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# PEE106: MODELLING AND ANALYSIS OF POWER SYSTEM

L T P Cr
Course Objectives: 3 1 2 4.5
1. To impart learning of mathematical models of power system components, power
system analysis techniques and optimal power flow.
2. To learn the issues and concept of unit commitment, economic thermal and hydro-
thermal scheduling.
3. To demonstrate the performance and modeling of power system during short circuit
studies and the important of contingency analysis in power system security.

Static Model of Power System components: Generator, single circuit & multi-circuit
transmission line, regulating & phase shifting transformer, VAr compensators and Loads for
balanced and unbalanced conditions.
Formulation of Admittance and Impedance Matrices for balanced and unbalanced conditions,
their modifications, Sparcity and Optimal ordering.

Power Flow Analysis: Review of power flow problem, power flow analysis methods, power
flow using Newton Raphson method, power flow for unbalanced system.

Optimal Power Flow: Significance of optimal power flow (OPF), formulation of OPF
problems, solution using Gradient based methods.

## Short Circuit Studies: Review of symmetrical components, sequence impedances and

networks for power system components, Fault analysis of balanced and unbalanced faults in
small and large system. Estimation of short circuit capacity of breakers.

## Power System Security: Introduction to power system contingencies, Factors affecting

security, Contingency analysis, Network sensitivity using DC and AC load flow methods,
correcting the generation dispatch.

Laboratory Work: LoadFlow Studies for balanced and unbalanced system, Sparsity
handling techniques, Fault analysis, Single objective optimal power flow, contingency
analysis

Minor Project: Simulation of Load flow studies of IEEE bus systems, simulation of Optimal
Power Flow on 14/30 bus system
Course Learning Outcomes (CLO):
On the completion of the course, the student will be able
1. To develop with the mathematical model of power system components
2. To carry out power system analysis techniques and optimal power flow.
3. To handle issues related to unit commitment, economic thermal and hydro-thermal
scheduling. (This CLO is not relevant to course, submitted to SPGC for deletion )
4. To analyse the behavior of system during short circuit and the important of
contingency analysis.
5. To validate the power system security through simulations.
Recommended Books:
1. Grainger, J.D., Power System Analysis, Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company
(2008).

2. Kusic, C.L., Computer Aided Power System Analysis, Tata McGrawHill Publishing
Company (2001).

Company (2003).

## 4. Stagg, G. W. and Elabiad, A. H., Computer Methods in Power System Analysis,

McGrawHill (1983).

5. Anderson P.M., Analysis of Faulted Power System, IOWA State University Press, New
York.

6. Singh L.P., Advanced power system analysis and dynamics, 3rd Ed., Wiley eastern,
New Delhi, (2012)
(A) TIME TABLE OF THE COURSE PEE106 SEM. – Odd, July-Dec. 2017

## Activity Day Timings Room No. Instructor

Lecture Monday 11-12 D-203 MBK
Lecture Tuesday 9-10am D-203 MBK
Lecture Wednesday 1-2pm D-203 MBK
Tutorial Tuesday 2.00-3.00 pm D-203 MBK
Laboratory Monday 1-3pm PSSL Lab MBK

## S. No. Activity Marks

1. Mid Semester Test (MST) 25

2. Tutorial 10

(i) Quiz-I 05
(ii) Quiz-II 05
3. Laboratory 30

## (i) Day-to day Lab. work +Report 05

(ii) Laboratory Quiz 05
(iii) Viva-Voce 05
(iv) End Semester Performance 10
(v) Lab Report 05
4. End Semester Examination (Theory) 35

Total 100
(C) SCHEDULE OF EVALUATION DURING SEMESTER

## Activity Venue Date Timings Syllabus

Quiz-1 D203 Sept. 10, 2018 1.00pm Syllabus of MST
Quiz-II D203 Nov. 21, 2018 1.00pm Syllabus covered
after MST till
Nov. 15, 2011
Lab Quiz D203 Nov. 21, 2018 1.15pm All components
related to
laboratory
(i) Lab. 801842001- Nov. 19, 2018 1.00pm
Performance + 2010 and PSSL
Viva-Voce backlog

