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Anda di halaman 1dari 37

CALCULUS

CULUS

THEORY AND EXERCISE BOOKLET

CONTENTS

♦ VECTOR ....................................................................................................... 2 – 19

♦ CALCULUS ................................................................................................ 20 – 37

♦ EXERCISE - I ............................................................................................. 38 – 52

♦ EXERCISE - II ............................................................................................ 53 – 63

♦ EXERCISE - IV ............................................................................................ 69 – 73

♦ EXERCISE - V ............................................................................................. 74 – 76

394 - Rajeev Gandhi Nagar Kota, Ph. No. 0744-2209671, 93141-87482, 93527-21564

www. motioniitjee.com , email-hr.motioniitjee@gmail.com

Page # 2 VECTOR & CALCULUS

VECTOR

1. SCALAR :

In physics we deal with two type of physical quantity one is scalar and other is vector. Each scalar

quantity has a magnitude and a unit.

For example mass = 4kg

Magnitude of mass =4

and unit of mass = kg

Example of scalar quantities : mass, speed, distance etc.

Scalar quantities can be added, subtracted and multiplied by simple laws of algebra.

2. VECTOR :

Vector are the physical quantites having magnitude as well as specified direction.

For example :

Speed = 4 m/s (is a scalar)

Velocity = 4 m/s toward north (is a vector)

If someone wants to reach some location then it is not sufficient to provide information about the

distance of that location it is also essential to tell him about the proper direction from the initial

location to the destination.

The magnitude of a vector ( A ) is the absolute value of a vector and is indicated by | A | or A.

Knowledge of direction

N

W E

S

3. GENERAL POINTS REGARDING VECTORS :

Geometrically, the vector is represented by a line with an arrow indicating the direction of vector as

Tail Head

Length

(magnitude)

Y →

A

Mathematically, vector is represented by A .

Sometimes it is represented by bold letter A.

θ

→

Thus, the arrow in abow figure represents a vector A

X

in xy-plane making an angle θ with x-axis.

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 3

Symbolic form : v, a,F, s used to separate a vector quantity from scalar quantities (u, i, m)

N

having the magnitude and direction of the quantity represented by it. B

5cm

e.g. if we want to represent a force of 5 N acting 45° N of E Head

(i) We choose direction co-ordinates. 45°

W E

(ii) We choose a convenient scale like 1 cm ≡ 1 N A

(iii) We draw a line of length equal in magnitude and in the direction

tail

of vector to the chosen quantity.

S

(iv) We put arrow in the direction of vector. 1cm ≡1N

AB

Magnitude of vector :

| A B |= 5 N

θ)

Angle between two vectors means smaller of the two angles between the vectors when they are

placed tail to tail by displacing either of the vectors parallel to itself (i.e 0 ≤ θ ≤ π).

B B

B

θ ⇒ θ

θ

A A A

Ex.1 Three vectors A, B, C are shown in the figure. Find angle between (i) A and B , (ii) B and C , (iii) A

and C .

x x

30º 45º

A

B C

30º x

Sol. To find the angle between two vectors we connect the tails of the two vectors. We can shift B &

C such that

tails of A,B and C are connected as shown in figure. A

30º x

Now we can easily observe that angle between A and B is 60º, 30º

45º

B and C is 15º and between A and C is 75º. C B

It implies vector of same magnitude but opposite in direction.

→ →

A –A

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Page # 4 VECTOR & CALCULUS

Vectors having equal magnitude and same direction are called equal vectors

C

A

B

if | A| =|B| =| C|

and A = B = C

then A = B = C

Any two vectors are co-linear then one can be express in the term of other.

a = λb (where λ is a constant)

3.6 Co-initial vector : If two or more vector start from same point then they called co-initial vector.

A

A B

B

C

e.g. C

O D

D

here A, B, C, D are co-initial.

Three (or more) vectors are called coplanar vectors if they lie in the same plane or are parallel to the

same plane. Two (free) vectors are always coplanar.

Important points

If the frame of reference is translated or rotated the vector does not change (though its components

may change).

or

ct

A S'

ve

O'

S

O

Two vectors are called equal if their magnitudes and directions are same, and they represent values of

same physical quantity.

Multiplying a vector A with a positive number λ gives a vector (B = λ A ) whose magnitude become λ

times but the direction is the same as that of A . Multiplying a vector A by a negative number λ gives

a vector B whose direction is opposite to the direction of A and whose magnitude is –λ times | A | .

1

The division of vector A by a non-zero scalar m is defined as multiplication of A by .

m

At here A and B are co-linear vector

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 5

Ex.2 A physical quantity (m = 3kg) is multiplied by a vector a such that F = ma . Find the magnitude

and direction of F if

(i) a = 3m/s2 East wards

(ii) a = –4 m/s2 North wards

Sol. (i) F = ma = 3 × 3 ms −2 East wards

= 9 N East wards

(ii) F = ma = 3 × ( −4 ) N North wards

= 12 N South wards

4.1 Triangle rule of addition : Steps for additing two vector representing same physical quantity by

triangle law.

(i) Keep vectors s.t. tail of one vector coincides with head of other.

(ii) Join tail of first to head of the other by a line with arrow at head of the second.

(iii) This new vector is the sum of two vectors. (also called reultant)

D

D

CD AD

C

(i) (ii) (iii) AB + CD = AD

A B A C

AB B

Q. A boy moves 4 m south and then 5 m in direction 37° E of N. Find resultant displacement.

This law is used for adding more than two vectors. This is extension of triangle law of addition. We

keep on arranging vectors s.t. tail of next vector lies on head of former.

