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TWENTY FIRST CENTURY

SCIENCE SUITE
SCHEMES OF WORK
AND LESSON PLANS
C3: Chemicals in our lives
VERSION 1 JULY 2011
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Introduction
OCR involves teachers in the development of new support materials to capture current teaching practices
tailored to our new specifications. These support materials are designed to inspire teachers and facilitate
different ideas and teaching practices. Each Lesson Plan is provided in Word format – so that you can use
it as a foundation to build upon and amend the content to suit your teaching style and students’ needs.

The Lesson Plans provide examples of how to teach this unit and the teaching hours are suggestions only.
Some or all of it may be applicable to your teaching.

The Specification is the document on which assessment is based and specifies what content and skills
need to be covered in delivering the course. At all times, therefore, this Support Material booklet should be
read in conjunction with the Specification. If clarification on a particular point is sought then that clarification
should be found in the Specification itself. References to the content statements for each lesson are given
in the ‘Points to note’ column.

PowerPoints, Worksheets and other resources can be found on the following website: www.elbs.info.

© OCR V1.0
Page 2 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Lesson 1 – Plant growing environment

 how growing medium, water, humidity, nutrients, temperature and light can be
Learning outcomes: by the controlled in crop production and the effects of these factors on plant growth.
end of the lesson  the balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis.
Candidates should know:-  how CO2, temperature and light affect photosynthesis, including consideration of
limiting factors.

Starter: Students sketch a plant and annotate it with everything it needs to stay alive.
Teacher led discussion of students’ diagrams.
Suggested lesson details Main Activity: Work in groups to design a greenhouse with optimum growing
and activities: conditions.
Plenary: Each group to present its ideas to the class.
Homework: Learn the word and balanced symbol equation for photosynthesis.

Suggested resources: Plant growing environment Powerpoint

Lesson 2 – Healthy and unhealthy plans

 the signs of a healthy and an unhealthy plant.


Learning outcomes: by the  the causes of plant ill health: pests, including aphids and slugs, fungal disease
end of the lesson including damping off and potato blight, over and under watering; the effect of
Candidates should know:- these factors on yield.
 how pests, viruses and fungi are controlled in plant cultivation.

Starter: Brainstorm the signs of a healthy plant to include leaf colour, turgidity, leaf
and root growth, flowers, fruits etc.
Main Activity: Practical on signs of unhealthy plants.
Tour of school greenhouse to identify what methods are used to keep the plants
healthy and what could be improved.
Suggested lesson details
Plenary: Post it Head – Students are paired up and one of the students has a post it
and activities: on their forehead describing an unhealthy plant. They have to guess what it is using
only YES or NO answers.
Homework: Collect examples of leaves from different plants to demonstrate different
problems.
Research information on the potato famine in Ireland.

Students identify examples of unhealthy plants eg. wilting, slug damage, aphids,
Suggested practicals:
chlorosis, etiolation.

Suggested resources: Healthy and unhealthy plants Powerpoint

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Page 3 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Lesson 3 – Pest control

Learning outcomes: by the  the differences between biological and non-biological methods of pest control.
end of the lesson  the advantages and disadvantages of biological pest control.
Candidates should know:-  how biological control agents are used in glasshouses, using a named example.

Starter: Students write down on a piece of paper one method of controlling pests.
The papers are then passed around 4 or 5 times with students adding different
answers to the paper. At the end the students discuss what is on their piece of paper.
Main Activity: Students design an investigation to compare different methods of pest
control. Teacher led discussion of ideas and students work in groups to set up
Suggested lesson details
glasshouses with different conditions.
and activities: Presentation of results by each group.
Discussion and evaluation of results.
Plenary: Each student states either an advantage or disadvantage biological pest
control.
Homework: Research a further example of biological control.

Set up an investigation to compare whitefly numbers in glasshouses with different


Suggested practicals: pest control methods. For example use of Encarsia Formosa, marigolds and sticky
traps.

Suggested resources: Biological and Non-biological methods of pest control Powerpoint

Lesson 4 – Plant nutrients

 the effects of excess N deficiencies of N, P, K and Mg on plant growth and


Learning outcomes: by the development.
end of the lesson  how nutrients NPK are taken in by plants.
Candidates should know:-  the uses plants make of NPK to produce growth, including N for proteins, P for
DNA and cell membranes, K for enzymes used in photosynthesis and respiration.

Starter: Introduction on what nutrients are and where they come from. Brainstorm
Suggested lesson details
students on which nutrients are important to plants.
and activities: Discussion of the major nutrients.