## (D) CONSULTATION HOURS:

Through email: mkaur@thapar.edu
In office (Room No. C-109): Wednesday 2.00-3.00pm

## (E) OTHER BOOKS FOR REFERENCE

1. M.E. El-Hawary, G.S. Christensen, “ Optimal Economic Operation of Electric Power Systems”,
2. M.E. El-Hawary, “Electrical Power Systems Design and Analysis” Reston Publishing House,
(1983).
3. P.S.R. Murthy, “ Power System operation & control”, Tata McGraw Hill (2001)
4. Chakrabarti A., Halder S., Power System Analysis Operation and Control, PHI, (2010)
5. D.P. Kothari & J.S. Dhilllon, “Power System Optimisation”, PHI, (2011)
6. Journals: IEEE Transaction on Power Systems, IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution,
Power Delivery, (ieeexplore)

## SYLLABUS FOR MID SEMESTER TEST

Static Model of Power System components: Generator, single circuit & multi-circuit
transmission line, regulating & phase shifting transformer, VAr compensators and Loads for
balanced and unbalanced conditions.
Formulation of Admittance and Impedance Matrices for balanced and unbalanced conditions,
their modifications, Sparcity and Optimal ordering.

Power Flow Analysis: Review of power flow problem, power flow analysis methods, power
flow using Newton Raphson method, power flow for unbalanced system.

Optimal Power Flow: Significance of optimal power flow (OPF), formulation of OPF
problems, solution using Gradient based methods.
Thapar University Patiala
Electrical & Instrumentation Engg Dept.
List of Laboratory Assignments
PEE106: Modelling and Analysis of Power Systems

## 0: Introduction to MATLAB, Use of MATLAB windows, important syntax, array /matrix

handling syntax, function and function calling, If-Then-Else loop, For –End loop, Do-
while-end loop, plots, input data declaration etc. creation of data/result files

1. Assemble Bus Admittance Matrix using direct method with and without mutual
coupling.
2. Assemble Bus Admittance Matrix using singular transformation technique with and
without mutual coupling.
3. Assemble Bus Impedance Matrix using building algorithm.
(Implement Assignment 1-3 for IEEE 6 bus/11bus/30 bus/40 bus data)
4. Obtain load flow solution of IEEE 5/11 bus system with Newton Raphson method.
Plot convergence curve
5. Obtain load flow solution of three bus system with Fast decoupled flow method. Plot
convergence curve.
6. Obtain optimal power flow using Gradient method.
7. Obtain short circuit studies solution of bus system with Short Circuit algorithm.
8. Obtain contingency analysis (linear sensitivity factors) using DC load flow method.
9. Write program for optimal ordering memory storage for sparse matrix.
10. Simulation of a system using Power World Simulator/MiPower for load flow analysis.

## Check List for each assignment in lab file:

1. Title
2. Objective
3. Solution Methodology
4. Flow Chart/Algorithm
5. Single line diagram of system
6. Data Input File
7. Program File
8. Result File
9. Conclusion
10. References
ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG. DEPARTMENT
ME First Year (Power Systems) Session: July-Dec.2018
PEE106 Modelling and Analysis of Power Sysyetms
Tutorial Sheet No. 1 Instructor: Ms. Manbir Kaur
1. The single-line diagram for a 50 Hz power system is shown in Fig. 1.2 where the system contains
three generators, three transformers and three transmission lines. The system ratings are given as:
Generator G1 200 MVA, 20 kV, Xd = 16%

## Generator G2 300 MVA, 18 kV, Xd = 20%

Generator G3 300 MVA, 20 kV, Xd = 20%
Transformer T 1 300 MVA, 220Y/22 kV, Xd = 12%
Transformer T 2 Three single-phase units each rated 100
MVA, 130/25 kV, X = 10%
Transformer T 3 300 MVA, 220/22 kV, X = 10%

The transmission line reactances are as indicated in the figure. Draw the reactance diagram
choosing the Generator 3 circuit as the base.
2. For the three bus system, the parameters of the transmission lines are given as : All values are in
per unit and line resistances are neglected.