When we connect the tail of first vector to head of last we get resultant of all the vectors.

d

a+ c + d

d

b+

+b+

c

P = a

c c

+b

a

b b

a

a

( ) ( )

Note : P = (a + b ) + c + d = (c + a + d) + d [Associative Law]

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Page # 6 VECTOR & CALCULUS

Steps :

(i) Keep two vectors such that there tails coincide.

(ii) Draw parallel vectors to both of them considering both of them as sides of a parallelogram.

(iii) Then the diagonal drawn from the point where tails coincide represents the sum of two vectors,

with its tail at point of coincidence of the two vectors.

b

a

D a

C

b b b

(i) (ii) (iii)

b AC = a + b

a a A

a B

Note : AC = a + b and AC = b + a thus a + b = b + a [Cummutative Law]

Note : Angle between 2 vectors is the angle between their positive directions.

Suppose angle between these two vectors is θ, and | a |= a, | b |= b

C a

D

= (AB + BE)2 + (DE)2 b

b a+

= (a + b cos θ)2 + (b sin θ)2 θ α θ

A

2 2 2 2 2

= a + b cos θ + 2ab cos θ + b sin θ a B E

= a2 + b2 + 2ab cos θ

or | a + b |= a 2 + b 2 + 2ab cos θ

angle α with vector a is

DE b sin θ

tan α = =

AE (a + b cos θ)

Important points :

To a vector, only a vector of same type can be added that represents the same physical quantity and

the resultant

is also a vector of the same type.

i.e., θ = 0º, i.e. vectors are like or parallel and Rmax = A + B.

| A |=| B | and angle between them θ then R = 2A cos θ / 2

| A |=| B | and angle between them π – θ then R = 2 A sin θ / 2

The resultant will be minimum if, cos θ = min = – 1, i.e., θ = 180º, i.e. vectors are antiparallel and Rmin = A – B.

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 7

As previously mentioned that the resultant of two vectors can have any value from (A – B) to (A + B)

depending on the angle between them and the magnitude of resultant decreases as θ increases 0º to

180º.

Minimum number of unequal coplanar vectors whose sum can be zero is three.

The resultant of three non-coplanar vectors can never be zero, or minimum number of non coplanar

vectors whose sum can be zero is four.

5. SUBTRACTION OF VECTOR :

→ →

Negative of a vector say – A is a vector of the same magnitude as vector A but pointing in a

→

direction opposite to that of A .

→ → → → → → → →

Thus, A – B can be written as A + (– B ) or A – B is really the vector addition of A and – B .

→

A

→

–A

→ → → →

Suppose angle between two vectors A and B is θ. Then angle between A and – B will be 180° – θ as

shown in figure.

→

B 180° − θ →

α A

β

→ →

A –B → → →

S = A– B

(a)

(b)

→ → →

Magnitude of S = A – B will be thus given by

→ →

S = | A– B | = A 2 + B 2 + 2AB cos(180° – θ)

or S= A 2 + B 2 – 2 AB cos θ ...(i)

→

For direction of S we will either calculate angle α or β , where,

B sin(180° – θ) B sin θ

tanα = = ...(ii)

A + B cos(180 ° – θ) A – B cos θ

A sin(180° – θ) A sin θ

or tan β = = ...(iii)

B + A cos(180 ° – θ) B – A cos θ

Ex.3 Two vectors of 10 units & 5 units make an angle of 120° with each other. Find the magnitude &

angle of resultant with vector of 10 unit magnitude.

Sol. | a + b |= a 2 + b 2 + 2ab cos θ = 100 + 25 + 2 × 10 × 5(–1/ 2) = 5 3

5 sin120° 5 3 5 3 1

tan α = = = = ⇒ α = 30°

10 + 5 cos120° 20 – 5 5 × 3 3

[Here shows what is angle between both vectors = 120° and not 60°]

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Page # 8 VECTOR & CALCULUS

Note : A – B or B – A can also be found by making triangles as shown in figure. (a) and (b)

→ → → →

B B B –A

→ →

A–B

Or

→

A →

(a) (b) A

Ex.4 Two vectors of equal magnitude 2 are at an angle of 60° to each other find magnitude of their

sum & difference.

Sol. | a + b |= 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 × 2 × 2 cos 60° = 4 + 4 + 4 = 2 3

b

60°

a

| a − b |= 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 × 2 × 2 cos 120 ° = 4 + 4 − 4 = 2

b

60° a

120°

–b

→ → → →

Ex.5 Find A + B and A – B in the diagram shown in figure. Given A = 4 units and B = 3 units.

→

B

θ = 60°

→

A

Sol. Addition :

R= A 2 + B 2 + 2AB cos θ

B sin θ 3 sin 60°

tan α = = = 0.472

A + B cos θ 4 + 3 cos 60°

∴ α = tan–1(0.472) = 25.3°

→ → →

Thus, resultant of A and B is 37 units at angle 25.3° from A in the direction shown in figure.

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 9

α A

= 16 + 9 – 2 × 4 × 3 cos 60° = 13 units →

–B

B sin θ

and tan θ =

A – B cos θ

→ → →

3 sin 60° S = A– B

= = 1.04

4 – 3 cos 60°

∴ α = tan–1 (1.04) = 46.1°

→ → →

Thus, A – B is 13 units at 46.1° from A in the direction shown in figure.

Unit vector is a vector which has a unit magnitude and points in a particular direction. Any vector ( A )

can be written as the product of unit vector ( Â ) in that direction and magnitude of the given vector..

