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Testing Systems

Testing systems for texture analysis,


viscosity measurement and
packaging testing

FP 485 2.0409

Intelligent Testing
The Zwick Roell AG – More than a century of
experience in materials testing

Mechanical-technological testing is one of the oldest


disciplines of materials testing. As early as in the 15th and
16th century, Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo Galilei were
already considering the flexural stressing and the elastic
behaviour of materials. In the course of time further
knowledge was obtained. In the middle of the 18th
century the first testing machines finally appeared in
France.

Since 1920 the company Roell & Korthaus has been


involved in the materials testing business. In 1937 Zwick
built it first testing machines and systems for mechanical
testing of materials. Many years prior to that in 1876, a
Professor Seger had already founded a chemical labora-
tory as part of a scientific techno-logical consulting
company for nonmetallic materials. During the 20th Fig. 1: The headquarter of the Zwick Roell AG and the Zwick
century, the present company called Toni Technik has GmbH & Co. KG at Ulm, Germany
evolved from these origins and is now considered a
leading expert in test systems for building materials. Zwick has many years of experience, combined with a
Another predecessor of the Zwick Roell is a company multitude of supplied systems. This experience is
MFL (Mohr & Federhaff) – a company that was founded continuously supplemented by the constant
in 1870. Interestingly enough Carl Benz (of Mercedes communication with the users. On this solid basis, the
Benz fame) was one of their employees. company supplies a wide range of high-performance
products – from the economical standard machine up to
special versions and designs for special test jobs.
Since 1992, these companies have formed the Zwick/ Modern mechanics, high-performance electronics and
Roell company group. In July 2001, this company group the application-oriented software are the prerequisite for
was converted into a stock corporation: the Zwick Roell the versatility and the high “intelligence” of these modern
AG. Part of this stock corporation are the companies testing machines and systems.
Zwick, Toni Technik, Indentec Ltd., and since may 2002
Acmel Labo. These companies supply an extensive However, the services of the Zwick Roell AG go far
program for materials, component, and functional tests beyond the supply of products. Already in 1994 the
– from the manually operated hardness tester up to a company received the certification according to DIN EN
complex test system for the process-accompanying ISO 9001 and thus guarantees a consistently high
application. product and service quality. With accredited calibration
laboratories, the companies of the Zwick Roell AG are in
addition entitled to verify and to calibrate test systems
and to document that with internationally recognized
certificates.

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Content

1. Texture analysis .................................................................................................................................................. 3


1.1 Instrumental texture analysis - a growing trend in food industry ...................................................................... 3
1.2 How to carry out instrumental texture analysis .............................................................................................. 5
1.3 Test software testXpert®: Test sequence and results...................................................................................... 6
1.4 Selected examples for foodstuffs and possible test methods .......................................................................... 8
1.5 Zwick Roell tools and fixtures ........................................................................................................................ 9
2. Viscosity measurement .....................................................................................................................................13
3. Packaging testing .............................................................................................................................................15
3.1 Requirements to packaging .........................................................................................................................15
3.2 Zwick Roell tools and fixtures ....................................................................................................................... 16
4. Texture analysers / packaging testing machines and components ......................................................................20

1. Texture analysis

1.1 Instrumental texture analysis -


a growing trend in food industry

What is texture?
Texture defines the consistency and structure of
foodstuffs. Included are all physical characteristics as
well as the perception / sensory feelings such as
touching (including the feeling in the mouth), appearance
and acoustic behaviour. Size, form, number of cells and
their structure also influence the texture characteristics
of the foodstuff.

Examples of texture characteristics are the crunchiness


of sausages, the firmness of cheese or the crispiness of
waffles. Texture characteristic Sensoric designations
Hardness soft, solid, hard
Composition, cohesion crumbly, crisp, brittle
Sensory and instrumental techniques to Elasticity plastic, elastic
determine texture properties Adhesiveness adheres, sticky, very sticky
Viscosity highly fluid, semifluid
Sensory tests Table 1: Texture characteristics of foodstuffs with sensoric
Proof of textural properties via the human senses takes descriptions
place via the sensorium (tasting foodstuffs) and the
textural properties are identified by terms relating to the Instrumental texture analysis / objective texture
senses or taste. Examples of such identifiers are measurement
compiled in table 1. Instrumental tests, also known as mechanical texture
tests, emulate the sensory effect i.e.what happens with
The terms vary depending upon the foodstuff in the foodstuffs in everyday life. Chewing is simulated with
question: The properties of confectionery, jams, etc. are the help of a cyclic test. Gradients, forces, travel and
expressed differently to the properties of cornflakes. energy values are recorded during two or more cycles of
Standardised terms for foodstuffs are extremely few and the test, and are linked to one another and are
far between. associated with sensory properties.

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The instrumental texture analysis removes all elements
of subjectivity from the testing. Measurement methods
are used which, although introduced internationally, are
rarely standardised. The main problem of texture
analysis is that the shape and consistency of foodstuffs
deviates very much.

Reproducible results require a careful preparation of


specimens and the testing method. Carefully prepared
specimens and tests can, quite often, lead to
surprisingly high correlations to sensory tests. Variances
in product quality are much more apparent since they
are determined by a texture analyser which does not
have the subjective rating which a sensoring team might
have. In cases of dispute, sensorically determined results Fig. 2: You can test all types of foodstuffs with Zwick Roell testing
are not recognised. tools

Benefits of instrumental testing at a glance: Why and where texture analysis is made?
• Conversion of sensory tests to objective values -
Important test criterias such as freshness, crispiness, Product research & development
spreadability are determined objectively. • Evaluation of the quality and processing
• Small deviations can be measured and shown in characteristics of raw foodstuffs.
values. • Creation of foodstuffs with a desired texture: Testing of
• By standardisation of testing methods (Company different receipts and ingredients and their influence on
Standards) different production sites can achieve the the foodstuff during the production process.
same product quality. This is very important in highly • Product comparisons: New or alternative ingredients
automated production lines, and for suppliers of semi- can be compared with existing ingredients for
finished goods, ingredients and food systems. All of improvements. Producers own products can be
this helps to avoid complaints at the outset by compared with competitor´s products (Benchmarking).
improving quality and consistency of the products. • Determination of influence of packaging on the
• The tests deliver reproducible results. foodstuffs for a good choice of packaging.
• All results can be shown and interpreted in a graph
and documentation of all results is easy. Quality control purposes
• Proper documentation of product quality simplifies • Goods receipt: Tolerances can be defined to
negotiations between suppliers, processors and ingredient suppliers and incoming batches can be
customers. checked. In this way, batch to batch variations or
trends in quality from a partcular supplier can easily be
monitored.
• Before and during production: Characterisation of
structural changes during the production process and
determination of the influence of process variations
such as temperature, humidity and cooking or baking
time. Quality control during production or of finished
products to ensure a constant quality.
• Transport/Storage: The determination of stacking
ability, strength and shelf life allow transport and
storage influences to be assessed.
• Freshness at POS (point of sale) and storage time at
consumer’s home. Are the products characteristics
guaranteed at the end of the minimum durability?

Fig. 1: Simple analysis and documentation with test software


testXpert® II

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1.2 How to carry out instrumental texture direction of the specimen extraction when the testing
analysis subject has a composition direction such as the fibers in
The inhomogenity of a product is very difficult in meat (anisotropy).
instrumental texture analysis and leads to large
differences in the test results. c) Specimen cut/form
Unclear edges may be caused by cutting tools which are
For dependable and interpretable test results, you need not sharp. This increases the inhomogenity of a specimen
suitable test methods and a careful specimen preparation. and can therefore influence the test, e.g. the breakage of
Identical specimens give identical starting points so that noodles or lasagna dough. In addition, parallel cuts are
the real characteristics of a product can be determined, important for homogenious stress distribution during the
and not the characteristics of an individual specimen. test (please see Fig. 2)

Identical specimens are not possible with food products


Even stress Uneven stress
because of the inhomogenity. However, with a couple of distribution distribution
basic rules you can create a relative consistent starting
point.

a) Specimen size Fig. 2: Stress distribution on a specimen


Select the specimen with 5 to 10 times the medium
composition size. A cheese cube with large macro d) Specimen loading
composition (holes), should be a minimum of 5 times larger The loading should be applied to the specimen so that only
than the largest hole. 10 times larger would be better. the desired influences go into the test results. This is best
explained with the test on apples (see Fig. 3).
If suitable specimen sizes cannot be made, one of the
following is recommended:
• a larger number of tests in order to even out the The apple does not The apple has a solid,
outliers, or have a solid support large support surface.
• make smaller specimens without composition surface. During the Here, only the
penetration test the deformation caused by
variances, although then the basic material will be
deformation of the the penetration will be
tested and not the total product with its typical entire apple will be measured
characteristics. measured

b) Extraction location/direction
The specimen extraction should always be at the same Fig. 3: Application of force to the specimen
place, e.g. with cheese, always at the same distance
from the rind. In addition, attention should be paid to the e) Interaction between testing tool and specimen
Tools and specimen must fit each other. Example:
compression test on cheese. If the surface of the
cheese cube cannot be made level so that a full
surface, even loading of the compression plate is
possible, then a penetration test with a small die is
suitable. However, it is important to note that this
changed test method creates other forces on the
A B C D specimen. In this case shear forces are applied in
A: Specimen size too small since the relation to the size of the addition to compression forces (see Fig. 1 D).
holes is too small. Furthermore the specimen has not been
cut at a right angle. This leads to misinterpretations at the
The specimen size must also fit to the testing tool;
start of the test since the upper compression plate does not
lie fully on the surface of the specimen. In a compression test, the specimen cannot extend
B: Sufficient specimen size, clean cut edges beyond the edge of the compression plate because
C: The large surface compression plates do not cover the shear forces would be created. However during a
specimen surface completely, therefore D is recommended
penetration test, deformations may not occur on the
D: Set-up with a penetration die of small diameter
specimen edges since the forces and resistance within
Fig. 1: Specimen size and interaction with the testing tool the material should be measured.

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1.3 Test software testXpert® II: Force
Test sequence and results
Cyclic tests simulate chewing (fig. 1). In the first
compression phase the specimen is loaded up to a
preselected strain. The specimen is released in the
following tensile phase. Time
The energy under the force travel curve is split through
the maximum force into two parts (see fig. 2). The
second cycle runs in the same manner. Compression Tensile Compression Tensile
phase 1 phase 1 phase 2 phase 2
The number of cycles depends on the specimen: two or
Fig. 1: Principle sequence of a cyclic test (2x mastication) /
more cycles are possible, in some cases only the first procedure of instrumental texture profile analysis (TPA)
compression phase is required. Gradients, forces, travel
and energy values are recorded during the test, and are properties. Fig. 2 shows these results in a force travel
linked to one another and are assigned to sensory curve.

First cycle Second cycle


Force s1 Force s2
Portions of
F13 work in partial
ranges of the
test
F14
F11 F23
F12
F24
E11 E12
E21 E22
FV Extension FV Extension
- FV or - FV or
E23 E24
E14 E13 travel travel

F15 F25

S16S11S12 S15 S13 S14 S20 S26 S25S23 S24


Fv = Pre-load

Test result Description


si (s1, s2) Modulus, degree of maturity i = Index (no. of cycle)
F11 Fracturability
F11 - F12 Brittleness
F13 Hardness
S 13 Indentation
ΔFi4 Relaxation at point of load change (only when holding time at this point is defined)
F15 Cohesion strength, adhesive force
E13 + E14 Adhesiveness
Springiness (S23-S20) / (S13)
Gumminess F13 * (E21 + E22) / (E11 + E12)
Chewiness F13 * (E21 + E22) / (E11 + E12) * (S23-S20) / (S13)
Cohesiveness (E21 + E22) / (E11 + E12)
Fig. 2: Selected test results from the testXpert® II Standard Test Programm for texture analysis

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testXpert® II Standard Test Program for texture Determination of the crispness with testXpert® II
analysis Another test procedure is recommended for the
This testXpert® II test program is arranged analogical to determination of the crispness of cereals, potato chips,
the procedure of instrumental texture profile analysis peanut snacks or other extrudates with the Kramer
(TPA). The chart on the previous page shows selected shear cell. There is no standard definition for crispness.
results being recorded during the test sequence. We One approch whereby the „crispness“ can be
displayed the two cycles next to each other to provide a determined, is to measure the breaking tendency of a
clear overview. material.

The Standard Test Program offers various results of Every break, that means, every snap in a testing
course including the essential characteristics for texture material means that energy has been released. These
analysis. By activating only the required results you releases of energy are easily seen by the so-called
receive a clearly arranged result table. With the option peaks in the curve. The number of these peaks can be
result editor you can create your own results if desired. a significant value for the crispness. In order to achieve
dependable values, a data transfer rate of 500 Hz is
absolutely necessary.

Fig. 1: Usually texture samples are very inhomogeneous and give Fig. 3: Crispness determination via peaks
very strongly scattered single curves. Anyhow you can clearly
identify the characteristics of different batches or types.

testXpert® II Test Programs for texture


analysis

Standard Test Program for texture tests on food


(Type xct054_14): This test program includes all
results for tests as described on the previous page

Standard Test Program for evaluating the properties of


dough (Type xte051_47): This test program has been
developed especially for the dough tensile test rig

For the determination of crispness with the Kramer


Shear cell we recommend the Master Test Program
for tear growth tests as described above

Fig. 2: This curve shows clearly the procedure in the specimen On request we offer Customized Test Programs that
during the test are especially developed for your application.

