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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MEGHALAYA

Advanced Engineering Mathematics (MA701)


Problem Set 2
Instructor: M. Saha

1. Which of the following functions T : R2 → R3 are linear transformations?


(a) T (x) = [x1 − x2 , 0]T , where x = [x1 , x2 ]T .
(b) T (x) = [sin(x1 ), x2 ]T , where x = [x1 , x2 ]T .
2. Describe the range and null space of differentiation transformations on the vector
space of all polynomials over R.
3. If
v1 = [1, − 1]T , u1 = [1, 0]T
v2 = [2, − 1]T , u1 = [0, 1]T
v1 = [−3, 2]T , u1 = [1, 1]T
is there any linear transformation T : R2 → R2 such that Tvi = ui , for i = 1 : 3.
4. Let T : C3 → C3 defined by, for x = [x1 , x2 , x3 ]T
T (x) = [x1 − x2 + 2x3 , 2x1 + x2 , − x1 − 2x2 + 2x3 ]T .
(a) Show that T is linear.
(b) Find the condition on a, b, c so that [a, b, c]T ∈ range(A)? Hence find rank(T ).
(c) Find the null space of T .
5. Let T : V → V be a linear transformation from a vector space V into V . Show
that the following statements are equivalent:
(a) range(T ) ∩ null(T ) = {0}.
(b) If T (T x) = 0, then T x = 0.
6. Let V be the vector space of polynomials of degree less than or equal to 3. Find the
matrix of the differentiation operator with respect to the basis B = {1, x, x2 , x3 }
and B 0 = {1, 1 + x, 1 + x2 , x3 }
7. Let V be a two-dimensional vector space over the field F, and let B be an ordered
basis for V . If T is a linear transformation on V and
 
a b
[T ]B = ,
c d
prove that T 2 − (a + d)T + (ad − bc)I = 0.
8. Let T be a linear operator on R2 defined by T (x) = [−x2 , x1 ]T , where x = [x1 , x2 ]T .
(a) Find the matrix of T with respect to the basis B = [1, 2]T , [1, −1]T .


(b) Prove that for every real number c, the operator (T − cI) is invertible.
(c) Prove that B 0 is any ordered basis for R2 and [T ]B0 = A, then a12 a21 6= 0.
9. Let B = {v1 , v2 , . . . , vn } be an ordered basis for V , and let T be the linear trans-
formation on V such that T (vi ) = vi+1 , i = 1 : n − 1 and T (vn ) = 0.
(a) Find the matrix of T in the ordered basis B.
(b) Prove that T n = 0, but T n−1 6= 0.