A

A = A Â or Â =

A

A unit vector has no dimensions and unit. Unit vectors along the positive x-, y-and z-axes of a

rectangular coordinate system are denoted by î, ĵ and k̂ respectively such that | î | = | ĵ | = | k̂ | = 1.

y

ˆj

î x

k̂

z

A vector of zero magnitude is called a zero or a null vector. Its direction is arbitrary.

Ex.6 A unit vector along East is defined as î . A force of 105 dynes acts west wards. Represent the

force in terms of î .

Sol. F = −10 5 î dynes

7. RESOLUTION OF VECTORS

If a and b be any two non-zero vectors in a plane with different directions and A be another vector

in the same plane. A can be expressed as a sum of two vectors-one obtained by multiplying a by a

real number and the other obtained by multiplying b by another real number..

A = λa + µb (where λ and µ are real numbers) → →

b A

We say that A has been resolved into two component vectors namely →

λ b

A = λa + µb (where λ and µ are real number) → →

a λ a

We say that A has been resolved into two component vectors namely

λa and µb

→ → → →

λ a and µ b along a and b respectively. Hence one can resolve a given vector into two component

vectors along a set of two vectors – all the three lie in the same plane.

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Page # 10 VECTOR & CALCULUS

It is convenient to resolve a general vector along axes of a

rectangular coordinate system using vectors of unit ĵ

magnitude, which we call as unit vectors. î, ĵ, k̂ are unit

O x

along x, y and z-axis as shown in figure below :

î

k̂

z

7.2 Resolution in two Dimension

Consider a vector A that lies in xy plane as shown in figure,

y

A = A1 + A 2

A 2 = A y ĵ →

A 1 = A x î, A 2 = A y ĵ ⇒ A = A x î + A y ĵ A

Ay = A sin θ

The quantities Ax and Ay are called x-and y-components

θ

of the vector A . x

A1 = A x î

Ax is itself not a vector but A x î is a vector and so it A y ĵ . A x = A cos θ

It's clear from above equation that a component of a vector can be positive, negative or zero

depending on the value of θ. A vector A can be specified in a plane by two ways :

(a) its magnitude A and the direction θ it makes with the x-axis; or

–1

Ay

(b) its components Ax and Ay A= A 2x + A 2y , θ = tan

Ax

y Bx

components of a vector perpendicular to itself is always Ax By

zero. The rectangular components of each vector and those

B

of the sum C = A + B are shown in figure. We saw that Ay A Cy

C

Cx

C = A + B is equivalent to both

Cx = Ax + Bx x

(a)

and Cy = Ay + By

Refer figure (b)

→

y

Vector R has been resolved in two axes x and y not

perpendicular to each other. Applying sine law in the triangle Ry

Ry R

shown, we have

β

R R Ry β

= x = α

sin[180° – ( α + β)] sin β sin α x

O Rx

(b)

R sin β R sin α

or Rx = and Ry =

sin(α + β) sin(α + β)

If α + β = 90°, Rx = R sin β and Ry = R sin α

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 11

Ex.7 Resolve the vector A = A x î + A y ĵ along an perpendicular to the line which make angle 60° with x-

axis.

y

Ay Aycos30°

Axcos60°

Aysin30° 30°

60° x

Sol. Ax x ⇒

(Axsin60° – Aysin30°)

Axsin60°

so the component along line = |Aycos30° + Axcos60°|

and perpendicular to line = |Axsin60° – Aysin30°|

Ex.8 Resolve a weight of 10 N in two directions which are parallel and perpendicular to a slope in-

clined at 30° to the horizontal

Sol. Component perpendicular to the plane

W⊥ = W cos 30°

W||

3 30° W⊥

= (10)

= 5 3 N Ans.

2

and component parallel to the plane W=10 N

30°

1

W|| =W sin 30° = (10) = 5 N

2

Ex.9 Resolve horizontally and vertically a force F = 8 N which makes an angle of 45° with the hori-

zontal.

F is Fv

1

FH = F cos 45° = (8) = 4 2 N

2 →

F

→

and vertical component of F is

45°

FH

1

Fv = F sin 45° = (8) = 4 2 N Ans.

2

8. PROCEDURE TO SOLVE THE VECTOR EQUATION

A = B + C ...(1)

(a) There are 6 variables in this equation which are following :

(1) Magnitude of A and its direction

(2) Magnitude of B and its direction

(3) Magnitude of C and its direction.

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Page # 12 VECTOR & CALCULUS

(b) We can solve this equation if we know the value of 4 variables [Note : two of them must be directions]

(c) If we know the two direction of any two vectors then we will put them on the same side and other on

the different side.

For example

If we know the directions of A and B and C' s direction is unknown then we make equation as

follows:-

C = A –B

(d) Then we make vector diagram according to the equation and resolve the vectors to know the

unknown values.