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1.4 Selected examples for foodstuffs and possible test methods
Foodstuff Test method Determined characteristics
Bread and baked goods
Bread, cake Cyclic compression or penetration test Firmness, Gumminess, Springiness
Bread slices AACC 74-09: Penetration test with cylindrical die Firmness, Hardness
Pastry, cookies, waffles Warner-Bratzler shear test Firmness, Bite Characteristic
3-point flexure test Hardness, Fracturability, Brittleness
Dough Dough tensile test Extensibility, Elasticity, Stickiness
Penetration test with ball die Softness, Stickiness, Cohesiveness
Snacks
Peanut flips, chips, Shear test with Kramer shear cell Crispiness, Firmness, Bite Characteristic
croutons, cereals Compression test on single specimens Crispiness, Firmness
Extrusion test with OTMS cell (rod blades) Firmness, Extrusion Work
Pretzel sticks 3-point flexure test Fracturability, Brittleness
Noodle and Rice Products
Cooked spaghetti Warner-Bratzler shear test Firmness, Bite Characteristic
Cooked spaghetti / rice Compression test, also cyclic test Firmness, Stickiness
Raw noodle products 3-point flexure test Flexure strength, Breaking Strength
Sweets
Chewing gum dragée, Compression test, also cyclic test Gumminess, Firmness
Chewable hard candy Warner-Bratzler shear test Firmness, Bite Characteristic
Chewing gum Tensile test with dough tensile test rig Extensibility, Elasticity, Stickiness
Chocolate bar Warner-Bratzler shear test Firmness, Bite Characteristic
3-point flexure test Flexure strength, Breaking Strength
Milk Products
Butter, Margarine Cutting test with the butter-cutter Firmness, Cutting Strength
Penetration test, also cyclic test Firmness, Spreadability, Hardness
Multiple back extrusion test Work softening, Remaining Hardness
Creame cheese, parfait Penetration test, also cyclic test Spreadability, Hardness, Stickiness
Hard cheese Compression or penetration test, also cyclic test Firmness, Hardness
Warner-Bratzler shear test Cutting Strength, Bite Characteristic
Fruit, Vegetables, Vegetable products
Uncooked fruit / vegetable Penetration test Degree of Ripeness, Skin Strength
Compression or penetration test Firmness, Hardness
Warner-Bratzler shear test Firmness, Bite Characteristic
Peas, beans, corn Compression test on single specimens Firmness
Extrusion test with OTMS cell Firmness, Consistency, Extrusion Work
Shear test with Kramer shear cell Firmness, Bite Characteristic
Potatoe salad, mashed potatoes Extrusion test with OTMS cell (perforations) Firmness, Consistency, Extrusion Work
Sausage, meat and fish products
Pasties, minced meat Extrusion test with OTMS cell Toughness, Tenderness, Extrusion Work
Uncooked meat, fish, Shear test with Kramer shear cell Shear strength , Toughness, Tenderness,
seafood Bite Characteristic
Frankfurters Warner-Bratzler shear test Crunchiness, Cutting Strength, Bite Characteristic
Sausage Compression or penetration test, also cyclic test Firmness, Hardness
(1
American Association of Cereal Chemists

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1.5 Zwick Roell tools and fixtures
Kramer Shear Cell
The Kramer shear cell simulates a single bite on
foodstuffs and provides information about bite
characteristic, crispness and firmness. It is used for
meat and fish products, small sized fruit and vegetables
as well as for cereals and snacks like potato chips.

The 5 or 10 shear blades drive at a constant speed


through the specimen material, compressing, shearing
and extruding it through the slotted base. The test is
made on a defined sample quantity. The multiple blades
provide a measurement on several positions at the same
time thus local texture deviations are compensated for
with this method.

Warner-Bratzler Shear Device


In the Warner Bratzler test a blade cuts through a
specimen. The shear behavior gives information about
the toughness and tenderness of meat and fish
products, the crunchiness of sausages as well as the
bite characteristic of cakes and pastries.

The straight blade is mainly used for rectangular


specimens and the notched blade for round
specimens like sausages.

Because of the good reproducibility of the results, this


test is widely used.

OTMS cell
The OTMS cell (Ottawa Texture Measuring System)
determines the firmness of products by compression and
extrusion. This shows characteristics like ripeness,
tenderness, crispness or extrusion work on a defined
sample quantity. This method is suited for products
which are easy to extrude such as canned vegetables,
cream cheese and pastries. But also for extrudates and
cereals it can be used.

Various extrusion plates and reduction inserts for the


reduction of the volume enable an adaption for different
specimen materials. The measurement of pure
compression forces is possible with the use of the
sealing plate.

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Dough tensile test rig
The dough tensile test is a micro-scale tensile test: Only
a small volume of flour or dough is sufficient. The test
determines the processing characteristics, extensibility,
elasticity and stickiness of dough and glutens.

This is useful for the comparison of different flours and


baking ingredients as well as for the determination of
their influence on the baked good. Various recipes,
processing types and times, as well as additives can be
improved in order to have the optimal end product.

Alternatively the rig can be used for the determination of


the elastic characteristics of chewing gum.

3-point flexure test kit


In a 3-point flexure test the specimen lies on two anvils
and is centrally loaded with an upper anvil. The span is
adaptable to the specimen.

This test is particularly suitable for brittle products,


additionaly with same specimen sizes by production. For
example waffles, cookies, chocolate bars or also noodle
products are suited.

Flexure strength and breaking strength, fracturability and


brittleness enable conclusions to be drawn for different
recipes. Furthermore you can analyse the influence of
moisture, baking time and temperature as well as
packing and storage to the products characteristics.

Multiple Back Extrusion Cell


Several working processes gradually break down the fat
crystal network of fats like butter and margarine.This
change of material is measured by the work softening or
the remaining hardness.

The back extrusion die with multiple holes extrudes the


fat in several cycles. The test determines the remaining
hardness after a defined number of cycles or the
number of cycles that is required to reach a defined
remaining hardness.

With a slightly modified test procedure the rig is also


used for ice cream, fresh cheese or cooked pasta.

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Penetration dies
These dies are used mostly for penetrations tests to
determine the hardness of foodstuffs. These tests are
widely used and find their application with many
foodstuffs.

Fundamental is the choice of the appropriate die:


Cylindrical dies apply compressive stress by the surface
and shear stressing by the edges and the outer surface
area of the die. Whereas ball dies start with vertical
forces. During the test more and more horizontal forces
are added.

Zwick Roell offers penetration dies with various shapes,


sizes and materials, also completely to your
requirements.

Special dies for tests to Standard: Bread


firmness to AACC, gel strength (Bloom)
For the determination of the bread firmness according to
AACC 74-09 a cylindrical die compresses defined bread
slices up to 40% in two cycles. At a compression of
25% the CFV (Compression force value) is determined.

The gel strength according to Bloom (GME Monograph


2005, ISO 9665) is measured by many gelatin producers
and fabricators. The gel strength in grams Bloom is the
mass necessary to impress a cylindrical die 4 mm into
the gel at constant speed. The method includes a
comprehensive specimen preparation in special Bloom
jars.

Puncture needle
The penetration test, also called puncture test or force
penetration, is used frequently to test the degree of
ripeness of fruits and vegetables as well as of the skin
strength.

The puncture needle is pushed into the specimen to a


certain depth. Depending on the skin and the
consistency of the pulp distinctive curves arise.

Butter cutter
This test tool is used for the determination of butter
firmness according to ISO 16305. In this test a stainless
steel wire cuts through a defined cube of butter. This
test is very dependant on temperature and is performed
to a Standard method in a temperated water bath.

The butter cutter is also used for the determination of


the cutting strength of cheese, eggs, vegetables and
fruit.

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Compression dies
In a compression test the specimen is smaller than the
compression die. Also under compression the specimen
should not extend over the edges of the die.

The compression test is made on brittle specimens such


as candies or coffee beans to determine the brittleness,
freshness and firmness, or on fruits also to determine
the stacking behaviour.

The test is carried out as a cyclic procedure on elastic


specimens such as bread, cake, cheese, fish and
marshmallows: The specimen is compressed twice to a
certain degree and decompressed. The compression
and recovery behavior shows firmness, stickiness,
degree of ripeness and visco-elastic properties.

Hardness test on sausage products and fish


Zwick Roell has developed a range of hardness testers
for fish, sausage and luncheon meat. A compression
cylinder with a large surface area is used as penetrator
to measure the hardness of sausage or the freshness of
fish and obtain comparable quality control data.

Customized test tools & fixtures


You have a product with singular properties and want to
choose the most suitable test method? This requires a
unique test tool or fixture. Zwick Roell develops and
produces for you the most suitable tool for your product
and your test method. And if required, you will receive a
customized test program which is a special software for
your exact test sequence and your test results.

Temperature and climate chambers


Foodstuffs change their characteristics depending on
the humidity and environmental temperature. According
to the sensitivity of the product it may be necessary to
precondition the specimens or test under defined,
constant temperature. Examples for this are the testing
of ice cream at a storage temperature of -20 °C, or the
testing of pizza cheese at +80 °C.

Zwick Roell developed a temperature chamber


especially for these applications that fits on the zwicki
texture analyzer. Also separate temperature or climatic
chambers according to your requirements can be
offered.

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2. Viscosity measurement

Viscosity
The term viscosity describes the flow characteristics of
liquid systems. Two liquid layers, which slide one against
the other generate a mechanical resistance against the
movement (toughness, inner friction). This is called flow
stress. If several layers are moved with different speeds,
viscous forces are generated. These forces decelerate
the layers with higher speed and accelerate the layers
with lower speed. These phenomena follow physical
laws and can be defined by equations, with regard to
shear rate and shear forces. Viscosities are always
dependent on temperature.

Viscosity measurements are frequently performed to


optimise the consistency of pasty materials or to
optimise its viscosity for food processing lines.

Yogurt with and without fruit pieces, sauces, mustard,


tomato puree and oils are frequently tested products of
the food industry.

Medical gels, paint, emulsions, cremes and oils are Fig. 2: Thanks to the simple interchanging of tools and fixtures the
examples for tested products in other industries. ProLine Z0.5 can also be used for viscosity tests

The back extrusion rig - an alternative to


rotation viscometers
With the back extrusion rig Zwick Roell offers an
alternative solution to rotation viscometers.

The principle of the back extrusion rig is based on the


displacement of the test material through an annular
gap between piston and back extrusion cell. The cell is
filled with the test substance and the piston is lowered
into the container, pressing the material up through the
annular gap. When the piston is raised, the material
flows back through the annular gap into the cell.

The force is measured in the down- and up-cycle at a


defined position. The dynamic viscosity is evaluated,
from the measured force difference and the flow rate of
the liquid in the annular gap.

The Zwick Roell system can repeat this cycle as often


as desired with freely adjustable shear rates. Thus the
test can be optimally adapted to your test material, and
Fig. 1: Zwick Roell back extrusion rig with only one single test you can measure the viscosity
across the entire shear range.

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Advantages of tests with the back extrusion rig
• The viscosity can be determined directly in containers
from the running production. This rules out pre-
stressing of the material caused by transfilling.

• Flow influences which occur in the production plants


can be reproduced by altering the annular gap and
the moving speed.

• This method enables tests on materials with chunky


pieces as fruit preparations and food systems: Fruit
pieces or other bigger ingredients are not pushed
aside and thus are measured together with the yogurt
or the fluid.

• Individual selection of the number of test cycles and


the possibility of increasing the shear rate for each of Fig. 2: Viscosity measurement directly in the container
these cycles enables recording of the viscosities over
the entire shear rate in just one test.
The additional benefit: testXpert® II test pro-
• The test results on Newtonian fluids correlate with the gram especially developed for viscosity testing
results from measurements with rotation viscometers. This special Standard Test Program includes a lot of
For non-Newtonian fluids reproducible, comparable extras especially for viscosity testing. Examples:
test results are obtained, usually with more sensitive automatic pre-conditioning, determination of cycle
characteristics than those gained from rotation numbers and speed, selection of results etc.
viscometers.
The test software is clearly arranged and enables
comprehensive evaluation and presentation of data as
well as graphical evaluation and reporting.

Fig. 1: Only one test is required to determine and represent the


viscosities over the entire shear rate Always on the seventh day the yogurt shows a break of
viscosity, caused by maturation processes. The results of the
rotation viscometer have not been as clear.
Our application note „viscosity testing“ provides more
detailed information and is available on request. Fig. 3: Example for interpretation of viscosity tests on yogurt

14
3. Packaging testing

3.1 Requirements for packaging


Originally, packaging served to protect a product or to
make it transportable. Today it must fulfil many other
requirements according to its type and its function.

Examples for the use of packaging:


• Food stuffs, pleasure foods, drinks
• Cosmetics
• Medicines
• Chemicals
• Transport packagings (e.g. palettes, crates)
• Industry packagings (e.g. big bags, containers,
barrels)
• Electronic instruments Fig. 1: Different packagings for food
• Consumer goods

Packaging has a large influence on the quality of the Possible requirements on a packaging
contents, on the other hand it encourages the
purchasing decisions of the consumers. Both targets Production
together are big challenges for product development, Quality of delivered raw material
especially the packaging of foodstuffs. Good processible, high throughput possible
Stability in production processes
For no other packaging product as much new and Temperature and pression resistance
further development has been realized as for foodstuff Printability, foldability
packagings. Nanotechnology, convenience, Reusableness (e.g. pallets)
bio-degradable packaging, intelligent and active systems
are the catchwords. Transport, product protection, shelf life
Safe and resistant against damage
Intelligent systems, for example, show the condition of Stackability
the packaged foodstuff and the local environment. Gas Long shelf and storage life for the content
indicators detect when a certain gas concentration has Barrier characteristics
been exceeded inside the package. Active systems help Interaction between packaging and content
to extend the shelf-life, e.g. a sprayed plastic which Leak tightness
absorbs ethylene or provides a filter effect against light Active / intelligent systems
and rays of the UV range. Freshness seal / tamper evident closures

In addition, the desire for convenience grows constantly: Marketing


the packaging should be easily manageable, easy to Appearance, haptics, weight
open and reseal, or directly heatable in the microwave Lower priced manufacturing with lower priced materials
without putting the food in another container.
User friendlyness
Easy opening and pressing out of contents is also Easy to open and reclosable
important in the areas of cosmetics and medicines. Convenience aspects
Furthermore packaging for medical instruments must be Can be emptied easy & completely
hermetically sealed and withstand sterilisation processes. Requirements of elder people
Free from harmful substances
Since packaging is very different in shapes and Recyclability, disposal
materials, it requires especially developed, flexible testing
units. For this reason, following you will see examples of
testing units which will give you an idea of the testing
possibilities which are available.

15
3.2 Zwick Roell tools and fixtures are described on the following pages. Information for
Constant materials testing is required to ensure that specific material testing of other materials can be seen
packaging materials achieve their optimum value. The in the industry brochures for plastics, metals, papers or
most important mechanical tests on finished packaging textiles.

Compression test on plastic beakers, buckets,


boxes, containers, barrels and similar
dimensionally stable packagings
Compression tests have different purposes. Examples:
• Determination of stacking characteristics
There are various methods for this type of test
according to Standard and material. Individual or
several packages are loaded until failure. This will
indicate the maximum stacking height which can be
used. For plastic yogurt pots, this test is also made
with completely filled trays. Or a certain load may be
applied for a pre-set length of time or until failure.

• Determination of inherent rigidity


This test gives information for the process of
packaging: The packaging has a certain load applied
when it is closed (when the lid is put on), and it must
withstand this closing process without any problems.

• Fatigue tests
A hysteresis test is performed on a pail to see how
often a certain load can be applied before it breaks. In
practice this happens when palettes are loaded and
unloaded. Not every loading and unloading cycle is
shown. Only the 1st, 100th, 500th and 1000th cycles
are displayed for monitoring.

Customer specific test devices


On the basis of customer specific requirements, we
develop and produce various testing tools and fixtures
on short notice, customised to your packaging product
and test requirements in an optimum way.

For examples rigs to determine the push-out force on


blister packs, fixtures for special-shape containers or
testing tools to test the pull-out force of wine corks.

16
90°- / 180° Peel tests
This type of test is used to control the adhesive
characteristics as adhesion and tear strength. There are
a lot of peel and tear tests with the same principle.
Some examples: EN 1719, EN 1939, FINAT test method
no. 2, DIN 30646, DIN 55475, DIN 55477.

The reason for the high number is, that different


substrate materials and adhesives are used for many
different applications.

Test plates of glass or stainless steel with a standardised


surface are used to compare the adhesion of the
different materials.