## Line Series Total Shunt Mutual

bus
1-2 j0.20 j0.24 J0.5
1-2 J0.20 J0.24
2-3 j0.10 j0.16
1-3 j0.25 j0.30
Admittance of Bus capacitor at bus 2 = j0.30
Admittance of shunt reactor at bus 3 = - j0.60
(a) Construct YBUS for the given system
(b) Modify YBUS with bus 2 eliminated.
(c) Modify YBUS as obtained in part (a) if a line reactance of line 1-3 is modified to j0.30 with
(d) For YBUS, perform triangular factorization and obtain lower and upper matrices.
3. Using building algorithm, (a) construct bus impedance matrix for the network with system data
as follows:
From Bus To Bus Series reactance
1 ref J0.25
1 2 j0.5
1 3 j0.5
2 3 j0.6
2 4 j0.4
2 4 j0.4
3 4 j0.5

## (b) Modify ZBUS when line 1-2 is removed

(c) Modify ZBUS obtained in part (a), when line reactance of 2-4(1) is changed to j0.6
(d).Modify ZBUS obtained in part (a), when node 2 is eliminated.
(e) Modify ZBUS obtained in part (a), when a new node 5 is added with series reactance of j0.15
between 4-5.
3. Using 5-bus IEEE standard system, assemble bus admittance matrix and bus impedance matrix.
ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG. DEPARTMENT
ME First Year (Power Systems) Session: July-Dec.2018
PEE106 Modelling and Analysis of Power Sysyetms
Tutorial Sheet No. 2 Instructor: Ms. Manbir Kaur
1. Consider a system as shown in Fig. 1.1 the load is 2.0+j0.78 p.u. The voltage at sending end
(slack) is 1+j0 p.u. Line admittance is 1.0-j4.0 p.u. Transformer reactance is j0.405 p.u. Off-
nominal turns ratio is 1/1.04. Obtain equivalent -model between sending and receiving end.
Construct 𝑌𝐵𝑈𝑆 .

G

Fig. 2.1

2. Develop the equivalent mathematical model of three phase transformer with Star –star
connections, assuming neutrals are grounded on both sides under unbalanced
conditions.
3. Modify the mathematical model for various three phase transformer connections :
star(neutral grounded) -star, star(neutral grounded)-delta, star-delta and delta-delta
assuming balanced conditions.
4. Develop the equivalent mathematical model of three single phase transformer with ,
assuming neutrals are grounded on both sides under balanced conditions.
5. Obtain 𝑌𝐵𝑈𝑆 and 𝑍𝐵𝑈𝑆 for given network.

## Line Data Bus Data

From To bus Line Mutual Bus Pi (pu) Qi (pu) Vi (pu)
bus impedance Impedance
1 2 0.05+j0.15 1 --- 0.2 1.0400
1 3 0.10+j0.30 j0.1 (1-2) 2 0.5 -0.2 1.04
2 3 0.15+j0.45 3 -1.0 0.5 -
2 4 0.10+j0.30 4 -0.3 -0.1 -
3 4 0.05+j0.15
ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG. DEPARTMENT
ME First Year (Power Systems) Session: July-Dec.2018
PEE106 Modelling and Analysis of Power Sysyetms
Tutorial Sheet No. 3 Instructor: Ms. Manbir Kaur

1. Obtain the optimum ordered storage of the five node network using linked list structure.
1 2 5

3 4

## (a) Identify the branches in the network.

(b) Identify the nodes connected to other nodes.