Ex.10 Find the net displacement of a particle from its starting point if it undergoes two sucessive

displacement given by S1 = 20m , 37° North of West, S 2 = 50m , 53° North of East

N S

S1 N y

50

S1 20 W x' x

θ =

Sol. 37° 53° E

W E

S y'

S

S = S1 + S2

Sx = S1 x + S2 x

Sy = S1 y + S2 y

= 14 = 52

Angle from west - east axis (x- axis)

Sy 52 26

tanθ = = =

Sx 14 7

26

θ = tan–1

7

Ex.11 Find magnitude of B and direction of A . If B makes angle 37° and C makes 53° with x axis and

A has magnitude equal to 10 and C has 5. (given A + B + C = 0 )

C

Sol. –A = C + B y'

A = Axi + Ay j 53° B

37°

x

⇒ – A = – A i + – A j

x y x'

y

Ay = –(B sin 37° + C cos 53°)

2 2

| A|2 = A x + A y

2 2

4 3 3 4

A2 = B × + C × + B × + C ×

5 5 5 5

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 13

2 2

4B 3B

102 = + 3 + + 4

5 5

16 2 9 2 3 × 4 4 × 3

⇒ 100 = B + B + 25 + 2 + B

25 25 5 5

2 48

⇒ B + B – 75 = 0

5

B = 5 (magnitude can not be negative)

& Angle made by A

20

⇒ Ax = –( + 3) = –12

5

15

Ay = –( + 4) = –7

5

Ay –7

tan θ = =

Ax –12

Ex.12 Find the magnitude of F1 and F2. If F1, F2 make angle 30° and 45° with F3 and magnitude of F3 is

10 N. (given F1 + F2 = F3 )

Sol. |F3 | = F1 cos 30°+F2 cos 45° F3

& F2 sin 45° = F1 sin 30°

F1

F2

3F1 F2 F2 F

⇒ 10 = + , = 1 45° 30°

2 2 2 2

20 20 2

⇒ F1 = & F2 =

3 +1 3 +1

9. SHORT - METHOD

A

C = A +B

α

Asinα β

B

Bsinβ

If their are two vectors A and B and their resultent make an anlge α with A and β with B .

then A sin α = β sin β

Means component of A perpendicular to resultant is equal in magnitude to the component of B

perpendicular to resultant.

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Page # 14 VECTOR & CALCULUS

Ex.13 If two vectors A and B make angle 30° and 45° with their B

resultant and B has magnitude equal to 10, then find

magnitude of A . 60°

30°

So B sin 60° = A sin 30° Bsin60° A

⇒ 10 sin 60° = A sin 30°

A sin 30°

⇒ A = 10 3

Ex.14 If A and B have angle between them equals to 60° and their resultant make, angle 45° with A

and A have magnitude equal to 10. Then Find magnitude of B .

Sol. here α = 45° and β = 60° – 45° = 15°

B C = A +B

so A sin α = B sin β

10 sin 45° = B sin 45°

10

So B = sin15° 60°

2

45°

A

10 1 – cos(2 × 15) 5

= = 2– 3

2 2 2

Suppose there are two vectors in component form. Then the addition and subtraction between these

two are

A = A x î + A y ĵ + A zk̂

B = B x î + B y ĵ + B zk̂

A ± B = ( A x ± B x ) î + ( A y ± B y ) ĵ + ( A z ± B z ) k̂

Also if we are having a third vector present in component form and this vector is added or subtracted

from the addition or subtraction of above two vectors then

C = C x î + C y ĵ + C z k̂

A ± B ± C = ( A x ± B x ± C x ) î + ( A y ± B y ± C y ) ĵ + ( A z ± B z ± C z ) k̂

Note : Modulus of vector A is given by

| A |= A 2x + A 2y + A 2z

→ →

Ex.15 Obtain the magnitude of 2 A – 3 B if

→ →

A = î + ĵ – 2k̂ and B = 2 î – ĵ + k̂

→ →

Sol. 2 A – 3 B = 2( î + ĵ – 2k̂ ) – 3(2 î – ĵ + k̂ )

→ →

∴ Magnitude of 2 A – 3 B = (–4)2 + (5)2 + (–7)2

= 16 + 25 + 49 = 90 Ans.

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 15

Ex.16 Find A + B and A – B if A make angle 37° with positive x-axis and B make angle 53° with negative

x-axis as shown and magnitude of A is 5 and of B is 10.

B A

for A + B

3 = A sin 37° 8 + 3 = 11

8 = B sin 53°

53°

+ =

–B cos 53° –(6–4) = –2

A cos 37° = 4 = –6

11

and have angle θ = tan –1 from negative x - axis towards up

2

for A – B

Bcos53°=6 (6+4) = 10

Asin37°=3 + =

53°

–8= –(8–3)

Acos37=4 –Bsin53° = –5

–B

= 10 2 + (–5) 2 = 5 5

5

and have angle θ = tan –1 from positive x-axis towards down.

10

The scalar product or dot product of any two vector A and B , B

denoted as A . B (read A dot B ) is defined as the product of θ

their magnitude with cosine of angle between them. Thus,

A

A.B = AB cos θ (here θ is the angle between the vectos)

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Page # 16 VECTOR & CALCULUS

Properties :

• It is always a scalar which is positive if angle between the vectors is acute (i.e.< 90°) and negative if

angle between them is obtuse (i.e., 90° < q ≤ 180°)

• It is commutative i.e. A.B = B.A

• It is distributive, i.e. A.(B + C) = A.B + A.C

–1 A.B

• As by definition A . B = AB cos θ . The angle between the vectors θ = cos

AB

• A.B = A(B cos θ) = B( A cos θ)

Geometrically, B cos θ is the projection of B onto A and vice versa

B B

θ θ B

A B cos θ A

A.B

Component of B along A = B cos θ = = Â .B (Projection of B on A )

A

θ

os

Ac

A.B

Component of A along B = A cos θ = = A.B̂ (Projection of A on B )

B θ

A

• Scalar product of two vectors will be maximum when cos θ = max = 1, i.e., θ = 0°,

i.e., vectors are parallel ⇒ ( A.B)max = AB

• If the scalar product of two non-zero vectors vanishes then the vectors are perpendicular.

