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T Test in Excel: Easy Steps with Video


Microsoft Excel for Statistics > T Test in Excel

How to do a T Test in Excel:


Overview
The t test is a way to tell if the difference
between before and after results is
significant or if those results could have
happened by chance. For example, a drug
manufacturer might test a new drug and
compare the before and after results to see
if the drug was effective. It’s mostly used
to test if means are different. The larger
the t-value, the larger the difference in the
two samples.

You have three options in the Data Analysis Toolpak (How to load the Data
Analysis Toolpak) for a t test in Excel. Read below if you aren’t sure which
test to choose or skip to the section you need:

1. Paired Two Sample for means in Excel.


2. Two Sample T test in Excel assuming Equal Variances.
3. Two-sample T test in Excel assuming Unequal variances.

T-testing is used in hypothesis testing, when you are deciding if you should
support or reject a null hypothesis. Which t test in Excel you use depends
mostly on what type of data you have. If your data has two sets of
observations from the same group (for example, medical testing before and
after a drug is administered to the same group of people), you would use
the paired two sample for means. Otherwise, use a two sample test for
variances.

Paired Two Sample For Means is used when your sample observations are
naturally paired. The usual reason for performing this test is when you are
testing the same group twice. For example, if you are testing a new drug,
you’ll want to compare the sample before and after they take the drug to
see if the results are different. This particular t test in Excel used a paired
two-sample test to determine if the before and after observations are likely
to have been derived from distributions with equal population means.

The other two tests are used when you have different groups (i.e. you aren’t
testing one group twice over time). The Two-Sample assuming Equal
Variances test is used when you know (either through the question or you
have analyzed the variance in the data) that the variances are the same.
The Two-Sample assuming UNequal Variances test is used when either:

1. You know the variances are not the same.


2. You do not know if the variances are the same or not.

In most cases, you don’t know if the variances are equal or not, so you
would use the Two-Sample assuming UNequal Variances test.

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Paired Two Sample for means in


Excel 2013.

Watch the video or read the steps below:


How to do a two sample t test paired t…

Two sample t test in Excel for


means: Overview
A two sample t test for means is normally used when you are testing twice
on the same subject. For example, in a medical trial you might want to
know if a particular medicine is effective so you test patients before the
medication is administered and after. The t-test can tell you if the results
from the trial have statistical significance (i.e. it worked) or if the results
probably occurred by chance.

Two sample t test for means in


Excel: Steps
Step 1: Type your data into Excel. As the two sample t test paired two
sample for means is usually used for “before” and “after” data, you’ll
probably have three columns: the first column for the subject identifier (i.e.
a name or a number), the second column for the Before results and the
third column for the After Results.

Step 2: State your null hypothesis (How to state the null hypothesis). For
example, your null hypothesis might be that the means are the same.

Step 3: Click the “Data” tab and then click “Data analysis.” If you don’t see
the Data Analysis option, load the Data Analysis Toolpak.

Step 4: Click “t test paired two sample for means” from the options window
then click “OK.”

Step 5: Click the “Variable 1 Range” box and then select your first variable
list (usually the Before list).

Step 6: Click the “Variable 2 Range” box and then select your second
variable list (usually the After list).
Step 7: Type a number into the Hypothesized Mean Difference box. For
example, if your null hypothesis stated that there was no difference
between the means, enter “0.” Otherwise, if you are hypothesizing there is a
difference, type that difference into the box.

Step 8: Check the “Labels” box if you have included labels.

Step 9: Type an alpha level into the alpha level box. An alpha level of 0.05,
or 5%, is standard in hypothesis testing so if you aren’t sure what alpha
level you need, leave this at 0.05.

Step 10: Click the Output Range box and select an area to the right of your
data.

Step 11: Click “OK.”

Reading The Results from the two


sample t Test for means in Excel
2013
Your results will include a lot of data, some that’s obvious (like the number
of data items). But when you run a t-test you’re really only looking for two
things: t-scores and alpha levels.

Step 1: Compare the alpha level you chose (i.e. 0.05) to the p-value in the
output. If the p-value in the output is smaller than the alpha level you
chose, reject the null hypothesis.

Step 2: Compare the t-critical value in the output with the t-value. If the t-
value is larger than the t-critical value, reject the null hypothesis. There are
two t-critical values, one-tail and two-tail. If you aren’t sure if you have a
one-tailed test or a two-tailed test, always compare the t-value to the two-
tail t critical value.

In order to fully reject the null hypothesis, use both values (p and t) in
combination. In other words, if you think you might reject the null based on
the t-value, but your p-value is large, then don’t reject the null.