The tests determine the adhesive or adhesion strength:


The force that is necessary to tear a strip of a tape
constantly from a test plate or glass. The result is the
force referred to the width of the tape.

Also the tacking often is meaningful: This is ability to


adhere to a surface, and to get a measurable tearing
force. The adhesion on a substrate is achieved by
touching or small contact without using a force.

Tack loop test for testing the adhesive strength


of adhesive tapes
Tack is the initial adhesion. It is expressed as the tearing
force of a loop material which has been brought into
contact with the surface of a test plate.

A strip coated on one side with adhesive is formed into a


loop with the adhesive side outwards. With the testing
machine the loop is brought in contact with a test plate.
When a defined contact area is reached, the loop is
pulled off.

This test is described in Finat test method No. 9.

17
Peeling of covers or sealing materials (Peel
Test).
The ability to peel off dimensionally stable or inflexible
packagings depends on material combinations, machine
parameters as well as on sealed seam and tear-off
geometries. A test of the peel forces with a special peel
test kit can help to optimize these elements. The most
important value is the cracking force but the regularity of
the sealing is also significant.

A benefit of the Zwick Roell peel test kit is the exact


alignment of the delaminated area with the test axis:
The packaging is tracked automatically by the sliding
specimen table and this ensures a consistent and
reproducible measurement of the load because the
peeling angle of 90° is always guaranteed. Furthermore
the kit enables a flexible adjustment to fit to different
packaging shapes and heights.

Opening of screw caps / torsion tests


To open screw caps a torsion drive combined with a
linear axis is used. This test determines tightening and
release torques as well as the free movement of the
screw cap considering the thread pitch.

The complete testing process is controlled by a specially


configured testXpert® II Master Test Program.

Zwick torsion drives can perform uni and multiaxial tests


which combine tensile or compression tests with torsion.
Thus barrier packagings, that require simultaneous
pushing & twisting to open, can be easily tested.

Tear test
Standards ISO 34-1, ISO 6383-1, EN 495-2 and
DIN 53363 relate to tear tests on plastic foils. The test
simulates the behaviour of packaging foils when the
package is opened. When opening a plastic bag, the
initial force should be approximately as much as the tear
growth force. If the maximum force at initial tearing is
too high, the danger exists that the plastic bag will
suddenly tear open completely and the contents will spill
out. The ideal behaviour is not easy to adjust because
the tear growth resistance (as well as the tensile
strength) of stretched foils is very depending on the
direction.

18
Sealed-seam strength
The determination of the sealed-seam strength of
sealings made of flexible packaging material is carried
out according to DIN 55529 and other Standards.

The test is a tensile test on a 15 mm wide strip with a


pull-off angle of 180°. The sealing must have a certain
strength according to the use of the packaging material.

Function tests on packagings


Packaging is manifold and also its function and type of
opening. Individual values must be determined since
normally no Standards exist.

Examples of such testing:


• Penetration of a straw in a composite carton for
drinks
• Penetration of pre-perforated openings
• Opening forces of ring-pull cans
• Tearing off an opening flap, e.g. from lids
• Pulling out of carrying handles
• Opening and closing tests of snap closures
• Operating forces of pump bottles

Pure materials testing


Basic materials such as plastic, paper and metals have
the most varied material tests performed on them mainly
according to Standards. Some examples:

• Tensile test on plastic foils for the determination of the


stress-strain-characteristic
• Determination of the coefficient of friction (COF)
• Penetration test on elastic packaging materials for the
determination of the penetration resistance
• 4-Point flexure test for tests on single and multi-layer
corrugated board

For more detailed information about pure materials


testing please request our industry brochures for the
respective basic materials, plastics, metals, paper or
textiles.

19
4. Texture analysers / packaging testing zwicki-Line
machines and components • Space-saving, single column testing machine for
test loads up to 0.5/1/2.5/5 kN (50/100/250/500 kg)
Testing machines made by Zwick Roell can be used for • 3 different test area heights are available
completely different applications because they utilise a • Modular system that can be used also for
flexible and very clever connection system for tools and sophisticated test tasks
fixtures. Saving valuable laboratory space the same • Very stiff extruded aluminium profile load frame
testing machine can be used for texture analysis as well (patented by Zwick)
as packaging tests. • Optional second test area
• 500 Hz Online test data transmission in combination
In order to be able to offer the best testing machine for with electronics testControl (for reliable tests of brittle
each requirement, there are three distinct versions (see specimens)
table on the right).
ProLine
Using Zwick Roells unique software testXpert® the user • Twin column testing machines for routine packaging
can fix the settings for the test arrangement. tests
This includes: • Excellent value for money and two weeks delivery
• Grip to grip separation (essential to get repeatable test time when ordering a standardised package
results) (ProLine Pur-Portfolio)
• Software limits for crosshead travel
• Crosshead position (even after machine is switched Allround-Line
off) • Twin column testing machines for sophisticated test
• Force and travel limits to protect grips and tooling tasks
• Comprehensive configuration equipment: Connection
of special sensors, multi-channel measurement,
second test areas and many other options
• Table-top testing machines with extremely high
bending stiffness due to the patented extruded
aluminium load frames

Fig.1: zwicki Z2.5 TH with optional second test area Fig.2: The perfect texture analyzer: zwicki-Line Z0.5 TS

20
These settings are stored with the test procedure to Xforce load cells
allow operators to change configuration without needing Xforce load cells fulfill all five criteria of the accuracy
to make manual adjustments. This is a major advantage grades as specified in the Standard over a very wide
when changing test types and tooling and provides a measurement range. For example a load cell type Xforce
much safer working system compared to other systems HP with 500 N capacity can be used from 500 N down
currently on the market. to 1 N and still satisfies the requirements of ISO 7500:
Class 1. In practise the typical linearity of load cells type
Zwick Roell testing machines are without question the Xforce HP and Xforce K is even more accurate than the
most accurate available today. The crosshead position Standard requires (relative accuracy <±0.25% from
system is very important for repeatable results and 0.4% of the capacity rsp. <±1 % from 0.1% of the
operator safety (see table on following page). capacity).

All testing machines have robust, durable electro- This very wide measurement range often avoids the need
mechanical industry standard drive systems. They for a second load cell, thereby saving the cost of a
provide the machines with further benefits: second load cell and subsequent annual calibration costs.
• Extremely large, stepless, speed range
• Very low and very high speeds can be set regardless All Xforce load cells are highly insensitivity to transverse
of the test load (from approx. 0.5 μm/min forces, bending moments and torque moments.
to > 3000 mm/min) Furthermore the smart load cells have an unique
• Highly precise and exactly reproducible speeds and electronic identity system:
positioning without overshooting effects reduce • No daily calibration required
variance in test results • Automatic identification of all settings and calibration
data as well as the serial number which can be
recorded or printed together with all test result data
• Load limits are read in automatically

Before delivery Zwick Roell calibrates each load cell


together with the machine, its drive system and the
electronics as a complete system. This ensures that
tests can be carried out to the highest possible
accuracy from the first test after commissioning.

Xforce load cells are only available from Zwick Roell.

Fig.1: The Allround-Line provides manifold possibilities for superior Fig. 2: For standard tests on packagings a cost-efficient solution:
and complex test tasks Twin column ProLine testing machines

21
Overview of testing machines
For the applications in texture analysis, viscosity measurment and packaging testing test loads under 20 kN are
most common. Therefore we listed in the following overview only testing machines within this range. In addition we
sell testing machines for loads up to 2,000 kN as standard. We will be glad to send you information on request.

Single column testing machines - perfect for texture analysis


Type zwicki-Line
Z0.5 TS/TN/TH Z1.0 TS/TN/TH Z2.5 TS/TN/TH Z5.0 TN
Max. test load 0.5 kN, 50 kg 1 kN, 100 kg 2.5 kN, 250 kg 5 kN, 500 kg
Max. height of test area 570/1070/1370 mm 570/1070/1370 mm 570/1070/1370 mm 1030 mm
Test area depth, approx. 100 mm 100 mm 100 mm 100 mm
Crosshead resolution 0.0002 mm 0.0002 mm 0.0001 mm 0.00004 mm
Positioning, repetition accuracy ± 2 μm ± 2 μm ± 2 μm ±2 μm
Number of test areas 1 / optionally 2 1 / optionally 2 1 / optionally 2 1 / optionally 2
Crosshead speed 0.001 ... 0.001 ... 0.001 ... 0.001 ...
3000 mm/min (2 2000 mm/min 1000 mm/min 600 mm/min
Accuracy of the set
speed (1 0.02 % 0.02 % 0.01 % 0.02 %
Weight approx. 57/66/71 kg 57/66/71 kg 57/66/71 kg 70 kg

Twin column testing machines - for higher loads


Type ProLine Allround-Line
Z005 Z010 Z020 Z005 Z010 Z020
Max. test load 5 kN 10 kN 20 kN 5 kN 10 kN 20 kN
500 kg 1000 kg 2000 kg 500 kg 1000 kg 2000 kg
Max. height of test area 570/1070 mm1050 mm 1050 mm 1045/1445/1795 or 1025/1425/1785 mm
Test area depth, approx. 440 mm 440 mm 440 mm 440 or 640 mm
Crosshead resolution 0.039 μm 0.038 μm 0.018 μm 0.041 μm 0.027 μm 0.014 μm
Positioning, repetition accuracy ± 2 μm ± 2 μm ± 2 μm ± 2μm
Number of test areas 1 1 1 1 / optionally 2
Crosshead speed 0.001 ... 0.001 ... 0.001 ... 0.0005 ... 0.0005 ... 0.0005 ...
500 mm/min 1000 mm/min 500 mm/min 3000 mm/min 2000 mm/min 1000 mm/min
Accuracy of the set
speed 0.05 %(1 0.05 %(1
Weight approx. 95/110 kg 135 kg 135 kg between 150 and 250 kg
(1
Measured over a crosshead travel of at least 1 mm from the maximum speed down to a minimum of 0.5 mm/min and under test loads
up to the load frame capacity. For requirements beyond this specification please consult Zwick Roell
(2
Up to 2000 mm/min as standard, optionally up to 3000 mm/min

Load cells (extract)


We offer load cells with max. test loads from 5 N in several load steps, e.g. 10 / 20 / 50 / 100 / 200 / 500 N etc.
Examples for accuracy and resolution of the load cells (in combination with electronics testControl):
Max. capacity 5 N / 500 g 100 N / 10 kg 500 N / 50 kg 2.5 kN / 250 kg
Accuracy grade 1 from 0.02 N / 2 g from 0.4 N / 40 g from 1 N / 100 g from 5 N / 500 g
Resolution better than 0.00001 N / 0.001 g 0.0002 N / 0.02 g 0.001 N / 0.1 g 0.005 N / 0.5 g

Electronics testControl
Measurement and control electronics testControl
Internal recording rate 500 Hz/pps
Data transmission rate to PC 100 Hz/pps, 500 Hz/pps optionally(3
Data sampling rate 320,000 Hz/pps
Electronic Interfaces: Standard PC interface (RS 232), USB optional
(3
Option 500 Hz online test data transmission is recommended in texture analysis for brittle / short breaking products

22
Test software testXpert®
Zwick Roell has set the standard with testXpert® and
testXpert® II for intelligent materials testing software. You
benefit from over 80 years of testing experience and
from over 15,000 successful installations worldwide.

By its modular design we offer a specific testing solution


to meet your requirements. Additional testing capabilities
can be added as needed.

testXpert® II is organized so that you can operate it


intuitively. Expressive symbols and a clear menu
structure enable users to become quickly oriented and
reduce the familiarization period to the minimum.
Intelligent assistants help you set up or change test
procedures and test reports.

You can install testXpert® II on all commercially available


PCs and laptops without the need for an additional Fig. 2: testXpert ® II offers for each application Standard Test
connection card. Moreover, you can install testXpert® II Programs that already include the particular test sequence, test
results and other settings
on as many computers in your company as you like,
and thus have access to your data from various places.
Test programs can be prepared on PCs without • LIMS – integrated Laboratory Information
connection to a test machine, or test series can be Management System: A powerful database is
called up later and further evaluated. available to administer your test results in order to
create and archive long-term statistics and reports. All
Useful options (Selection) data acquired are available from any testing system in
• Language swapping: All you need to do is make a few your company.
mouse clicks in order to change the language online.
This offers international teams not only language- • Result Editor: If you want additional results to analyze
neutral operation of their testing machine but also your specimen, this Editor offers you intelligent wizards
considerably simplified communication. to create these in no time at all.

• Export Editor: You want to export your results through


ODBC in a variety of databases? (ODBC = Open
database connection - used for transfering data
between many different commercial systems) Or you
wish to save them as ASCII format? With this function
you can manage all that very easily with a click of the
mouse. The same is true for transmitting complete
test reports in Word, converting to PDFs, or automatic
transmission by e-mail...

• Expanded traceability according to FDA 21 CFR


Part 11: This function offers all the tools needed -
together with organizational procedures - to comply
with the requirements demanded by FDA 21 CFR
part 11. This option records all activities before during
Fig 1: testXpert® II provides a quick and good overview over all test
results. During the test you can watch the curve online on the and after the test, in order to make your results
display traceable and to protect against manipulation.

23
Zwick Roell AG Zwick
August-Nagel-Straße 11 GmbH & Co. KG
89079 Ulm · Germany August-Nagel-Straße 11
Phone +49 7305-10-0 89079 Ulm · Germany
Fax +49 7305-10-200 Phone +49 7305-10-0
www.zwickroell.com Fax +49 7305-10-200
info@zwickroell.com www.zwick.com · info@zwick.de

Toni Technik
Baustoffprüfsysteme GmbH
Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25

guarantee of characteristics as meant by § 459, par. 2, BGB (Federal German Law) and therefore give no reason for liability.
13355 Berlin · Germany

We reserve the right to make changes. All information describes our products in a general way. They do not represent a
Phone +49 30-46403921/23
Fax +49 30-46403922
www.tonitechnik.com · info@tonitechnik.com

Indentec
Hardness Testing Machines Ltd.
Lye Valley Industrial Estate, Bromley Street
Lye, Stourbridge
West Midlands DY9 8HX · Great Britain
Phone +44 1384-896949
Fax +44 1384-424470
www.indentec.com · mail@indentec.demon.co.uk

Acmel Labo
10/12 rue de l´Orme Saint Germain
91160 Champlan · France
Phone +33 1-69109595
Fax +33 1-69100186
www.acmel.fr · info@acmel.fr

Zwick Asia Pte Ltd. Zwick Testing Machines Ltd.


25 International Business Park Southern Avenue
#04-17 German Centre Leominster, Herefordshire HR6 OQH
Singapore 609916 Great Britain
Phone +65 6 899 5010 Phone +44 1568-61 52 01
Fax +65 6 899 5014 Fax +44 1568-61 26 26
www.zwick.com.sg www.zwick.co.uk
info@zwick.com.sg sales.info@zwick.co.uk

Zwick USA Zwick France S.a.r.l.


