 417. F u r t h e r m o r e , i t c o u l d b e a p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e p r i e s t h o o d
f o r t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f B a t a o r A n u b i s a s p a t r o n g o d o f t h e 1 7 t h n o m e 418.
B a i n e s s p e a k s a b o u t i t “ a s a k i n d o f O s i r i a n m y t h ” 419. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s , t h e
aspect of Anpu as the mortuary deity is attested to the text, in order to bring his
brother back, as Anubis had done before for Osiris. However, in the text, we can
identify neither the model of Isis, nor the Anubis and Bata’s brotherhood were
never before attested in literature.
Furthermore, considering the succession to the throne first by Bata, who is
resurrected and then by Anpu, these two kings show the divine origin of the
Pharaoh (in the case of Bata) and might be a contribution to the god Anubis as
the legitimate son of Osiris.
K a t a r y s t a t e s t h a t i t i s “ e x p r e s s i n g m a l e h a t r e d o f w o m e n ” 420. I n t h i s c o n t e x t ,
the adulterous wives of Anpu and Bata are convicted for their weak hearts.
However, in the case of Anpu’s wife he left her body get eaten by the dogs. This
act not only shows the revengeful fury of the husband but also the condemnation
of the woman to be tortured in the Afterlife since the rules in the Egyptian
religion about the deceased body were not followed. This originates from the
E g yp t i a n n o t i o n ( a n d t h e n o t i o n o f m a n y a n c i e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n s ) t h a t w o m e n a r e
d e g r a d e d . T h e P h a r a o h , w h o w a s s yn o n ym o u s t o p o w e r a n d d i v i n i t y, w a s a b l e t o
h a v e c o n c u b i n e s i n h i s a u t h o r i t y. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l f r a m e o f
t h e t e x t , R a m m e s s e s I I h a d o v e r 5 0 s o n s a n d a h u n d r e d g r a n d s o n s 421, w h i c h
shows the excessive amount of concubines in his court. Moreover, with the
“eaten by the dogs” act the tale shows the power of the pharaoh/husband over
the woman’s soul.
3 . 2 . 7 . P t o l e m a i c P e r i o d : J u m i l h a c P a p y r u s 422
The Jumilhac Papyrus is a voluminous source of the adventures of god Anubis
i n t h e 1 7 t h a n d 1 8 t h n o m e 423 o f U p p e r E g y p t . H e i s p o r t r a y e d a s t h e h e r o o f t h e

417Schneider, 2008, p. 320


418Simpson, 2003, p. 92
419 S c h n e i d e r , 2 0 0 8 , p . 3 1 5
420 S c h n e i d e r , 2 0 0 8 , p . 3 1 5
421 S c h n e i d e r , 2 0 0 8 , p . 3 1 9
422 A n o t h e r p a p y r u s n a m e d “ T h e B o o k o f H o u r s ” ( P t o l e m a i c P e r i o d , 3 r d c e n t u r y B . C . E . ) r e f e r s t o

Anubis and other gods, but his role is inactive, and functions as the accompanying presence of
Osiris, Sokar and Ptah Faulkneρ, 1954, p. 34.
90
story alongside the god Horus, the patron god of the 18th nome; Anubis at
various times is confused with Horus and sometimes he bears the name of Horus-
A n u b i s 424.
M a n y l e g e n d s a n d s t o r i e s a r e a t t e s t e d o n t h i s p a p yr u s ; o n e o f t h e m o s t k n o w n i s
the story of the panther’s skin. When Anubis kills the usurper god Seth his blood
f e l l o n t h e p a n t h e r a n d c h a n g e d i t s s k i n 425. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e s e m - p r i e s t s w o r e
that skin as a cloth in attribution to the victorious act against the evil and was
used as an explanation for the origin of sem-priest clothing.
In the legend of Horus’ box es, Anubis tries to take the boxes, which contain the
t w o e ye s o f H o r u s . S e t h h a d t h e m s t o l e n b y h i s m e n , t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a
crocodile and was established at a mountain. Anubis turned into a winged
serpent armed with knives, accompanied by six serpents which were throwing
flames. When he took back the boxes, he buried them; since then, Anubis has
been called "The Fugitive”. With the help of Thoth and his magical spell "The
wind that comes out of the house of Anubis takes you away”, Anubis beat Seth
and put on the mountain the two boxes of Horus. As the story ends, the
identification of Horus-Anubis is being mentioned again b y Isis, when she went
t o t h e c a s t l e o f t h e d i v i n e a d o r e r 426.
O t h e r s t o r i e s o f t h e p a p yr u s m e n t i o n t h a t H o r u s t u r n e d i n t o A n u b i s a n d
g a t h e r e d t h e m e m b e r s o f O s i r i s i n a b a g , i n s i d e t h e h o u s e o f t h e b a n d a g e s 427; t h e
g a t h e r i n g o f O s i r i s p a r t s i s a t t e s t e d i n o t h e r p a s s a g e s o f t h e p a p yr u s w i t h t h e
a c c o m p a n y o f T h o t h 428. F r o m t h e l e g e n d o f t h e b e a s t , t h e h e r o e s o f t h e s t o r y a r e
a w o l f a n d n i n e d o g s , a " h yp o s t a s e s " o f s e v e r a l g r e a t g o d s o f t h e E g y p t i a n
p a n t h e o n ; t w o o f t h e m a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s A n u b i s 429. I n o t h e r s t o r i e s , t h e S e t h i a n
a s p e c t o f A n u b i s 430 o r t h e d i s g u i s e o f t h e f o r m e r a s A n u b i s i s m a t e r i a l i z e d 431
; an
interesting one is about the disguise of Seth as Anubis, in which Seth took the
name Bata, echoing the “Tale of the Two Brothers”. In contrast to the New
K i n g d o m s t o r y , h e r e B a t a i s p o r t r a ye d a s a v i l l a i n , s i n c e h e i s t h e e m b o d i m e n t o f
t h e g o d S e t h 432.

423 Wilson, 2010, p. 801


424 From the Ethiopian geographical list the compound Anubis-Horus is attested and is the only
finding that the name of Anubis is preceding that of Horus Vandier, 1962, p. 32
425 V a n d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p . 1 3
426 V a n d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p p . 7 4 - 7 9
427 V a n d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p . 3 9
428 V a n d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p . 1 1 0
429 V a n d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p . 8 6
430 V a n d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p . 9 6
431 V a n d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p . 1 0 4
432 V a n d i e r , 1 9 6 2 , p . 1 0 5

91
The connection of Anubis and Horus (or even the form of Anubis as a falcon) is
c o n f i r m e d i n m a n y p a r t s o f t h e p a p yr u s . A s a l r e a d y s e e n i n C h a p t e r 2 , a n
alternative animal head of Anubis was that of a falcon, although extremely rarer.
In addition, the embalming aspect of Anubis that is attested on the papyrus, as
also the story of the sem-priest’s cloth origin is interesting if these legends are
t h e w i t n e s s e s o f a n c i e n t m yt h s c o m i n g t o l i f e f r o m a m o r e e l a b o r a t e a n d c o m p l e x
viewpoint.

92
FIGURES

Fig ure 60. Tutankhame n’s


ma gic al brick © Sca lf, 2017, p.
101, Figure 8.4

Figure 61. Anubis of Thebes, the 3rd division © C.N., n.d.

Fig ure 62. Boo k of Amduat, the 5th division © C.N., n.d .

Figure 63. Book of Gates, the 5th hour © Hornung, 1999, p. 70

93
Figure 64. Book of Caverns, the 4th cavern © Hornung, 1999, p. 94

Fig ure 65. Boo k of Cav erns, the 5th cav ern © D.E., n.d.

Figure 66. Book of Caverns, the 6th cavern Figure 67. Book of Caverns, the 6th
© D.E., n.d. cavern © D.E., n.d.

94
4. PRIESTS, RITUALS-FESTIVALS AND RITUAL OBJECTS
4.1. Priests
T h e p r i e s t h o o d ( F i g u r e 6 8 ) a s a f u l l t i m e j o b s t a r t e d i n t h e N e w K i n g d o m 433, i n
t he previ ous years i t was a part t im e j ob i n whi ch ever y m an was cons idered an
a c t i v e p r i e s t a n d t h r o u g h t i m e b e c a m e i n h e r i t e d 434. T h e p r i e s t , a p a r t f r o m t h e i r
d a i l y d u t i e s , w o r k e d a s s t a t e o f f i c i a l s , l a n d ’ s m a n a g e m e n t s , f a r m e r s 435 e t c ; t h e y
could ascend from a low title to a senior and the king was considered as the high
p r i e s t 436. T h e p r i e s t w a s a h i g h l r a n k p o s i t i o n s i n c e h e w a s t h e l i n k b e t w e e n t h e
h u m a n s a n d t h e g o d s a n d t h e y h a d t o b e t h e o f f s p i n g s o f a p r i e s t l y f a m i l y,
c i r c u m c i s e d a n d a b l e t o r e a d H i e r a t i c 437. T h e p r i e s t h o o d c a n b e c a t e g o r i z e d i n
t h e 438:
 Temple priesthood for daily rituals and festivals in the temple. Close
assossiation to the temple had the Hwt nbw (House of Gold), which was the
place of the artist finishing a cult statue; pr mDAt (House of Books), which was
the storage of spells, litanies, and ritual objects and pr anX (House of Life),
which was storage for the mummification and crowning texts and acted as
faculty for the new priests.
 Mortuary priesthood related to the rituals and activities in the tombs.
 Domestic and magic priesthood for home protrection through apotropaic and
medical spells.
T h e m o s t r e c o g n i z e d p r i e s t s o f a n c i e n t E g yp t w e r e :

 Lector-priests (Xry-Hbt) : In illustration, these priests wore a


s a s h i n t h e i r c h e s t s 439 a n d t h e h i e r o g l y p h i c n a m e m e a n s “ h e w h o c a r r i e s t h e
book-roll” verified their duties especially in the funerary liturgies and the
e m b a l m i n g p r o c e d u r e s a s t h e y r e d f r o m a r o l l o f p a p y r u s 440. A p a s s a g e f r o m
several inscriptions of the Old Kingdom depicts the moment that the deceased
passes the gate of the Afterlife (in the real time) with the help of a lector-priest
a n d A n u b i s ( T a b l e 5 ) ; t h i s a l s o v e r i f i e s t h e m a g i c a l p o w e r s o f t h e p r i e s t s 441. A n
example of the above is “Going down into his house of eternity in very great
peace that he might be provisioned by Anubis and Khentamentiu after a mortuary

433 Doxey, 2001, p. 68


434 Doxey, 2001, p. 68 and Shafer, 2005, p. 9
435 Warburton, 2007, p. 188
436 Shafer, 2005, p. 9
437 Jansen-Winkeln, 1993, p. 224
438 Doxey, 2001, p. 71
439 Sauneron, 1960, p. 40
440 Assmann, 2001, p. 33 and Shafer, 2005, p. 12
441 Doxey, 2001, p. 69
95
offering is brought for him at the opening of the shaft, after crossing the lake
after he is transfigured by the lector priests. Setting out to the western
mountain, after crossing the lake while he was transfigured by the lector priest
and the rites were carried out for him by the embalmer in the presence of
Anubis. May the crossing of the lake be carried out for him, may he be
t r a n s fi g u r e d t h r o u g h t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h e r i t e s b y t h e l e c t o r p r i e s t ” 442. T h e
lector-priests had a deep knowledge in medicine, and they knew how to cure
v e n o m o u s d i s e a s e s , t o t r e a t a n a n i m a l 443 o r h o w t o m a k e a l o c e c h a r m s 444. T h e i r
a s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e m a g i c a l a n d m e d i c a l p r a c t i c e s 445 c a t e g o r i z e d t h e m b o t h a s
temple and mortuary priests.

 Hem-priests (Hmw-nTr) : they wore panther cloths as the sem-priests and


s a h - n e c k l a c e d e p i c t i n g a c a n i d w i t h h u m a n h a n d s 446. T h e h i e r o g l yp h i c n a m e
means “god’s servant” or “prophets” it is related to men who had access in
whole temple including the cult image. In the case of women it is “god’s wife”
(Xmt-nTr) and they were mostly connected with temple rituals. Their roles,
b e yo n d r i t u a l s , w e r e t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f o f f e r i n g s , t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e
t e m p l e s ’ s e c o n o m i c s y s t e m 447, c o n t r o l l i n g t h e t e m p l e ’ s e n t r a n c e 448. T h i s p r i e s t l y
title was very important and limited; could be viziers, sons and son-in-laws of
t h e k i n g 449, a s a l s o o f t h e l o c a l g o v e r n o r . A l o t o f w o m e n h e l d t h e “ g o d ’ s w i f e ”
t i t l e a n d t h e q u e e n A h m o s e - N e f e r t a r i ( N e w K i n g d o m ) 450 s e r v e d a s A m u n ’ s
prophet.
The funerary stela of Mentuhotep depicted him as a the prophet of Anubis and
thus giving historical information about the period: “…I am a companion
beloved of his lord, doing that which pleases his god daily, prince, count, sem
pri est, mast er of every w ardrobe of Horus, prophet of Anubi s of […] , t he Hry
ydb, Mentuhotep, prince in the seats of “Splendor”' at whose voice they (are
permitted to) speak in the king's-house, in charge of the silencing of the

442 Assmann, 2001, p. 32


443 Sauneron, 1960, p. 161
444 Sauneron, 1960, p. 166
445 Doxey, 2001, p. 69
446 Shafer, 2005, p. 11
447 Doxey, 2001, p. 69
448 Shafer, 2005, p. 10
449 Shafer, 2005, p. 10
450 Doxey, 2001, p. 70 and Shafer, 2005, p. 14
96
courtiers, unique one of the king, without his like, who sends up the truth to the
p a l a c e , g r e a t h e r a l d o f g o o d t h i n g s , a l o n e g r e a t , s u s t a i n i n g a l i v e t h e p e o p l e ” 451.

 Sem-priests (smw or sm) : their most recongnised role was during the
Opening of the mouth ritual, in which they acted as Horus and the dead as
O s i r i s 452. T h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e m a n a t e s f r o m t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a n t h e r c l o t h i n g ;
u n l i k e t h e o t h e r p r i e s t s , t h e J u m i l h a c P a p yr u s m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e i r c l o t h h a d
been made by Seth’s blood (see Chapter 3)

 Wab-priests (wab) : indications show that this category gained its


t i t l e w h e n t h e p r i e s t s w e r e yo u n g 453. T h e s e p r i e s t s w e r e l o w e r r a n k e d a n d
assossiated with the temple rituals. They were assistants of the Hem-priests and
took part in the embalming process. From an inscription dated in the Middle
K i n g d o m , t w o w o m e n 454 c a r r i e d t h e t i t l e o f w a b - p r i e s t e s s 455, a s a l s o N e s h o n s ,
d a u g h t e r o f S m e n d e s I I 456. Τ h e r e a s o n f o r t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e p r i e s t s w i t h
A n u b i s i s u n d e r s t o o d , s i n c e A n u b i s w a s t h e f i r s t e m b a l m e r . T e t i ’ s P T ( T 1 4 4 ) 457
cit ed: […] To me shoul d you come, to me should you come; you shoul d indeed
come to me, who am Horus who tends his father, oh Teti, and your Anubis-
w rapper […] .
From the Middle Kingdom the Contract VII of Hepzefi is a source about the
transaction between the priest and, in this case, the official. Moreover, it shows
the custom’s traces during the New Year and wag-festival associated with
Anubis: “Contract which the nomarch, the chief priest, Hepzefi, true of voice,
made with the great wab-priest of Anubis, for three wicks which are to be due to
him, with which the lamp (torch ?) is to be lighted in the temple of Anubis, one
on the fifth intercalary day, on the eve of the New Year, another on New Year’s
day, another on the 17th of the first month of the first season, on the eve of the
wag-festival. That which he gave to him in return was 1000 (measures) of
agricultural land in Sema-resi of the land of his father, as compensation for
these three wicks which he shall give to my ka-priest in order to light for the
l a m p ( t o r c h ? ) t h e r e w i t h . A n d h e w a s s a t i s f i e d t h e r e w i t h ” 458.

451Breasted, 1906, p. 256


452Doxey, 2001, p. 69
453 J a n s e n - W i n k e l n , 1 9 9 3 , p . 2 2 3
454 M o s t o f t h e t i m e w o m e n s e r v e d a s s i n g e r s a n d m u s i c i a n s c a r r i n g t h e H n r t i t l e ( m u s i c i a n t r o u p e )

Doxey, 2001, p. 70.