Check out our YouTube channel for more Excel stats help and tips!
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Two Sample t test assuming Equal


Variances.
Watch the video or read the steps below:

How to run a t test two sample assumi…

Two sample t test Assuming Equal


variances in Excel 2013: Overview
A two sample t test assuming equal
variances is used to test data to see if
there is statistical significance or if the
results may have occurred randomly. This
is one of three t tests available in Excel
and of the three, it’s the one least likely to
be used. Why? In the vast majority of cases
in hypothesis testing, you don’t know the
population variances. This test should only
be used if you have been explicitly informed that the population variances
are equal. If you don’t have this information, you should be running the
other t test (Two sample t test Assuming Unequal variances).

How to do a Two sample t test in


Excel Assuming Equal variances:
Steps
Step 1: Type your data into a worksheet. Generally, you’ll have a list in one
column and another list in a second column. The t-test will allow you to
compare the means from these two columns.

Step 2: Write the null hypothesis (How to state the null hypothesis). For
example, your null hypothesis might be that the means are different by a
certain amount.
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Step 3: Click the “Data” tab and then click “Data analysis.” If you don’t see
the Data Analysis button on the toolbar (to the far right of the Data tab),
load the Data Analysis Toolpak.

Step 4: Click “t test two sample Assuming Equal variances ” from the
options window then click “OK.”

Step 5: Click the “Variable 1 Range” box and then select your first data list.

Step 6: Click the “Variable 2 Range” box and then select your second data
list.

Step 7: Type a number into the Hypothesized Mean Difference box. For
example, if your null hypothesis stated that there was no difference
between the means, type “0.”

Step 8: Check the “Labels” box (you’ll usually want to include labels so you
can easily compare the two sets of data).

Step 9: Type an alpha level into the alpha level box. If you don’t know what
alpha level you should be using, leave it at 0.05.

Step 10: Click the Output Range box and select an area for your output.

Step 11: Click the “OK” button.

Reading The Results from two


sample t test Assuming Equal
variances in Excel 2013
Step 1: Compare the alpha level you types into the two sample t test
Assuming Equal variances window (i.e. 0.05) to the alpha level listed in the
output on the worksheet. If the alpha level in the output is larger than the
alpha level you chose, you will be unable to reject the null hypothesis.
Step 2: Compare the t-critical value in the output on the worksheet with
the t-value listed. If the t-value is larger than the t-critical value, you can
reject the null hypothesis. There are two t-critical values, one-tail and two-
tail. If you aren’t sure if you have a one-tailed test or a two-tailed test,
always compare the t-value to the two-tail t critical value.

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Check out our YouTube channel for more stats help and tips!

Two-sample t test assuming


Unequal variances.

Watch the video or read the steps below:

How to run a t test two sample assumi…

Two Sample T Test in Excel


Unequal Variances: Overview
A two sample t test assuming unequal variances is the most common type
of t test in Excel 2013. You have three options in Excel for t tests: assuming
equal variances, assuming unequal variances and a paired two sample. The
paired two sample for means in Excel is generally used if you have a
sample you’re testing twice (i.e. a “Before” and an “After”) while the two
sample test assuming equal variances is only used on the very rare
occasion you know the population variance.

Two sample t test in Excel 2013 for


unequal variance: Steps
Step 1: Type your data into a worksheet in two columns.

Step 2: State your null hypothesis (How to state the null hypothesis) (i.e.
the means for both sets of data are the same).

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Step 3: Click “Data” and then click “Data analysis.” If you don’t see Data
Analysis, load the Data Analysis Toolpak.

Step 4: Click “t test two sample Assuming unequal variances ” and then
click the “OK” button. This will open the t test two sample Assuming
unequal variances dialog box.

Step 5: Type the location for your first set of data into the “Variable 1” box.

Step 6: Type the location for your first set of data into the “Variable 2” box.

Step 7: Type a number into the Hypothesized Mean Difference box. The
hypothesized mean difference should have been stated when you wrote
your null hypothesis. For example, if you think the means are the same
then the hypothesized mean difference is 0.

Step 8: Check the “Labels” box (assuming you included labels for your data,
which is always a good idea).

Step 9: Click the “Alpha level” box and then type an alpha level. the default
is 0.05, which is a standard alpha level for these tests.

Step 10: Click the “Output Range” box and select an area for your output.

Step 11: Click the “OK” button.

Reading The Results from two


sample t test unequal variance
Excel 2013
1. Reject the null hypothesis if the alpha level in the output is smaller
than your stated alpha level. For example, if the alpha level in the
output is 0.03 and your alpha level from Step 9 was 0.05, you can
reject the null hypothesis.
2. Compare the t-value with the t-critical value. If the t-value is larger
than the t-critical value, reject the null hypothesis. There are two t-
critical values—one for a one-tailed test and one for a two-tailed test.
If you don’t know if you have a one or two tailed test, use the two
tailed test figure ( How to tell if you have a one-tailed test or a two-
tailed test).

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T Test in Excel: Easy Steps with Video was last modified: September 2nd,
2018 by Stephanie

By Stephanie | December 21, 2013 | Statistics How To |

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