1620 Cobb International Boulevard B.P. 45045
Suite #1 F-95912 Roissy CDG Cedex
Kennesaw, GA 30152 · USA France
Phone +1 770 420 6555 Phone +33 1-48 63 21 40
Fax +1 770 420 6333 Fax +33 1-48 63 84 31
www.zwickusa.com www.zwick.fr
info@zwickusa.com info@zwick.fr
Testing Systems

Testing Machines and


Systems for Textile Materials

FP 415 02.0906

Intelligent Testing
This catalog provides an overview
of devices, machines, and systems
of the Zwick Roell AG for the use in
the textile industry and in the corre-
sponding research and test institutes
and training centers.
This is only a part of the extensive
overall program of the Zwick Roell AG.

List of contents
Textile materials ................................................................................................................................................... 4
Yarns, Threads, Twines ........................................................................................................................................ 6
Textile Fabrics ...................................................................................................................................................... 9
Coated Fabrics .................................................................................................................................................... 9
Geotextiles .......................................................................................................................................................... 9
Tapes, Belts, Rope, Cordage ............................................................................................................................... 9
Thermal Insulation Material ................................................................................................................................ 10
Materials Testing Machines ................................................................................................................................ 11
zwicki-Line, ProLine and Allround-Line at a glance ............................................................................................. 13
ProLine Load Frames and Drives ....................................................................................................................... 13
zwicki-Line Load Frames and Drives .................................................................................................................. 14
Allround-Line Load Frames and Drives ............................................................................................................... 14
Load cells .......................................................................................................................................................... 15
testXpert® II ....................................................................................................................................................... 16
Specimen grips ................................................................................................................................................. 18
Extensometer .................................................................................................................................................... 21
Temperature and climatic chambers .................................................................................................................. 24
Special testing machines and systems ............................................................................................................... 26
Zwick Services .................................................................................................................................................. 27

2
The Zwick Roell AG –
More than a century
of experience in
materials testing
Mechanical-technological testing is
one of the oldest disciplines of
materials testing. As early as in the
15th and 16th century, Leonardo da
Vinci and Galileo Galilei were already
considering the flexural stressing and
the elastic behaviour of materials.
In the course of time further know-
ledge was obtained. In the middle
of the 18th century the first testing
machines finally appeared in France.

Since 1920 the company Roell &


Korthaus has been involved in the
materials testing business. In 1937
Zwick built it first testing machines
and systems for mechanical testing
of materials. Many years prior to The headquarter of the Zwick Roell AG and the Zwick GmbH & Co. KG at Ulm, Germany
that in 1876, a Professor Seger had
already founded a chemical labora- Since 1992, these companies have special test jobs. Modern mecha-
tory as part of a scientific techno- formed the Zwick/Roell company nics, high-performance electronics
logical consulting company for group. In July 2001, this company and the application-oriented soft-
nonmetallic materials. During the group was converted into a stock ware are the prerequisite for the
20th century, the present company corporation: the Zwick Roell AG. versatility and the high “intelligence”
called Toni Technik has evolved from Part of this stock corporation are of these modern testing machines
these origins and is now considered the companies Zwick, Toni Technik, and systems.
a leading expert in test systems for Indentec Ltd., and since may 2002
building materials. Another prede- Acmel Labo. These companies However, the services of the Zwick
cessor of the Zwick Roell is a supply an extensive program for Roell AG go far beyond the supply
company MFL (Mohr & Federhaff) – materials, component, and func- of products. Already in 1994 the
a company that was founded in tional tests – from the manually company received the certification
1870. Interestingly enough Carl Benz operated hardness tester up to a according to DIN EN ISO 9001 and
(of Mercedes Benz fame) was one complex test system for the process- thus guarantees a consistently high
of their employees. accompanying application. product and service quality. With
accredited calibration laboratories,
Zwick has many years of experi- the companies of the Zwick Roell
ence, combined with a multitude of AG are in addition entitled to verify
supplied systems. and to calibrate test systems and to
This experience is continuously document that with internationally
supplemented by the constant recognized certificates.
communication with the users.
On this solid basis, the company
supplies a wide range of high-
performance products – from the
economical standard machine up
to special versions and designs for

3
Textile materials As safety clothing they protect the An example of the variety of different
application range and wearer against heat and flames, requirements are geotextiles which
characteristic features dangerous tools as for example are used for many jobs in road and
chain saws and even against shots railway construction as well as for
Textiles have been accompanying from small arms. In conveyor belts bank stabilization and coastal forti-
man since thousands of years. and tires they are used as rein- fications. Essential functions here
Already in 5000 B.C. cloths were forcement. As climbing ropes they consist of
woven in Egypt. For this purpose are light and have high strength, at
the people used natural raw mate- the same time they are elastic to • The separation of different mate-
rials such as cotton, flax fibres, control the energy of fall. rial layers such sand and gravels
animal hair and silk threads. The • The taking up of forces that
people used them as garments and In form of safety belts they should cannot be transmitted to other
as protection from the cold. As tex- only show a permanent deformation elements
tiles for the home, they made living to avoid injuries caused by an elastic • The filtration and drainage
and work rooms look nicer. resilience. For kites, paragliders, whenever those geotextiles are
and parachutes they must have a used instead of mineral filters.
Modern textiles, however, are high- minimum weight and they must at
tech products that do not have very the same time be extremely light
much in common any more with and wind-tight. For ship ropes, the
these basic functions. In specific light and water-repellent, floatable
material compositions they offer version is required.
qualities we did not dare dreaming
of a few decades ago.
Here are a few examples: As gar-
ments they can be waterproof, im-
permeable and breathable at the
same time, they can have warmth-
giving- and warmth-regulating and
recovering qualities (so that e.g. a
crease stays unharmed even after
washing and dry-cleaning) or they
can have tearproof qualities. Even
medical substances can be ab-
sorbed by skin through particularly
treated textiles – a method that has
been developed by German scien-
tists. Skin caring and skin regener-
ating substances to treat sun burn
or neurodermitis can for example be
applied broadly with the garments
without restricting the freedom of
movement – after all, you are
wearing clothes all day long.

Cloth test, stone relief from Hirzweiler, 2nd/3rd century AD, Trier, Rheinisches Landesmuseum
(museum at Trier, Germany)

4
As different as the fields of appli-
cation are also the demands on the
long-term behavior of textiles. If
they are for example used for per-
manent wear they must be un-
rottable and without nutritional
value for insects, rodents etc.

If it is however only a question of a


temporarily limited soil stabilization
for cultivation, they should have a
longer rotting time as soon as the
roots of the plants have taken over
the stabilization job.

According to the application in


question, textiles must have specific
properties. Part of this are their
resistance to different materials,
radiations, temperature influences,
and other environmental conditions
as well as their mechanical resis-
tance. The multitude of applications
and the high demands on these
textiles require – particularly in the
field of research and development –
sophisticated testing possibilities.
With a large range of testing
machines, modern test software
and a large range of accessories
the Zwick/Roell Group offers a
variety of possibilities for a specific,
high-precision testing of these geo-
textiles with exactly reproducible
results.

Materials testing machine for the testing of textile materials

5
Textile Materials, Examples

Fibers Yarns and Threads Yarns and Rovings

Non-wovens Fabric Coated Fabric and Textiles

Geotextiles Tapes and Belts Ropes and Cordage

Material for Safety Belts

6
Application Graph in testXpert® Test Arrangement

Yarns, Threads, Twines

Standard: ISO 2062


Type of Test: Tensile Test
Material: Aramid Yarn
Extensometer: Crosshead
travel encoder
Grips: Pneumatic Grips
Test Speed: 500 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269051.18

Standard: ISO 2062


Type of Test: Tensile Test
Material: Sewing Yarn
Extensometer: Crosshead
travel encoder
Grips: Screw Grips
Test Speed: 500 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269051.18

Standard: DIN 53835-2


Type of Test: Tensile Test
Material: Elastomeric Yarn
Extensometer: Crosshead
travel encoder
Grips: Spring loaded grips
Test Speed: 500 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269054.xx

Standard: ISO 2062


Type of Test: Tensile Test
Material: Double Thread
Extensometer: Crosshead
travel encoder
Grips: Pneumatic Grips
Test Speed: 500 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269051.18

7
Application Graph in testXpert® Test Arrangement

Standard: EN ISO 2062


Type of Test: Tensile Test
Material: Multifilament Yarn
Extensometer: Optical
extensometer
Grips: Rope Grips
Test Speed: 500 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269051.00

Textile Fabrics

Standard: ISO 13934-1


Type of Test: Tensile Test
Material: Airbag Fabric
Extensometer: Crosshead
travel encoder
Grips: Pneumatic Grips
Test Speed: 100 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269051.17

Standard: Marks & Spencer,


P12
Type of Test: Seam Slippage
Resistance
Material: Garment
Extensometer: Crosshead
travel encoder
Grips: Screw Grips
Test Speed: 100 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269051.20

Standard: ISO 13937-2


Type of Test: Single Tear Method
Material: Airbag Fabric
Extensometer: Crosshead
travel encoder
Grips: Pneumatic Grips
Test Speed: 100 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269053.09

8
Application Graph in testXpert® Test Arrangement

Coated Fabrics

Standard: ISO 3303 Method A


Type of Test: Bursting Strength
Material: Coated Fabric
Extensometer: Crosshead travel
encoder
Grips: Ball Burst Device
Test Speed: 300 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269052.xx

Geotextiles

Standard: ISO 10319


Type of Test: Tensile Test
Material: Geotextile
Extensometer: Optical
Extensometer
Grips: Hydraulic Grips
Test Speed: 20% of L0/min
testXpert® II: B269051.23

Standard: ISO 12236


Type of Test: Static Puncture Test
Material: Geo-non-woven
Extensometer: Crosshead travel
encoder
Grips: Static Puncture
Test Device
Test Speed: 50 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269052.17

Tapes, Belts, Rope, Cordage

Standard: EN 1492-1
Type of Test: Tensile Test
Material: Belt Seal
Extensometer: Optical
Extensometer
Grips: Roller Grips
Test Speed: 500 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269051.xx

9
Application Graph in testXpert® Test Arrangement

Tapes, Belts, Rope, Cordage

Standard: ISO 2307


Type of Test: Tensile Test
Material: Fiber Rope
Extensometer: Optical
Extensometer
Grips: Rope Grips
Test Speed: 500 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269051.xx

Standard: ISO 283-1


Type of Test: Tensile Test
Material: Conveyor Belt
Extensometer: Makro
Extensometer
Grips: Hydraulic Grips
Test Speed: 100 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269051.xx

Standard: EN ISO 252-1


Type of Test: Tensile / adhesive
strength
Material: Conveyor Belt
Extensometer: Crosshead travel
encoder
Grips: Pincer Grips
Test Speed: 100 mm/min
testXpert® II: B269053.xx

Thermal Insulation Material

Standard: EN 826
Type of Test: Compression Test
Material: Mineral wool
Extensometer: Crosshead travel
encoder
Grips: Compression Plates
Test Speed: 10% of d/min
testXpert® II: B269052.24

10
Materials Testing Machines Notable characteristics of the
electronics are among other things:
Field of application
• Chronologically-synchronized test
Zwick materials testing machines data recording with high resolution
are not only used for tensile tests and measurement frequency.
on fibres, tapes, ropes, fabrics etc. • 500 Hz real-time processing of
or for compression tests on floor the test data for monitoring and
coverings or insulating materials, event oriented control of the test
but also for tests on textile fastening sequence and for safety limits.
systems as e.g. zip-fasteners and (e.g. speed change upon reaching
similar tests. the yield or proof stress limit)
• Adaptive control for exactly repro-
Basic concept ducible speeds and positions.

The Zwick program includes uni- testControl and hence the testing
versal testing machines as table-top machine, is operated by using a PC
and floor standing designs with and the test software testXpert® II.
different measurement- and control The system is therefore simple to
systems, load frames, drives and configure and upgradeable for the
versatile function and supplemen- mose diverse applications as well
tary units. as extremely flexible and easy to
operate.
In order to be able to offer the best Zwick ProLine testing machine
machine for each requirement, the The optional stand-alone variation
comprehensive product range in- offers simple, direct operation of the
cludes three machine versions for Measurement and control testing machine using a colour dis-
static materials testing, each of them system play, a key pad and a few, intuitively
offering different equipment, perfor- obvious function keys. A printer can
mance and expansion capabilities: The fundamental component for the be connected directly to output the
testing machines is the measure- test results.
• The zwicki-Line consists of top- ment and control system. Its design
quality space-saving testing ma- and scope of capabilities determine
chines. These simple-to-use and which drive system it regulates,
easy-to-transport single column which measurement system it is
machines have been designed for connected to and which functions
test forces to a maximum of 2.5 kN. can be controlled.
The testControl controller offers
• The ProLine is particularly suit- maximum technical performance
able for functional tests on compo- and long range return of investment
nent parts as well as for standard through the use of the most current
ma-terials tests. A broad range of technologies and highest quality
standard accessories provides for standards.
comprehensive testing capability
at a reasonable price.

• The Allround Line is the basis


for a large range of demanding
testing. It can easily be expanded
in the future as the requirements
also grow.
Zwick ProLine table-top testing machine

11
Load frames Table-top testing machines, All load frames with two columns can
ProLine be equipped with legs to position
Different load frame versions for test the working area at an optimum
loads up to 2000 kN are available The load frames of the ProLine are height for the operator. This allows
as standard. For special applications designed with 2 round steel columns a comfortable seated operation with
special versions can be developed ensuring exact guidance of the absolute freedom for leg movement
and manufactured, e.g. load frames moving crosshead. The integrated thus making the testing system suit
in horizontal position suitable for the protection of lead screws and guide zwicki-Line Load Frames and Drives.
testing of long ropes. columns allow reliable testing even
for very brittle materials. The high precission of the floor
Table-top testing machines, testing machines results from
zwicki-Line A single column version is available their hard chrome-plated guide
within the ProLine range for testing columns and precision ball lead
These single column load frames at forces of up to 500 N. screws with play-free pre-stressed
are designed with very-rigid alu- nuts. The testing machines can be
minium high-precision extruded Table-top and floor standing equipped in different ways. For
profiles. The working area is freely models, Allround-Line example, there is a choice of how
accessible from 3 sides. It only the crossheads can be mounted,
requires limited space and fits on The table-top version is constructed i.e. as upper or lower crossheads,
most laboratory tables. Due to its using two aluminium, high-precision thus resulting in a lower, or an upper
low weight, it is easy to transport. extruded profiles (patented design). or upper and lower test areas.
They are light, very rigid and serve
simultaneously as lead-screw guides An optional second test area can
and protection. T-shaped grooves be setup for all load frames with
on the outer sides allow a simple electro-mechanical drives. Thus
fitting of accessories as e.g. safety enabling rapid switching between
devices without being impeded by two types of test without any
the crosshead. tedious reequipping.