Use of commercial kits to test different soils for N, P, K.


Suggested practicals:
Set up seed trays of grass and treat with different concentrations of nitrate fertiliser.

Plant Nutrients Powerpoint


Card sort
Suggested resources:
Soil testing kits
B491 6a – A Lawn Problem

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Page 4 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Lesson 5 – Fertilisers

 the differences between organic and inorganic fertilisers.


Learning outcomes: by the  the advantages and disadvantages of using organic and inorganic fertilisers.
end of the lesson  how plant nutrient ratios in common fertilisers; general purpose (1:1;1), high N
Candidates should know:- (2:1:1), high P (1:2:1) and high K(1:1:2), relate to their use for brassicas,
legumes, root crops and tomatoes.

Starter: Students shown examples of different types of fertiliser and asked to group
them into different categories. Teacher led discussion of different categories leading
to identification of organic and inorganic fertilisers.
Main Activity: Students are encouraged to brainstorm the advantages and
disadvantages of organic and inorganic fertilisers.
Suggested lesson details Students work in groups to design a fertiliser packet for a given crop with specific
and activities: criteria.
Students match the different crop to the appropriate fertiliser.
Students identify root nodules and discuss the implications of these for fertiliser use.
Plenary: Each group reviews the fertiliser packets against the criteria given and give
them a score. The group with the highest score wins.
Homework: Plant Health and Fertiliser Sheet.

Students to prepare vegetable plots for sowing seeds, adding organic fertiliser to one
plot and inorganic fertiliser to another. Comparison and evaluation of crops grown.
Students are shown examples of different crops eg. cabbage, wheat, carrots and
Suggested practicals:
tomatoes and asked to match them up to the appropriate fertiliser label giving
reasons for their choice.
Students dig up clover, peas or beans and wash the roots to see nodules.

Organic and Inorganic fertilisers Powerpoint

Suggested resources: Examples of different organic and inorganic fertiliser

Examples of crops and fertiliser bags

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Page 5 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Lesson 6 – Pollination

 the adaptations of flower structure for wind and insect pollination.


Learning outcomes: by the
 the adaptations in plants to prevent self pollination and encourage cross-
end of the lesson
pollination, to include dioecious plants.
Candidates should know:-  the management of pollination in crop production and breeding.

Starter: Students given flower structure sheet and label one organ then pass it on.
Teacher discusses answers to determine prior knowledge.
Main Activity: Flower dissection.
Produce a poster to compare wind and insect pollinated flowers
Suggested lesson details
Plenary: Students are split into two groups. They act as the expert to answer a letter
and activities: in a magazine from a gardener who wants to know how he can improve the yield of
fruits. One group explains how this could be done in his glasshouse and the other
group on his allotment.
Homework: Sexual Reproduction in plants sheet.

Students to dissect a large flower and make a poster by sticking all the relevant parts
on and annotating them.
Suggested practicals:
Students collect different examples of wind and pollinated flowers and produce a
poster that describes the similarities and differences.

Suggested resources: Pollination Powerpoint

Lesson 7 – Seeds

 the structure of a pea or bean seed to include the testa, cotyledon, embryo,
plumule and radicle.
Learning outcomes: by the  the functions of testa, cotelydon, plumule and radicle and their roles in
end of the lesson germination; the role of oxygen, water and temperature in germination to include
Candidates should know:- mobilisation of enzymes.
 techniques used to encourage different seeds to break dormancy, to include light
and vernalisation.

Starter: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fPTJ3qD1ikk&feature=related
Main Activity: Students collect seeds from different plants such as sunflowers, peas
and relate the work on flowers and pollination to seed development. Teacher led
discussion of the conditions needed to store the seeds ready for sowing in the future.
Suggested lesson details Seed dissection.
and activities: Set up experiment to show the stages of germination.
Students plan an investigation to demonstrate conditions necessary for germination.
Plenary: Students write down the new terms, together with the conditions needed for
germination, using whichever hand they do not normally write with.
Homework: Students produce a word search of all the terms relating to seeds.

Students cut a runner bean seed in half lengthways to show the internal structures.
Students set up a runner bean and a pea seed in a beaker containing tissue paper to
Suggested practicals: show the stages of germination.
Students set up a variety of investigations to show the effect of planting depth,
temperature, water or light on germination.

Suggested resources: Seeds Powerpoint

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Page 6 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Lesson 8 – Sowing seeds

 how a named plant is grown from seed to include the process of sowing, thinning,
Learning outcomes: by the pricking out and potting on.
end of the lesson  the reasons for thinning, pricking out and potting on.
Candidates should know:-  the advantages and disadvantages of heated propagators, mist propagators and
capillary matting, cloches and cold frames when raising plants from seed.