455 D o x e y , 2 0 0 1 , p . 6 9
456 W a r b u r t o n , 2 0 0 7 , p . 1 8 3
457 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 7 2
458 B r e a s t e d , 1 9 0 6 , p . 2 6 7 and Reisner, 1918, p. 86
97
 Servants of the ka/ka-priests (Hmw kA) : they gave to the deceased the
et ernal li fe, accompanyi ng t he l ect or and wab-priest s. The y were res ponsibl e for
t h e f u n e r a r y m e a l s 459 a n d t h e o f f e r i n g f o r m u l a w a s r e c i t e d b y t h e m 460 a n d u s u a l l y
t h e y w e r e d e p i c t e d o n f a l s e d o o r s 461. I n e a r l y ye a r s , w o m e n s e r v e d a s H m w k A ,
but later they served as mourners (Dry), the manifestations of Isis and
N e p h t h ys 462.

 Magicians (Hqaw) : they knew magical and medicine spells


p r a c t i c e d i n a p o t r o p a i c m a g i c ; s p e c i a l i z e d i n d r e a m i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 463 a n d t h e
p r o d u c t i o n o f a m u l e t s 464. T h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e s a r e f r o m t h e N e w K i n g d o m
p a p yr u s , s h o w i n g a n e x a m p l e o f d r e a m s ’ i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : “ I f a m a n s e e s h i m s e l f
i n his dreamdrinking w ine - good - [it is] that he will open his mouth to speak;
sitt ing in a tree - good - [it i s] the destructi on of all his w oes; kill ing a goose -
g o o d - [ i t i s ] t o k i l l h i s e n e m i e s [ … ] ” 465.

 Astronomer and hour priests (wnwt) : they had a deep knowledge in


astronomy (positions of the stars, moon’s phases etc.) and they were able to
keep solar and lunar calendars: “When the arm of Orion was above the middle it
was 6 o'clock. Wh en the star Orion was above the left eye, it was 7 o'clock.
W h e n t h e s t a r w h i c h f o l l o w s S o t h i s w a s a b o v e t h e l e f t e y e , i t w a s 8 o ' c l o c k ” 466.
The Ikhernofret’s inscription cited that kings and high officials were advised by
wnwt to indicate the beginning of the season as also the daily and festival
r i t u a l s 467.
From Hepzefi’s Contract VIII, the association of the hour-priest may come in
order to define the specific day of plowing and planting the seeds for a good
harvest. The desired outcome is given after a series of statue-ritiuals in the
name of Anubis. “Contract which the nomarch, the chief priest, Hepzefi, true of
voice, made with the hour-priests of the temple of Anubis, for the gift to him of
one roll of white bread by each one of therm for his statue, on the 17th day of
the first month of the first season, on the eve of the wag-festival; and for their

459 Reisner, 1934, p. 4


460 Reisner, 1934, p. 11
461 Reisner, 1934, p. 10
462 Doxey, 2001, p. 71
463 Sauneron, 1960, p. 165
464 Doxey, 2001, p. 71
465 Sauneron, 1960, p. 165
466 Sauneron, 1960, pp. 152-156
467 Beatty, 1999-2000, p. 66
98
going forth after his ka-priest when the lamp (torch?) is lighted for him at his
glorification, until they reach the 'lower stairway' (valley-chapel?) of his tomb,
just as they glorify their (own) honoured dead on the day of the lighting of the
lamp (torch?); and for the gift by the monthly wab-priest of a dish(?) of bread
and a dwiw-jar of beer for his statue which is in the 'lower stairway' (valley-
chapel ?) of his tomb, when he goes forth to perform the ceremonies in the
temple every day. That which he gave to them in return was the northern barley,
from the first-fruits of the harvest of every field of the nomarch's estate just as
(or, “in the measure which”) every common man of Siut gives of the first-fruits
of his harvest. Now, however, he was the first to cause every one of his peasants
t o g i v e i t f r o m t h e f i r s t - f r u i t s o f h i s f i e l d t o t h e t e m p l e o f A n u b i s ” 468.
T A B L E 5 . P r i e s t l y t i t l e s a s s o s s i a t e d w i t h A n u b i s 469
Transliteration Translation
jmy-rA wab(w) n.wjA jnpw Overseer of the wab-priests of the
barque of Anubis
jmy-rA Hm(w) nTr n jnpw nb Overseer of prophets of Anubis, lord
rA qqr of Roqereret
jmy (xt) Hmw nTr jnpw jmy wt Assistant supervisor of god’s servant
of Anubis, he who is in the place of
embalmment
wty jnpw Embalmer of Anubis
mDH jnpw xnty tA Dsr Craftsman(?) of Anubis, foremost of
the Secluded land
Hm nTr Hr jnpw xnty pr Smswt Servants of Horus-Anubis (or Horus
and Anubis), foremost of the house of
the acclaimers
Xnryt nt jnpw Singer-dancer of Anubis
Xry Hbt jnpw Lector-priest of Anubis
s(t)m jnpw Ritualistic of Anubis
smA jnpw A n o i n t e r ( s t o l i s t 470) o f A n u b i s

468 Breasted, 1906, p. 577 and Reisner, 1918, p. 86


469 DuQuesne, 2005, pp. 205-261
470 Vygus, 2015, p. 921
99
4.2. Rituals-Festvals associated with Anubis
4.2.1. Anubis and the weighing of the hearts ritual
Whil e studyi ng t he anci ent ’s beli efs and rel i gions across the world, we can
t r a c e b a c k o u r o w n b e l i e f s , e v e n i f t h o u s a n d s o f ye a r s s e p a r a t e u s f r o m t h e
a n c i e n t p e o p l e . A s i t h a p p e n s n o w a d a ys , t h e E g yp t i a n s a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t w h e n
someone died their life and behavior had to be judged. The weighing of the
hearts ceremony was materialized in the afterlife world and first encountered in
tomb-chapel of the Old Kingdom and later in CT from the Middle Kingdom, in
which the judgment comes after a denouncement and an unnamed god declares
t h e t r u t h 471. T h e n a t u r e o f t h e j u d g e m e n t i s s h o w e d b y t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e :
“There is no distinction there between poor and rich, what matters is being
found without fault. Scale and weight stand before the lord of Eternity, no one is
f r e e o f t h e n e e d t o s e t t l e a c c o u n t s ” 472.
In the Book of Gates, the judgment of the dead starts in the 6th Hour, with the
f i n a l d e s t i n a t i o n t h e u n i o n o f b a w i t h t h e s u n g o d 473. H e r e A n u b i s s h a l l o w s h i s
f a t h e r 474 t o p r o t e c t h i m f r o m t h e T yp h o n i a n p i g ( S e t h ’ s a n i m a l 475) , a n a c t t h a t
s u s t a i n s t h e c o s m o s a s i t i s 476.
The alabaster sarcophagus of Seti I depicts the god Anubis in the Hall of
Judgment in the upright corner. In the middle Osiris is enthroned with his
regalia. In front of Osiris is the scale of Truth in the form of Thoth (?). The
heart (?) represented by a rectangular box against the symbol of evil (bird). A
l a d d e r l e a d s t o t h e s c a l e a n d i n e v e r y s t e p i s a d e i t y 477. A b o v e t h e l a d d e r i s a
b a r k w i t h a p i g s m i t t e n b y a n a p e , a h y p o s t a s i s o f T h o t h 478.
In the Book of the Dead (Spell 125), Anubis leads the deceased at the Hall of
T w o T r u t h 479 w e r e t h e j u d g e m e n t t a k e s p l a c e b e f o r e O s i r i s , a c c o m p a n i e d b y
another 43 deities. The heart of the deceased weighs against a feather (the
s ym bol of the god des s M aat and cosm ic ord er). The deceas ed has t o decl are their
i n n o c e n c e i n 4 2 n e g a t i v e s c o n f e s s i o n s 480. T h e s c a l e b e n d s o n o n e o r o n t h e o t h e r
side and Thoth writes the answers. If the heart of the deceased is balanced with

471 Quirke G. J., 2001, p. 211


472 Assmann, 2001, p. 76
473 Κ ο υ σ ο ύ λ η ς , 2 0 0 4 , σ . 7 8
474 j n p w xnty jmnt. nTr aA sam jt=f wsjr (Anubis, foremost of the west, great god who
shallows his father Osiris) Manassa, 2006, p. 121.
475 M a n a s s a , 2 0 0 6 , p . 1 2 1
476 M a n a s s a , 2 0 0 6 , p . 1 2 6
477 B u d g e , 1 9 0 8 , p . 7 2
478 M a n a s s a , 2 0 0 6 , p . 1 2 2
479 Q u i r k e G . J . , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2 1 2
480 Κ ο υ σ ο ύ λ η ς , 2 0 0 4 , σ . 3 2

100
the feather (the true of voice) he would gain a place in the afterlife and his
s p i r i t w o u l d b e c o m e a n a n k ( a x = b l e s s e d s p i r i t ) 481. H o w e v e r , i f t h e h e a r t i s
heavier than the feather they would be devoured by the beast Ammit (crocodile
h e a d , b o d y o f l i o n a n d l e g s o f h i p p o p o t a m u s ) . A s a m u t ( m t ) 482 s p i r i t ( d a m n e d )
t h e y w o u l d g o t o t h e p l a c e o f n o e x i s t e n c e 483, g a i n t h e e t e r n a l d e a t h a n d b e
considered an enemy of Osiris. The eternal death can also happen with the
deliberate deletion (damnatio memoriae) of the deceased's name. Without his
name, his soul cannot be recognized and therefore cannot be judged for his
l i f e 484.
We have many scenes of the Judgement’s positive outcome in the scale of truth,
but none of the negative one. However, the “Book of Two Ways”, “Book of
A m u d u a t ” , “ B o o k o f C a v e r n s ” a n d t h e “ B o o k o f E a r t h ” 485 d e s c r i b e t h e l a n d o f
annihilation and the outcome of the damned ones.
4.2.2. Anubis and mummification ritual
T h e b u r i a l p r a c t i c e a n d t h e r o ya l a r c h i t e c t u r e f o l l o w a n e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t h ,
w h i c h b e g a n i n t h e P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d . T h e n , t h e b u r i a l c u s t o m s t o o k p l a c e , l i k e
the concept of the body conservation. Because they believed that the human soul
c o u l d o n l y l i v e i f t h e b o d y w a s “ a l i v e ” 486 t h e y t r i e d t o a v o i d d e c o m p o s i t i o n a n d
t h e d a m a g e c a u s e d b y l o o t i n g 487.
S o , t h e n e w a g e o f c u s t o m s ( e t e r n i t y, k i n g ’ s d i v i n e a s p e c t a n d a n n u a l f e s t i v a l s )
488, l e a d t o a n a f t e r l i f e c o n c e p t 489. A l r e a d y i n t h e P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d , t h e p i t -
g r a v e s 490 h a v e t h e f i r s t e v i d e n c e o f t h e n a t u r a l m u m m i f i c a t i o n 491, w h i c h o c c u r r e d
by the sand’s natron. Observing this function, the Egyptians create an entire
p h i l o s o p h y a r o u n d t h e d e a d b o d y. H a v i n g a b o d y m u m m i f i e d , t h e k A i s
r e c o g n i z e d 492 a n d t h e s o u l c a n w a l k b a c k s w i n g i n D u a t 493.
In the Old Kingdom, the internal organs were removed, ex cept for the brain
s i n c e i t w a s n o t i m p o r t a n t 494. T h e n , t h e y w e r e w r a p p e d w i t h l i n e n ( i n g r a i n e d w i t h

481 Quirke G. J., 2001, p. 211


482 Quirke G. J., 2001, p. 211
483 Κουσούλης, 2004, σ. 33
484 Κουσούλης, 2004, σ. 50
485 Funerary books about the afterlife.
486 Badawy, 1966, p. 46
487 For that reason, they build their enormous tombs.
488 Lehner, 1997, p. 9
489 Dunand & Lichtenberg, 2006, p. 8 and Budge, 1988, p. 67
490 David, 2001, p. 439
491 David, 1998, p. 20
492 David, 2001, p. 439
493 Κουσούλης, 2004, σ. 88
494 Abdel-Maksoud & Abdel-Rahman, 2011, p. 131
101
g e s s o ) 495. T h e h e a r t r e m a i n e d i n t h e b o d y , d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t w a s t h e c e n t e r o f
l i f e a n d i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e o w n e r 496. D u r i n g t h e 1 s t I n t e r m e d i a t e P e r i o d a n d t h e
M i d d l e K i n g d o m n e w p r o c e d u r e s c a m e , l i k e t h e t e c h n i q u e o f e x c e r e b r a t i o n 497 a n d
t h e e x t e r n a l b e a u t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e m u m m i f i e d b o d y. A c t u a l l y, t h e b o d y w a s
wrapped with successive linens, as a cocoon, so the body to be looked as sX
(ideal form) and the internal organs were placed in the canopic j a r s 498.
Continuing in the New Kingdom and the 3rd Intermediate Period, the deceased
(king and nobles) wore elaborate masks and the internal organs were placed
a g a i n i n t h e b o d y , w r a p p e d w i t h l i n e n . L a s t l y, i n t h e P t o l e m a i c P e r i o d t h e
quality of the mummification was reduced, because of the excessive use of
r e s i n 499.
M u m m i f i c a t i o n ’ s S t a g e s 500:
The earlier ancient sources for mummification are from the ancient Greek
h i s t o r i a n s , H e r o d o t u s a n d D i o d o r u s 501, w h o m e n t i o n e d t h r e e m u m m i f i c a t i o n
m e t h o d s , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e s t a t u s a n d t h e w e a l t h o f t h e d e c e a s e d 502. T h e m o s t
expensive procedure is the following:
T h e d e c e a s e d ’ s b o d y w e n t t o t h e p l a c e o f p u r i f i c a t i o n 503, w e r e t h e e m b a l m i n g
p r a c t i c e t o o k p l a c e . T h e e m b a l m e r s ( w b t ) 504 w o r e t h e m a s k o f A n u b i s a n d
w a s h e d t h e b o d y w i t h s p i c e d p a l m w i n e 505. T h e y r e m o v e d t h e i n t e r n a l o r g a n s a n d
p l a c e d t h e m i n c a n o p i c j a r s 506, e a c h o n e d e c o r a t e d w i t h t h e F o u r S o n s o f H o r u s
( i n t h e l a t t e r ye a r s t h e o r g a n s w e r e d e h yd r a t e d a n d r e t u r n e d w r a p p e d w i t h l i n e n
i n t h e b o d y ) . T h e e n t i r e b o d y w a s c o v e r e d w i t h n a t r o n t o d r y o u t 507. T h e
m u m m i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e n e e d e d s e v e r a l d a ys t o b e c o m p l e t e d a n d t h e n u m b e r o f
d a ys v a r i e s d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e w e a l t h o f t h e d e c e a s e d 508; t h e s t e l a o f t h e p r i e t s
P s a m t i k ( 2 6 t h D y n a s t y) s a ys : “ H e w a s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e G o o d H o u s e : a n d h e
spent 42 days under the hand of Anubis, lord of Tazoser. He was conducted in

495Κουσούλης, 2004, σ. 90
496David, 2001, p. 440
497 D a v i d , 2 0 0 1 , p . 4 4 1
498 Κ ο υ σ ο ύ λ η ς , 2 0 0 4 , σ . 9 0
499 Κ ο υ σ ο ύ λ η ς , 2 0 0 4 , σ . 9 1 a n d D a v i d , 2 0 0 1 , p . 4 4 1
500 Κ ο υ σ ο ύ λ η ς , 2 0 0 4 , σ . 1 0 2
501 L u c a s , 1 9 3 4 , p p . 2 3 1 , 2 5 8 a n d Κ ο υ σ ο ύ λ η ς , 2 0 0 4 , σ . 9 3
502 L u c a s , 1 9 3 4 , p . 2 3 1 and Abdel-Maksoud & Abdel-Rahman, 2011, p. 131
503 D a v i d , 2 0 0 1 , p . 4 4 1
504 D a v i d , 2 0 0 1 , p . 4 4 2
505 L u c a s , 1 9 3 4 , p . 2 3 1 a n d D a v i d , 2 0 0 1 , p . 4 4 0
506 A b d e l - M a k s o u d & A b d e l - R a h m a n , 2 0 1 1 , p . 1 3 1
507 A b d e l - M a k s o u d & A b d e l - R a h m a n , 2 0 1 1 , p . 1 3 2
508 I n a l e s s e x p e n s i v e m u m m i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s t h e e m b a l m e r s : a ) u s e d o n l y c e d a r o i l i n s i d e t h e

body to clean all internal organs and then the body filled with natron Κουσούλης, 2004, σ. 95 and
Lucas, 1934, p. 231, or b) clead only the intestine and smoothed them with oils Lucas, 1934, p. 231
and Κουσούλης, 2004, σ. 95 and David, 2001, p. 441.
102
peace to the Beautiful West, in the first month of the third season (ninth month),
d a y [ … ] a n d h i s l i f e i n t h e n e c r o p o l i s i s f o r e v e r a n d e v e r ” 509. T h e e m b a l m e r s
washed the body again with water and smoothed it with oils and aromatized the
b o d y 510. T h e b o d y w a s s t u f f e d w i t h m a t e r i a l s , s u c h a s l i n e n , s a w d u s t m i x e d w i t h
r e s i n e t c 511, t o l o o k a l i v e . T h e n , o i l s w e r e p l a c e d a g a i n i n t h e b o d y a n d i t w a s
covered with linen. The final stages were the body cosmetics with elaborate
masks, jewelry and was painted and wrapped with l i n e n 512. F i n a l l y, the
e m b a l m e r s r e t u r n e d t h e b o d y t o t h e o w n e r ’ s f a m i l y f o r t h e f u n e r a l r i t e s 513.
4.2.3. Anubis and the “Opening of the Mouth” ritual