Zwick zwicki-Line testing machine Zwick Allround-Line table-top machine Zwick Alround-Line testing machine

12
zwicki-Line, ProLine and Allround-Line at a glance
Machine Components/Function Zwicki-Line ProLine Allround-Line
Load Frames
• Type
Table-top testing machine (nominal load) 1...2,5 kN 0,5...100 kN 5...150 kN
Floor testing machine (nominal load) - - 50...250 kN
• Support and guide columns
Number of round columns - 2 2 or 4
(Z005 bis Z100) (floor testing machines)
Number of aluminium profile columns 1 1 (Z0.5) 2
(table-toop testing machines)
• Number test areas 1, optional 2 1 1, optional 2
Drive system
• Elektromechanical
Number of ball screws 1 1 or 2 2
DC-Motor Yes up to Z050 -
AC-Motor - from Z050 up to Z600
(with testControl)
Measurement and Control Electronics
testControl Yes Yes (from Z050) Yes
Standard electronics Yes Yes (up to Z050) -
Software (Option)
Testing software testXpert® - Yes Yes Yes
Standard test programs
Testing software testXpert® - Yes - Yes
Master test programs

ProLine Load Frames and Drives


Serie Z0.5 Z005 Z010 Z020 Z030 Z0501) Z100
• Max. test load [kN] 0.5 5 10 20 30 50 100
• Work space height
* shortened [mm] - 570 - - - - -
* normal [mm] 590 1070 1050 1050 1370 1370 1360
* increased [mm] - - - - - - -
• Work space width [mm] × 440 440 440 440 440 640
• Work space depth [mm] 100 × × × × × ×
• Max. crosshead speed [mm/min] 1500 500 1000 500 300 180/6001) 300
• Crosshead travel resolution [µm] 0.226 0.039 0.095 0.047 0.025 0.015/0.0161) 0.008
• Max. power consumption, kVA 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8/31) 3
1)
This testing machine is available in two electronics variations. The first value is for the standard electronics, the second testControl.

13
zwicki-Line Load Frames and Drives
Series Z1.0 Z2.5
• Max. test load [kN] 1.0 2.5
• Work space height
* shortened [mm] - 573
* normal [mm] - 1073
* increased [mm] 1373 1373
• Work space width [mm] × ×
• Work space depth [mm] 99.5 99.5
• Max. crosshead speed [mm/min] 1800 800
• Crosshead travel resolution [µm] 0.2265 0.0996
• Max. power consumption, kVA 0.4 0.4

Allround-Line Load Frames and Drives


Table-top Testing Machines
Series Z005 Z010 Z020 Z030 Z050 Z100 Z150
• Max. test load [kN] 5 10 20 30 50 100 150
• Work space height
* normal [mm] 2) 1045/1025 1045/1025 1045/1025 - - - -
* increased [mm] 2) 1445/1425 1445/1425 1445/1425 1355 1355 1355 1535
* extra high [mm] 2) 1795/1785 1795/1785 1795/1785 - - 1755 -
• Work space width
* normal [mm] 440 440 440 440 440 - -
* widened [mm] 640 640 640 - - 640 640
• Work space depth [mm] × × × × × × ×
• Max. crosshead speed [mm/min] 3000 2000 1000/20003) 1000 600 750/15003) 900
• Crosshead travel resolution [µm] 0.0410 0.0272 0.0136/0.05433) 0.0271 0.0163 0.0207 0.0123
• Max. power consumption, kVA 2 1.9 2.1/2.63) 2.3 2.3 4/63) 5.5

Floor-standing Test Machines


Series Z050 Z100 Z150 Z250 Z300 Z400 Z600
• Max. test load [kN] 50 100 150 250 300 400 600
• Work space height[mm] 1825/17602) 1825/17602) 1715/16552) 1715/16552); 1800 1800 1940
13604)
• Work space width
* normal [mm] 630 630 630 630 630 630 740
* widened [mm] 1030 1030 1030 1030 - - -
• Work space depth [mm] × × × × × × ×
• Max. crosshead speed [mm/min] 1000/20003) 500/10003) 900 600 250 250 200
• Crosshead travel resolution [µm] 0.0270 0.0136 0.0123 0.0082 0.031 0.031 0.025
• Max. power consumption, kVA 4/53) 4/53) 5.5 6 7/135) 7/135) 20/265)
2)
The second value is for the model with the widened work area 3) Dependent on selected drive and its power
4)
The last value is for a cost effective special model limited to one work area 5) Higher power applies for hydraulic grips

14
Load cells Types and recommendations • KAP Load cell
for their use The body of this flat, S-shaped
Load cells are available for accurate load cell is a double beam. It is
load measurement of forces from Depending on the test job, the relatively sensitive to excentric
0.04 N onwards. They offer the accuracy of the load cells and other load applications.
following advantages in conjunction features are important. For the use
with the digital measurement with temperature devices, these are
electronics: the temperature sensitivity of zero-
point and measured value.
• Automatic identification and Particularly during compression
acquisition of all setting and and flexural tests, transverse forces
calibration parameters via sensor and moments may occur which
plug. An exchange of the load should not falsify the value in an • Type Z6
cells neither requires a calibration inadmissible way and which should This load cell consists of a double
nor a modification of the setting not damage the load cell. For this beam-shaped body. The
data. reason, Zwick offers different types centrically acting test load is
• Automatic zero-point and of load cells. traversed laterally and transmitted
sensitivity balancing to the crosshead of the testing
• Temperature compensation • GTM Load cell machine. Therefore it is quite sen-
• High measurement frequency The body of this circular load cell sitive to excentric load
• Very high test data resolution is a bending ring with ring-shaped applications.
• Accuracy: strain gauges on the face sides.
Class 1 (1 % of reading) It is very insensitive to excentric
from 0.2 to 120 % of full scale load applications and overloads.
load. Class 0.5 (0.5 % of reading)
from 1 % to 100 % of full scale
load.
• Overload protection Note:
• Manufacturer’s test certificate The measurement body of the load cell is
illustrated in dark blue and the strain gauges
to certify the factory calibration
applied onto them are illustrated in red.
• KAF Load cell
Load cells with one or two sided The outer and the inner ring of
mounting stud and self-identifying this load cell are linked by spokes
sensor plugs are available for nomi- on which the strain gages are
nal loads from 10 N on. applied to. This load cell is
relatively insensitive ot excentric
load applications.

Type/test conditions GTM KAF KAP Z6


Tension force with axial load application +++ +++ +++ +++
Compressive force with safe axial load application +++ ++ ++ ++
Compressive force with excentric load application +++ - 1) - 2) - 2)
Bending tests +++ ++ ++ ++
Extended temperature range +++ ++ ++ ++
Creep tests +++ ++ ++ ++
Axial alignment under load +++ +++ ++ +
1)
Limited measuring accuracy
2)
Risk of destruction

15
testXpert® II – Intelligent
and Reliable, the New
Software Generation for
Materials Testing
Zwick Roell has set the standard with
testXpert® for intelligent materials
testing software. Unlike other software,
Zwick has standardized testXpert®
for all of its applications, no matter
whether static or dynamic tests – so
you spend less time learning to handle
software and more time conducting
tests. With testXpert® II, you benefit
from over 80 years of testing experi-
ence and from over 10,000 success-
ful installations worldwide.

Some Significant Benefits of


testXpert® II

Ingeniously simple – testXpert® II Intelligent – Wizards help you to Online language swapping –
is organized so that you can operate set up or change test procedures Needless to say, you can have
it intuitively. Expressive symbols and and test reports. Should you have testXpert® II in your language of
a clear menu structure enable users any questions, our extensive con- choice. testXpert® II speaks more
to become quickly oriented and cut textsensitive online help feature will than one language – all you need to
the familiarization period to the bone. quickly deliver the answer. do is click the mouse in order to
The menu bar is set up according to change the language online. Lan-
the needs of the user, making working Modular design – This means that guage swapping is a function which
with testXpert® II ingeniously simple. we can offer a specific testing solu- can be changed at any time, e.g.,
tion to meet your particular require- when generating the test report.
ments. Additional testing capabilities Flexible testXpert® II language
can be added as needed. swapping offers international teams
not only language-neutral operation
Compatible with your hardware – of their testing machine but also con-
Zwick testXpert® II is compatible siderably simplified communication.
with all commercially available PCs
and laptops without the need for an
additional interface card! This means
it is easy to switch system compu-
ters or even to develop test methods
or perform analyses in the office at
your convenience. You always have
access to your test data.

16
Synchronized video recording – Graphical Sequence Editor –
Only testXpert® II offers you an The testXpert® II Graphical
image-for-image, exactly Sequence Editor offers all the
synchronized video recording of freedom you could possibly hope
your test. You can interpret the for. It enables you to design test
measuring curve of the test procedures of any kind very
efficiently with the help of the recor- individually, by combining test
ded image changes of the events, parameters and results ex-
specimen. You can record the test actly as you require. The intelligent
procedure with a video camera or construction of the graphical-user
an USB webcam. And testXpert® II interface allows editor makes your
saves the recorded images work easy. You do not require any
synchronized with the measuring programming knowledge: The
data. The visual recording shows, graphic base makes for quick
for example, when, how, and where familiarization with the functionality.
the specimen necks, buckles, or The integrated simulation mode
changes colors. The alterations in offers you safety: It analyzes the
specimen dimensions can be test procedure you have created
measured exactly from the captured incorporating a virtual testing ma-
images. In addition, before the test, chine, with different specimen
you can determine which events behaviour (e.g. spring, plastic,
images should be recorded for: Adhesion test of a textile-rubber-compound, metal, etc.). You thus filter out
such as the point in a cycle when synchronized video recording errors from the test procedure in the
compression switches over into early stages, and all this without
tensile stress. Afterwards you can destroying a single specimen.
print out these pictures or integrate
them into the test report. Thanks to
the synchronized video recording,
the test procedure can be recalled
or compared at any later time.

testXpert® II LIMS –
Only testXpert® II offers these fea-
tures: an integrated Laboratory In-
formation Management System
(LIMS). A powerful database is
available to administer your test
results in order to create and
archive long-term statistics and
reports. All data acquired by
testXpert® II are available from any
testing system in your company.

17
Specimen grips Principle A – Flat clamping When selecting the specimen grips,
for tensile, creep, and between clamping jaws the following requirements must
cyclical tests The clamping force (standard force) also be taken into consideration:
is either applied by an additional,
Textile materials and the specimens outer force (hydraulic or pneumatic 1. Jaw break-free gripping
taken from those materials are cylinders or screw drive) or by the If the specimen breaks during the
available in many different types. deflection and amplification of the tensile test at the place where it is
They are e.g. different as to test force (self-clamping via wedges, gripped, then smaller values are
eccentrics or lever systems). The measured for the maximum force
• The basic materials and their force is nearly the same over the or the tensile strength and the
combination (from animal, entire gripping length. The frictional strain assigned to it. According to
vegetable, or synthetic products) force acts on 2 opposed sides of most standards such tests are
• Shapes and dimensions the specimen. therefore evaluated as non-valid
(thread, tape, strip etc.) tests.
• Structure (fibres, monofil, multifil, Principle B – Clamping by
spun, braided, woven, knitted etc.) wrapping aroung fixed cam The probability of jaw breaks is
• Treatments plates or rollers considerably higher for a gripping
(impregnated, coated etc.) The standard force depends on the action according to principle A (flat
• Properties (strength, stretching locally acting test force and its ang- clamping) than according to prin-
ability, elasticity, homogeneity) led position and increases from zero ciple B (wrapping around), because
as the gripping length increases also. the tensile force is reduced over a
According to this variety a large spec- The frictional force only acts on relatively short gripping length. The
trum of specimen grips is required one specimen side. high gripping force already acting
to meet the individual requirements. at the beginning of the gripping
When combining these two prin- action prevents a partial “slippage”
For specimens from these materials ciples, the wrapping around always of the specimen. This can lead to a
tensile forces can only be transmitted has priority over the clamping. Its “piling up of the force” at the
by means of the force-holding prin- practical realization and the shapes, beginning of the clamping and can
ciple. The frictional forces between dimensions and versions (frictional thus release a premature break.
specimen ends and specimen grip behaviour, elasticity) of the clam-
are principally applied according to ping/friction surfaces are particularly 2. Accuracy of strain
2 principles: important for the field of application measurement
of the specimen grips. For many applications, the strain
can be measured indirectly as
crosshead travel extension, because
the demands on the measuring
accuracy are not very high and thus

Hydraulic Grips Pneumatic Grips Screw Grips

18
Specimen Grips - Range of Application

Conveyor belts
Belts, cordage
Technical yarn

String, ropes
General yarn
Elastic yarn

Geo-fabrics
Non-woven
Filaments,
fine yarns

Technical
General
fabrics

fabrics

fabrics
Force
holding Nominal
Type of Grips principle Load
Hydraulic grips A 10 kN to 250 kN - - - - 9 9 9 9 - - 9
Pneumatic grips A 20 N to 100 kN - - 9 - 9 9 9 - - - 9
Pneumatic grips B+A 2,5 kN to 20 kN - - 9 9 - - 9 - 9 - -
Wedge grips A 2,5 kN to 250 kN - - - - - - - - - - z
Screw grips A 20 N to 50 kN 9 - 9 - 9 9 - - - - 9
Wedge screw grips A 500 N to 250 N - - - - - - - - - - z
Spring screw grips A 20 N / 50 N 9 | - - - - - - - - -
Pincer grips A 500 N to 10 kN - - - - - - - - - - z
Capstan grips B 300 N to 2,5 kN - - - -  - - - - - -
Double capstan B+A 500 N - 9 - - - - - - - - -
Rope grips B+A 2,5 kN to 100 kN - - - - - - - - 9 - -
Curved grips B+A 10 kN / 20 kN - - - - - - 9 - 9 9 -
Roller grips B 2,5 kN to 250 kN - - - - - - 9 9 - 9 -
9 - Suitable for this application
| - Suitable only for cyclic tests
z - Suitable only for test to determine the shear, tear or adhesive properties

 - Suitable only for simple tensile tests, specimen width max. 32 mm

errors through deformation of the tion of the specimen have to be plates. This has the consequence
testing machine can be neglected. compensated by a considerably that the gripping length (reference
This applies particularly to specimen larger clamping jaw tracking. This size for the strain calculation) is not
grips where the gripping force is can lead to an inadmissible falsifi- exactly defined. The strain is
applied by an additional force. cation of the strain measurement. moreover constantly reduced in the
range of the relatively long gripping
The realization of the test force- Grip-sensitive specimens however area. Therefore the strain can only
gripping force in case of self-grip- require specimen grips where the be determined exactly if an
ping specimen grips has the effect test force is reduced decreasingly extension measurement system is
that the bending up of the speci- over larger gripping lengths, e.g. via used to record the deformation
men grips and the thickness reduc- correspondingly shaped cam directly on the specimen.

