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Statistics How To

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Microsoft Excel for Statistics > T Test in Excel

Overview

The t test is a way to tell if the difference

between before and after results is

signiﬁcant or if those results could have

happened by chance. For example, a drug

manufacturer might test a new drug and

compare the before and after results to see

if the drug was effective. It’s mostly used

to test if means are different. The larger

the t-value, the larger the difference in the

two samples.

You have three options in the Data Analysis Toolpak (How to load the Data

Analysis Toolpak) for a t test in Excel. Read below if you aren’t sure which

test to choose or skip to the section you need:

2. Two Sample T test in Excel assuming Equal Variances.

3. Two-sample T test in Excel assuming Unequal variances.

T-testing is used in hypothesis testing, when you are deciding if you should

support or reject a null hypothesis. Which t test in Excel you use depends

mostly on what type of data you have. If your data has two sets of

observations from the same group (for example, medical testing before and

after a drug is administered to the same group of people), you would use

the paired two sample for means. Otherwise, use a two sample test for

variances.

Paired Two Sample For Means is used when your sample observations are

naturally paired. The usual reason for performing this test is when you are

testing the same group twice. For example, if you are testing a new drug,

you’ll want to compare the sample before and after they take the drug to

see if the results are different. This particular t test in Excel used a paired

two-sample test to determine if the before and after observations are likely

to have been derived from distributions with equal population means.

The other two tests are used when you have different groups (i.e. you aren’t

testing one group twice over time). The Two-Sample assuming Equal

Variances test is used when you know (either through the question or you

have analyzed the variance in the data) that the variances are the same.

The Two-Sample assuming UNequal Variances test is used when either:

2. You do not know if the variances are the same or not.

In most cases, you don’t know if the variances are equal or not, so you

would use the Two-Sample assuming UNequal Variances test.

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Excel 2013.

How to do a two sample t test paired t…

means: Overview

A two sample t test for means is normally used when you are testing twice

on the same subject. For example, in a medical trial you might want to

know if a particular medicine is effective so you test patients before the

medication is administered and after. The t-test can tell you if the results

from the trial have statistical signiﬁcance (i.e. it worked) or if the results

probably occurred by chance.

Excel: Steps

Step 1: Type your data into Excel. As the two sample t test paired two

sample for means is usually used for “before” and “after” data, you’ll

probably have three columns: the ﬁrst column for the subject identiﬁer (i.e.

a name or a number), the second column for the Before results and the

third column for the After Results.

Step 2: State your null hypothesis (How to state the null hypothesis). For

example, your null hypothesis might be that the means are the same.

Step 3: Click the “Data” tab and then click “Data analysis.” If you don’t see

the Data Analysis option, load the Data Analysis Toolpak.

Step 4: Click “t test paired two sample for means” from the options window

then click “OK.”

Step 5: Click the “Variable 1 Range” box and then select your ﬁrst variable

list (usually the Before list).

Step 6: Click the “Variable 2 Range” box and then select your second

variable list (usually the After list).

Step 7: Type a number into the Hypothesized Mean Difference box. For

example, if your null hypothesis stated that there was no difference

between the means, enter “0.” Otherwise, if you are hypothesizing there is a

difference, type that difference into the box.

Step 9: Type an alpha level into the alpha level box. An alpha level of 0.05,

or 5%, is standard in hypothesis testing so if you aren’t sure what alpha

level you need, leave this at 0.05.

Step 10: Click the Output Range box and select an area to the right of your

data.

sample t Test for means in Excel

2013

Your results will include a lot of data, some that’s obvious (like the number

of data items). But when you run a t-test you’re really only looking for two

things: t-scores and alpha levels.

Step 1: Compare the alpha level you chose (i.e. 0.05) to the p-value in the

output. If the p-value in the output is smaller than the alpha level you

chose, reject the null hypothesis.

Step 2: Compare the t-critical value in the output with the t-value. If the t-

value is larger than the t-critical value, reject the null hypothesis. There are

two t-critical values, one-tail and two-tail. If you aren’t sure if you have a

one-tailed test or a two-tailed test, always compare the t-value to the two-

tail t critical value.

In order to fully reject the null hypothesis, use both values (p and t) in

combination. In other words, if you think you might reject the null based on

the t-value, but your p-value is large, then don’t reject the null.

Check out our YouTube channel for more Excel stats help and tips!

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Variances.

