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Simultaneous Mass & Heat Transfer - Evaporation Tutorial

Problem 1

A single-effect evaporator is concentrating a feed of 9072 kg/hr of a 10 wt % solution


of NaOH in water to a product of 50 % solids. The pressure of the saturated steam
used is 42 kPa (gauge) and the pressure in the vapour space of the evaporator is 20kPa
(abs). The overall heat-transfer co-efficient is 1988 W/m2.K. Calculate the steam used,
the steam economy in (kg vaporised/kg steam), and the area for the following feed
conditions :
a) Feed temperature of 288.8 K
b) Feed temperature of 322.1 K

a) Feed Temperature of 288.8 K

F = 2.52 kg/s Tfeed = 288.8 K = 15.8oC = 60.44 oF


Tsteam = 110oC Tevap = 60oC  From Steam Tables

Overall Material Balance


F = V1 + L 1

Solids Balance
F(0.1) = L1(0.5)
(2.52)(0.1) = 0.5L1
L1 = 0.504 kg/s

F = V1 + L 1  Material Balance
V1 = F - L1
= 2.52 - 0.504
= 2.016 kg/s

Heat Balance

V0  0  Fh f  V1H 1  L1 h 1
 0  2230.2  10 3 J / kg
hf = 25 btu/lb = 58100 J/kg  1 btu/lb = 2324 J/kg

20kPa  Water boils @ 60oC = 140oF


At this temperature, boiling point of 50% NaOH solution = 220oF = 104oC

At 220oF : H1 = 1153 btu/lb = 2679  10 3 J / kg (From Steam Tables)


h1 = 250 btu/lb = 581  10 3 J / kg (From Enthalpy-Conc. Diagram)

V0  0  Fh f  V1H 1  L1 h 1
V0 (2230.2  10 3 J / kg )  (2.52 kg / s)(58100 J / kg)  (2.016 kg / s)( 2679  10 3 J / kg)  (0.504kg / s)(5
V0 = 2.48 kg/s = 8953 kg/s

7257.6kg / s
Economy = 8953kg / s  81.05%
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Simultaneous Mass & Heat Transfer - Evaporation Tutorial
Heat Transfer Rate Equation

V0  0  UA(T )
V0  0 5531  10 3 J / s
A   463.7 m 2
UT 2
1988W / m .K (383K  377 K )

Same Procedure for Part B

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Problem 2

In order to concentrate 4536 kg/hr of a NaOH solution containing 10 wt % NaOH to a


20 wt % solution, a single-effect evaporator is being used with an area of 37.6 m2. The
feed enters at 21.1oC (293.4 K). Saturated steam at 110oC (383.2 K) is used for
heating and the pressure in the vapour space of the evaporator is 51.7 kPa. Calculate
the kg/h of steam used and the overall heat-transfer co-efficient.

a) Feed Temperature of 293.4 K

F = 1.26 kg/s Tfeed = 293.4 K = 21.1oC = 69.98 oF


Tsteam = 110oC Tevap = 82oC = 179.6 oF  From Steam Tables

Overall Material Balance


F = V1 + L 1

Solids Balance
F(0.1) = L1(0.2)
(1.26kg/s)(0.1) = 0.2L1
L1 = 0.63 kg/s

F = V1 + L 1  Material Balance
V1 = F - L1
= 1.26 - 0.63
= 0.63 kg/s

Heat Balance

V0  0  Fh f  V1H 1  L1 h 1
 0  2230  10 3 J / kg
hf = 35 btu/lb = 81340 J/kg  1 btu/lb = 2324 J/kg

51.7 kPa  Water boils @ 82oC = 179.6 oF


At this temperature, boiling point of 20% NaOH solution = 200oF = 93 oC

At 200oF : H1 = 1146 btu/lb = 2663  10 3 J / kg (From Steam Tables)


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Simultaneous Mass & Heat Transfer - Evaporation Tutorial
h1 = 140 btu/lb = 325  10 3 J / kg (From Enthalpy-Conc. Diagram)

V0  0  Fh f  V1H 1  L1 h 1
V0 ( 2230 10 3 J / kg)  (1.26 kg / s)(81340 J / kg)  (0.63 kg / s)(2663 10 3 J / kg)  (0.63kg / s)(325 
V0 = 0.798 kg/s = 2872.8 kg/s

Heat Transfer Rate Equation

V0  0  UA(T )
V0  0 1780  10 3 J / s
U   2784W / m 2 .K
AT 2 o
37.6m (110 C  93 C) o