Spring Loaded Grips Pincer Grips Double Capstan Grips

19
Hydraulic specimen grips Spring screw grips Roller grips
• One or two-sided clamping jaw • Clamping pressure adjustable by • Gripping by means of a multiple
positioning pre-stressing a spring. wrapping around
• Adjustable clamping force • Thread guide for a simple, • Temperature range
(Option: can be controlled by the centrical gripping. -40 °C bis +250 °C
test software dependant on the • Temperature range
test force, for specimens that -15 °C to +80 °C Note:
are sensitive to gripping) The wedge and wedge screw grips
• Exchangeable clamping jaws Pincer grips used for rigid specimens are not
• Special version with tandem cylin- • Temperature range suitable for tensile tests on flexible,
der for geo-textile specimens with - 40 °C to +250 °C textile specimens.
a width of 200 mm for a homo-
geneous gripping force distribution Double capstan grips Tools for compression tests
over the entire specimen width • Exact strain measurement by for the determination of the
• Special versions for the use in adapting the distances of the compression characteristics
temperature/climatic chambers deflection pulleys to the of insulating materials
at -70 ºC to +250 ºC specimen’s elastic behaviour according to EN 826
• Hand or foot control or control • Temperature range A lot of round, square, and rectan
via the test software testXpert® -15 °C to +80 °C gular compression platens are avail-
able in different dimensions. The
Pneumatic specimen grips Rope grips lower compression platens are always
• One or two-sided clamping jaw • With a single or multiple mounted rigidly. The upper com-
positioning wrapping around and mech., pression platens may be mounted
• Adjustable clamping force pneum. or hydr. gripping of the spherically (freely movable or align-
• Exchangeable clamping jaws rope’s end able) to transmit the compressive
• Special versions for the use in • Temperature range force homogeneously over the
temperature-/climatic chambers -70 °C to +250 °C entire compression platen.
at -70 ºC to +250 ºC
• Special versions with cam plates Capstan action grips Tools for compression tests
• Hand or foot control • Mech. or pneum. flat clamp with The suitable test configuration may
cam plate be selected from a large range of
Screw grips • Temperature range: different bending tables with rigid
• Clamping force depends on the mechanical 0 °C to +100 °C and movable supports and bending
screw moment and the elasticity pneumatic +10 °C to +35 °C fins to meet the requirements of
of the specimen grip nearly every application.
• Low-cost

Pneumatic action capstan grips Capstan and clamp grips for rope Capstan webbing grips

20
Extensometer clamping jaw tracking, partial slip- At the specimen break, the energy
page of the specimen out of the which is elastically stored in the
Crosshead travel monitor gripping position. This applies par- specimen parts, is converted to a
Standard equipment of all universal ticularly to the use of specimen kinetic energy. All of a sudden, the
testing machines are digital cross- grips where the specimens are stretched, flexible specimen parts
head travel monitors for a highly gripped in the wrap-around prin- rebound to nearly their initial length
accurate and exactly reproducible ciple. The strain is defined as ex- just to get bent at a high speed or
measurement of the crosshead tension of the initial gauge length. to deflect laterally. This “whip effect”
travel extension. Thus, the strain The extension can be measure in can damage or even destroy the
can be measured indirectly for 2 different ways: sensor arms. The longer the speci-
many applications (without ad- men parts stretch, the higher the
ditional transducer directly on the 1. Contact measurement effect. This danger is particularly
specimen). This applies practically Two sensor arms are attached to large when using specimen grips
for all tear propagation, separation, the specimen at the distance of the with wrap-around principle.
peel, shear, and compression tests initial gauge length; they record the
and for many tensile tests. extension of the gauge length up to 2. Contact-free measurement
the break (the end points of the The initial gauge length is marked
Direct strain measurement gauge length are not marked). on the specimen with measurement
Some test standards as e.g. marks. The travel extension of the
EN ISO 10319, tensile test on large The force to move the sensor arms marks is recorded optically. The
specimen strips and ISO 283-1, must be “applied” by the specimen measuring system cannot be da-
tensile test on textile conveyor belt- and influences the force measure- maged.
dumbbell specimens, require the ment. In order to measure also
strain measurement to be carried small test forces with a sufficient Extension measurement
out directly on the specimen to accuracy, it is necessary to keep systems
avoid any measuring errors that are the dragging force for the sensor A simple, safe and economic exten-
caused by machine deformation, arms as low as possible. sion measurement is only possible
by means of a relatively large tech-
nical effort. In addition to electronic
or optical test data transducers,
also motor-driven sensor arms,
measuring slides, control devices,
microcomputers and programs, i.e.
complete systems might – accord-
ing to the function principle – also
be required.

Video measurement system Long stroke measurement system

21
Extensometers – Shortlist
Application Extensometers
Clamping the specimen
between clamping jaws by wrapping around cams or rollers

Extensometer1)
extensometer1)

extensometer
extensometer
extensometer
extensometer
extensometer
extensometer
extensometer

Long stroke
Long stroke

MultiXtens

Crosshead
Crosshead

monitor
monitor

Optical
Material properties

Optical

Video-
Macro
Macro

Laser
Video
to be determined
and related standards
Tensile module
• ISO 10618 - 9 - - 9 9 - - - - - -
• EN 12562, EN 13002-2, EN 13003-2 9 z - - z z  z - - z -

Secant rigidity and


strain at max. force
• ISO 10319, ASTM D 4595 - - - 9 9 - - - - 9 9 9
ASTM D 4885

Strain at x% of max. force


• ISO 283-1 - 9 - - 9 9 - - - - - -

Strain at break
• ISO 283-1 - 9 9 9 9 9 - - - - - -

Strain at max. force and break


• ISO 10618 - 9 - - 9 9 - - - - - -
• EN 12562, EN 13002-2, EN 13003-2 9 z - - z z  z - - z -
• ISO 5079, ASTM D 3822 9 - - - - - - - - - - -
• ISO 2062, prEN 14621, 9 z z z z z  z z z z -
ASTM D 2256
• ASTM D 885, Cords - - - - - -  | | z z -
• ASTM D 885, Fabrics 9 z z z z z - | | 9 9
• ISO 6939, ASTM D 1578 9 z z z z z  z z z z -
• ISO 3341, ASTM D 2343 9 z - - z z  z - - z -
• ISO 9163 9 z z z z z - - - - - -
• ISO 13934-1, ASTM D 5035 9 z z z z z - | | z z z
• EN 29073-3, EN 4606, EN 3342 9 z z z z z - - - - - -
• ISO 1421, ASTM D 751 9 z z z z z - | | z z z
• EN 1492-1, ASTM D 6775 - - - - - - - | | 9 9 9
• EN 61067-2, EN 565 - | | 9 9 | - | | 9 9 -
• ISO 2307, EN 892 - - - - - - - - - 9 9 9
• EN 564 - - - - - - - | | 9 9 9

9- Suitable for this application


 - Suitable for this application if the deflection in the specimen grips is max. 180°
| - Suitable for this application if there is no risk that the sensor arms get damaged due to specimen parts rebounding at specimen break
z - Is used if a higher measuring accuracy without clamping influence is required. Mechanical measuring systems can only be used if
there is no risk that they get damaged at specimen break. When using contactless measuring systems, a specimen marking is required
1)
The objectives of the video measuring system cannot ne changed during the test. Optionally the determination of variations in width are
also possible

22
Non-contacting Extensometers - Technical Data / Special Features
Optical Extensometer Laser Extensometer Video Extensometer
Measurement system Incremental, Rotation laser, Digital video cam with
2 cameras 0,5 W He/Ne image processing system
Gage length L0 10 to 900 mm 10 mm (tension), >/= 5 mm
20 mm (compression)
L0-marking circular reflectors line reflectors line reflectors
Mesuring range 1000 mm - L0 approx. 400 mm field of view1):
e.g. 50/200/1000 mm
Resolution 5 µm 12 µm 0,5 / 2 / 10 µm1)
Accuracy class 1 acc. to ISO 9513 class 1 acc. to ISO 9513, class 1 acc. to ISO 9513,
from 3 mm from 5 mm with field of view < 100 mm
class 2 acc. to ISO 9513,
with 8 mm objective
Advantages • proved, good to use • convenient for measurement • Flexible adaptation to
deformation measurement in temperature chambers materials and test procedures
system for very elastic material due to heated optical glass • automatic gage length
• secure and accurate window. recognition
measurement until break • secure and accurate
• convenient for measurement measurement until break
in temperature chambers • convenient for measurement
due to heated optical glass in temperature chambers due
• Automatic gage length recognition to heated optical glass window
1)
Measuring range and resolution depends on objective used

Extensometers with Sensor Arms - Technical Data / Special Features


Macro Extensometer Mechanical Extensometer MultiXtens
Measur ement system Incremental
Measurement Incremental Incremental
Gage length L0 10 - 100/205 mm 10 to 1000 mm, manual from 10 mm cintinuously
adjustment adjustable
Measuring range 80/120/160 mm 1000 mm, minus gage length L0 700 mm, minus L0
Resolution 0,3/0,6/0,9/1,2 µm 5 µm 0,02 µm
Accuracy Class 1 acc. to ISO 9513, Class 2 acc. to ISO 9513, Class 0.5 acc. to ISO 9513
class 1 acc. to ISO 9513 from 1 mm
Sensor arm traction < 0,05 N < 0,2 N < 0,02 N
Special features
features Motorized sensor attachment Motorized sensor attachment Motorized sensor attachment
Autom. gage length Autom. gage length setting
setting (Allround-Version)
Applications For textiles and compounds, For textiles, textile/ For textiles and compounds
with low or medium strain rubber, textile/elastomer and from low to high strain
textile/plastic compoundswith
max. forces from approx. 20 N
Advantages • robust and easy operation • robust and easy operation • high precision even at long
• low sensor arm traction • strain measurement until break displacement and in
• crosshead contact protection without lifting sensor arms temperature chambers
• exchangeable sensor arms for • exchangeable sensor arms • convenient for cyclic tests
different measuring ranges • convenient for measurement • easy sensor changing
• convenient for measurement in temperature and climatic and automatic sensor
in temperature and climatic chambers recognition
chambers

23
Temperature and climatic
chambers 250 Average of the max. force
within minimum and maximum
Temperature / climate
240 Regression curve of the max. force

Many textile and textile-related Max. Force in N Regression coefficient = 0,9999


230
materials strongly change their
mechanical properties depending
on the humidity of air and ambient 220
temperature. One of these influences
is illustrated by the following graphic. 210
It shows how the maximum tensile
force of a viscose fabric is reduced as 200
the relative humidity of air increases.
190
According to the later use of the 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
material, particularly in the geotech-
nical, automobile, and aeronautics Relative Air Humidity in %
industry, it may be very important to Maximum tensile force depending on the relative hunidity of air for viscose fabric
know the behaviour of materials
under different environmental con-
ditions. Climatic chambers Cooling with liquid nitrogen
The mechanical properties of textile Temperature chambers with control (LN2) or carbon dioxide (CO2)
and textile-related materials in an of the relative humidity of air are This type of cooling is used if tests
extended temperature and climatic called climatic chambers. Since the below room temperature are to be
range are predominantly tested for requirements for the humidity and carried out from time to time. The
research and development pur- temperature range strongly vary, cooling effect generated by
poses. climatic chambers are specified on vaporizing the liquid nitrogen or
request. carbon dioxide. These gases are
Zwick offers a complete product non-toxic. A sufficient ventilation of
range of temperature devices Available options the testing laboratory is required,
corresponding to the multitude of Several options are available however.
different requirements. according to the specification of the
testing machine and the needs of The optional 100 litres liquid
Temperature chambers the laboratory. nitrogen tank (3/8"-connection) is
• Heatable optical glass insert to sufficient for several hours of tests.
Zwick temperature chambers show ensure a homogeneous
the following characteristics: temperature distribution when Cooling by use of a
• Aperture for sensor arms on the using optical extensometers refrigeration unit
rear left side (45°) • Guiding rails or trolley to move the Cooling is generated by a com-
• Eurotherm temperature controller chamber out of the test area pressor. This method is used if tests
with digital display for actual and • Recording and control of the below room temperature are
set value temperature by the testXpert®- frequently required, if procurement
• Illumination inside the chamber Software via RS 232-interface of liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide
• Front door with insulated window • Direct temperature measurement is too difficult or if the use of liquid
* Sliders for removing the chamber and control on the specimen nitrogen or carbon dioxide is
without dismounting the grips • Liquid nitrogen tank, 100 litres, forbidden for safety reasons.
• Insulation and electrical design with pressure device, control
according to the CE safety valve, filling level indicator and
regulations safety device

24
The energy transmission can be
realized by the use of air-cooled
heat exchangers (the energy stays in
the room) or by a water-cooled heat
exchanger (the energy does not heat
up the laboratory, but more expensive
since cooling water is needed).
Refrigeration units generate more
noise than vaporizing systems.

Temperature Chambers
Used with Table top and floor standing machines only floor standing machines
Test area height normal higher normal higher
Test area width normal normal larger larger
Dimensions (external/internal)
Height, mm 650 / 500 850 / 700 800 / 650 1000 / 850
Width, mm 400 / 260 400 / 260 600 / 450 600 / 450
Depth, mm 825 / 360 825 / 360 1150 / 645 1150 / 645
Temperature range (from/to)
no cooling amb. /250 °C2) 3) amb./250 °C2) 3)
cooling with
• CO2 -60 / 250 °C3) -60 / 250 °C3) -60 / 250 °C1) 3) -60 / 250 °C1) 3)
• LN2 -80 / 250 °C3) -80 / 250 °C3) -80 / 250 °C3) -80 / 250 °C3)
• Air cooled refrig. unit -40 / 250 °C3) -40 / 250 °C3) -40 / 250 °C3) -40 / 250 °C3
-70 / 250 °C3) -70 / 250 °C3) -70 / 250 °C3) -70 / 250 °C3)
• Water cooled refrig. unit -40 / 250 °C3) -40 / 250 °C3) -40 / 250 °C3) -40 / 250 °C3)
-70 / 250 °C3) -70 / 250 °C3) -70 / 250 °C3) -70 / 250 °C3)
1)
Chamber depth1080/540 mm
2)
Without lateral slot for duct of mechanical or optical extensometers, without removable slides.
3)
Temperature chambers with other temperature ranges on request.

25
Special testing machines test software testXpert®. Whereby
and systems all functions of a standard testing
machine are available, e.g. defined,
These testing machines are deve- high precision approach to positions,
loped according to the field of an adjustable force control or smooth
application in question in close switching between types of opera-
cooperation with the customer. tion within a test.
They are mainly based on the
components of standard testing Materials testing machine in horizontal Our servo-hydraulic testing
machines. position for alpine ropes. machines are suitable for tensile,
compression and flexure tests with
Examples of special testing increasing, continuous, pulsating
machines for textile and alternating loading through zero
applications for static, quasi-static and dynamic
loading. The palette of tests is
seemingly unendless, e.g. textile-
elastomer compounds, ropes, lami-
nates and adhesive tapes, etc., to
name but a few.

Materials testing machine in horizontal


position for conveyor belts.