With the ritual of the “Opening of the Mouth” (=wpt rA ), the


d e c e a s e d c o u l d b r e a t h e , s p e a k a n d e a t 514. I n f a c t , t h e r i t u a l w a s p e r f o r m e d o n a
m u m m y, a s a r c o p h a g u s o r e v e n a c u l t - s t a t u e o f t h e d e c e a s e d a n d i t a i d e d t o h i s
a n i m a t i o n i n a m a g i c a l l y w a y. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e p r i e s t t o u c h e d t h e d e c e a s e d ’ s
e ye s , n o s e a n d m o u t h w i t h s a c r e d t o o l s t o r e a n i m a t e t h e s e s e n s e s t o t h e a f t e r l i f e .
Otto suggests that the ritual was a combination of different rituals not
necessarily related to each other. Furthermore, he suggests that the first context
was the preparation of the cult statue. In opposition to this, Roth believes that
t h e s t a t u e p r e p a r a t i o n f i r s t o c c u r r e d i n t h e 6 t h D yn a s t y 515. S h e a l s o r e m a r k s t h a t
p e r h a p s t h e r i t u a l w a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b i r t h r i t u a l 516.
The earliest evidence of the ritual comes from the Old Kingdom from a formula
o f P a l e r m o S t o n e a n d t h e t o m b o f M e t j e n ( 4 t h D yn a s t y) 517. T h e P a l e r m o S t o n e ’ s
fo rm ul a s a ys “the fashio ni ng and openi ng o f the mouth of [ a statue of] god”, and
the Metjen’s Opening of the Mouth occurs in conjunction with incensing and the
t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e d e c e a s e d i n t o a n A X ( o r s A X t ) 518. F r o m P T o f U n a s i s
known that the priest threw in the mouth of the deceased, before and during the
r i t e , s e v e n p u r i f i e d l i q u i d s 519, s e t h - h e b , h e k n u , s e f t h , n e m , t u a u t , h a - a s h , h t e t -
e n t - t h e h e n u 520. D u r i n g t h e M i d d l e K i n g d o m , t h e r i t u a l a p p e a r s i n p r i v a t e t o m b s
and new gods are involved in it. Horus alongside Ptah open the mouth of the

509 Breasted, 1906, pp. 519-520


510 David, 2001, p. 441
511 Abdel-Maksoud & Abdel-Rahman, 2011, p. 132
512 Abdel-Maksoud & Abdel-Rahman, 2011, p. 132
513 David, 2001, p. 441
514 Rzeuska, 2008, p. 576
515 Roth, 2001, p. 606
516 Roth, 1993, p. 74
517 Roth, 2001, p. 606 and Rzeuska, 2008, p. 576
518 Redford, 2001, p. 606
519 Allen, 2005, p. 20
520 Budge, 1925, p. 238
103
deceased and Thoth puts the heart in the body for them to remember what they
had been forgotten. In addition, Thoth and Ptah make the transformation to an
AX ritual. In the New Kingdom, two different kinds of the ritual exist. The first
o n e i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s t yl e t h a t o c c u r r e d i n P T , w i t h t h e s e v e n o i l s ( F i g u r e 6 9 ) ,
statue ritual, the useful implements etc. The second one developed with new
elements and the involvement of the officials. Ptah (or the god Shu) and a local
god opens the mouth of the deceased, who is identified with the goddess
S e k h m e t 521. F i n a l l y, the Late Period continuous the tradition of the New
K i n g d o m , b u t c o p y a f e w c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f r o m t h e B o o k o f B r e a t h i n g s 522, w h i c h
a l l o w e d t h e d e a d t o b r e a t h e 523.
D i f f e r e n t p h a s e s o f t h e r i t u a l a r e s u g g e s t e d b y O t t o , 7 5 i n n u m b e r 524, w i t h
v a r i o u s i n t r o d u c t o r y r i t e s , a s s t a t u e i n c e n s i n g , p u r i f i c a t i o n 525, a s a l s o t h e
a n i m a t i o n o f t h e d e a d a n d t h e o f f e r i n g s 526.
4.2.4. Festivals assossiated with Anubis
T h e f u n e r a r y t e m p l e o f R a m e s s e s I I I a t M e d i n e t H a b u r e p o r e d 2 d a ys o f t h e
t e m p l e c a l e n d a r d e d i c a t e d t o A n u b i s 527:
 T h e F e s t i v a l o f t h e N a v i g a t i o n o f A n u b i s w a s h e l d o n I I p r t 1 528 ( F i g u r e 6 9 ) :
“Second month of winter, first day: day of navigation of Anubis: offerings for
Amon-Ra, with his Ennead, in this day of festival”. The navigation festival,
might be referring to the transportation of the deceased’s body at the
mummification place; from illustrations we are informed that the deceased’s
transportation sometimes was done by a funerary boat (see also Figures 23 and
72). The Navigation of Anubis might be the same with the Procession to the
Embalming Place, in which the deceased is carried by the priests to the
necropolis and to the mummification workshop, which is located in the
n e c r o p o l i s 529.
 T h e F e s t i v a l o f C l o t h i n g A n u b i s w a s h e l d o n I S m w 1 0 530: “ F i r s t m o n t h o f
summer, tenth day; day of the festival of clothing Anubis, offerings for Amon-Ra,

521 Roth, 2001, p. 607


522 A two-part book of Ptolemaic Period. The book makes clear of the importance of the name and
the breath. There are the necessary elements that the deceased must have to pass the gates of the
Elysian Fields Κουσούλης, 2004, σ. 67.
523 R o t h , 2 0 0 1 , p . 6 0 8
524 A y a d , 2 0 0 4 , p . 1 1 3
525 B u d g e , 1 9 0 9 , p . 1 5
526 B u d g e , 1 9 0 9 , p . 9 5
527 E l - S a b b a n , 2 0 0 0 , p p . 1 2 2 , 1 2 7
528 T e t l e y , 2 0 1 4 , p . 1 2 8
529 H a y s , 2 0 1 0 , p . 5 a n d A s s m a n n , 2 0 0 1 , p . 3 0 5
530 T e t l e y , 2 0 1 4 , p . 1 2 8

104
with his Ennead in this day of festival, daily offerings every day”. The clothing
festival might be reffering to the fashioning of the cult-statue, during the
“Opening of the Mouth” ritual, and the so-called “births of Anubis” written on
t h e P a l e r m o S t o n e m i g h t b e r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s d a y 531 ( F i g u r e 7 0 ) .
In both d ays , t h e offerings were si milar; t he l ist s cit ed di fferent ki nds of bread,
beer, flowers, biscuits, including vases and jars for the inceses that took place.
 F r o m a p a r yr u s d a t e d i n t h e P t o l e m a i c P e r i o d , A n u b i s t a k e s p a r t i n t h e “ N i g h t
of Loneliness” celebration, the night before the burial procession of Osiris (aka
the deceased). Liberation and mournings were addressed to Osiris in order to
bring him back to life. All gods are present before the arrival of Osiris and
Anubis states the desirable moment “The god is arriving at the great entrance to
t h e n o m e o f t h e r e a l m o f t h e d e a d ” 532 ( c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e “ O p e n i n g o f t h e
mouth” ritual and the “Night of Loneliness”).
 The Procession of Isis (Navigium Isidis) was held in the spring (2nd of
January and 5th of March). For the first time this festival was celebrated in
C a n o p u s 533. A p u l e i u s ’ s M e t a m o r p h o s e s B o o k 1 1 ( 2 n d C E ) i s m e n t i o n e d t h a t
A n u b i s w a s t h e f i r s t o f t h e g o d s w h i c h a p p e a r e d a n d l e d t h e f e s t i v a l 534: “ F i r s t
was the dread messenger between the gods above and the Underworld, his dog’s
head held high aloft, his face now black, now gold: Anubis, holding a caduceus
in his right hand and brandishing a green palm-leaf in his left. Hard on his
heels followed a cow standing upright, the fertile image of the All-Mother,
p r o u d l y b o r n e o n t h e s h o u l d e r s o f o n e o f h e r b l e s s e d p r i e s t s ” 535. A c t u a l l y t h e y
were priests wearing cloths, the mask of Anubis and held the needed objects,
which were necessary for the ritual. The theme of the festival is connected to the
navigation’s new season and Isis’s protection over the welfare of the voyages
w a s s ym b o l i z e d w i t h t h e s ym b o l i c t r a n s f e r o f h e r s h i p 536 ( 5 t h o f M a r c h ) . A l s o , i n
m yt h o l o g i c a l l e v e l i t w a s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e r e t u r n o f I s i s f r o m t h e s e a r c h o f
O s i r i s a t t h e s h o r e s o f B yb l o s 537 ( 2 n d o f J a n u a r y) 538.
 References to Anubis in other festivals cited on Cairo Calendar (19th
D yn a s t y) . O n I I A X t 4 w a s “ t h e d a y o f t h e g o i n g f o r t h o f A n u b i s f o r t h e

531 Clagett, 1989, p. 100


532 Assmann, 2001, p. 268
533 Kleibl, 2015
534 Corcoran, 2001, p. 346
535 Apuleius, 1998, p. 175
536 Giunio, 2012, p. 423
537 Papantoniou, 2012, p. 198
538 Beresford, 2012, p. 41
105
inspection of this wabt for the protection of the body of the god”, on III prt 6
“Jubilation of Osiris in Busiris; going forth of Anubis, (his) adorers (or,
adoration) following him; he has received everybody in the hall”, on IV prt 2
“the majesty of Geb proceeds to the throne of Busiris to see Anubis, who
commands the council on the requirements (of the day)” and on IV Smv 22“Feast
o f A n u b i s , w h o i s o n h i s m o u n t a i n ” . T h e s e f o u r d a ys m a r k e d a n a s t r o n o m i c a l
e v e n t o c c u r r e d o n t h e r e p o r e d d a t e s e . g . t h e r i s e o f S i r i u s , b e t a L e o n i s e t c 539.
 T e m p l e f e s t i v a l s d e d i c a t e d t o A n u b i s o c c u r o n B e r l i n L a h u n p a p yr i d a t e d t o
the Middle Kingdom. The “Sailing of the Land” is one of them, which might be
r e l a t e d t o t h e a n n u a l c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e k i n g ’ s b u r i a l i n t h e S e k h e m - S e n w o s r e t 540.
4.3. Ritual objects
 Masks
During the rituals associated with Anubis, the priests wore canid masks,
becoming the earthl y presence of Anubis. In many passages from from the Old
Kingdom to Ptolemaic Period texts, kings have the face of Anubis; along with
the knowledge of the existence of Anubis’s mask the passages can be
t rans form ed from a m yt hologi cal into a realis ti c s equence. The spel l t hat
provides a view of Anubis’s mask is the “spell for the mysterious head” or “head
o f m ys t e r y ” ; i t i s a t t e s t e d f r o m t h e M i d d l e K i n g d o m 541 a n d o n w a r d s w r i t t e n
i nsi de a mum m y, l i ke the golden one of Tut ankhamen. Thes e vers es are al so part
o f t h e B D 1 5 1 w h i c h d e p i c t s t h e m u m m i f i c a t i o n p r o c e d u r e 542: “ A n u b i s s p e a k s ,
the embalmer, lord of the divine hall, when he has placed his hands on the coffin
of N.and equipped him with what (he) needs: Hail, O beautiful of face, lord of
vision, whom Ptah-Sokar has gathered together and whom Anubis has upraised,
to whom Shu gave support (that is, impetus), O beautiful of face among the gods!

539 Hardy, 2002-2003, p. 52 and Berio, 2014, pp. 36-37


540 Quirke, 1997, pp. 30-31
541 C T V I , 1 2 3 - 1 2 5 ( S p e l l 5 3 1 ) : H a i l t o y o u , Y o u w h o a r e k i n d l y o f c o u n t e n a n c e / o w n e r o f e y e s

which see, whom Anubis knit together, whom Ptah-Sokar exalted, to whom Shu gave the supports,
kindly of countenance among the gods, whom Re gave to Osiris for the secret thing which was done
against him in order to end the injury by Seth against him. Your White Crown is that of Thoth, your
vertex is that of Wepwawet, your eyebrows are those of the two Enneads, your eyes are those of the
Night-bark and the Day-bark, your tresses(?) are those of Isis and Nephthys, the back of your heads
is that of Dwn-rnw, your braid is that of-the scorpion, your linen is that HD-Htp; you are in front
of N, and he will see by means of you. May you make him to be a spirit, may you subdue his foes for
him, may you guide him to the fair places of the realm of the dead, may you smite the confederacy
of Seth for him. The king has commanded that N be made triumphant over his foes before Horus,
Lord of Patricians. That I be one who is enduring, enduring, is what has been commanded, (even)
enduring like Rer for ever Faulkner, 1977, p. 154.
542 A s s m a n n , 2 0 0 1 , p p . 1 0 7 - 1 0 8 a n d T a y l o r , 2 0 1 0 , p . 1 0 9

106
Your right eye is the night barque, your left eye is the day barque, your
eyebrows are the Ennead. The crown of your head is Anubis, the back of your
head is Horus, your lock of hair Ptah-Sokar. The crown of your head is Anubis.
You (the mask) are in front of N., he sees by means of you. (Y ou) lead him to
the goodly ways, you repel Seth’s band for him and cast his enemies under his
feet for him in front of the Ennead in the great House of the Noble in Heliopolis.
You take the goodly way to the presence of Horus, the lord of the nobles”.
This 3-structure spell provides us with details for the concept of
mummification and the deceased’s transformation. The first paragraph is
associated with the definition of Anubis as the embalmer god and his work upon
t he dead bod y. The s econd paragraph speaks about t he t ransform ati on of the
deceased into a divine spirit. In the third paragraph, the deceased is wearing the
m a s k t h a t c a n c a s t a w a y t h e e n e m i e s a n d S e t h 543.
References to Anubis’s mask are found in:
C T V I , 1 0 3 ( S p e l l 5 1 6 ) 544 “ H o N ! R a i s e y o u r s e l f f o r t h o s e w h o a r e g r e a t e r t h a n
you! You shall eat figs and drink wine, for your face is (that of) the jackal of
Anubis; be covered with it”.
C T V I I , 2 6 ( S p e l l 8 2 5 ) 545 “ I h a v e c o m e a s a n e q u i p p e d [ a n d w o r t h y ( ? )] s p i r i t , I
heal my members, and my (priestly) service is in this house. I have come in
order to do my duty and in order to enter into the gate, which is under the care
of Anubis. I have not eaten what remains over of the stretched bull after the
share-out, and I have not repeated what I heard in the Presence. I am the
embalmers of Anubis, I have come that I may cover up what I found missing, for
I a m a w a r d e n w h o s p e n t h i s d a y s o t h a t [ . . .] w a s r e c k o n e d u p b e f o r e R a d a i l y ,
and I have not eaten the black ewes(?), I have not bathed in the waters of
Nedit”.
Illustration of a priest wearing Anubis’s mask is identified on the north side
chamber’s entrance of Osiris at Dendera, which depicts priests of Lower Egypt
holding the nomes’s scepter celebrating the resurrection of Osiris and one priest
i s w e a r i n g A n u b i s ’ s m a s k 546 a n d t w o o t h e r s h o l d t h e s c e p t e r o f t h e 1 7 t h n o m e
(Figure 71). Another one comes from the temple of Amun at Karnak dated in the
New Kingdom; the priests hold the hooks of the solar barque on their shoulders
(Figure 72).