2. Obtain the storage of sparse matrix in product form using (i) compressed row storage (ii)
compressed column storage.
When A=[0 4 3 -1;0 -1 0 -2;1 0 2 0; -2 0 -1 0], X=[1 2 4 3]T
ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG. DEPARTMENT
ME First Year (Power Systems) Session: July-Dec.2018
PEE106 Modelling and Analysis of Power Systems
Tutorial Sheet No. 4 Instructor: Ms. Manbir Kaur
1. The three bus system is as shown below in Fig. 4.1,in which each of three lines has a series impedance
of (0.04+j0.16) p.u. and a total shunt admittance of j0.04 p.u. Bus data is given as:
demand (PD) demand (QD) generation (PG) generation (QG) specification
1 2 1 Unspecified Unspecified V1=1.05+j0
2 0 0 0.5 1.0 Unspecified
3 1.5 6 0 QGS V3 = 1.05
The controllable reactive power source is provided at bus 3 with the constraint 0  QG 3  1.5 pu . Find the load
flow solution after second iteration using NR method with a tolerance of 0.01 for power mismatch.
SG1  PG1  jQG1
S D1  PD1  jQD1  2.0  j1.0
SG 2  PG 2  jQG 2  0.5  j1.0
S D 2  PD 2  jQD 2  0  j 0

Fig. 4.1

2. To obtain the load flow solution for a four bus system using Newton Raphson Method, the line
data for system is given as: All values are in per unit. Assume when reactive power limits are
specified as 0.25  Qi  1.0 and voltage limits are 0.95  Vi  1.04 .
Line Data Bus Data
From To bus Line Mutual Bus Pi (pu) Qi (pu) Vi (pu)
bus impedance Impedance
1 2 0.05+j0.15 1 --- 0.2 1.0400
1 3 0.10+j0.30 j0.1 (1-2) 2 0.5 -0.2 1.04
2 3 0.15+j0.45 3 -1.0 0.5 -
2 4 0.10+j0.30 4 -0.3 -0.1 -
3 4 0.05+j0.15
ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG. DEPARTMENT
ME First Year (Power Systems) Session: July-Dec.2018
PEE106 Modelling and Analysis of Power Systems
Tutorial Sheet No. 5 Instructor: Ms. Manbir Kaur
1. For the power system network shown in fig. 5.1, assemble positive, negative and zero sequence
impedance matrices. Assuming a fault takes place at point P. The specifications of the equipment
connected are given below:

Bus 1 Bus 2
M1
TL1
M1
G P
TL2 M2
(-Y) (Y/)
F
Fig. 5.1
The specifications are as:
G= (Star with neutral reactor grounding )= 300MVA, 20kV, xd” = 25% , x0 = 5%. xn = 0.4 ohms
M1 = (Star with neutral reactor grounding) = 200MVA. 13.2kV, xd” = 20% , x0 = 5% , xn = 0.5 ohm.
M2 = (Star connected with neutral isolated) = 100MVA. 13.2kV, xd” = 20% and x0 = 3%.
T1 = (delta-star with Star neutral solidly grounded isolated) =300MVA. 20kV/230kV, x= 10%
T2 = (single phase transformer bank) each with rating 100MVA. 132/13.2kV, x= 10%
TL1 = TL2 = 220kV, 100km, Xl = 0.5 ohms/km and Xo = 3X1.
Find the fault current and post fault bus voltages in case of (a) Single line to ground fault (b) Line to
line fault (c) Double line to ground fault (d) Three phase fault. By Using (i) Symmetrical Component
transformation technique (ii) Short circuit algorithm
2. Consider the system shown in fig. 5.2 The specifications of the system component on the basis of
100MVA and 220kV base are given as:
Data: G1 and G2 (Both are star connecetd with neutral grounded) = 100MVA, 33kV, X 1 = X2 = 20% , X0
= 5%, Xn = 2.5 ohm
T1 and T2 : (Both are delta-star with neutral solidily grounded) = 100MVA, 33kV/ 220kV, X = 5 %
L1, L2 and L3 : 220kV, X1 = X2 = 120 ohm.
For line to ground fault at bus 3, obtain the fault current, line currents and change in bus volatges during
the fault. Assume fault impedance as j0.1 pu. Use Short circuit algorithm . Starting from fundamentals,
obtain the formulation for the above fault.
T1 Bus 1 L2 Bus 3