• The scalar product of a vector by itself is termed as self dot product and is given by

( A )2 = A.A = AA cos θ = A2 ⇒ A = A.A

• In case of unit vector n̂ ,

A.B = ( î A x + ĵ A y + k̂A z ) . ( î B x + ĵ B y + k̂B z ) = [AxBx + AyBy + AzBz]

Ex.17 If the vectors P = a î + a ĵ + 3k̂ and Q = a î – 2 ĵ – k̂ are perpendicular to each other. Find the value of

a?

Sol. If vectors P and Q are perpendicular

⇒ P.Q = 0 ⇒ (a î + a ĵ + 3k̂ ).(a î – 2 ĵ – k̂ ) = 0

⇒ a2 – 2a – 3 = 0 ⇒ a2 – 3a + a – 3 = 0

⇒ a(a – 3) + 1 (a – 3 ) ⇒ a = –1, 3

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 17

A.B

Sol. Component of A along B is given by hence required component

B

(3 î + 4 ĵ ).( î + ĵ ) 7

= =

2 2

Ex.19 Find angle between A = 3 î + 4 ĵ and B = 12 î + 5 ĵ ?

A.B (3 î + 4 ĵ ).(12 î + 5 ĵ)

Sol. We have cos θ = AB =

3 2 + 4 2 12 2 + 5 2

36 + 20 56 56

cos θ = θ = cos–1 65

=

5 × 13 65

Ex.20 (i) For what value of m the vector A = 2 î + 3 ĵ – 6k̂ is perpendicular to B = 3 î – m ĵ + 6k̂

(ii) Find the component of vector A = 2 î + 3 ĵ along the direction of î + ĵ ?

5

Sol. (i) m = – 10 (ii)

2

Important Note :

Components of b along and perpendicular to a.

From ∆OMB, OB = OM + MB

⇒ b = OM + MB B

and perpendicular to a. b

Now OM = ( OM ) â = (OB cos θ) â

O

a M

= a . b / |a| . a/|a| = (a . b) a / |a|2

= (a . b) a / a2

2

MB = b – OM = b – (a . b / |a| ) . a

Hence, components of b along a perpendicular to a are.

(a . b/ |a|2) a and b – (a . b / |a|2) a respectively.

Ex.21 The velocity of a particle is given by v = 3 î + 2 ĵ + 3k̂ . Find the vector component of its velocity parallel

to the line l = î − ĵ + k̂ .

Sol. Component of v along l

ˆ v.l ˆ v. l

= v cos θl = v l = 2 l

vl l

(3 î + 2 ĵ + 3k̂ ) ( î − ĵ + k̂ ) 4

= = ( î − ĵ + k̂ )

| î − ĵ + k̂ |2 3

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Page # 18 VECTOR & CALCULUS

The vector product or cross product of any two vectors A and B , denoted as

A × B (read A cross B ) is defined as :

A × B = AB sin θn̂

Here θ is the angle between the vectors and the direction n̂ is given by the right - hand - thumb rule.

V = A× B

To find the direction of n̂ , draw the two vectors A and B with both the →

→

tails coinciding. Now place your stretched right palm perpendicular to the n B

plane of A and B in such a way that the fingers are along the vector A

θ

and when the fingers are closed they go towards B . The direction of the

→

thumb gives the direction of n̂ . A

Properties :

• Vector product of two vectors is always a vector perpendicular to the plane containing the two

vectors i.e. orthogonal to both the vectors → → → →

A and B , though the vectors A and B may or may not be

orthogonal.

→ → → →

• Vector product of two vectors is not commutative i.e. A × B ≠ B× A

→ → → →

But | A× B |=| B× A |= AB sin θ

• The vector product is distributive when the order of the vectors is strictly maintained i.e.

A × (B + C) = A × B + A × C

• The magnitude of vector product of two vectors will be maximum when sin θ = max = 1. i.e. θ = 90°

| A × B |max = AB

• The magnitude of vector product of two non-zero vectors will be minimum when |sinθ| = minimum = 0,

i.e., θ = 0° or 180° and | A × B |min = 0 i.e., if the vector product of two non-zero vectors vanishes, the

vectors are collinear.

• The self cross product i.e. product of a vector by itself vanishes i.e. is a null vector.

A × A = AA sin 0°n̂ = 0

• In case of unit vector n̂ , n̂ × n̂ = 0 ⇒ î × î = ĵ × ĵ = k̂ × k̂ = 0

î × ĵ = k̂ ĵ × k̂ = î k̂ × î = ĵ

j j

k

i

i

k

(A) (B)

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 19

î ĵ k̂

• In terms of components, A × B = A x Ay Az

Bx By Bz

A × B = î ( A yB z – A zB y ) + ĵ( A zB x – A xB z ) + k̂( A xB y – A yB x )

Ex.22 A is East wards and B is downwards. Find the direction of A × B ?

Sol. Applying right hand thumb rule we find that A × B is along North.

Ex.23 If A.B =| A × B | , find angle between A and B

Sol. A.B =| A × B | AB cos θ = AB sin θ tan θ = 1 ⇒ θ = 45°

A×B

⇒ n̂ =

Ex.24 A × B = AB sin θn̂ here n̂ is perpendicular to both A and B

AB sin θ

Ex.25 Find A × B if A = î – 2 ĵ + 4k̂ and B = 2 î – ĵ + 2k̂

î ĵ k̂

Sol. A × B = 1 – 2 4 = î (–4 – (–4)) – ĵ( 2 – 12) + k̂(–1 – (–6 )) = 10 ĵ + 5k̂

3 –1 2

Ex.26 (i) A is North-East and B is down wards, find the direction of A × B

(ii) Find B × A if A = 3 î – 2 ĵ + 6k̂ and B = î – ĵ + k̂

Ans. (i) North - West. (ii) – 4 î – 3 ĵ + k̂

Positin vector for a point is vector for which tail is origin & head is the given point itself.