543 Taylor, 2010, p. 109


544 Faulkner, 1977, p. 146
545 Faulkner, 1978, p. 15
546 Mariette, 1875, p. 271, Mariette, 1873, p. 34, Plate 31
107
There are four masks of Anubis, all dated from the New Kingdom to the
Ptolemaic Period.
T he 19th Dyn as t y m ask is from wood p aint ed bl ack. Arround the neck and on
the ears it has holes for the straps to adjust on the head. The canid has the
m o u t h o p e n , r e v e a l i n g a s e r i e s o f t e e t h 547 ( F i g u r e 7 3 ) . Another New Kingdom
wooden mask is from Armant fully in black. The edge of the mask is missing,
b u t p a r t s o f n e m e s , e ye b r o w s a n d w h i s k e r s h a v e t r a i s o f g o l d e n s t r i p e s a n d t h e
e ye s w e r e i n l a ye d m a d e b y g l a s s 548 ( F i g u r e 7 4 ) . F r o m t h e L a t e t o E a r l y P t o l e m a i c
P e r i o d i s a u n i q u e m a s k m a d e f r o m c a r t o n n a g e , p a p yr u s a n d l a ye r s o f l i n e n .
T h e s e l a ye r s a r e h a r d e n e d w i t h p l a s t e r a n d p a i n t e d w i t h b l a c k a n d w h i t e l i n e s a s
n e m e s r e s e m b l a n c e , a n d t h e f a c e i s b l a c k 549 ( F i g u r e 7 5 ) . T h e l a s t m a s k i s f r o m
t h e L a t e P e r i o d 550, f r o m a n u n k n o w n p r o v i d e n c e , m a d e f r o m c l a y. T h e m a s k i s
f u l l y p r e s e r v e d , i s m a d e f r o m t w o p a r t s , t h e m u z z l e a n d t h e r e s t o f t h e b o d y.
These two parts are connected to eachother with a tenon. The body of the mask
has two semi-circular cuts to fit on the shoulders and two narrow holes on the
m a s k ’ s n e c k f o r t h e e ye s . T h e m u z z l e o f t h e c a n i d i s b l a c k , h a s e n g r a v e d e ye s
a n d a p a i n t e d n e m e s 551 ( F i g u r e 7 6 ) .
 The jmj-wt Standard
The origin of jmj w t - s c e p t e r c a n b e t r a c k e d b a c k t o t h e P r e d yn a s t i c P e r i o d
r e l a t e d t o t h e k i n g s h i p a n d t h e p a l a c e 552 b e f o r e i t b e c a m e a s ym b o l o f A n u b i s
(Figure 77-78). Lucas suggests that the original meaning for jmjwt word was
“ t h a t s h i c h i s i n s i d e ” 553. I t w a s a h e a d l e s s a n i m a l ( c o w o r o x ) o n a s t a n d a r d i n a
v a s e 554.
From P epi II’s P T (N 522): “[…] the rungs have been fast ened i n its si des wi th
l e a t h e r o f h i m i n t h e W r a p p i n g s ( j m j w t ) , t o w h o m H e z a t g a v e b i r t h [ … ] ” 555
C T V I , 3 7 3 ( S p e l l 7 4 3 ) 556 “ T h e s t a f f i s i n g o o d c o n d i t i o n , t h e s c e p t r e o f A n u b i s
is the backbone(?)”
The Jumilhac Papyrus mentioned Hezat (mother of Anubis), made an ointment
b y h e r b r e a s t m i l k , t h e n s h e s e p a r a t e d A n t i s ’ s 557 b o n e s a n d o r g a n s a n d c l e a n e d

547 B.I., n.d.


548 GEM, n.d.
549 HMA, n.d.
550 Corcoran, 2001, p. 346
551 GEM, n.d.
552 Logan, 1990, p. 68
553 Logan, 1990, p. 69
554 DuQuesne, 2012, p. 1
555 Allen, 2005, p. 293
556 Faulkner, 1977, p. 283
557 A falcon-headed god Hart, 2005, p. 24
108
t h e m w i t h t h e o i n t m e n t . F i n a l l y, t h e r e s t o f h i s b o d y w a s w r a p p e d i n b a n d a g e s .
T h e n t h e f l e s h o f A n t i w a s c u r e d a n d r e s t o r e d t o l i f e 558 a n d h e w a s t i e d u p o n a
s t a n d a r t o n v a s e 559.
The jmj-wt emblem might be assossiated with the mummification procedures, in
which the embalmers anoint the corpse and wrap it with linen, before the final
transformation and animation of the deceased commences. The association with a
k i n g a s a p r o t e c t i v e e m b l e m 560 r e m a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e E g yp t i a n h i s t o r y; t h e
depiction of the jmj-wt emblem alongside the king can be indentified on many
scenes.
 Scepters
Anubis is usually depicted holding the was-scepter (Figure 79) and the ankh
( s e e C h a p t e r 2 . 2 . 4 . ) . T h e w a s - s c e p t e r i s a s s o s s i a t e d w i t h S e t h 561, i t i s t h e s u m b o l
o f d o m i n i o n 562 a n d , i n t h e f u n e r a r y c o n t e x t , s ym p o l i z e s t h e w e l l b e i n g a n d t h e
p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e d e c e a s e d ’ s s o u l 563.
T h e r e c u m b e n t c a n i d i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h t h e h i e r o g l yp h i c s ym b o l o f t h e n o m e

564
as a definition of Anubis’s 17th nome (Figure 80). It is depicted to be
held by the nomarch of the nome or priests, as a result of political corporation
between the nome and the king or as participation of the nome in the rituals
context.
A scepter that might be associated with Anubis is the wsrt-“scepter”. In the
BG at the 7th hour on the walls of Rammeses VI, the enemies of the solar barque
a r e t i e d u p o n c a n i d - h e a d s t a k e s , t h e s t a k e s o f G e b 565. H e r e G e b ’ s s t a k e s a c t a s a
judge and guardian, two roles held by Anubis, making the damnation of the
enemies certain and unbreakable (Figure 81).
 Mummification tool and oils
As mentioned above, different kinds of oil were used during the mummification
process. All these oils (Figure 82) and resin were used during the procedure. The
embalmers, depending on the period, used different kinds of material and oil to
s t r e n g t h e n t h e b o d y a n d p r e v e n t i t s h u m i d i t y:

558 Vandier, 1962, pp. 65-66, 124, DuQuesne, 2012, p. 2 and Hart, 2005, p. 24
559 Hart, 2005, p. 24 and DuQuesne, 2012, p. 2
560 Logan, 1990, p. 69
561 Gardiner, 1957, p. 509
562 Graham, 2001, p. 166
563 Vygus, 2015, p. 1954 and GEM, n.d.
564 Gardiner, 1957, p. 488
565 Hornung, 1999, p. 63
109
 c e d a r o i l w a s u s e d i n t o t h e a n u s p r e v e n t i n g t h e b o d y l i q u i d s t o e s c a p e 566.
 b e e s w a x 567 w a s u s e d t o t h e e a r s , e ye s , n o s e a n d m o u t h 568,
 c i n n a m o n a n d c a s s i a w e r e p e r h a p s u s e d f o r i n s e n s e 569,
 o n i o n s w e r e u s e d i n t h e e ye s , p e l v i s , t h r o r a x a n d o n e x t e r n a l e a r s 570,
 l i c h e n u s e d t o f i l l b o d y c o n c a v i t y 571, a n d h e n n a f o r p e r f u m e c o s m e t i c
p u r p o s e s 572,
 g u m w a s u s e d t o c e m e n t t h e b a n d a g e s o f t h e m u m m y 573
 other materials are natron, salt, resin, palm wine, pine, juniper, mastic,
m yr r h a n d b i t u m e n .
T h e e m b a l m e r s u s e d k n i v e s t o o p e n t h e b o d y, b u t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t w a s t h e
tool for the excerebration. The bronge tool was approximately 40 cm long and its
e d g e w a s h o o k e d , s p i r a l , o r n e e d l e - l i k e 574. T h e b r a i n r e m o v a l w a s d o n e f r o m t h e
ethmoid bone, left/right nostril or with complete or partly nasal septum
r e m o v a l 575. I n t h i s w a y, t h e d a m a g e o f t h e s k u l l w a s a h o l e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 . 9
c m 576.
 Opening of the mouth tools
As mentioned above, the Opening of the Mouth ritual was performed for the
animation of the deceased’s soul. Therefore, for the execution of the ritual,
several tools were needed. These tools were considered to belong to Anubis
throughout all periods. On the Hatshepsut’s Opening of the Mouth ritual,
Thuthomes III said:
“I have opened your mouth. I have opened your two eyes. I have opened your
m o u t h w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f A n u b i s 577”
This connection occurs also in Pepi II’s PT (N 100) adze blades are connected
w i t h A n u b i s : “ H o , P e p i N e f e r k a r e] ! Y o u r m o u t h h a s b e e n p a r t e d w i t h A n u b i s ’ s
a d z e , t h e m e t a l S t r i k e r t h a t p a r t e d t h e m o u t h o f t h e g o d s . ” 578
T h e C T V I I , 1 5 ( S p e l l 8 1 6 ) 579 c l a r i f i e s t h a t A n u b i s w a s t h e o n e w h o m a d e t h e
implement: “The iron is broken by Anubis in the sky. Ho, iron which opened up

566 Abdel-Maksoud & Abdel-Rahman, 2011, p. 132


567 Abdel-Maksoud & Abdel-Rahman, 2011, p. 138
568 Lucas, 1934, p. 234
569 Lucas, 1934, p. 240
570 Lucas, 1934, p. 257
571 Abdel-Maksoud & Abdel-Rahman, 2011, p. 241
572 Abdel-Maksoud & Abdel-Rahman, 2011, p. 142 and Lucas, 1934, p. 243
573 Lucas, 1934, p. 242
574 Mendoza, 2017, p. 63
575 Abdel-Maksoud & Abdel-Rahman, 2011, p. 131
576 Brier, 2001, p. 47
577 Hogan, 2016, p. 107
578 Allen, 2005, pp. 252, 254
110
the West! This is the iron which is on my mouth, which Sokar spiritualized in
On, which makes the water of my mouth to rise; the iron is washed, and it is
sharp and strong”.
From BD “Your mouth was ever closed, but I have restored thy mouth, also
your teeth, O statue of the Osiris N. I have separated your lips, O statue of the
Osiris N. I have opened your mouth with the adze of Anubis, the thigh of iron,
w h i c h o p e n s t h e m o u t h o f t h e g o d s ” 580.
T h e s e t o f i m p l e m e n t s t h a t w e r e u s e d f o r t h e r i t u a l w e r e k n o w n a s t h e p s S k f 581
s e t ( F i g u r e 8 3 ) a n d w e r e u s u a l l y a s t o r a g e s l a b m a d e b y w o o d o r l i m e s t o n e 582.
The implements of this set are (for more ritual objects see Chapter 4.3.):
 K e f - p e s e s h o r p e h - e n - k e f ( p s S k A f ) t o o l 583 w i t h w h i c h t h e m o u t h o f t h e
s t a t u e w a s t o u c h e d 584.
 N e t e r t i ( n T r w y ) o r s b A j ( “ t h e t w o s t a r s ” ) 585 t w o a x e s , w h i c h s ym b o l i z e d
H o r u s a n d S e t h 586, a l s o t h o u g h t t o b e t h e p r i m a l b l a d e s f o r t h e r i t u a l 587.
 F o u r v e s s e l s ( h n w t ) a n d t w o b o t t l e s ( h A T s ) 588: F r o m t h e f i r s t g r o u p , t w o
w e r e m a d e f r o m a d a r k s t o n e a n d t h e o t h e r t w o f r o m w h i t e o r c r ys t a l 589. B o t h
groups were for purification purposes.
 M e s k h e t y u o r M e s k h a 590 ( m s x t y w ) a n d n w A 591: a d z e - s h a p e d b l a d e s 592
 M e t c h e t f e t 593 ( m D t f t ) : a c h i s e l
 Ur-hekau (wrHkAw: wooden staff with a body of serpent and a head of a
r a m 594, s u r r o u n d e d b y u r a e u s .
 M n w 595: u n k n o w n i m p l e m e n t a n d T u n - a n u : t o o l f o r t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e
m o u t h 596.

579 Faulkner, 1978, p. 7


580 Tirard, 1910, p. 26
581 B u d g e , 1 9 0 9 , p p . 1 , 8 3
582 R z e u s k a , 2 0 0 8 , p . 5 7 6
583 V a n W a l s e n s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p s S - k f u s e d d u r i n g t h e r i t e , t o h o l d t h e j a w o f t h e d e c e a s e d

closed Roth, 1992, p. 114.


584 I t i s u n k n o w n i f p s S k f w a s a s e t o f t o o l s o r a s i n g l e o n e . I n t h e P T t h e d e c e a s e d t o o k t h e

psSkf before the rite Roth, 1992, p. 113, implying that was a box of tools. The psSkf tool also
used to cut the umbilical cord of the newborn child Rzeuska, 2008, p. 576 and Roth, 1992, p. 145
and it might be the emblem of the goddess of birth, Meskhenet Roth, 1992, p. 145.
585 I t m i g h t b e m a d e b y m e t e o r i c i r o n b A j R o t h , 1 9 9 2 , p . 1 1 6
586 B u d g e , 1 9 0 9 , p . 6 7
587 T h i s c o n c e p t d e r i v e s f r o m t h e l i t t l e f i n g e r s ( f i n g e r s o f H o r u s ) , w h i c h u s e d t o c l e a n t h e m u c u s

o f a n ewbo rn child Ro th, 1993, p. 63, as Ho ru s did fo r his fath er (Ro th, 1993 , p. 64 ).
588 R o t h , 1 9 9 2 , p . 1 1 6
589 R o t h , 1 9 9 2 , p . 1 1 5
590 B u d g e , 1 9 0 9 , p . 6 8
591 A l l e n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 4 2 5
592 T h e s e b l a d e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f U r s u s M a j o r R o t h , 1 9 9 3 , p . 7 0 .
593 B u d g e , 1 9 0 9 , p . 7 8
594 B u d g e , 1 9 0 9 , p . 7 0

111
FIGURES

Fig ure 68. Lec tor- pr iest, se m-priest a nd the mourners © Osiris net

Figure 69. The festival of the Navigation of Figure 70. The festival of Clothing
Anubis Anubis
© Breasted & Allen, 1934, Pl. 165 © Breasted & Allen, 1934, Pl. 167

595 (Roth, 1992, p. 16)


596 (Budge, 1909, p. 186)
112
Fig ure 71. Pr iest with Anubis's mask o n Osiris temple at Dendera © Mariette, 1873,
Plate 31

Fig ure 72. Pr iest wearing the ma sk of Anubis © T he Bridgeman Ar t Libr ary. Image
number: DGA535000

Figure 73. Anubis's mask of Figure 74 - New Kingdom Anubis's mask


© T he E gyp tian Museum of Cairo. Invertory Number: JE
19th Dynasty © The
55620
Bridgeman Art Library. Image
number: GCL3150006

113
Fig ure 75. Late to Ptole maic Period Figure 76. Late Period Anubis's mask
© from (TGEM, n.d.) Roemer-Pelizaeus Museum.
Anubis's mask © Harrogate Museums
Invertory Number: 1585
and Arts. Invertory Number: 10686

Figure 77. Ebony label from Hor-Aha reign, with jmjwt © Logan, 1990, p. 63

Fig ure 78. J mjw t standard © The Figure 79. Late Period was-scepte made from
Metropolitan Museum of Art.
faience © The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Accession Number: 14.3.19-20
Accession Number: 26.4.4.6.a,b and Jo an
Lansberry

114
Fig ure 80. Pr iest ho lding the 17t h nome ' scept er © Mar iette, 1873 , P late 34

Fig ure 81. 7th hour of the BG. Enemies on sta kes © D.E., n.d.