G
1

L1

T2

G Fig. 5.2
2
L3

Bus 2
ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG. DEPARTMENT
ME First Year (Power Systems) Session: July-Dec.2018
PEE106 Modelling and Analysis of Power Systems
Tutorial Sheet No. 6 Instructor: Ms. Manbir Kaur
1. Calculate battery current Ib under healthy conditions and under faulty conditions using
Thevenin’s equivalent for the given network shown in Fig. 6.1, in which battery voltage is
100V, R=15 ohm and S=5 ohm.

Ib

R S
100V 1

S R

Fig. 6.1

2. For the system as shown in Fig. 6.2 , find the breaking capacity of circuit breaker at motor
M5.. The ratings of components are as:
G : 2.5MVA, 11kV, 50 Hz, Xd”= 10%

## M1, M2, M3, M4, M5: 0.5MVA, 6.6kV, Xd”=15%.

M1
T/F
G
M2
Fig. 6.2

M3

M4

M5
A
ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG. DEPARTMENT
ME First Year (Power Systems) Session: July-Dec.2018
PEE106 Modelling and Analysis of Power Systems
Tutorial Sheet No. 7 Instructor: Ms. Manbir Kaur
1. For a three bus system, the series impedance of each line is given in table. The
system has two generators. Find the optimal power flow solution of system after
one iteration using gradient method. The operating cost characteristics of two
generators are given as:
F1 = 44.4 +351P1 + 50P12 Rs./h , F2 = 40.6 +389P2 + 50P22 Rs./h

## A 1-2 0.02+ j0.08 j0.02

0.02+ j0.08 j0.02
B 1-3
0.02+ j0.08 j0.02
C 2-3

## ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG. DEPARTMENT

ME First Year (Power Systems) Session: July-Dec.2018
PEE106 Modelling and Analysis of Power Systems
Tutorial Sheet No. 8 Instructor: Ms. Manbir Kaur
1. In the power system network with data prior to line tripping is given in table 1, the line between buses 3-4
is taken out of service. Determine for all the lines in system (i) line outage distribution factor (ii) new
values of line currents. The lines between buses 1-2, 1-3 and 1-4 each carry a load of 25% and each of the
lines between buses 2-3 and 2-4 are loaded to 75% at their rated capacities before tripping the line
between bus 3-4 out of service. Calculate the loading on these lines after tripping of the line.
Table 1
Bus Voltage impedance data To Bus Value
No. (per unit) From bus (per unit)
1 0 1 Ref j4.0
1.00
2 0.98-30 1 2 j0.25
3 0 2 3 j0.10
1.022.5
4 0 3 4 j0.10
1.011
1 4 j0.40
2 4 j0.20

2. For problem no. 1, calculate the power at each bus. If 50% of the real power at bus 3 is shifter to bus 1,
compute the change in current flow in the line connecting buses 2-3.
3. For the network defined in Problem 1, calculate the percentage loading on all lines after tripping of the
line. Which of the lines of network are overloaded after tripping of line between bus 3-4 ?
4. For the system described in table 1, the line between buses 1-4 is tripped. Compute (i) Thevenin’s
equivalent circuit looking into the buses 1-4 (ii) distribution factors (iii) new line current flows in the
remaining lines (iv) bus voltages post outage of line.
ELECTRICAL & INSTRUMENTATION ENGG. DEPARTMENT
ME First Year (Power Systems) Session: July-Dec.2018
PEE106 Modelling and Analysis of Power Systems
Tutorial Sheet No. 9 Instructor: Ms. Manbir Kaur
1. For the three bus network, obtain the load flow solution and hence the linear sensitivity
factors assuming the outage of generator at bus 2 and outage of line 1 connected between
nodes 1 and 2. All reactances are calculated on 100MVA base.
Bus 1 Bus 2