Position vector of a point defines the position of the point w.r.t. the origin.

y

P( x , y )

r

O x

OP = r

r = x î + yĵ

13. DISPLACEMENT VECTOR :

Change in position vector of particle is Q(x2, y2)

known as displacement vector.

r2

OP = r1 = x1 î + y1 ĵ

P( x1, y 1 )

OQ = r2 = x 2 î + y 2 ĵ r1

PQ = r 2 − r1 = ( x 2 − x 1 ) î + ( y 2 – y 1 ) ĵ

Th us w e ca n r ep r es ent a vec to r i n sp a ce sta r ti ng fr o m ( x 1 , y 1 ) & end i n g a t

(x2, y2) as (x2 – x1) î + (y2 – y1) ĵ

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Page # 20 VECTOR & CALCULUS

CALCULUS

14. CONSTANTS : They are fixed real number which value does not change

Ex. 3, e, a, – 1, etc.

15. VARIABLE :

Somthing that is likly to vary, somthing that is subject to variation.

or

A quantity that can assume any of a set of value.

Types of variables.

(i) Independent variables : Indepedent variables is typically the variable being manipulated or change

(ii) dependent variables : The dependent variables is the object result of the independent variable

being manipulated.

Ex. y = x2

here y is dependent variable and x is independent variable

16. FUNCTION :

Function is a rule of relationship between two variables in which one is assumed to be dependent and

the other independent variable.

The temperatures at which water boils depends on the elevation above sea level (the boiling point

drops as you ascend). Here elevation above sea level is the independent & temperature is the dependent

variable.

The interest paid on a cash investment depends on the length of time the investment is held. Here time

is the independent and interest is the dependent variable.

In each case, the value of one variable quantity (dependent variable), which we might call y, depends

on the value of another variable quantity (independent variable), which we might call x. Since the

value of y is completely determined by the value of x, we say that y is a function of x and represent it

mathematically as y = f(x).

x f(x)

Input f Output

(Domain) (Range)

all possible values of independent variables (x) are called domain of function.

all possible values of dependent variable (y) are called Range of fucntion.

Think of function f as a kind machine that produces an output value f(x) in its range whenever we feed

it an input value x from its domain (figure).

When we study circles, we usualy call the area A and the radius r. Since area depends on radius, we

say that A is a function of r, A = f(r). The eauation A = πr2 is a rule that tells how to calculate a unique

(single) output value of A for each possible input value of the radius r.

A = f(x) = πr2. (Here the rule of relationship which describes the function may be described as square

& multiply by π)

if r=1 A=π

if r=2 A = 4π

if r=3 A = 9π

The set of all possible input values for the radius is called the domain of the function. The set of all

output values of the area is the range of the function.

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 21

1. By giving a formula such as y = x2 that uses a dependent variable y to denote the value of the

fucntion.

2. By giving a formula such as f(x) =x2 that defines a functions symbols f to name the function.

Strictly speaking, we should call the function f and not f(x).

y = sinx. Here the function is y since, x is the independent variable.

4 3

Ex.27 The volume V of ball (solid sphere) of radius r is given by the function V(r) = π(r )

3

The volume of a ball of radius 3m is ?

4

Sol. V(3) = π(3)3 = 36 πm3.

3

Ex.28 Suppose that the function F is defined for all real numbers r by the formula.

F(r) = 2 (r – 1) + 3.

Evaluate F at the input values 0, 2 x + 2, and F(2).

Sol. In each case we substitute the given input value for r into the formula for F:

F(0) = 2(0 – 1) + 3 = – 2 + 3 = 1

F(2) = 2(2 – 1) + 3 = 2 + 3 =5

F(x + 2) = 2 (x + 2 – 1) + 3 = 2x + 5

F(F(2)) = F(5) = 2(5 – 1) + 3 = 11

f(x) = x2 + 3, Find

f(0), f(1), f(x2), f(x + 1) and f(f(1))

Sol. f(0) = 02 + 3 =3

f(1) = 12 + 3 =4

f(x2) = (x2)2 + 3 = x4 + 4

f(x + 1) = (x + 1)2 + 3 = x2 + 2x + 4

f(f(1)) = f(4) = 42 + 3 = 19

17. DIFFERENTIATION

Finite difference :

The finite difference between two values of a physical is represented by ∆ notation.

For example :

Difference in two values of y is written as ∆y as given in the table below.

y1 50 99 99.5

∆y = y 2 – y 1 50 1 0.5

The infinitely small difference means very-very small difference. And this difference is represented by

'd' notation insted of '∆'.

For example infinitely small difference in the values of y is written as 'dy'

if y2 = 100 and y1 = 99.9999999999999.....

then dy = 0.00000000000000..........00001

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Definition of differentiation

Another name of differentiation is derivative. Suppose y is a function of x or y = f(x)

Differentiation of y with respect to x is denoted by sumbols f ′ (x)

dy

where f ′(x) = ; dx is very small change in x and dy is corresponding very small change in y..

dx

Notation : There are many ways to denote the derivative of function y = f(x), the most common

notations are these :

Nice and brief and does not name the

y′ "y prime"

independent variable

dy

" dy by dx" Names the variables and uses d for derivative

dx

df

dx

" df by dx" Emphasizes the function's name

f( x ) " d by dx of f "

dx operation performed on f.