Speed in research,
development and quality
assurance of components with
textile elements

Zwick Z010 with unit for the determination of • Electro-mechanical testing


the unrolling resistance of bandages. actuator
• Servo-hydraulics Testing of visco-elastic properties on textile
reinforced car components.
The electro-mechanical testing
actuators are designed for flexible
use. Linear units are available for
the load ranges 1 kN, 2 kN and
5 kN. These linear units apply loads
to certain defined points at a speed
of up to 0.5 m/s in both the tensile
and compression directions. This
performance range encloses almost
the entire spectrum as required for
Fully automatic materials testing system with textile testing. Dynamic fatigue test on snowboard boot.
circulating specimen magazine
Decisive advantages of this modular
system are the control of the actuator
via the Zwick electronics testControl
and input of parameters via the Zwick

26
Zwick Services Pre-Testing Preliminary acceptance

Worldwide Service In the course of new, modified, or very


complex applications, it is neces-
Customer satisfaction is top priority sary to perform specific tests prior
of the Zwick Roell Corporation. to purchasing or expanding a test
With local service organizations in system. Zwick’s Application Lab is
over 50 countries, we help optimize available in conjunction with its nu-
the return on your investment and merous experts and extensive selec-
to ensure the functionality of your tion of machines and fixtures in order
testing machine. to initially verify the testing set-up.

Engineering Consulting Services Contract Testing


Prior to delivery of your machine, you
have the opportunity to conduct a
preliminary acceptance checkout at
our facility. This will allow you be-
come acquainted with the operation
of the machine and confirm the
agreed-upon functionality.

Transport

Everything is available from a single


Changing specifications, new test Whether for new test requirements source with ZwickService. Upon
requirements, or the installation or or tests performed to particular request, and where applicable,
modification of a test lab can be technical specifications, the Zwick within the scope of initial operation,
optimized by consulting experts. Contract Lab provides timely and ZwickService will monitor the com-
Experienced Zwick engineers can accurate test results on a contract plete transport. Beyond that, it is
advise you in the planning and imple- basis. Please contact us for also possible to have the machine
mentation of such complex projects specific contract testing capabilities transported all the way to the instal-
to meet your exacting requirements. and pricing. lation site. Convenient and profes-
sional. You no longer need to be
Demonstration Application Technology concerned about the transport at
Seminars your facility.
The decision to purchase a materials
testing system and accessories de- Active collaboration with partners Retrofit
pends on a number of factors. In from research and technology
order to help facilitate this decision, qualifies us to impart knowledge in Converting the old into new —
Zwick maintains a fully-equipped principles of materials testing and ZwickService specialists professio-
Applications Lab to perform trial expertise within Application Techno- nally perform the upgrade of your
tests to ensure the selection of the logy Seminars. existing materials testing machine,
appropriate equipment and acces- regardless of the original manufac-
sories. turer. This allows the latest digital
control technology and software
automation to enhance the perfor-
mance of your testing system at the
fraction of the cost of a new system.

27
Installation Machine Relocation Customer Support

ZwickService provides for the com-


plete relocation of your testing ma-
chine as needed. Our experienced
management team takes responsibil-
ity for the detailed planning, from the
disassembly and transport, through
to re-installation of the machine. The
machine will be ready for testing at
its new location on schedule. Inde-
pendent of the manufacturer of your
testing machine – ZwickService has
ZwickService ensures the optimal specially trained and experienced The trouble-free performance of your
installation of your testing machine staff for every make or model. testing machine is of importance to
and accessories based on the ex- us. Should any unforeseen malfunc-
perience from several thousand in- Software Adaptation tion occur with the machine’s hard-
stallations. Functional tests performed ware or software, our competent
prior to final acceptance guarantee Our software engineers have the solid experts at our Hotline will be happy
a successful installation process. technical expertise from years of ex- to assist you. If you are not able to
perience to quickly deliver program- speak to someone immediately, we
Hardware Overview ming tailored to your individual needs. promise to return your call as soon
The testing requirements are defined as possible.
Nothing is left to chance during in close cooperation and agreement
ZwickService test machine commis- with you and subsequently carried
sioning. The on-site commissioning out according to these specific needs.
is performed systematically and
professionally on a checklist basis, Product Training
and ensures an optimal utilization of
the test hardware.

Software Overview

The introduction is performed


following a checklist procedure,
using a specific example from the Support Desk
operator’s daily practice. The results
will be saved for later use. Our Support Desk is a cost-saving
Alternatively, ZwickService offers a alternative to on-site visits or training
two-stage introduction which by a service technician. We assist
includes an initial basic overview Zwick maintains a staff of qualified, you in questions regarding the
and a final review at a later date. expert trainers, who have extensive operation of hardware and software,
practical experience and who con- adaptation of your test programs or
duct product training courses either offer further technical support. The
at Zwick, or specially customized to extensive application experience
be performed at the customer’s enables our service technicians to
facility. provide quick and effective solutions
to any questions you might have.

28
Rentals Repair Work When upgrading your outdated
DOS software to the latest Windows
Whether for temporary testing re- technology you can take advantage
quirements or to satisfy a short- of improved performance and
term need, ZwickService provides benefits. With an upgrade from
the rental of testing grips. Please testXpert® to testXpert®II you benefit
contact us for further information from the latest significant develop-
about the rental service. ments in application software.

Maintenance

Upon request, ZwickService per-


forms the regularly-required mainte-
nance of machine and accessories Should a failure in your materials
as described in the instruction testing machine occur in spite of
manual and monitors the main- thorough inspection and mainte-
tenance intervals. nance, one of the many technicians
of the ZwickService network is avai-
Inspection lable on short notice. Spare parts,
from Zwick’s large inventory, will be
ZwickService helps reduce down- dispatched within short term.
time significantly by regularly in- Software-Support Agreement
specting your test system. The Calibration
inspection plan documents the con- With a Software Support Contract
dition of the machine, allows imme- ZwickService calibrates your testing from Zwick you are ensuring that
diate exchange of worn parts as machine and testing systems com- you have the latest testing techno-
needed, and the recommendation pliant to the current national and in- logy and capabilities including the
of preventive measures. ternational standards, including ISO updated testing standards and test
and ASTM. Zwick has associated methods.
calibration laboratories in different
countries, all of them accredited in This service is further enhanced by
accordance with ISO/IEC 17025. other attractive testXpert® offers
Consequently we are authorized for regarding training, technical appli-
on-site calibration of testing machines cation support by phone or on site
and testing systems according to as well as special conditions on ad-
the relevant standards (DKD, UKAS, ditional Zwick services. In addition,
COFRAC, A2LA) and to issue the the software support contract offers
corresponding calibration certifi- a price advantage compared to in-
cates which are internationally dividual software updates
accepted.

Software Upgrade

Upgrade your testXpert® software


to the latest version. This allows you
to take advantage of the most recent
developments and the enhanced
functionality of testXpert®. The
latest changes of relevant materials
1)
DKD: Deutscher Kalibrier-Dienst testing standards are also incorpo-
2)
UKAS: United Kingdom Accreditation Service rated in the latest testXpert® version.

29
Standards and Test Devices
Contents Standard Test Means / Test Instrument Page
1 General Basics
1.1 Test Devices: Construction, Test Device’s Test, Accuracy; Environmental Requirements
• Tensile, compression, flexure test machines ISO 7500-1, ASTM D 76,
ISO 9513, ASTM E 4
DIN 51220, ASTM E 83,
• Standard Practice for Statements on Precision ASTM D 2906
and Bias for Textiles
• Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study ASTM E 691, ASTM D 4467
• Normal climate for conditioning ISO 139, DIN 50014, ISO 554,
and testing ASTM D 1776, ISO 2231
1.2 Sampling and Specimen Preparation
• Fibers, yarns and textile fabrics EN 12751, ASTM D 2905,
ASTM D 4271
• Yarns ASTM D 2258
2 Test methods for Fibers and Filaments
2.1 Fiber Length
• Individual fiber measurement method DIN 53808-1, ISO 6989, Aux. means compliant to standards
ASTM D 5103
• Cotton, comb staple method DIN 53806 Comb sorter
• Cotton, gage length and eveness DIN 53944 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Wool, comb staple method ISO 920, ASTM D 519, Comb sorter
ASTM D 1575,
ASTM D 1234
2.2 Fibers, Determination of Linear Density and Diameter
• Fibers, linear density EN ISO 1973, Fiber fineness measurement device
ASTM D 1577,
ASTM D 861a
• Mono-filaments, linear density EN 13392 Yarn reel or scale
• Fiber diameter in micro-projection DIN 53811, ASTM D 2130 Microscope with scale
ISO 137
2.3 Fiber and Filament Resistance
• Staple fibres, tensile test EN ISO 5079, Fiber strength test instrument
ASTM D 3822
• Staple fibers, loop tensile test DIN 53843-2, Fiber strength test instrument
ASTM D 3217a
• Cotton fibers, bundle strength ISO 3060, ASTM D 1445 Bundle strength tester
• Wool fiber bundles, tensile test at a ASTM D 1294 Bundle strength tester
grip-to-grip-separation of 1 inch (25,4 mm)
• Wool fiber bundles, tensile test at a ASTM D 2524 Bundle strength tester
grip-to-grip-separation of 1/8 inch (3,2 mm)
• Monofilaments, tensile test EN 13895 Materials testing machine 11-12
2.4 Shrinkage
• Monofilaments, thermal shrinkage EN 13844 Thermal shrinkage chamber
• Fibers, thermal shrinkage ASTM D 5104 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Fiber bundles, thermal shrinkage ASTM D 2102 Aux. means compliant to standards
2.5 Commercial Mass and Commercial Linear Density
• Bast fibers and hard fibers ISO 6741-1, DIN 53800-1, Aux. means compliant to standards
DIN 53800-2

30
Contents Standard Test Means / Test Instrument Page
3 Test methods for Fiber Tapes and Threads
3.1 Unevenness
• Capacitive test DIN 53817-2, ISO 2649 Uster Tester
3.2 Linear Density and Mass of Yarns
• Yarns, short length method DIN 53830-3, ISO 7211-5, Aux. means compliant to standards
ASTM D 1059, ASTM D 1907
ASTM D 861a
• Yarns, skein method EN ISO 2060 Yarn reel
• Elasto-yarns, short length method DIN 53830-4 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Determination of commercial mass and ISO 6741-1, DIN 53800-1 Aux. means compliant to standards
linear density DIN 53800-2, Aux. means compliant to standards
ASTM D 2720, ASTM D 2494 Aux. means compliant to standards
3.3 Twist in Yarns
• Yarns, Direct Count Method EN ISO 2061, ISO 7211-4, Yarn twist tester
ASTM D 1423
• Yarns, Untwist-Retwist Method ISO/FDIS 17202, ASTM D 1422 Yarn twist tester
3.4 Fiber Strength
• Yarns from packages, tensile test EN ISO 2062, ASTM D 2256 Materials testing machine 11-12
• Multifilament yarns prEN 14621 Materials testing machine a. o. 11-12
• Yarn skeins, tensile test ISO 6939, ASTM D 1578 Materials testing machine 11-12
• Twine and yarns, knot tensile test DIN 53842-1 Materials testing machine 11-12
• Yarns, loop tensile test DIN 53843-1 Materials testing machine 11-12
• Sewing threads, tensile test and other ASTM D 204 Materials testing machine a. o. 11-12
test methods
3.5 Elastic Behaviour
• Single and plied elastomeric yarns, DIN 53835-2 Materials testing machine 11-12
repeated application of tensile load
between constant extension limits
• Single and plied elastomeric yarns, DIN 53835-3 Materials testing machine 11-12
single application of tensile load
between constant extension limits
• Single and plied elastomeric yarns, DIN 53835-4 Materials testing machine 11-12
single application of tensile load
between constant force limits
• Elastomeric yarns, permanent deformation ASTM D 3106 Materials testing machine 11-12
3.6 Crimp
• Textured filament yarns; filament yarns DIN 53840-1 Reel, heating chamber
with a linear density of up to 500 dtex length measuremnt device
• Textured filament yarns; filament yarns DIN 53840-2 Reel, heating chamber,
with a linear density exceeding 500 dtex length measuremnt device
3.7 Shrinkage
• Twine and yarns, shrinkage in water DIN 53866-2 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Twine and yarns, shrinkage in hot air DIN 53866-3 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Twine and yarns, shrinkage in steam DIN 53866-4 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Twine and yarns, determination of shrinkage DIN 53866-12 Aux. means compliant to standards
in gaseous and fluid media
• Twine and yarns, determination of shrinkage ASTM D 2259 Aux. means compliant to standards
in boiling water, dry heat or saturated steam
3.8 Fiber Friction
• Coefficient of Friction, Yarn to Solid Material ASTM D 3108 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Coefficient of Friction, Yarn to Yarn ASTM D 3412 Aux. means compliant to standards

31
Contents Standard Test Means / Test Instrument Page
4 Textile Physical Test Methods for Textile Fabrics
4.1 Design Features (Mass Proportion, Fiber Length Ratios, Fiber Density)
• Textiles, Determination of the mass DIN 53856, ISO 7211-6 Aux. means compliant to standards
portion of warp and weft
• Textiles, number of threads per unit length EN 1049-2, ISO 7211-2, Aux. means compliant to standards
ASTM D 3775 a
• Woven and knitted fabrics, DIN 53852 Aux. means compliant to standards
determination of yarn length ratios
• Textiles and knitted fabrics, determination of EN 14971 Aux. means compliant to standards
number of stitches per unit length and unit area
4.2 Area Mass, Width and Length
• Fabric, Mass Per Unit Area ASTM D 3776 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Woven fabrics, Mass Per Unit Area ISO 3801, EN 12127 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Non-wovens, Mass Per Unit Area EN 29073-1, ISO 9073-1 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Textiles and fabrics, width and length EN 1773, ASTM D 3773, Aux. means compliant to standards
ASTM D 3774
4.3 Thickness and Compressibility
• Woven fabrics, thickness EN ISO 5084 Thickness gage
• Non-woven, thickness EN ISO 9073-2, Thickness gage
ASTM D 5729
• Textiles and fabrics, thickness ASTM D 1777 Thickness gage
• Highloft Nonwoven Fabrics, thickness ASTM D 5736
• Textiles, compression DIN 53885 Thickness gage
4.4 Strength, Strip Method
• Textiles, strip method EN ISO 13934-1 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Nonwovens, cut strip method EN 29073-3, ISO 9073-3 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Fabrics, grab test EN ISO 13934-2 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Fabrics, cut strip method Marks & Spencer P11 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Fabrics, cut strip method ASTM D 5035 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Fabrics, grab test ASTM D 5034 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Fabrics, seam rupture EN ISO 13935-1 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
cut strip method
• Fabrics, seam rupture EN ISO 13935-2 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
grab test
4.5 Tearing Strength
• Fabrics, Elmendorf tearing test EN ISO 13937-1, Elmendorf Tester
ASTM D 1424
• Nonwovens, Elmendorf tearing test ASTM D 5734 Elmendorf Tester
• Fabrics, single tear method EN ISO 13937-2, Materials Testing Machine 11-12
ASTM D 2261
• Nonwovens, tear growth test DIN 53859-4 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Fabrics, tear force of wing-shaped specimens EN ISO 13937-3 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Fabrics, tear force of tongue-shaped specimens EN ISO 13937-4 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Nonwovens, tear force of tongue-shaped ASTM D 5735 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
specimens
• Textile fabrics, DIN 53859-5, Materials Testing Machine 11-12
trapezoid method ASTM D 5587
• Nonwovens, trapezoid method EN ISO 9073-4, Materials Testing Machine 11-12
ASTM D 5733