X12 -0.2
G1
Bus 3 100MW

## 65MW x13= 0.4 x23 =0.25

Fig,. 9.1
G2

2. Obtain the linear sensitivity networks for the six bus network .The line data and bus data is
given as: (All data is in per unit based on 100MVA). Line Data and Bus data:
From Bus To Bus R X B
1 2 0.10 0.20 0.02
1 4 0.05 0.20 0.02
1 5 0.08 0.30 0.03
2 3 0.05 0.25 0.03
2 4 0.05 0.10 0.01
2 5 0.10 0.30 0.02
2 6 0.07 0.20 0.025
3 5 0.12 0.26 0.025
3 6 0.02 0.10 0.01
4 5 0.20 0.40 0.04
5 6 0.10 0.30 0.03

1 Swing 1.05 - - -
2 Gen 1.05 0.50 0.0 0.0
3 Gen 1.07 0.60 0.0 0.0
Course Blow Up
Lecture Topic of Discussion TS/Lab. Book(s)Referred
Assign
1 General Introduction of course Computer Modelling of
2 Modelling of Generator TS-1,2,3 Electrical Power Systems
3,4 Single circuit & multi-circuit transmission line, (J.A. Arrillaga and N.A.
5 Regulating & phase shifting transformer, Watson) 2nd ed., 2001
6,7 VAr compensators LA-1,2,3 Understanding FACTS
8 Loads for balanced and unbalanced conditions (N.G. Hingorani),
9,10 Formulation of Admittance Matrices for balanced 1.Power System Analysis
and unbalanced conditions, their modifications, (J. J. Grainger, W.D.
and example Stevenson) 2008
11,12 Formulation of Impedance Matrices for balanced 2. Computer Techniques
and unbalanced conditions, their modifications, in Power System
Example Analysis, M.A. Pai (2003)
13 Review of power flow problem and power flow
analysis methods
14,15 Power flow using Newton Raphson method with TS-04.
example LA- 04
Mid Semester Test, Quiz-I
16,17 Sparcity and Optimal ordering and example TS-03, \
IEEE Transactions on
LA-09 expert Systems,: Data
Mining
18 Review of symmetrical components, 1.Computer Techniques
19.20 Sequence impedances and networks for power in Power System
system components Analysis, M.A. Pai (2003)
21,22 Fault analysis of balanced and unbalanced faults in TS-05,06 2. Analysis of faulted
small and large system LA-07 power system (P.M.
22,23 Short Circuit algorithm for fault analysis Anderson)
24 Formulation of large system for short circuit
analysis
25 Example of Fault Analysis
26 Significance of optimal power flow (OPF), Power System
27,28 formulation of OPF problems, solution using TS-07, Optimisation (D.P.
Gradient based methods LA-06 Kothari, J.S. Dhillon) 2011
29 Example of Optimal power flow
30 Introduction to power system contingencies, 1. Power
Factors affecting security, Generation, Operation
31 Contingency analysis concept with example and Control, A.J. Wood
32-33 Network sensitivity factors. TS-08,09, and B.F. Woollenberg),
rd
34,35 Contingency analysis using DC and AC load flow LA-05,08 3 ed., 2013
methods, correcting the generation dispatch 2. Power System
36 Example Operation & Control, (A.
Chakraborty, S. Halder),
2010
37,38 Doubts clearing TS-1-9
and
others
Quiz-II, Lab Quiz, End Sem lab Performance
End Sem Theory Examination
.