Figure 82. A slab, which held


the sacred oils © Roth, 1992, Figure 83. Model of equipment for Opening of Mouth
p. 123 ritual © The Trustees of the British Museum. Museum
number: EA5526

115
5. DIVINE DWELLINGS AND CEMETRIES
5.1. Divine dwellings
Buildings of Anubis’s cult are located on several sites. Sanctuaries of Anubis-
Horus existed at Tuna and at Hut-nesut, the 18th nome, in which Anubis and
H o r u s h a d t h e i r a d v e n t u r e s w r i t t e n i n t h e J u m i l h a c P a p y r u s 597; A n u b i s ’ s t e m p l e
e x i s t e d a t A s y u t , a l t h o u g h , u n t i l l t o d a y, t h e s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n o f t h a t t e m p l e i s
not verified 598
. The temple of Siut was near the necropolis, at the foot of the
cliff and erected b y Hepzefi, the nomarch of 13th nome, under Seworset I. A
temple of Anubis was located at Lahun (Sekhem-Senwosret) close to the
S e n w o s r e t I I p yr a m i d , w i t h m a n y p r i e s t s i n s e r v i c e 599; i t h a d a n o v e r s e e r o f t h e
temple, a lector-priest and nine priests, who changed every month, six door-
k e e p e r s a n d t w o s e r v a n t s 600. Q u i r k e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c u l t o f A n u b i s w a s
attested on the same temple complex with that of Senwosret and identified his
p yr a m i d complex and his p yr a m i d t o w n as Sekhem-Senwosret and Hetep-
S e n w o s r e t c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y 601.
Near the burial chamber of Tutankhamen is the “Treasury” (Figure 84), a small
chamber with marvelous findings, such as a canipoc chest, jmwt emblems, boats-
models etc. Alongshide these treasures was a moveable shrine-chest standing at
t h e t h r e s h o l d w i t h t h e r e c u m b e n t A n u b i s o n i t s t o p 602 c o v e r e d w i t h l i n e n ; a l i f e -
size representation of the iconographic epithet “he who is upon the shrine”,
a c t i n g a s a g u a r d i a n o f t h e t r e a s u r y. T h e s h r i n e h a d c a r i n g p o l e s a n d i n s i d e i t
one large and four smaller pots are found 603
(Figure 85).
Hatshepsut’s temple, at Deir el-Bahari, has two shrines that were dedicated to
Anubis, the Upper and Lower shrines, located in the Upper (in the sun-cult-
c o m p l e x ) a n d i n t h e M i d d l e t e r r a c e 604.
T h e a c c e s s t o t h e U p p e r S h r i n e ( F i g u r e 8 6 ) w a s d o n e b y a c o u r t ya r d ’ s d o o r a n d
c o n t s r u c t e d p a r t i a l l y o n t h e r o c k . M o s t o f t h e f i n e i l l u s t r a t i o n s w e r e d e s t r o ye d
i n A k h e n a t e n ’ s r e i g n b e yo n d a n y r e s t o r a t i o n ; a n d w e r e c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s u n
cult religion. Representation of Anubis and mostly his jmwt emblem decorated

597 Doxey, 2001, p. 98


598 Breasted, 1912, pp. 259-260
599 Sauneron, 1960, p. 56 and Bunson, 2002, p. 191
600 Breasted, 2016, p. 171
601 Quirke, 1997, p. 33
602 Reeves, 1995, pp. 55, 133 and Bard, 1999, p. 1046
603 Willems, 1996, p. 144
604 Szafranski, 2010, p. 187
116
parts of the shrine, accompanied with his epithets as “Lord of the sacred land”
o r “ L o r d o f S e p a ” 605.
A n e n t h r o n e d A n u b i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e H yp o s t yl e H a l l b e f o r e t h e L o w e r s h r i n e
with the epithet “he who is in the place of embalming”. The shrine has a hall of
1 2 p r o t o d o r i c c o l l u m s a n d i n n e r r o o m s 606 a n d i n t o i t s s a n c t u r a r y i t h a s a
depiction of the deity alone or with Hathor and Hatsepsut with a series of his
epithets carved on the walls. In the walls of this shrine, Anubis took part in
H a t s h e p s u t ’ s d i v i n e b i r t h ( s e e C h a p t e r 2 . 2 . 2 ) 607.
The best known temple of Anubis is the Anubeion contructed in the Late Period
at Saqqara and was used until 641 AD, with few structures remaining, like the
enclosure wall, causeway and the gate. Mariette and Quibell proposed two
d i f f e r e n t r e c o n s t r u t i o n s f o r t h e t e m p l e 608 ( F i g u r e 8 7 - 8 8 ) . M o r e o v e r , t h e A n u b e i o n
temple town had an embalming workshop, administrative center, and police
q u a r t e r 609.
5.2. Cemetries
No cemetery is dedicated to Anubis or other canid-headed god, but as
m e n t i o n e d i n C h a p t e r 1 , E g yp t i a n s b u r i e d o r m u m m yf i e d t h e a n i m a l s t o s e r v e
certain reasons. Regarding to the religions and the sacred canid mummies, they
might be representing the manifestation of the canid-head gods (Figure 89).
In the Badarian Period, skulls of dogs (or jackals) were buried alongside the
d e c e a s e d 610 a n d s o m e t i m e s w e r e b u r i e d w i t h m a t t i n g , l i n e n a n d w i t h a m u l e t s 611.
D u r i n g t h e N a q a d a P e r i o d , i n U p p e r E g yp t 1 0 c a n i d / d o g b u r i a l s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d
a n d s e v e n i n L o w e r E g yp t / H e l i o p o l i s b u r i e d w i t h h u m a n s a n d o t h e r a n i m a l s 612; i n
H e l i o p o l i s o n e d o g w a s w r a p p e d w i t h m a t 613. O t h e r b u r i a l s a p p l i e d a t M a t m a r ,
A b a d i ye h , N a g a - e d - D ê r , M a h a s n a , a n d i n N a g a d a d o g i n h u m a n b u r i a l s h a v e b e e n
documented 614
. Dogs were mostly thought as a companion, so it was logical to be
m u m m i f i e d a n d b u r i e d w i t h t h e i r o w n e r s 615. I n A d a i m a a t N a q a d a I a n d I I p i t s
c o n t a i n i n g t h e s k e l e t o n o f f o u r d o g s a n d o n e p i g 616 w r a p p e d i n m a t w e r e f o u n d .

605 A n a l t e r n a t i v e n a m e o f t h e s h r i n e i s t h e “ C h a p e l o f t h e P a r e n t s o f t h e Q u e e n ” d u e t o t h e f a c t

Hatshepsut and Thuthomis depicted with the company of their mothers Szafranski, 2010, p. 192
606 B a r d , 1 9 9 9 , p . 2 7 8 a n d W i l k i n s o n , 2 0 0 0 , p . 1 7 7
607 S z a f r a n s k i , 2 0 1 0 , p p . 1 8 7 - 1 9 2
608 J e f f r e y s & S m i t h , 1 9 8 8 , p p . 5 0 - 6 0
609 J e f f r e y s & S m i t h , 1 9 8 8 , p . 2 6
610 R i c e , 2 0 0 6 , p . 3 2
611 B r u n t o n & C a t o n - T h o m p s o n , 1 9 2 8 , p p . 7 , 4 2 a n d 9 1
612 W e n d o r f & S c h i l d , 2 0 1 3 , p . 4 8 6
613 B a r d , 1 9 9 9 , p . 4 3 9
614 F l o r e s , 1 9 9 9 , p . 1 4
615 H o u l i h a n , 2 0 0 1 , p . 2 2 9
616 B a r d , 1 9 9 9 , p . 1 2 8 a n d F l o r e s , 1 9 9 9 , p . 1 5

117
In t he P red yn as ti c si tes of M a’adi and Wadi Di gla dog buri al was found on in
s e p a r a t e g r a v e w i t h a p o t 617.
On the 1st-2nd Dynasties in these auxiliary chambers, burial of dogs and
servants were located 618
and accompanied those of kings Djer, Djet, Den and
o t h e r k i n g s o f t h i s e r a . A r o ya l d o g b u r i a l c o m e s f r o m Y a s e n ’ s m a s t a b a a t G i z a
dat ed to 4th Dynas ty. In t his l arge mas t aba, one s cene depi cts the owner wi th his
dog, where the latter wears collar attached to a strap, held by the unknown
o w n e r . T h e a c c o m p a n yi n g i n s c r i p t i o n s a ys :
”The dog which was the guard of His Majesty. Abuwtiyuw is his name. His
Majesty ordered that he be buried (ceremonially) that he be given a coffin from
the royal treasury, fine linen in great quantity, (and) incense. His Majesty (also)
gave perfumed ointment, and (ordered) that a tomb be built for him by the gangs
of masons. His Majesty did this for him in order that he (the dog) might be
h o n o r e d ( b e f o r e t h e g r e a t g o d , A n u b i s ) ” 619.
Another enormous example comes from North Saqqara. During the last decades,
a century after the first documentation from Jacques de Morgan, dogs’
c a t a c o m b s 620 d a t e d f r o m 7 4 7 t o 3 0 B C E w e r e e x c a v a t e d b y P a u l N i c h o l s o n . T h e
c a t a c o m b s m e a s u r e 1 7 3 t o 1 4 0 m e t e r s 621 b u i l t f r o m L o w e r E o c e n e s t o n e a n d c a r r y
approximately 8 million dog mummies, some of which are jackals, foxes,
falcons, cats and mongoose. In the same area ibis, hawk, baboon, and apis
catacombs are located.
A n o t h e r c a t a c o m b w i t h d o g s ’ b o n e s w a s f o u n d i n A b yd o s d a t e d f r o m 1 s t B C E t o
4th CE. In the sacred well’s enclosure the entrance of a hypogeum which leads to
s e r i e s o f r o c k - c u t c h a m b e r s 622 i s l o c a t e d ( F i g u r e 9 0 - 9 2 ) .
R e m a i n s o f d o g s a r e f o u n d i n A b yd o s a t t h e I b i s c e m e t e r y ( L a t e t o R o m a n
Period). Some dogs were inside a small brick enclosure near or between the jars,
some of which contained a dog’s skeleton or dog’s mummy and some were tied
u p w i t h l i n e n 623. T h e c e m e t e r y o f e l - K u r r u d a t e d i n t h e 2 5 t h D yn a s t y c o n t a i n s
s k e l e t o n s o f d o g s 624 i n s i d e a c i r c u l a r g r a v e .

Bard, 1999, p. 548


617

Bard, 1999, p. 124


618
619 I n h i e r o g l y p h i c s : “ T s m wnn stp-sA r jpn-f ‘bwtjw rn-f wD jpn-f qrs(w)-f rdy
n-f qrs-t m prwy-HD jdmy aA wrt snTr rdy Hm-f sfT xws n-f js jn jswt nt
jqdw jr-n n-f Hm-f nw r (j)mAx-f.” Reisner, 1936, p. 97
620 N i c h o l s o n , 2 0 0 5 , p . 5 7 and Bard, 1999, p. 869
621 G e g g e l , 2 0 1 5
622 P e e t , 1 9 1 4 , p p . 9 9 - 1 0 1
623 P e e t & L o a t , 1 9 1 3 , p p . 4 1 - 4 6
624 B a r d , 1 9 9 9 , p . 5 0 9

118
FIGURES

Figure 84. The "Treasury" © Reeves & Wilkinson, 1996, p. 122

Figure 85. Anubis on the "Treasury's" Figure 86. The entrance to the Upper Shrine
threshold of Anubis at Deir el-Bahari
© Reeves, 1995, p. 87 © Szafranski, 2010, p. 194, Figure 4

Figure 87. Recontruction of Anubeion by Figure 88. Recontruction of Anubeion


Mariette
by Quibel © Jeffreys & S., 1988, p. 26,
© Jeffreys & S., 1988, p. 26, Figure 60
Figure 61

119
Fig ure 89. M ap of ani ma l’s mummific ation in Egy pt
© Ikram, 2015, p. xvii

120
Figure 90. The well and the dog's Figure 91. Plan of dog's hypogeum at
hypogeum at Abydos Abydos
© Peet, 1914, PLXVIII © Peet, 1914, PLXVIII

Figure 92. Bones of dogs at Abydos's


hypogeum
© Peet, 1914, PL XVII f. 6

121
CONCLUSION
Thinking generall y of the Ancient Egyptian culture, we believe the following
statement by Paton is suitable: “Death is the “king of terrors,” yet it is the
greatest teacher of our race. Without it men could never have learned the
defference between body and spirit; and without the idea of spirit, god could not
h a v e b e e n c o n c e i v e d , a n d r e l i g i o n w o u l d h a v e b e e n i m p o s s i b l e ” 625.
The concept of canids in relation to the mortuary context started during the
P r e d yn a s t i c Period. During that time, the canids represented the human
manifestation and the human figure is mentioned indirectly through the canid
lashes. Evindence of the importance of the canids is attested in palettes, like the
Two Dog Pallete. Therefore, Anubis’s cult had already had a valid ground and
all the needful ingredients to be established. The mortuary god was born and
became the god of the Underworld equal to Osiris. Nevertheless, with the
upcoming religion of the latter, the canid-headed god was left a few steps
behind.
The ancients, as the evidence show, wanted an anthropocentric god as the ruler
o f t h e A f t e r l i f e , a w a y f r o m t h e P r e d yn a s t i c a n i m a l i n f l u e n c e , b u t t h e y n e v e r
e r a s e d t h e d i v i n e a n i m a l h yp o s t a s i s f r o m t h e d i v i n e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , p e r h a p s a s a
reminder of their diversity with their gods. Likewise, Anubis was never
s u p p l a n t e d , b u t , o n t h e c o n t r a r y, h e j o i n e d t h e O s i r i a n m yt h a s O s i r i s ’ s
embalmer and son. Anubis, being an illegitimate son, didn’t have the power to
be a rival of Horus; therefore, the latter became the living pharaoh through his
legitimate bloodline. Furthermore, Osiris represented a humanized Underworld
a n d a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d a u n i q u e o r i g i n s t o r y.
During the New Kingdom and afterwards, Anubis acquires his former glory to
some extent, particularly as regards iconography both in the temples and the
t o m b s 626. I t i s v e r y i n t r i g u i n g t h a t t h e f u n c t i o n o f A n u b i s i s i s e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g
the Old Kingdom, but his illustration flourished during the New Kingdom and
onwards. The answer to that might rely on the fact that during the Second
I n t r e m e d i a t e P e r i o d , E g yp t w a s r u l e d b y f o r e i g n e r p h a r a o h s . F o r g n e i g n e r s w e r e
a l w a ys t h o u g h t a s t h e e n e m i e s o f E g y p t , t h e u n b a l a n c e o f t h e w o r l d , t h e b e a r e r s
of chaos and the occupation of their ancient land was thought as a result of the
deviation from their manners and customs. When that time passed, the Egyptians

625Paton, 1921, p. 1
626During the Old Kingdom, the tombs were not illustrated because the ancient Egyptians feared
the power of the image Pinch, 2002, p. 10.
122
had to be closer to their ancient traditions and “make peace” with their gods.
Canid’s mummifications were doubled and were addressed especially to Anubis,
because he was the guide to Osiris’s Hall, he was the god of the embalming;
therefore, if they appeased him, he would give them the opportunity to gain a
place in the afterlife.
T h r o u g h h i s r i c h i c o n o g r a p h y, A n u b i s ’ s m o s t k n o w n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s t h e
recumbent one; attested on seals, amulets, walls, statues etc., concealing the
secret and sacred aspect of the embalming and the deceased's burial place. It is
n o t a b l e t h a t i n t h e r e c u m b e n t p o s t u r e A n u b i s a l w a ys w e a r s a c o l l a r a n d i n s o m e
c a s e s a l s o w e a r s a l a s h . A s w e h a v e s e e n , l a s h e s w e r e u s e d i n t h e P r e d yn a s t i c
Period to define the intelligible appearance of the human. Therefore, the collar
o f A n u b i s i s e c h o i n g t h e P r e d yn a s t i c i n f l u e n c e a n d , w i t h c a u t i o n , w e c a n s a y
that it is evidence of the god’s appeasement (domestication).
The manifestation of mummification is part of the ritual and the embalming
p r o c e d u r e s , a n d , m o s t o f t h e t i m e , i s i n c l u d e d a s p a r t o f t h e s t o r yt e l l i n g s c e n e
with a beginning and an end. The same applies to other funerary manifestations.
The rebirth scenes might be an alternative mummification depiction, an indirect
outcome of the procedure.
The ''breath of life" gesture is equal to the afterlife passages regarding the
akhification of the dead and is part of the embalming and the opening of the
mouth sequence, while the enthrone posture illustrates his status on the
pantheon, since, most of the time, he is receiving offerings from the deceased.
The standing posture and the protective gesture are two representations that the
god is frequently depicted in, especially during the New Kingdom.
T h e a l t e r n a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s g i v e u s a n i n s i g h t t o t h e v a r i a t i o n o f m yt h s a n d
the complexity that existed in Egypt. Anubis pantheistic manifestation and
Hermanubis were the products of the cultural interaction between Greece and
E g yp t . D u r i n g t h e P t o l e m a i c P e r i o d , t h e p a n t h e i s t i c d e i t i e s w e r e p o p u l a r ( e . g .
Serapes, Hathor-Aphrodite, etc.). The ancients believed that the combination of
different divine elements would protect them. In addition, this combination was
efficient for people to accept the differences between the two civilizations,
providing a common ground. The other general manifestations, such as the
embraced gesture and winged posture, are attested, as far as we know, once and
the human-headed depictions are very rare. It is clear that depending on the
m a t e r i a l o n w h i c h t h e i m a g e i s d r a w n , t h e s t r i c t r u l e s o f t h e E g yp t i a n s b e c o m e