Starter: Students shown examples of compost and soil and asked to brainstorm the
differences.
Discussion of why compost is used rather than soil.
Main Activity: Practical to make compost and sow seeds under cover. Comparison
of germination success when germinating seeds in a glasshouse compared to a
heated propagator. Ongoing care of seedlings and plants to include hardening off in
a cold frame. Recap conditions needed for germination.
Suggested lesson details Use of mist sprays and capillary matting to water seedlings and comparison of the
and activities: advantages and disadvantages of each.
Students grow seeds outside in vegetable plots. Comparison of growth of plants with
and without cloches.
Plenary: Question and answer session to confirm understanding of the topics
covered.
Homework: Students produce a plan of a vegetable plot showing what they will grow
where. This is kept up to date by adding dates and methods for sowing each seed
variety.

Students to make compost using peat/old grow bags, sand and inorganic fertiliser.
Students to sow seeds in compost in a seed tray and prick out seedlings.
Suggested practicals: Potting on, supporting, feeding and side-shooting a tomato plant.
Students to sow seeds in vegetable plots using seed drills, thin them out and harvest
them.

Suggested resources: Sowing seeds Powerpoint

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Page 7 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Lesson 9 – Taking softwood cuttings

 how plants can be propagated using softwood leaf and root cuttings, using
Learning outcomes: by the
named examples.
end of the lesson
 how the procedures used, including the control of the environment, ensure
Candidates should know:- successful propagation.

Starter: Using plants inside or outside the classroom students identify what is meant
by a softwood plant.
Suggested lesson details Main Activity: Students take softwood leaf and root cuttings.
and activities: Plenary: Produce a comic strip style illustration of how to take either root or leaf
cuttings.
Homework: Taking softwood cuttings question sheets.

Take stem cuttings on a non flowering shoot below the node using a sharp knife.
Comparison between cuttings using hormone rooting powder and those without.
Suggested practicals:
Comparison between cuttings placed in plastic bags and those without.
Take root cuttings and leaf cutting using suitable plants.

Suggested resources: Taking softwood cuttings Powerpoint

Lesson 9H

Learning outcomes: by the


 the techniques used in tissue culture (cloning) for plant propagation and the
end of the lesson
advantages of these methods, using named examples.
Candidates should know:-

Starter: Discussion of the disadvantages of taking cuttings to produce clones, leading


on to the advantages of tissue culture.
Main Activity: Tissue culture using cauliflower.
Suggested lesson details http://www.saps.org.uk/secondary/teaching-resources/720
and activities: Plenary: Students take it in turns to describe and explain the steps taken to clone the
cauliflower.
Homework: Produce a practical report on how to clone cauliflowers, including the
reasons for the techniques used.

Suggested practicals: Cauliflower cloning

Suggested resources:

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Page 8 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Lesson 10

 that plants are selectively bred to improve yield, disease resistance, hardiness
Learning outcomes: by the
and appearance.
end of the lesson
 how selective breeding is used to produce new varieties of plants such as tomato;
Candidates should know:- the meaning and importance of hybrid vigour.

Starter: Show students a range of different types of tomatoes and brainstorm them
as to how they could have been produced.
Main Activity: Students produce an illustrated flow diagram to explain how one such
variety was developed.
Suggested lesson details
Plenary: Using the principles of selective breeding students improve a current fruit or
and activities: vegetable. Students present these ideas to the class and the most popular one wins
a prize.
Homework: Students to research what is meant by hybrid vigour and present their
findings to the class the following lesson.

Suggested practicals:

Suggested resources:

Lesson 10H

Learning outcomes: by the


 the uses and advantages of genetic engineering in the production of new
end of the lesson
varieties of plants, and the possible environmental and ethical issues arising.
Candidates should know:-

Starter: Students write down their ideas on genetic engineering. They share these
with the other students to see if they agree or disagree.
Main activity: Make a genetically modified plasmid using the DNA templates.
Suggested lesson details Discussion of students ideas on GMO’s.
and activities: Plenary: Students write down their own ideas on the environmental and ethical
issues arising from genetic engineering.
Homework: Write a newspaper article about a new genetically modified crop
explaining both sides of the argument.

The gene is cut out of the DNA of the host at the base sequence AAATTT and then
Suggested practicals: stuck into the circular plasmid DNA that has also been cut at the same base
sequence.