Watch the video or read the steps below:

variances in Excel 2013: Overview

A two sample t test assuming equal

variances is used to test data to see if

there is statistical signiﬁcance or if the

results may have occurred randomly. This

is one of three t tests available in Excel

and of the three, it’s the one least likely to

be used. Why? In the vast majority of cases

in hypothesis testing, you don’t know the

population variances. This test should only

be used if you have been explicitly informed that the population variances

are equal. If you don’t have this information, you should be running the

other t test (Two sample t test Assuming Unequal variances).

Excel Assuming Equal variances:

Steps

Step 1: Type your data into a worksheet. Generally, you’ll have a list in one

column and another list in a second column. The t-test will allow you to

compare the means from these two columns.

Step 2: Write the null hypothesis (How to state the null hypothesis). For

example, your null hypothesis might be that the means are different by a

certain amount.

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Step 3: Click the “Data” tab and then click “Data analysis.” If you don’t see

the Data Analysis button on the toolbar (to the far right of the Data tab),

load the Data Analysis Toolpak.

Step 4: Click “t test two sample Assuming Equal variances ” from the

options window then click “OK.”

Step 5: Click the “Variable 1 Range” box and then select your ﬁrst data list.

Step 6: Click the “Variable 2 Range” box and then select your second data

list.

Step 7: Type a number into the Hypothesized Mean Difference box. For

example, if your null hypothesis stated that there was no difference

between the means, type “0.”

Step 8: Check the “Labels” box (you’ll usually want to include labels so you

can easily compare the two sets of data).

Step 9: Type an alpha level into the alpha level box. If you don’t know what

alpha level you should be using, leave it at 0.05.

Step 10: Click the Output Range box and select an area for your output.

sample t test Assuming Equal

variances in Excel 2013

Step 1: Compare the alpha level you types into the two sample t test

Assuming Equal variances window (i.e. 0.05) to the alpha level listed in the

output on the worksheet. If the alpha level in the output is larger than the

alpha level you chose, you will be unable to reject the null hypothesis.

Step 2: Compare the t-critical value in the output on the worksheet with

the t-value listed. If the t-value is larger than the t-critical value, you can

reject the null hypothesis. There are two t-critical values, one-tail and two-

tail. If you aren’t sure if you have a one-tailed test or a two-tailed test,

always compare the t-value to the two-tail t critical value.

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Check out our YouTube channel for more stats help and tips!

Unequal variances.

Unequal Variances: Overview

A two sample t test assuming unequal variances is the most common type

of t test in Excel 2013. You have three options in Excel for t tests: assuming

equal variances, assuming unequal variances and a paired two sample. The

paired two sample for means in Excel is generally used if you have a

sample you’re testing twice (i.e. a “Before” and an “After”) while the two

sample test assuming equal variances is only used on the very rare

occasion you know the population variance.

unequal variance: Steps

Step 1: Type your data into a worksheet in two columns.

Step 2: State your null hypothesis (How to state the null hypothesis) (i.e.

the means for both sets of data are the same).

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Step 3: Click “Data” and then click “Data analysis.” If you don’t see Data

Analysis, load the Data Analysis Toolpak.

Step 4: Click “t test two sample Assuming unequal variances ” and then

click the “OK” button. This will open the t test two sample Assuming

unequal variances dialog box.

Step 5: Type the location for your ﬁrst set of data into the “Variable 1” box.

Step 6: Type the location for your ﬁrst set of data into the “Variable 2” box.

Step 7: Type a number into the Hypothesized Mean Difference box. The

hypothesized mean difference should have been stated when you wrote

your null hypothesis. For example, if you think the means are the same

then the hypothesized mean difference is 0.

Step 8: Check the “Labels” box (assuming you included labels for your data,

which is always a good idea).

Step 9: Click the “Alpha level” box and then type an alpha level. the default

is 0.05, which is a standard alpha level for these tests.

Step 10: Click the “Output Range” box and select an area for your output.

sample t test unequal variance

Excel 2013

1. Reject the null hypothesis if the alpha level in the output is smaller

than your stated alpha level. For example, if the alpha level in the

output is 0.03 and your alpha level from Step 9 was 0.05, you can

reject the null hypothesis.

2. Compare the t-value with the t-critical value. If the t-value is larger

than the t-critical value, reject the null hypothesis. There are two t-

critical values—one for a one-tailed test and one for a two-tailed test.

If you don’t know if you have a one or two tailed test, use the two

tailed test ﬁgure ( How to tell if you have a one-tailed test or a two-

tailed test).

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Check out our YouTube channel for more Excel for statistics help and tips!

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T Test in Excel: Easy Steps with Video was last modiﬁed: September 2nd,

2018 by Stephanie

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