Dx f " dx of f " A common operator notation

• One of Newton's notations, now common for time

y " y dot"

derivative i.e. dy/dt

Given an arbitrary function y = f(x) we calculate the average rate of change of y with respect to x

over the interval (x, x+ ∆x) by dividing the change in value of y, i.e., ∆y = f(x+ ∆x) – f(x), by length of

interval ∆x over which the change occurred.

The average rate of change of y with respect to x over the interval [x, x + ∆x]

∆y f ( x + ∆ x ) – f ( x )

= =

∆x ∆x

Geometrically

Q

y + ∆y

∆y QR

= = tan θ = Slope of the line PQ

∆x PR

∆y

∆y

In triangle QPR tan θ = P

∆x y θ

R

∆x

therefore we can say that average rate of change of y with

x x + ∆x

respect to x is equal to slope of the line joining P & Q.

∆y f ( x + ∆x ) – f ( x )

=

∆x ∆x

If the limit of this ratio exists as ∆x → 0, then it is called the derivative of given function f(x) and is

denoted as

dy f ( x + ∆x ) – f ( x )

f ' (x) = = lim

dx ∆x →0 ∆x

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The geometrical meaning of differentiation is very much useful in the analysis of graphs in physics. To

understand the geometrical meaning of derivatives we should have knowledge of secant and tangent

to a curve.

Secant : - A secant to a curve is a straight line, which intersects the curve at any two points.

y

q

Secant

x

Tangent :

A tangent is straight line, which touches the curve a particular point. Tangent is limiting case of secant

which intersects the curve at two overlapping point.

Q

In the figure - 1 shown, if value of ∆x is gradually reduced y + ∆y

then the point Q will move nearer to the point P. If the

process is continuously repeated (Figure-2) value of ∆x

will be infinitely small and secant PQ to the given curve will ∆y

become a tangent at point P.

y P θ R

Therefore ∆x

∆y dy x x + ∆x

= = tanθ

∆x → 0 ∆x dx

Figure-1

dy

we can say that differentiation of y with respect to x, i.e. is Q

dx

y + ∆y

equal to slope of the tangent at point P (x,y)

Q

dy Q ∆y

or tanθ =

dx y P θ R

(From fig-1 the average rate change of y from x to x + ∆x ∆x

Figure-2

The first rule of differentiation is that the derivative of every constant function is zero.

d

If c is constant, then c=0

dx

d 1

Ex.30

d

dx

(8 ) = 0 , − = 0 ,

dx 2

d

dx

( 3)= 0

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Page # 24 VECTOR & CALCULUS

d n

If n is a real number, then x = nx n−1

dx

To apply the power Rule, we subtract 1 from the original exponent (n) and multiply the result by n.

2 3 4

f x x x x …..

Ex.31 2 3

f' 1 2x 3x 4x …..

d 1 d −1 1 d 4 d 12

Ex.32 (i) = ( x ) = ( −1)x − 2 = − 2 (ii) 3 = 4 ( x −3 ) = 4 ( −3)x − 4 = − 4

dx x dx x dx x dx x

d 1/ 2 1 1

Ex.33 (a) ( x ) = x −1/ 2 =

dx 2 2 x

Function defined for x ≥ 0 derivative defined only for x > 0

d 1/ 5 1 −4 / 5

(b) (x ) = x

dx 5

Function defined for x ≥ 0 derivative not defined at x = 0

d du

If u is a differentiable function of x, and c is a constant, then (cu) = c

dx dx

d

In particular, if n is a positive integer, then (cx n ) = cn x n−1

dx

d

(3x 2 ) = 3 (2x ) = 6x

dx

says that if we rescale the graph of y = x2 by multiplying each y-coordinate by 3, then we

multiply the slope at each point by 3.

The derivative of the negative of a differentiable function is the negative of the function’s derivative.

Rule 3 with c = – 1 gives.

d d d d

( −u) = ( −1.u) = −1 . (u) = − (u)

dx dx dx dx

The derivative of the sum of two differentiable functions is the sum of their derivatives.

If u and v are differentiable functions of x, then their sum u + v is differentiable at every point where

u and v are both differentiable functions in their derivatives.

d d du dv du dv

(u − v ) = [u + ( −1) v ] = + ( −1) = −

dx dx dx dx dx dx

The sum Rule also extends to sums of more than two functions, as long as there are only finite

f u n c t i o n

1

, u2, ........ un are differentiable at x, then so if u1 + u2 + ....... + un, then

s i n t h e s u m . I f u

d du du du

(u1 + u 2 + ...... + un ) = 1 + 2 + ........ + n

dx dx dx dx

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4 2

Ex.36 (a) y = x4 + 12x (b) y = x3 + x – 5x + 1

3

dy d 4 d dy d 3 d 4 2 d d

= (x ) + (12 x ) = x + x − (5 x ) + (1)

dx dx dx dx dx dx 3 dx dx

4

= 4x3 + 12 = 3x2 + . 2x – 5 + 0

3

8

x−5 = 3x2 +

3

Notice that we can differentiate any polynomial term by term, the way we differentiated the polynomials

in above example.

d dv du

If u and v are differentiable at x, then if their product uv is considered, then (uv ) = u +v .

dx dx dx

The derivative of the product uv is u times the derivative of v plus v times the derivative of u. In prime

notation

(uv)’ = uv’ + vu’.