Suggested resources: Genetic Engineering Powerpoint

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Page 9 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Lesson 11 – Sexual reproduction

 the differences between a bulb, a runner, a tuber, a corm and a rhizome used in
plant cultivation and a named example of each.
Learning outcomes: by the
 how plants are propagated asexually including runners, rhizomes, tubers, corms
end of the lesson
and bulbs.
Candidates should know:-  the advantages and disadvantages of sexual and asexual reproduction in plant
breeding.

Starter: Use of a variety of plants to show examples of vegetative propagation and


explain its importance in producing offspring that are genetically identical to the
parent.
Suggested lesson details Main Activity: Dissect a bulb and draw and label the structures seen. Show that
and activities: bulbs store starch. Complete sheet on reproduction in bulbs.
Propagate a variety of plants asexually.
Plenary: Asexual reproduction worksheet.
Homework: Plant Cultivation questions.

Propagation of strawberry plants or spider plants.


Dig up some couch grass.
Suggested practicals: Dissection of an onion or daffodil bulb to show the swollen leaf bases.
Testing the onion for starch.
Growing potatoes from seed potatoes on a vegetable plot.

Suggested resources: Sexual reproduction Powerpoint

Lesson 12 – Plant breeding

 the terms: chromosomes, genes, mutation, dominant, recessive, genotype,


Learning outcomes: by the
phenotype and F1 and their meanings in relation to plant breeding.
end of the lesson
 how to apply the mechanism of simple monohybrid inheritance, where there have
Candidates should know:- been dominant and recessive alleles, to plant breeding.

Starter: Match up pictures of celebrities with their babies/children leading onto a


discussion of dominant and recessive genes.
Suggested lesson details Main Activity: Designing plants activity.
and activities: Worksheet ‘Genetics’.
Plenary: Plant Reproduction loop.
Homework: Students produce a crossword including all the key genetics words.

Suggested practicals:

Plant Breeding Powerpoint


Suggested resources:
Monohybrid inheritance

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Page 10 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Lesson 13 – Soil cultivation

 the principles and purpose of soil cultivation by hand.


Learning outcomes: by the  the importance of (soil) crumb structure; the use of humus, garden compost and
end of the lesson manure in maintaining soil fertility.
Candidates should know:-  methods of improving soil fertility and crumb structure using lime, coarse sand
and well rotted manure.

Starter: Give each student or group a common garden tool. They have to explain
each use to the rest of the class.
Main Activity: Brainstorm student’s ideas about soil components and structure.
Carry out soil cultivation by hand and reinforce the reasons for carrying out each of
Suggested lesson details
the different practises. Label diagram of a soil crumb.
and activities: Complete worksheet on Bastard Trenching.
Use a table to show the effect of pH on nutrient availability.
Plenary: Cultivating the soil worksheet.
Homework: Worksheets ‘Soil cultivation’.

Pupils to prepare a vegetable plot by single digging to produce a good tilth. Pupils
understand the reasons for carrying out the different practices.
Suggested practicals:
Addition of lime to soil in a beaker of water to show flocculation and increase in pH.
Test the pH of well rotted FYM.

Powerpoint
Soil CultivationB491/8 – Soil Crumbs OHT and diagrams
Soil pH table
Worksheet
Suggested resources:
B491/9 – Drainage information and questions
Worksheet ‘Bastard Trenching
Selection of garden tools
B491/10 – Garden Tools

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Page 11 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681
Sample Lesson Plans
GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science
B682 – Plant cultivation

Lesson 14 – Crop storage

 the problems associated with storing crops: relative perishability of crops and
pests and diseases.
Learning outcomes: by the
 that systems for crop storage can extend storage life by controlling pests and
end of the lesson
diseases, using a named example.
Candidates should know:-  how a controlled atmosphere, humidity and temperature can be used to manage
storage life, to include the role of ethylene gas.

Starter: Present the students with some crops that have perished during storage and
get them to brainstorm possible causes.
Main Activity: Design and set up an investigation to determine the best conditions for
storing crops.
Suggested lesson details
Complete worksheet ‘Storing Grain’.
and activities: Plenary: Predict, with reasons, what will happen to the crops in the different
environments.
Homework: Students to produce a cartoon strip to describe the transportation of a
banana to the UK.

Set up soft fruit in a variety of different environments to determine which are best for
Suggested practicals: storage eg. bruised vs non bruised fruit, humid vs dry, warm vs cold, closed vs open
containers.

Suggested resources:

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Page 12 of 12 GCSE Environmental and Land-Based Science B681