123
more elastic, with the result of the figures often being flattened or resembling
c a l i c a t u r e s , w i t h l a r g e h a n d s , h e a d s o r e ye s . F u r t h e r m o r e , w e c a n f i n d d i f f e r e n t
combinations of posture and gesture of Anubis with various accessories, e.g. in
some cases he wears the double crown, while in others the artist chose another
one. This, apart from the religious and political orientation, is also proof of the
artistic freedom.
A n u b i s ’ s e p i t h e t s a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h h i s r o l e s a n d h i s i c o n o g r a p h y; t h e i r
nature are interdependent and reinforce one another, thus the functional, the
status and the iconographical epithets can be found in his representations.
Therefore, the recumbent posture, which is also the determinate for Anubis’
name and part of his epithet Hry sStA “he who is upon the secrets”, gives
double protection and is used as a warning to the tomb’s intruders.
The role of Anubis is found throughout all of the Afterlife Books and is
estamblished from the Old Kingdom. His roles could be summarized in six
categories:
 Embalming the corpse of Osiris and general all dead bodies
 Magical power for the deceased’s akhification
 Leading the deceased to the Hall of Truth
 Judgement of the deceased
 Guardian/protection of Osiris and general of the deceased/tomb
 Warfare aspect against the evil spirits and Osiris’s enemies
From the above we understand that mostly he was considered as a servant/a
companion of the dead and not as their supreme leader. All of his powers are
linked to his servant status. With his words (magical action), the deceased is
akhified. This action serves to reinforce his obligation first to Osiris and then to
to the deceased. Akhification is the first step of the deceased to the Afterlife;
the embalming is anteceded of akhification and is related to the living world.
E x c e p t f o r P T , w h i c h c i t e s a l l o f h i s r o l e s e q u a l l y, b y r e a d i n g t h e a n c i e n t t e x t s
we might be able say that CT illustrates his entire role but his function as the
god of mummification. BD gives more value in his role during the judgment of
the dead. The other books of Afterlife (Ambuat, BG, BC etc.) represent more his
guardian and protective aspect; the latter might have happened as a result of the
restoration of tradition.
The TTB must be concindered as an entirel y separated literary form. It is
difficult to identify with one kind of interpretation; it most likely combines

124
m o r e t h a n o n e : a p o l i t i c a l , t r a d i t i o n a l / r e l i g i o u s a n d s o c i a l / p s yc h o l o g i c a l . I t i s
very interesting that all adventures of Bata, regarding the human involvement,
happened at the daily hours and during the night hours Bata is reborn and the
gods intervene into the tale.
The same applies to the Jumilhac Papyrus too, since it is comprised of different
adventures of the gods, Anubis and Horus, with innvocations and new story
l i n e s . I n b o t h c a s e s , w e a r e n o t s u r e i f t h e y a r e a n c i e n t m yt h s a n d l e g e n d s o r a r e
placed in the general spirit of the time. Furthermore, regarding the Jumilhac
P a p yr u s , w e m u s t n e v e r f o r g e t t h a t i t w a s w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e P t o l e m a i c P e r i o d , i n
w h i c h n e w m yt h s o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f o l d e r o n e s a n d n e w h i e r o g l y p h i c s
appeared. Τhis may have happened either because the Greeks wanted to import
their own cultural elements or because they did not correctly understand the
E g yp t i a n c o s m o g o n i e s . T h e J u m i l h a c P a p yr u s ’ s t o r i e s o f a s i n g l e g o d - h e r o
(contests) could be considered ethnographic parallel to the adventures’ series
t h a t c a n b e f o u n d i n a n c i e n t G r e e k h e r o ’ m yt h s , s u c h a s H e r c u l e s , T h e s e u s o r
O d ys s e u s ( C h a r t 4 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e s t o r i e s s h o w s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e
H e l l e n i c c i v i l i z a t i o n o n t h e E g yp t i a n w o r l d .
I t i s l o g i c a l f o r A n u b i s , w i t h h i s P r e d yn a s t i c r o o t s , t o h a v e f e a s t s a n d d i v i n e
buildings to be worshiped. Few temples and shrines are known and preserved;
o t h e r s a r e m e n t i o n e d i n t e x t s b u t n o n e o f t h e i r s i t e s i s i d e n t i f i e d ye t , a s i t
happens in the case of Lahun’s temple. With further research and excavation, we
will come across new evidence to fill in the gaps of his origin and generally of
h i s s t o r y.
Chart 4. Story’s Construction

125
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books and Articles


 Abdel-Maksoud, G., & Abdel-Rahman, e.-A. 2011. "A Review on the Materials
used During the Mummification Processes in Ancient Egypt". MAA, 11(2), 129-
150.
 Allen, P. J. 1960. The Egyptian Book of the Dead. Illinois: The University o f
Chicago Press.
 Allen, P. J. 2005. Writings from the Ancient World: The Ancient Egyptian
Pyramid Texts. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.
 Allen, P. J. 2014. Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and
Culture of Hieroglyphs (3rd ed.). UK: Cambridge University Press.
 Andrews, A. R. 2001. "Amulets". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford, Vol. 1, pp. 75-82. NY: Oxford University Press.
 Anthon y, F. B. 2 01 6. F or eigners in A nci ent Egypt : T heban Tomb Pai nti ngs
from the Early Eighteenth Dynasty. London, New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.
 Apuleius. 1998. The Golden Ass of Metamorphoses. translated by E. Kenney.
USA: Penguin Books.
 Arnold, D. 1995. An Egyptian Bestiary. NY: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
 Assmann, J. 2001. Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt. Ithaca and London:
Cornell University Press.
 A ya d , F . M . 2 0 0 4 . " T h e S e l e c t i o n a n d t h e L a y o u t o f t h e O p e n i n g o f t h e M o u t h
Scenes in the Chapel of Amenirdis Iat Nedinet Habu". JARCE, XL1, 113-133.
 Badaw y, A. 1966. A rchi tectur e in Ancient Egypt and the Near East.
Cambridge: The MIT Press.
 B a i n e s , J . 1 9 9 3 . " S ym b o l i c R o l e s o f C a n i n e F i g u r e s o n E a r l y M o n u m e n t s " .
Archeo-Nil(3), 57-74.
 B a i n e s , J . 1 9 9 3 . " S ym b o l i c R o l e s o f C a n i n e F i g u r e s o n E a r l y M o n u m e n t s " .
Archéo-Nil: Société pour l'étude des cultures prépharaoniques de la vallée du
Nil, 57-74.
 B a k i r , A b d - e l - M o h s e n . 1 9 6 7 . " R e m a r k s o n S o m e A s p e c t s o f E g yp t i a n A r t " .
The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 53, 159-161.
 Bard, K. A. (1999). Encyclopedia of Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. New York
and London: Routlegde.
 Bard, K. A. (2007). An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. UK,
USA: Blackwell Publishing.
 B e a t t y, M . 1 9 9 9 - 2 0 0 0 . T h e T i t l e h r y s s t 3 " M a s t e r o f S e c r e t " : F u n c t i o n a l o r
Honorific? ANKH: Revue d'Egyptologie et des Civilisations africaines(8/9), 58-
71.
 Beresford, J. 2012. The Ancient Sailing Season. Leiden: Brill.
 Berio, A. 2014, December. The Selestial River: Identifying the Ancient
Egyptian Constellations. Sino-Platonic Papers.

126
 Betz, H. D. 1986. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation: Including the
Demotic Spells. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
 B i l l i n g , N . 2 0 0 6 . " T h e S e c r e t O n e . A n A n a l ys i s o f a C o r e M o t i f i n t h e B o o k s
of the Netherworld". Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur, 34, 51-71.
 Breasted, H. J. 1906. Ancient Records of Egypt: The Twentieth through the
Twenty-sixth Dynasty (Vol. IV). USA, London: The University of Chicago Press.
 Breasted, H. J., & Allen, G. T. 1934. Medinet Habu III: The Calendar, the
"Slaughter House" and Minor Records of Ramses III (Vol. 3). New York and
London: The University of Chicago Press.
 Breasted, J. H. 1906. Ancient Egyptian Records: The First to the Seventeenth
Dynasty. Vol. 1. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
 Breasted, J. H. 1912. Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
 Breasted, J. H. (2016). A History of Egypt: From the Earliest Time to the
Persian Conquest. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 B r i e r , B . 2 0 0 1 . A t h o r o u g h l y m o d e r n m u m m y; E x p e r i m e n t a l A r c h a e o l o g y: s t e p
b y g r u e s o m e s t e p , t h e E g yp t i a n w a y. A I A , 4 4 - 5 0 .
 Brunton, C. O., & Caton-Thompson. 1928. The Badarian Civilization and
Predynastic Remains near Badari. London: British School of Archaeology in
E g yp t , U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e a n d B e r n a r d Q u a r i t c h .
 B r ya n , M . B . 2 0 1 4 . P h a r a o n i c P a i n t i n g t h r o u g h t h e N e w K i n g d o m . I n K . M .
Hartwig, A Companion to Ancient Egyptian Art (Vol. 2). U.K.: John Wiley &
Sons.
 Budde, D. 2011. "Divine Epithets". UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 1-10.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1988. From Fetush to God in Ancient Egypt. NY: Dover
Publication Inc.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1908. An Account of the Sarcophagus of Seti I, King of
Egypt, B.C. 1370. London: the Museum.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1911. A Hieroglyphic Vocabulary to the Theban
Recension of the Book of the Dead. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & C)
LTD.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1912. The Greenfield Papyrus in the British Museum.
London: Printed by Order of the Trustees, sold at the British Museum.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1898. The Book of the Dead: The Chapters of Coming
F o r t h b y D a y . L o n d o n : K e g a n P a u l , T r e n c h , T r ü b n e r & C o .
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1904. The Gods of the Egyptians, or, Studies in Egyptian
Mythology (Vol. 1). London: Methuem & Co.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1904. The Gods of the Egyptians, or, Studies in Egyptian
Mythology. Vol. 2. London: Metheum & Co.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1905. The Egyptian Heaven and Hell. Vol. 1. London:
E.A.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1906. The Egyptian Heaven and Hell (Vol. 2). London:
K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & co., ltd.

127
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1909. The Book of Opening the Mouth, the Egyptian
Texts with English Translations (Vol. 1). London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner &
co., ltd.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1909. The Book of the Opening of the Mouth (Vol. 2).
London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & co., ltd.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1913. The Book of the Dead: Papyrus of Ani (Vol. 2).
London: The Medici Society LTD.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1914. The Literature of Ancient Egypt. London: J. M.
Dent &Sons Limited.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis. 1925. The Mummy: A Handbook of Egyptian Fynerary
Archaeology. New York: Dover Publications Inc.
 Budge, E. A. Wallis 2014. From Fetish To God Ancient Egypt. London and
NY: Routledge.
 Bunson, B. M. 2002. Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt . New York: Fact On
Files, Inc.
 Case, H., & Crowfoot, J. P. 1962. "Tomb 100: The Decorated Tomb at
Hierakonpolis". JEA, 48, 5-18.
 Chilvers, I. 2009. The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists. NY, USA: Ox ford
University Press.
 Christian, L., & Budde, D. 2003. Lexikon der ägyptischen Götter und
Götterbezeichnungen. Leuven: Peeters Publishers.
 Christies's. 2016. The Resandro Collection. Auction catalogue. London:
Christies.
 Cialowicz, M. K. 1991. Les palettes egyptiennes aux motifs zoomorphes et
sans decoration.. Etudes de I'art predynastique. Krakow: SAAC 3.
 Clagett, M. 1989. Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book/Knowledge and
O r d e r . V o l . 1 . P h i l a d e l p h i a : A m e r i c a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y.
 Clagett, M. 1995. Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book. Vols. 3: Ancient
E g yp t i a n M a t h e m a t i c s . P h i l a d e l p h i a : A m e r i c a n P h i l o s o p h i c a l S o c i e t y.
 Clagett, M. 1995. Ancient Egyptian Science: A Source Book. Vols. 2:
Calendars, Clocks, and Astronom y. Philadelphia: American Philosophical
S o c i e t y.
 C o o n e y, J . D . 1 9 6 7 . " G o d s B e a r i n g G i f t s f o r t h e K i n g " . T h e B u l l e t i n o f t h e
Cleveland Museum of Art, 54(9), 279-.
 Corcoran, L. H. 2001. "Masks". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt
B., edited by D. Redford. Vol. 2, pp. 345-348. USA: Oxford University Press.
 Daine, V. F. 1999. The Funerary Sacrifice of Animals During the Predynastic
Period (PHD). USA: University of Toronto.
 Darnell, J. C. 2004. The Enigmatic Netherworld Books of the Solar-Osirian
Unity: Cryptographic Compositions in the Tombs of Tutankhamun, Ramesses VI
a n d R a m e s s e s I X . G e r m a n y: A c a d e m i c P r e s s F r i b o u r g , V a n d e n h o e c k & R u p r e c h t
G ö t t i n g e n .

128
 David, A. R. 1998. The Ancient Egyptians: Beliefs and Practices. USA: Sussex
Academic Press.
 David, R. A. 2001. "Mummification". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt. edited by D. Redford. Vol. 2, pp. 439-444. USA: Oxford University Press.
 Davis Theodore, Maspero Gaston, Newberry Percy E., Carter Howard. 1907.
A. Constable and Co.: London
 Dawood, A. K. 1998. The Incribed Stelae of the Herakleopolitan Period from
the Memphite Necropolis: Volume I. Text. UK: Phd thesis.
 Dawood, K. A. 1998. The Inscribed Stelae of the Herakleopolitan Period from
the Memphite Necropolis (Vol. 1). UK: University of Liverpool: Phd thesis.
 Demas, M., & Agnew, N. 2012. Valley of the Queens Assessment Report:
Conservation and Management Planning. Volume 1. The Getty Conservation
Institute. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Trust.
 di Luigi, T. 2016. "Il Dio Anubis: iconografia ed epiteti, II parte".
Hellenismo, XXII, 44-64.
 Di Teodoro, M. 2014. "The Organisation of Seasonal Labour During the
Middle Kingdom". Proceedings of the Fourthenth Annual Symposium University
of Cambridge 2013. pp. 64-80. UK: Oxbow Books.
 DiLisio, R. 2014. Archaeology - In Brief: Ancient Egypt. IUviverse.
 Dodson, A. (2001). "Four Sons of Horus". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of
Ancient Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 1, pp. 561-563. USA: The Oxford
University Press.
 D o x e y, D . M . ( 2 0 0 1 ) . " A n u b i s " . I n D . B . R e d f o r d , T h e O x f o r d E n c y c l o p e d i a o f
Ancient Egypt (pp. 97-98). USA: Oxford University Press.
 D o x e y, D . M . ( 2 0 0 1 ) . " P r i e s t h o o d " . I n T h e O x f o r d E n c y c l o p e d i a o f A n c i e n t
Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 3, pp. 68-13. New York: Oxford Univesity
Press.
 Dunand, F., & Lichtenberg, R. 2006. Mummies and Death in Egypt. USA:
Cornell University Press.
 Dundes, A. 2002. "Projective Inversion in the Ancient Egyptian "Tale of Two
Brothers".The Journal of American Folklore, 115(457/458), 378-394.
 DuQuesne, T. 2005. The Jackal Divinities of Egypt: From the Archaic period
to Dynasty X. UK: Darengo Publications.
 DuQuesne, T. 2007. Anubis, Upwawet, and Other Deities: Personal Worship
and Official Religion in Ancient Egypt. Cairo: American University in Cairo
Press.
 DuQuesne, T. 2012. "Jmjwt". UEE, 1-3.
 Eaverl y, M . 2004. "C ol ours of Po wer" In C ol our in t h e Anci ent Medit er ranean
World b y L. Cleland, G. Davies, & K. Stears, pp. 53-55. Ox ford: John and Erica
Hedges.
 El -Khadrag y, M . 200 1. "The Adoration Ges ture i n P ri vat e Tombs up t o the
Early Middle Kingdom". Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur (29), 187-201.

129
 El-Sabban, S. 2000. Temple Festival Calendars of Ancient Egypt. Liverpool:
Liverpool University Press.
 El -Shahaw y, A., & al -Mi ṣrī, M . 2005. T he Egypti an Mus eum i n Cai ro. Cairo:
American University in Cairo Press.
 E l - S h a h a w y , A . , & A t i ya , F . S . 2 0 0 5 . T h e E g y p t i a n M u s e u m i n C a i r o : A W a l k
T h r o u g h t h e A l l e y s o f A n c i e n t E g y p t . C a i r o : F a r i d A t i ya P r e s s .
 Ensminger, J. 2015 "Children of Anubis". PetsNews, (32), 8-11; (33), 22-24
 Evans, L. 2008. "The Anubis animal: a behavioural solution?" Goettinger
Miszellen, 17-24.
 Faulkner, R. Ο. 1954. "An Ancient Egyptian 'Book of Hours'". JEA, 40, 34-39.
 Faulkner, R. Ο. 1977. The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts: Spells 355-787. Vol.
2. England: Aris & Phillips Ltd.
 Faulkner, R. O. 1973. The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts: Spells 1-354. Vol. 1.
England: Aris & Phillips Ltd.
 Faulkner, R. O. 1978. The Ancient Egyptian Coffin Texts: Spells 788-1185.
Vol. 3. England: Aris & Phillips Ltd.
 Fischer, H. G. (1996). Egyptian Studies III: Varia Nova. New York:
Metropolitan Museum of Art.
 Flores, D. V. 1999. The Funerary Sacrifice of Animals During the Predynastic
Period. Ottawa: National Library of Canada/Bibliothèque nationale du Canada:
Phd thesis.
 Gardiner, A. S. 1957. Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study
of Hieroglyphs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 Giunio, K. A. 2012. "Isis: The Sea Star and the Ceremony of Navigium Isidis".
Diadora: Glasilo Arheološkog muzeja u Zadru, 26-27, 421-440.
 G o d l e y, A . D . 1 9 2 0 . H e r o d o t u s w i t h a n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n . C a m b r i d g e :
Harvard University Press.
 Gombrich, H. E. 1952. The Story of Art. New York, USA: Phaidon Press.
 Graham, G. 2001. "Insignias". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt,
edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 2, pp. 163-167. USA: Oxford University Press.
 G r i m m , A . 1 9 9 4 . D i e A l t ä g y p t i s c h e n F e s t k a l e n d e r i n den Tempeln der
G r i e c h i s c h - R ö m i s c h e n E p o c h e . W i e s b a d e n : H a r r a s s o w i t z .
 H a r d y, P . A . 2 0 0 2 - 2 0 0 3 . " T h e Cairo Calendar as a Stellar Almanac".
Archaeoastronomy, XVIII, 48-63.
 Hart, G. 2005. The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddess (2nd
ed.). London, UK: Ta yl or & Franci s Lt d.
 Hartwing, K. M. 2001. "Painting". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 3, pp. 1-13. NY: Oxford University Press.
 Ha ys , H. 2010 . "Funerary R i tual s (P harao ni c Peri od)". UEE, 1-14.
 Ha ys , H. M. 2011. "The Deat h of t he Dem ocratis ation of t he Aft erli fe. Ol d
Kingdom: New Perspectives. Egyptian Art and Archaeology 2750–2150 BC (pp.
115-130). Oxbow Books.