32
Contents Standard Test Means / Test Instrument Page
4.6 Elastic Behaviour
• Textile Fabrics (except knitted fabrics), DIN 53835-13 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
single application of tensile load between
constant extension limits
• Knitted fabrics DIN 53835-14 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
single strain between two force limits
• Narrow Elastic Fabrics, static load ASTM D 5278 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Textile Fabrics, determination of EN 14704-1 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
elasticity, strip test
• Textile Fabrics, determination of EN 14704-2 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
elasticity, multiaxial tests
• Narrow Fabrics, determination of elasticity EN 14704-3 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Elastic Fabrics, Tension and Elongation, ASTM D 4964 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Loop-Tension
• Extension and Modulus of Elastomeric Fabrics Marks & Spencer, P14 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Narrow Elastics
• Extension and Modulus of Marks & Spencer, P14A Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Stretch Laces
• Elastic Properties of Fabrics Labelled Marks & Spencer, P14B Materials Testing Machine 11-12
“Lycra®Soft“
• Extension and Modulus of Bare Rubber Tapes Marks & Spencer, P14C Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Extension, Residual Extension of Marks & Spencer, P15 Teil 1 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Stretch Woven Fabrics
• Extension, Modulus and Residual Extension of Marks & Spencer, P15A Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Stretch Fabrics
• Stretch Fabrics, power and recovery Test Method LTD 03 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Elastics, Load, Elongation & Recovery Test Method LTD 06 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Bra Band, Elasticity Test Method LTD 07 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
4.7 Slippage Resistance
• Seam slippage resistance of yarns at a seam EN ISO 13936-1 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
in woven fabrics; Fixed seam opening method
Fixed load method EN ISO 13936-2 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Needle clamp method EN ISO 13936-3 Materials Testing Machine
• Seam slippage resistance Marks & Spencer P12 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
4.8 Special Seam Tests
• Standard Test Method for Failure in Sewn ASTM D 1683 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Seams of Woven Apparel Fabrics
4.9 Stiffness and Crease Recovery
• Textile fabrics (ex. nonwovens), coated or not DIN 53362 Cantilever Tester
coated fabrics; determination of stiffness in
bending; Method according to Cantilever
• Nonwovens; determination of bending length EN ISO 9073-7 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Textiles, determination of the bending strength, DIN 53864 Schlenker Bending Stiffness Tester
method according to Schlenker
• Fabrics, determination of the recovery from EN 22313, ISO 2313 Aux. means compliant to standards
creasing
• Textiles determination of the recovery from DIN 53891-2 Aux. means compliant to standards
creasing on the wet sample

33
Contents Standard Test Means / Test Instrument Page
4.10 Delamination and Adhesion Tests
• Delamination of fusible interlinings from upper DIN 54310 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
fabrics; mechanical delamination test
• Thermoplastics; determination of adhesion ISO 36 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
of textile fabrics
• Adhesion to Flexible Substrate ASTM D 413 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
between plies of fabric bonded with rubber
4.11 Abrasion and Pilling Test Methods
• Fabric propensity to pilling EN ISO 12945-1 Pilling Box
• Propensity to pilling, Martindale method, modified EN ISO 12945-2 Martindale Abrasion Tester
• Propensity to pilling, random-tumble method DIN 53867 Random-Tumble-Pilling-Tester
• Abrasion resistance of fabrics, EN ISO 12947-1, Martindale Abrasion Tester
Martindale method ASTM D 4966
• Abrasion resistance of fabrics, Martindale method EN ISO 12947-2 Martindale Abrasion Tester
Determination of specimen breakdown
• Abrasion resistance of fabrics, Martindale method EN ISO 12947-3 Martindale Abrasion Tester
Determination of mass loss
• Abrasion resistance of fabrics, Martindale method EN ISO 12947-4 Martindale Abrasion Tester
Assessment of appearance change
• Pilling Resistance, Surface Changes ASTM D 3511 Brush Pilling Tester
• Pilling Resistance, Surface Changes ASTM D 3512 Random Tumble Pilling Tester
• Abrasion Resistance, ASTM D 3884 Taber double-head tester (RPDH)
Rotary Platform, Double-Head Method
• Abrasion Resistance, ASTM D 3885 Aux. means compliant to standards
Flexing and Abrasion Method
• Abrasion Resistance, ASTM D 3886 Aux. means compliant to standards
Inflated Diaphragm Method
• Abrasion Resistance, ASTM D 4157 Aux. means compliant to standards
Oscillatory Cylinder Method
• Abrasion Resistance, Uniform Abrasion ASTM D 4158 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Abrasion Resistance, rotary abrasion test DIN 53863-2 Schopper- or Frank-
Hauser-Abrasion Tester
• Knitted footwear garments, Abrasion Resistance EN 13770 Martindale Abrasion Tester
4.12 Burst Tests
• Hydraulic Method EN ISO 13938-1, Hydraulic Diaphragm Bursting Tester
ASTM D 3786
• Pneumatic Method EN ISO 13938-2 Bursting Tester
• Constant-Rate-of-Traverse (CRT) Ball Burst Test ASTM D 3787 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
4.13 Air Permeability
• Textile fabrics EN ISO 9237, Air Permeability Tester
ASTM D 737
4.14 Other Special Test Methods for Textile Fabrics and Knitted Fabrics
• Textile fabrics, Bulging tendency, elbow-test DIN 53860-1 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Sewing behaviour of knitted fabrics DIN 53882 Sewing-machine
• Fibre migration tendency - Tumble-method DIN 53865 Aux. means compliant to standards
4.15 Ohter Special Test Methods for Nonwovens
• Nonwovens, Needle Tearing Out Resistance DIN 54301 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Nonwovens, Compression Elastic Behaviour DIN 54305 Materials Testing Machine
• Standard Test Methods ASTM D 1117 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Nonwoven Compresses for Medical Use EN 1644-1, EN 1644-2 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Determination of drape coefficient EN ISO 9073-9 Aux. means compliant to standards

34
Contents Standard Test Means / Test Instrument Page
5 Textile physical Test Methods for Special Product Groups, including Textile Related Products
5.1 Coated Fabrics
• Standard Test Methods ASTM D 751 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Coated and Laminated Fabrics ASTM D 4851 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
for Architectural Use
• Bonded, Fused, and Laminated Apparel Fabrics ASTM D 2724 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Stiffness in Bending, Cantilever Method DIN 53362 Cantilever Tester
• Tensile Test EN ISO 1421 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Determination of tear resistance EN ISO 4674-2 Elmendorf Tester
• Tear resistance, trapezoidal method EN 1875-3 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Tongue tear, trouser tear method EN ISO 4674-1 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Tear growth test DIN 53356 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Blocking resistance EN 25978, ISO 5978 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Coating adhesion EN ISO 2411 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Rubber to fabric adhesion ISO 4637 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Determination of bursting strength ISO 3303 Materials Testing Machine (Meth. A) 11-12
diaphragm brusting tester; hydraulic pressure
• Bursting Strength, steel ball method EN 12332-1 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Bursting Strength, hydraulic method EN 12332-2 Bursting Tester
• Low-temperature bend test ISO 4675, ASTM D 2136 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Resistance to damage by flexing EN ISO 7854 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Determination of abrasion resistance EN ISO 5470-1 Taber Abrader
EN ISO 5470-2 Martindale Abrasion Tester
5.2 Floor Covering
• Pile Yarn Floor Covering, Standard Test Methods ASTM D 6719 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Determination of Tuft Withdrawal Force ISO 4919 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Thickness loss of textile floor coverings DIN 54316 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
at static load
• Textile floor coverings, determination of ISO 11857, ASTM D 3963 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
resistance to delamination
• Textile floor coverings, determination of ISO 11858 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
friability of attached foams
• Textile floor coverings, Determination of thickness ISO 1765 Aux. means compliant to standards
5.3 Upholstery Fabrics
• Specification and test methods EN 14465/prA1 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
5.4 Reinforcement Textiles
• Para-aramid multifilament yarns EN 12562 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Para-aramid fibre filament yarns EN 13003-2 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Carbon fibre yarns EN 13002-2 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Carbon fibre - Determination of tensile EN ISO 10618 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
properties of resin-impregnated yarn
• Continuous Filament Carbon and ASTM D 4018 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Graphite Fiber Tows and Rovings, tensile test
• Reinforcement fibres for plastics, tensile test DIN 65382 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Reinforcement yarns, linear density EN ISO 1889 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Reinforcement yarns, determination of twist EN ISO 1890 Twist Tester
• Tire Cords, Tire Cord Fabrics ASTM D 885 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Industrial Filament Yarns
• Physical Properties of Fabrics, Yarns, ASTM D 5446 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
and sewing thread used in inflatable restraints
• Mats and fabrics, mass per unit area ISO 3374 Aux. means compliant to standards

35
Contents Standard Test Means / Test Instrument Page
5.5 Textile Glass Products
• Textile Glass Yarns EN 12654-2 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Textile Glass Yarns, Chopped Strands EN 12971-2 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Textile Glass Yarns, tensile test ISO 3341 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Glass Fiber Strands, Yarns, and Rovings ASTM D 2343 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Used in Reinforced Plastics
• Textile Glass Rovings EN 14020-2 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Textile Glass Rovings, Manufacture of EN ISO 9163 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
test specimens and determination of tensile
strength of impregnated rovings
• Textile Glass, woven fabrics ISO 4603 Aux. means compliant to standards
determination of thickness
• Textile Glass, chopped-stand and continuous ISO 3616 Aux. means compliant to standards
filament mats, thickness and recovery
• Textile Glass, tensile test ISO 4606 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Textile Glass mats, tensile test ISO 3342 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
5.6 Geotextiles, Geosynthetics
• Geosynthetics, EN ISO 9862,
sampling and preparation of test specimens ASTM D 4354
• Geosynthetics, mass per unit area EN ISO 9864, Aux. means compliant to standards
ASTM D 5261
• Geosynthetics, thickness, single layers EN ISO 9863-1 Thickness measurement instrument
• Geotextiles and geotextile-related products EN ISO 9863-2 Thickness measurement instrument
thickness of multilayer products
• Geotextiles, wide-width tensile test EN ISO 10319, Materials Testing Machine 11-12
ASTM D 4595
• Geotextiles, tensile test, Grab Method ASTM D 4632 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Geotextiles - Tensile test for joints/seams EN ISO 10321, Materials Testing Machine 11-12
by wide- width method ASTM D 4884
• Geotextiles, strength of geocells EN ISO 13426-1 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Geotextiles and geotextile-related products EN ISO 13426-2 Materials Testing Machine
strength of geocomposites
• Geosynthetics, static puncture test EN ISO 12236 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Geotextiles and geotextile-related products EN ISO 13431, Tensile Creep Testing Machine
tensile creep and creep rupture behaviour ASTM D 5262
• Geotextiles and geotextile-related products EN 1897 Creept Testing Machine
determination of compressive creep properties
• Geotextiles, Trapezoid Tearing Strength ASTM D 4533 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Geotextiles, Cone Drop Test EN 918, ISO/DIS 13433 Cone Drop Tester
• Geotextiles, EN ISO 13427, Sliding Block Tester
abrasion damage simulation ASTM D 4886
• Geomembranes, Performance Strength ASTM D 4885 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
wide strip tensile method
• Geomembranes, tensile test ASTM D 5397 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
stress crack resistance
• Geomembranes, ASTM D 5494 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
pyramid puncture resistance
• Geosynthetics, pyramid puncture resistance EN 14574 Aux. means compliant to standards
• Geosynthetics, bursting strength DIN 61551 Bursting Strength Tester
• Geotextiles, Geomembranes, ASTM D 4833 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
index puncture resistance

36
Contents Standard Test Means / Test Instrument Page
5.7 Tapes, Belts, Ropes, Cordage
• Flat woven webbing slings of man-made fibres EN 1492-1 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Breaking Strength and Elongation of ASTM D 6775 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
Textile Webbing, Tape and Braided Material
• Glass and glass polyester fibre woven tapes EN 61067-2 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Textile conveyor belts, tensile test ISO 283-1 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Textile conveyor belts EN ISO 252-1 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
adhesive strength between constitutive elements
• Aircraft. Minimum airworthiness requirements ISO 8097 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
and test conditions for certified air cargo
unit load devices
• Air cargo equipment, restraint straps ISO 16049-1 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Load restraint assemblies on road vehicles EN 12195-2 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
web lashing made from man-made fibres
• Personal protective equipment, EN 361 Aux. means compliant to standards
full body harnesses
• Personal protective equipment against falls EN 364 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
from a height
• Mountaineering equipment, tape EN 565 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Mountaineering equipment, harnesses EN 12277 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Mountaineering equipment, accessory cord EN 564 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Mountaineering equipment, slings EN 566 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Mountaineering equipment, EN 892 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
dynamic mountaineering ropes
• Deck safety harness and safety line for EN 1095 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
use on recreational craft
• Paragliding equipment, harnesses EN 1651 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Fibre ropes EN ISO 2307 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Fibre ropes, splices DIN 83319 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Round or spiral plated man-made fibre ropes DIN 83307 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Tow ropes for passenger cars DIN 76033 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
5.8 Netting Yarns and Nets
• Knot tensile test for netting yarns for fishing nets DIN 53842-2, ISO 1805 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Elongation of netting yarns for fishing nets ISO 3790 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Fishing nets, mesh breaking force of netting ISO 1806 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• safety nets EN 1263-1 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Air cargo equipment. air/land pallet nets ISO 4115 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
5.9 Twines and Agricultural Twines
• Sisal agricultural twines EN ISO 5080 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Polyolefin agricultural twines EN ISO 4167 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Sisal twines EN 12422 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Polypropylene twines EN 12423 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
5.10 Textile Compounds
• Touch and close fasteners, cycling procedure EN 1414 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Touch and close fasteners, peel strength EN 12242 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
• Touch and close fasteners, longitudinal shear EN 13780 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
strength
• Zippers, test methods ASTM D 2061, BS 3084 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12
• Resistance to unsnapping of Snap Fasteners BS 4162, ASTM D 4846 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12

37
Contents Standard Test Means / Test Instrument Page
5.11 Thermal Insulating Products
• Thermal insulating products for building EN 826, ASTM C 165 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
applications, compression behaviour
• Thermal insulating products for building EN 1605 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
applications, deformation under specified
compressive load and temperature conditions
• Thermal insulating products for building EN 1606 Creep Tester
applications, compressive creep
• Thermal insulating products for building EN 1607 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
applications, tensile strength
perpendicular to faces
• Thermal insulating products for building EN 1608 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
applications, tensile strength parallel to faces
• Thermal insulating products for building EN 12089 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
applications, bending behaviour
• Mineral fibre insulating materials; DIN 52274 Materials Testing Machine 11-12
determination of interlaminar tensile strength
perpendicular to plane of insulating layer
• Structural Capacities of Insulated Panels ASTM E 1803 Materials Testing Machine a. o. 11-12

Mentioned Standards, Status June 2006.

38
Notes

39
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