130
 Hendrickx, S. (2006). The Dog, the Lycaon Pictus and Order Over Chaos in
P r e d yn a s t i c E g yp t . S t u d i e s i n A f r i c a n A r c h a e o l o g y ( 9 ) , 7 2 3 - 7 4 9 .
 H e n d r i c k x , S . ( 2 0 0 9 ) . H u n t i n g a n d S o c i a l C o m p l e x i t y i n P r e d yn a s t i c E g y p t " .
Bulletin des séances - Mededelingen der zittingen, 57(2-4), 237-263.
 Hoath, R. 2009. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Egypt. Cairo: American
University in Cairo Press.
 Hodel-Hoenes, S. 2000. Life and Death in Ancient Egypt: Scenes from Private
Tombs in New Kingdom Thebes. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
 Hogan, L. T. 2016. Pharaoh: A One-Woman play - The life and times of
A n c i e n t E g y p t ' s f e m a l e k i n g . ( 3 r d , E d . ) T h e H o u s e o f L i f e S o c i e t y.
 Hornung, E. 1999. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. Ithaca and
London: Corneal University Press.
 Houlihan, P. F. 2001. "Canines". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 1, pp. 229-231. USA: Oxford University
Press.
 Houser-Wegner, J. 2001. "Wepwawet". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 3, pp. 496-497. USA: The Oxford
University Press.
 Shaw, Ian, & Nicholson,, P. T. 1995. Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. London:
The British Museum Press.
 Ikram, S. 2015. "Divine Creatues: Animal Mummies". In Divine Creatues:
Animal Mummies in Ancient Egypt, by S. Ikram, (2nd ed., pp. 1-15). Cairo, New
York: ACU Press.
 Is chl ondsk y, D. N. 1966. "A Peculi ar R epres ent ation of t he J ackal -God
Anubis". Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 25(1), 17-26.
 James, T. G. 1985. Egyptian Painting. London: British Museum.
 Janák, J. 2003. "Journey to the Resurrection. Chapter 105 of the Book of the
Dead in the New Kingdom". Studien zur Altägyptischen Kultur(31), 193-210.
 Jansen-Winkeln, K. 1993. "The Career of the Egyptian High Priest
Bakenkhons". Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 52(3), 221-225.
 J e f f r e ys , D . G . , & S . , S . H . 1 9 8 8 . T h e A n u b e i o n a t S a q q a r a : T h e S e t t l e m e n t
a n d t h e T e m p l e P r e c i n c t - J e f f r e y s a n d S m i t h . V o l . 1 . L o n d o n : E g yp t E x p l o r a t i o n
S o c i e t y.
 K a p e r , E . O . 2 0 0 1 . " M yt h s : L u n a r C i r c l e " . I n T h e O x f o r d E n c y c l o p e d i a o f
Ancient Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 2, pp. 480-482. USA: Oxford
University Press.
 Kaper, O. E. 2008-2009. "A Fragment from the Osiris Chapels at Dendera in
Bristol". Jaarbericht "Ex Oriente Lux", 41, 29-47.
 K l e i b l , K . 2 0 1 5 . " G r e c o - E g yp t i a n R e l i g i o n " . I n T h e O x f o r d H a n d b o o k o f
Ancient Greek Religion, edited by E. Eidinow, & J. Kindt. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
 Kozloff, P. A. 2001. "Sculpture: An Overview". In The Oxford Encyclopedia
of Ancient Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 3, pp. 218-228. NY: Oxford
University Press.
131
 Kozloff, P. A. 2001. "Sculpture: Divine Sculpture". In The Oxford
Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 3, pp. 242-246.
USA: Oxford Univeristy Press.
 K o z m a , C . 2 0 0 6 . " H i s t o r i c a l R e v i e w : D w a r f s i n A n c i e n t E g yp t " . A m e r i c a n
Journal of Medical Genetics, 303-311.
 Labudek, J. 2010. Late period stelae from Saqqara. A socio-cultural and
religious investigation. UK: University of Birmingham.
 Larson, G., Karlsson, E. K., & Perri, A. 2012. "Rethinking dog domestication
by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography". Proceedings of the
National Academy of Sciences, 109(28), 8878-8883.
 Lehner, M. 1997. The Complete Pyramids: Solving the Ancient Mysterie.
London: Thames and Hudson.
 Leitz, C. 2002. Lexikon der ägyptischen Götter und Götterbezeichnungen (Vol.
1). Leuven: Peeters Publishers.
 Leprohon, R. J. (2001). "Offerings: Offering Formulas and Lists". In The
Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 2, pp. 569-
72. USA: Oxford University Press.
 L e s k o , L . H . 1 9 7 7 . T h e A n c i e n t E g y p t i a n B o o k o f T w o W a y s . B e r k e l e y, L o s
Angeles, London: University of California Press.
 Lichtheim, M. 1976. Ancient Egyptian Literature: The New Kingdom (Vol. 2).
Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.
 L o g a n , T . J . 1 9 9 0 . " T h e O r i g i n s o f t h e J m y- w t F e t i s h " . J A R C E , 2 7 , 6 1 - 6 9 .
 Love, E. O. 2016. Code-switching with the Gods: The Bilingual (Old Coptic-
Greek) Spells of PGM IV (P. Bibliothèque Nationale Supplément Grec. 574) and
their Linguistic, Religious, and Socio-Cultural Context in Late Roman Egypt.
B e r l i n , B o s t o n : W a l t e r d e G r u yt e r G m b H & C o K G .
 Lucas, A. 1934. Ancient Egyptian Materials and Industries (2nd ed.). London:
Edward Arnold & Co.
 Manassa, C. 2006. "The Judgment Hall of Osiris in the Book of Gates". Revue
d'Égyptologie, 57, 109-150.
 Manassa, C. 2007. The Late Egyptian Underworld: Sarcophagi and Related
Texts from the Nectanebid Period . Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
 M a n l e y, B . 1 9 9 6 . T h e P e n g u i n H i s t o r i c a l A t l a s o f A n c i e n t E g y p t . L o n d o n :
Peguin.
 Mariette, A. 1873. Dendérah: Description Générale du Grand Temple de Cette
Ville. Vol. 4. Paris: Librairie A. Frank.
 Mariette, A. 1875. Dendérah: Description Générale du Grand Temple de Cette
Ville. Vol. 6. Paris and Caire: Librairie A. Frank.
 McDonald, J. K. 1996. House of Eternity: The Tomb of Nefertari. Los Angeles:
The J. Paul Getty Trust.
 Mendoza, B. 2017. Artifacts from Ancient Egypt. California: ABC-CLIO LLC .
 Moldenke, C. E. (1900). Papyrus d'Orbiney: (British Museum): The
Hieroglyphic Transcription. Watchung, NJ: Eslinore.

132
 Muller, M. 2001. "Relief Sculpture". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 3, pp. 132-139. USA: Oxford University
Press.
 Müller, M. W. 1918. The Mythology of all Races: Egyptian. Vol. 12. Boston:
M a r s h a l l J o n e s C o m p a n y.
 Munro, C. E. 1964. Παγκόσμια Εγκυκλοπαίδεια της Τέχνης. Ελλάδα:
Φυλτρακης.
 Murnan, W. J. 1995. Texts from the Amarna Period in Egypt. Vol. 5. Atlanta,
Geogria: Scholars Press.
 M u r r a y, M . A . , & S e t h e , K . 1 9 3 7 . S a q q a r a M a s t a b a s . V o l . 2 . L o n d o n : B r i t i s h
S c h o o l o f A r c h a e o l o g y i n E g yp t a n d B . Q u a r i t c h .
 M u r r a y, M . A . , M i l n e , G . J . , & C r u m , W . E . 1 9 0 4 . T h e O s i r e i o n a t A b y d o s .
London: Bernard Quaritch.
 M ys l i w i e c , K . 2 0 0 1 . " S c u l p t u r e : R o ya l S c u l p t u r e " . I n T h e O x f o r d
Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 3, pp. 229-235.
USA: Oxford University Press.
 Naville, E. 1897. The Temple of Deir el-Bahari. Vol. 2. London: The Order of
the Committee.
 Nicholson, P. T. (2005). "The Sacred Animal Necropolis at North Saqqara:
The Cults and their Catacombs". In Divine Creatures: Animal Mummies in
Ancient Egypt, by S. Ikram, pp. 44-70. Cairo: American University in Cairo
Press.
 Orlin, E. 2015. Routledge Encyclopedia of Ancient Mediterranean Religions.
New York: Routledge.
 O'Rourke, P. F. 2002. An Egyptian Royal Book of Protection of the Late
Period (P. Brooklyn 47.218.49). New York: UMI Dissertation Services.
 Ossian, C. 2008. "A Limestone Jewel in the Desert: The Cenotaph of Rameses
I I a t A b yd o s " . K M T : A M o d e r n J o u r n a l o f A n c i e n t E g y p t , 1 9 ( 1 ) , 3 9 - 5 1 .
 Papantoniou, G. 2012. Religion and Social Transformations in Cyprus: From
the Cypriot Basileis to the Hellenistic Strategos. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
 Parker, R. A. 1950. The Calendars of Ancient Egypt. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
 Paton, L. B. 1921. Spiritism and the Cult of the Dead in Antiquity . New York:
Macmillan Co.
 Peet, E. T. 1914. The Cemetries of Abydos. Vol. 2. London: The Egypt
Excporation Fund (Order of Comitee).
 Peet, E. T., & Loat, W. 1913. The Cemeteries of Abydos. Vol. 3. London: The
O f f i c e s o f t h e E g yp t E x p l o r a t i o n F u n d .
 Perri, A. 2016. "A wolf in dog's clothing: Initial dog domestication and
Pleistocene wolf variation". Journal of Archaeological Science(68), 1-4.
 Petrie, F. W. 1902. Abydos. Vol. 1. London: Gilbert & Rivington, Ltd.
 Pinch, G. 2002. A Handbook of Egyptian Mythology. Oxford: ABC-CLIO.

133
 Q u e r t i n m o n t , A . 2 0 0 8 . " A S t yl i s t i c D a t i n g f o r S t a t u e s o f A n u b i s a n d o t h e r
Canine Divinities". Current Research in Egyptology 2008: Proceedings of the
Ninth Annual Symposium (pp. 109-118). Manchester: David Brown Book Co.
 Quirke, G. J. 2001. "Judgment of the Dead". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of
Ancient Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 2, pp. 211-214. NY: Oxford
University Press.
 Quirke, S. 1997. "Gods in the Temple of the King: Anubis at Lahun". In The
Temple in Ancient Egypt: New Discoveries and Recent Research, edited by S.
Quirke, pp. 24-48. London: Trustees of the British Museum.
 Reeves, N. 1995. Complete Tutankhamun: The King, The Tomb,the Royal
Treasure. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd.
 Reeves, N., & Wilkinson, R. H. 1996. The Complete Valley of the Kings:
Tombs and Treasures of Egypt's Greatest Pharaohs. London: Thames & Hudson.
 R e i d y, J . R . 2 0 1 0 . E t e r n a l E g y p t : A n c i e n t R i t u a l s f o r t h e M o d e r n W o r l d . U S A :
iUniverse.
 Reisner, G. A. 1918. "The Tomb of Hepzefa, Nomarch of Siûṭ". JEA, 5, 79-89.
 Reisner, G. A. 1934. "The Servants of the Ka". Bulletin of the Museum of Fine
Arts, 32(189), 1-12.
 Reisner, G. A. 1936. "The Dog which was Honored by the King of Upper and
Lower Egypt ". Bulleti n of t he Mus eum of Fine Arts , X X X I V(206), 96-99.
 Renouf, P. L., & Naville, E. 1904. The Egyptian Book of the Dead:
T r a n s l a t i o n a n d C o m m e n t a r y . L o n d o n : S o c i e t y o f B i b l i c a l A r c h a e o l o g y.
 Rice, M. 2002. Who's Who in Ancient Egypt. London: Routledge.
 Rice, M. 2006. Swifter than the Arrow: The Golden Hanting Hounds of the
Ancient Egypt. London, N.Y.: I. B. Tauris.
 Richter, A. B. 2012. The Theology of Hathor of Dendera: Aural and Visual
S c r i b a l T e c h n i q u e s i n t h e P e r - W e r S a n c t u a r y . B e r k e l e y: A d i s s e r t a t i o n s u b m i t t e d
in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
P hil os ophy.
 Ritner, K. R. 1985. "Anubis and the Lunar Disc". JEA, 71, 149-155.
 Roberson, J. A. 2007. The Book of the Earth: A study of ancient Egyptian
symbol -systems and the evolution of New Kingdom cosmographic models. USA:
RroQuest LLC.
 Roberson, J. A. 2014. The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Earth. Atlanta,
Georgia: Lockwood Press.
 Robins, G. 1997. The Art of Ancient Egypt. London: British Museum Press.
 Robins, G. 2001. "The use of the squared grid as a technical aid for artists in
Ei ght eenth D ynas ty pai n t ed Theban tombs ". In C o lour and Pai nti ng i n Ancient
Egypt, edited by W. Davies, pp. 60-62. London: British Museum Press.
 Roth, A. M. 1993. "Fingers, Stars, and the 'Opening of the Mouth': The Nature
and Function of the nṯrwj-Blades". JEA, 79, 57-79.

134
 Roth, A. M. 2001. "Opening of the Mouth". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of
Ancient Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 2, pp. 605-609. USA: Oxford
University Press.
 R o t h , M . A . 1 9 9 2 . " T h e p s S - k f a n d t h e " O p e n i n g o f t h e M o u t h " C e r e m o n y: A
Ritual of Birth and Rebirth". JEA, 78, 113-147.
 Rzeuska, I. T. 2008. "Reflection on “rite de passage” in the Old Kingdom".
Polish Archaeology in Mediterranean(20), 575-586.
 Sauneron, S. 1960. The Priest of Ancient Egypt. Ney York and London: Grove
Press, INC.
 Scalf III, D. F. 2014. Passports to Eternity: Formulaic Demotic Funerary
Texts and the Final Phase of Egyptian Funerary Literature in Roman Egypt
(PHD). Chicago, Il linois: The University of Chicago.
 Scalf, F. 2017. Book of the Dead: Becoming a God in Ancient Egypt. Chicago:
The Oriental Institute of the Universit y of Chicago.
 Schneider, T. 2008. "Innovation in Literature on Behalf of Politics: The Tale
o f t h e T w o B r o t h e r s , U g a r i t , a n d 1 9 t h D yn a s t y H i s t o r y " . A u s t r i a n A c a d e m y o f
Sciences Press, 18, 315-326.
 Schulz, R. 2006. "Dog missing his master: Reflections on an Old Kingdom
tomb relief in the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore". The Old Kingdom Art and
Archaeology: Proceedings of a Conference, Prague 2004, pp. 315-325. Prague:
C z e c h I n s t i t u t e o f E g yp t o l o g y.
 Shafer, B. E. 2005. "Temple, Priests, and Rituals". In Temples of Ancient
Egypt, edited b y D. Arnold, pp. 1-30. London and New York: I.B.Tauris.
 S herbi ny, W . 2017. T hr ough Hermopolit an L ens es : St udi es on the so-call ed
Book of Two Ways in Ancient Egypt. Leiden, Boston: Brill.
 Simpson, W. K. 2003. The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of
Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry. New Haven and
London: Yale University Press.
 Smith, M. 1993. The Liturgy of Opening the Mouth for Breathing. Oxford:
Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum.
 Smith, M. 2017. Following Osiris: Perspectives on the Osirian Afterlife from
Four Millenia. UK: Oxford University Press.
 Szafranski, Z. E. 2010. "Imiut in the "Chapel of the Parents" in the Temple of
Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahari". Achte Ägyptologische Tempeltagung (pp. 187-
196). Germ an y: Otto Harrassowi tz Verl ag.
 Ta yl or, J . H. 2010. Jour ney T hr ough the A ft er lif e: Anci ent E gypt ian Book of
the Dead. Cambridge and USA: Harvard University Press.
 te Velde, H. 2001. "Seth". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt,
edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 3, pp. 269-271. USA: The Oxford University
Press.
 Tefnin, R. 2001. "Sculpture: Private Sculpture". In The Oxford Encyclopedia
of Ancient Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 3, pp. 235-242). USA: Oxford
University Press.

135
 T e t l e y, C . M . 2 0 1 4 . T h e R e c o n s t r u c t e d C h r o n o l o g y o f t h e E g y p t i a n K i n g s
( V o l . 1 ) . N e w Z e a l a n d : B a r r y W . T e t l e y.
 T e t l e y, C . M . 2 0 1 4 . T h e R e c o n s t r u c t e d C h r o n o l o g y o f t h e E g y p t i a n K i n g s
( V o l . 2 ) . N e w Z e a l a n d : B a r r y W . T e t l e y.
 Tirard, H. 1910. The Book of the Dead. London: Societ y for promoting
Christian knowledge.
 Van Neer, W., Linseele, V., Friedman, R., & De Cupere, B. 2014. "More
E v i d e n c e f o r C a t T a m i n g a t t h e P r e d yn a s t i c E l i t e C e m e t e r y" . J o u r n a l o f
Archaeological Science, 45, 103-111.
 Vandier, J. 1962. Le papyrus Jumilhac. Text and plates. Paris: Centre National
de la Recherche Scientifique .
 W a r b u r t o n , D . A . 2 0 0 7 . " W o r k a n d C o m p e n s a t i o n i n A n c i e n t E g yp t " . J E A , 9 3 ,
175-194.
 Watts, W. E. 1998. Art of Ancient Egypt: A Resource for Educators. New
York: Metropolitan Museum of Art.
 Wegner, J. 2007. "From Elephant-Mountain to Anubis-Mountain? A Theory on
the Origins and Development of the Name Abdju". In The Archeology and Art of
Ancient Egypt: Essays in Honorof David O' Connor, edited by Z. A. Hawass, &
J. Richards. Vol. 36, pp. 473-491. Cairo: ASAE .
 W e g n e r , J . 2 0 0 7 . " B e n e a t h t h e M o u n t a i n - o f - A n u b i s : A n c i e n t E g yp t ' s F i r s t
H i d d e n R o y a l T o m b " . T h e M a g a z i n e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s yl v a n i a ( 4 8 ) 2 ,
15-22
 Wendorf, F., & Schild, R. 2013. Holocene Settlement of the Egyptian Sahara:
The Archaeology of Nabta Playa. Vol. 1. New York: Springer Science &
Business Media.
 Wengrow, D. 2006. The Archaeology of Early Egypt: Social Transformations
in North-East Africa, C. 10,000 to 2,650 BC. UK and New York: Cambridge
University Press,.
 Wilkinson, H. R. 1999. Symbol and Magic in Egyptian Art. London: Thames &
Hudson Ltd.
 Wilkinson, H. R. 2001. "Gesture". In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient
Egypt, edited by B. D. Redford. Vol. 2, pp. 20-24. USA: Oxford University
Press.
 Wilkinson, R. 2000. The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames
& Hudson Ltd.
 Wilkinson, R. H. 1992. Reading Egyptian Art: A hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient
Egyptian Painting and Sculpture. London: Thames & Hudson.
 Wilkinson, R. H. 2003. The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt.
New York: Thames and Hudson.
 Wilkinson, T. A. 1999. Early Dynastic Egypt. London and N.Y.: Routledge.
 Willems, H. 1996. The Coffin of Heqata: (Cairo JdE 36418): a Case Study of
Egyptian Funerary Culture of the Early Middle Kingdom. Leuven: Peeters
Publishers.

136
 Willems, H. 2008. Historical and Archaeological Aspects of Egyptian
Funerary Culture: Religious Ideas and Ritual Practice in Middle Kingdom Elite
Cemeteries. London: Brill.
 Willockx, S. 2007. Magic and Religion in Ancient Egypt: Amentet, Andjeti and
Anubis. Zeeland, NL: self editor.
 Wilson, A. J., & Allen, G. T. 1940. Medinet Habu IV: Festival of Ramses III.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
 W i l s o n , P . 2 0 1 0 . " T e m p l e A r c h i t e c t u r e a n d D e c o r a t i v e S ys t e m s " . I n A
Companion to Ancient Egypt, by A. B. Loyd. Vol. 2, pp. 781-803. A John Wiley
& Sons, Ltd.
 Woodroffe, R., & McNutt, J. W. 2004. "African wild dog (Lycaon pictus)". In
Canids: Foxes, Wo lves, Jackals and Dogs Status, edited b y C. Sillero-Zubiri, M.
Hoffmann, & M. M. David, pp. 174-183. Switzerland and Cambridge, UK:
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
 Κεκές, Χ. 2015. Σύγκριση της απόδοσης της ανθρώπινης μορφής μεταξύ
αιγυπτιακών και αιγαιακών τοιχογραφιών με έμφαση στις στάσεις και τις
κινήσεις του σώματος. Ρεθυμνο: ΜΑ thesis.
 Κουσούλης, Π. 2004. Αναζητώντας την Αιώνια Ζωή: Θάνατος και Ταρίχευση
στην Αρχαία Αίγυπτο. Θεσσαλονίκη: Αρχέτυπο.
 Κουσούλης, Π. 2015. Εισαγωγή στην Αρχαία Αιγυπτιακή Γλώσσα και Γραφή.
Κάλιππος.
 Πλούταρχος. 2003. Ισις και Όσιρις. Μετάφραση από τον Γ. Α. Ράπτης.
Θεσσαλονίκη: Ζήτρος
Sites
 A d a m s , M . B . ( 2 0 1 5 , 1 1 t h 5 ) . " H o r e m h e b T o m b K V 5 7 – K i n g s V a l l e y" . M y
Luxor, Access: 12/11/2017: http://egyptmyluxor.weebly.com/horemheb-tomb-kv57---kings-
valley.html

 AEA. (n.d.). "Tombe Roy". Les Amis de l'Égypte Ancienne, Access:


20/11/2017: http://ancienegypte.fr/tombe_roy/page2.htm
 AMICA. (n.d.). "Coffin of Bakenmut". Art Museum Images from Cartography
Asswociate, Access: 20/09/2017:
http://amica.davidrumsey.com/luna/servlet/detail/AMICO~1~1~32797~213437:Coffin-of-Bakenmut

 BAAM. (n.d.). "Statue of Hermanubis". The Bibliotheca Alexandrina


Antiquities Museum, Access: 18/11/2017:
http://antiquities.bibalex.org/Collection/Detail.aspx?lang=en&a=1160

 B I . ( n . d . ) . " A n c i e n t E g yp t : M a s k o f A n u b i s , 1 9 t h D yn a s t y" . B r i d g e m a n
Images, Access: 29/11/2017:
http://www.bridgemanimages.com/en-GB/asset/3150006//ancient-egypt-anubis-mask-of-anubis-19th-
dynasty?context=%7B%22sourceUrl%22%3A%22http%3A%5C/%5C/www.bridgemanimages.com%5C/
en-GB%5C/search%5C/assets%5C/%25start%25%5C/%25limit%25%5C/%257B%2522filter%2522

 Bekker, I., Ludwig, D., & Vogel, F. (n.d.). "Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca
Historica, Books I-V". Perseus, Access: 3/10/2017:
http://www. p erseus.tu fts. edu/hopp er/text?do c=Perseu s%3 Atext%3 A2008.01 .0540 %3 Aboo k%3 D1 %3 A
chapter%3D18

137
 Benderitter, T. (n.d.). "Queen Nefertari: Tomb QV 66". OsirisNet, Access:
29/11/2017: https://osirisnet.net/tombes/pharaons/nefertari/e_nefertari_05.htm
 Benderitter, T. (n.d.). "Ramesses I: Tomb KV 16". OsirisNet, Access:
29/11/2017: https://www.osirisnet.net/tombes/pharaons/ramses1/e_ramses1_02.htm
 BM. (n.d.). "Vessel/tool/implement/religious/ritualequipment/model". The
British Museum, Access: 12/11/2017:
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1
17463&partId=1&searchText=Opening+of+the+Mouth&images=true&place=42209&page=1

 BM. (n.d.). "The Greenfield Papyrus". The British Museum, Access:


15/11/2017:
http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=1
12592&partId=1

 C.N., 3. (n.d.). "Ramesses the Sixth Tomb "Book of the Caverns".


360cities.net, Access: 19/11/2017: https://www.360cities.net/image/ramesses-the-sixth-
antechamber-book-of-the-dead-egypt

 CMA. (n.d.). "Coffin of Bakenmut (lid), c. 1000-900 BC". The Cleveland


Museum of Art, Access: 11/10/2017: http://www.clevelandart.org/art/1914.561.b#art-
object-detail-views

 D . E . ( n . d . ) . " R a m e s s e s V I - ( 2 0 t h D yn a s t y) " . D e s c r i b i n g E g y p t , A c c e s s :
22/11/2017:
https://describingegypt.com/tours/ramessesvi/kv9_pillared_chamber_f_chariot_hall/99/-13/48

 Dunn, J., & Rome, P. (n.d.). "The Cenotaph Temple of Ramesses II at


A b yd o s " . T o u r E g y p t , A c c e s s : 2 8 / 1 1 / 2 0 1 7 :
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/ramessesiiabydos.htm

 EC. (n.d.). "Coffin fragment, cartonnage, body piece". Egypt Centre -


Canolfan Eifftaidd, Access: 11/10/2017:
http://www.egyptcentre.org.uk/index.asp?page=item&mwsquery={Identity%20number}={W894}

 E m o r y, C . ( n . d . ) . " C o f f i n o f T a n a k h t n e t t a h a t " . M i c h a e l C . C a r l o s M u s e u m ,
Access: 11/10/2017: http://carlos.emory.edu/conservation/case-studies/egyptian-ane/coffin-of-
tanakhtnettahat

 E m o r y, C . ( n . d . ) . " C o f f i n L i d o f T a n a k h t n e t t a h a t / t a - a s e t " . M i c h a e l C . C a r l o s
Museum, Access: 11/10/2017: http://carlos.emory.edu/items/show/6976
 E t e r n a l , E . ( n . d . ) . " A n u b i s C a r r yi n g t h e M o o n D i s k " . E t e r n a l E g y p t , A c c e s s :
8/10/2017:
http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.d
isplay.element&story_id=&module_id=&language_id=1&element_id=1538&text=text

 Geggel, L. 2015, June 158. "8 Million Dog Mummies Found in 'God of Death'
Mass Grave". Live Science, Access: 01/11/2017: http://www.livescience.com/51232-
millions-of-dog-mummies-found.html

 GEM. (n.d.). "Anubis mask". The Global Egyptian Museum, Access:


16/11/2017: http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/detail.aspx?id=10807
 GEM. (n.d.). "Mask of Anubis". The Global Egyptian Museum, Access:
16/11/2017: http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/detail.aspx?id=15024
 G E M . ( n . d . ) . " S t e l e d i M e r y" . T h e G l o b a l E g y p t i a n M u s e u m , Access:
16/11/2017: http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/record.aspx?id=9455&sel=true

138
 GEM. (n.d.). "Mummy shroud". The Global Egyptian Museum, Access:
12/11/2017: http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/record.aspx?id=4896
 GEM. (n.d.). "Was-sceptre". The Global Egyptian Museum, Access:
28/11/2017: http://www.globalegyptianmuseum.org/glossary.aspx?id=397
 G e t t y. ( n . d . ) . " T o m b o f N e f e r t a r i ( 1 9 8 6 – 1 9 9 2 ) " . G e t t y M u s e u m , A c c e s s :
11/11/2017:
http://www.getty.edu/conservation/our_projects/field_projects/nefertari/nefertari12.html

 H e r o d o t u s . 1 9 2 0 . " H e r o d o t u s , T h e H i s t o r i e s ( G o d l e y, A . D . e d i t i o n ) " . P e r s e u s ,
Access: 19/11/2017:
http://www. p erseus.tu fts. edu/hopp er/text?do c=Perseu s%3 Atext%3 A1999.01 .0126 %3 Aboo k%3 D2 &fo r
ce=y

 Hirst, J. J. (n.d.). "The tomb of Queen Nefertari, QV66". OsirisNet, Access:


12/09/2017: https://www.osirisnet.net/3d-tours/qv66/index.php?en
 HMA. (n.d.). "Anubis Mask". Harrogate Museum and Arts, Access:
16/11/2017: http://www.investigateegypt.co.uk/main8ecf.html?page=1470
 MAM,. (n.d.). "Mummy Coffin of Pedusiri". Milwaukee Art Museum, Access:
12/11/2017: http://collection.mam.org/details.php?id=25606
 MET. (n.d.). "Sarcophagus of Mindjedef". The Metropolitan Museum of Art,
Access: 10/09/2017:
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/552235?sortBy=Relevance&when=8000-
2000+B.C.&ft=anubis&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=3

 MET. (n.d.). "Tomb Stela of Hetepsi". The Metropolitan Museum of Art,


Access: 10/11/2017:
https://www. met museum.o rg/art/collec tion/searc h/552234? sortBy=Re levance &a mp;whe n=800
0-2000+B.C.&ft=anubis&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=4
MET. (n.d.). "The Singer of Amun Nany's Funerary P a p yr u s " . T h e
Metropolitan Museum of Art, Access: 18/11/2017:
http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/548344

 MFA. (n.d.). "Lintel of Kameni". Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Access:


06/11/2017: http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/lintel-of-kameni-146269
 MFA. (n.d.). "Fragment of a Coffin". Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest,
Access: 06/11/2017: http://www.szepmuveszeti.hu/adatlap_eng/fragment_of_coffin_13356
 Mortimer, C. 2015, December Monday 22nd. "Tutankhamun's half-sister
Meritaten might have also been his wet nurse, archaeologists say". Independent,
Access: 02/10/2017:
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/archaeology/tutankhamuns-half-sister-meritaten-might-
have-also-been-his-wet-nurse-archaeologists-say-a6781231.html

 Sm int , P ., & P al arcz yk, M . (n.d.). "St andi ng mumm y i n R oy's t om b at Luxor".
Paul Smit, Access: 22/11/2017: https://paulsmit.smugmug.com/Features/Africa/Egypt-Luxor-
tombs/i-CTjXXFx

 S m i t h , T . S . ( n . d . ) . " 1 7 6 T S - A n c i e n t E g yp t i a n R e l i g i o n - T h e O p e n i n g o f t h e
M o u t h C e r e m o n y" . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , S a n t a B a r b a r a - D e p a r t m e n t o f
Anthropology, Access: 15/11/2017:
http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/facult y/stsmith/courses/Opening%20of%20the%20Mouth.pdf

 TMP. (n.d.). "KV 16 (Ramesses I)". Thebean Mapping Project, Access:


20/11/2017: http://www.thebanmappingproject.com/sites/browse_tombimages_830.html
139
 TMP. (n.d.). "KV 57 (Horemheb)". Thebean Mapping Project, Access:
20/11/2017: http://www.thebanmappingproject.com/sites/browse_tombimages_871_140.html
 UCL (n.d.). "Book of the Dead Chapter 151". UCL: Digital Egypt for
Universities, Access: 29/11/2017: http://www.ucl.ac.u k/museu ms-
static/digitalegypt/literature/religious/hpres151.html

 Visit360o. (n.d.). "Temples of Abydos in 360° - The temple of Seti I".


Visit360o, Access: 29/11/2017:
http://visit360.net/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=9:temples-of-abydos-in-
360%C2%B0&Itemid=66&tmpl=component&print=1

 Vygus, M. 2015. Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary. Access: 12/09/2017:


https://mdw-ntr.com/resources/digital-library/dictionaries/vygus-egyptian-hieroglyphic-dictionary

 WMA. (n.d.). "A Worshipper Kneeling Before the God Anubis". The Walters
Art Museum, Access: 09/10/2017: http://art.thewalters.org/detail/5710/a-worshipper-
kneeling-before-the-god-anubis/

 WMA. (n.d.). "Kneeling Figure of Hor-wedja". The Walters Art Museum,


Access: 08/10/2017:: http://art.thewalters.org/detail/8349/kneeling-figure-of-hor-wedja/

140