While the derivative of the sum of two functions is the sum of their derivatives, the derivative of the

product of two functions is not the product of their derivatives. For instance,

d d 2

(x . x) = ( x ) = 2x, while d ( x ). d ( x ) = 1.1 = 1 , which is wrong

dx dx dx dx

2

Ex.37 F i n d t h e d e r i v a t i v e s o f y = ( x + 1) (x3 + 3)

Sol. Using the product Rule with u = x2 + 1 and v = x3 + 3, we find

d

[( x 2 + 1)( x 3 + 3)] = (x2 + 1) (3x2) + (x3 + 3) (2x)

dx

= 3x4 + 3x2 + 2x4 + 6x = 5x4 + 3x2 + 6x

Example can be done as well (perhaps better) by multiplying out the original expression for y and

differentiating the resulting polynomial. We now check :

y = (x2 + 1) (x3 + 3) = x5 + x3 + 3x2 + 3

dy

= 5x4 + 3x2 + 6x

dx

This is in agreement with our first calculation.

There are times, however, when the product Rule must be used. In the following examples. We have

only numerical values to work with.

Ex.38 Let y = uv be the product of the functions u and v. Find y’(2) if u(2) = 3, u’(2) = – 4, v(2) = 1, and

v’(2) = 2.

Sol. From the Product Rule, in the form

y’ = (uv)’ = uv’ + vu’,

we have y’(2) = u(2) v’(2) + v(2) u’(2)

= (3) (2) + (1) (–4) = 6 – 4 = 2

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If u and v are differentiable at x, and v(x) ≠ 0, then the quotient u/v is differentiable at x,

du dv

v −u

d u dx dx

and =

dx v v2

Just as the derivative of the product of two differentiable functions is not the product of their

derivatives, the derivative of the quotient of two functions is not the quotient of their derivatives.

t2 − 1

Ex.39 Find the derivative of y =

t2 + 1

Sol. We apply the Quotient Rule with u = t2 – 1 and v = t2 + 1

dy ( t 2 + 1) 2t − ( t 2 − 1). 2t d u v( du / dt ) − u(dv / dt )

= As =

dt ( t 2 + 1)2 dt v v2

2t 3 + 2t − 2t 3 + 2t 4t

= =

2

( t + 1) 2

( t + 1)2

2

d

(sin x ) = cos x

dx

dy d

Ex.40 (a) y = x2 – sin x : = 2x − (sin x ) = 2x – cos x Difference Rule

dx dx

dy d

(b) y = x2 sin x : = x2 (sin x ) + 2x sin x Product Rule

dx dx

= x2cosx + 2x sinx

d

x. (sin x ) − sin x .1

sin x dy dx

(c) y = : = Quotient Rule

x dx x2

x cos x − sin x

=

x2

d

(cos x ) = − sin x

dx

Ex.41 (a) y = 5x + cos x Sum Rule

dy d d

= (5 x ) + (cos x ) = 5 – sin x

dx dx dx

(b) y = sin x cos x

dy d d

= sin x (cos x ) + cos x (sin x ) Product Rule

dx dx dx

= sin x(– sin x) + cos x (cos x)

= cos2 x – sin2 x = cos 2x

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Because sin x and cos x are differentiable functions of x, the related functions

sin x 1

tan x = ; sec x =

cos x cos x

cos x 1

cot x = ; cos ec x =

sin x sin x

are differentiable at every value of x at which they are defined. There derivatives, Calculated from the

Quotient Rule, are given by the following formulas.

d d

(tan x ) = sec 2 x ; (sec x ) = sec x tan x

dx dx

d d

(cot x ) = − cos ec 2 x ; (cos ec x ) = − cos ec x cot x

dx dx

Ex.42 Find dy / dx if y = tan x.

d d

cos x (sin x ) − sin x (cos x )

d d sin x dx dx

Sol. (tan x ) = =

dx dx cos x cos 2 x

cos x cos x − sin x( − sin x ) cos 2 x + sin 2 x 1

= 2

= 2

= = sec 2 x

cos x cos x cos 2 x

d d

Ex.43 (a) (3x + cot x) = 3 + (cot x) = 3 – cosec2 x

dx dx

d 2 d d

(b) dx sin x = dx (2 cosec x ) = 2 dx (cosec x )

= 2(– cosec x cot x) = – 2 cosec x cot x

d 1 d x

(loge x ) = , (e ) = e x

dx x dx

Ex.44 y = ex . loge (x)

dy d x d dy ex

= (e ). log( x ) + [log e ( x )] e x ⇒ = e x . loge ( x ) +

dx dx dx dx x

dy dy du

= .

dx du dx

It sometime helps to think about the Chain Rule the following way. If y = f (g(x)),

dy

= f’[g(x)] . g’(x)

dx

In words : To find dy/dx, differentiate the “outside” function f and leave the “inside” g(x) alone; then

multiply by the derivative of the inside.

We now know how to differntiate sin x and x2 – 4, but how do we differentiate a composite like

sin(x2 – 4)?

The answer is, with the Chain Rule, which says that the derivative of the composite of two differentiable

functions is the product of their derivatives evaluated at appropriate points. The Chain Rule is probably

the most widely used differentiation rule in mathematics. This section describes the rule and how to

use it. We begin with examples.

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Page # 28 VECTOR & CALCULUS

Ex.45 The function y = 6x – 10 = 2(3x – 5) is the composite of the functions y = 2u and u = 3x – 5. How

are the derivatives of these three functions related ?

dy

Sol. We have = 6 , dy = 2 , du = 3

dx du dx

dy dy du

Since 6 = 2 × 3 = .

dx du dx

dy dy du

Is it an accident that = . ?

dx du dx

If we think of the derivative as a rate of change, our intution allows us to see that this relationship is

reasonable. For y = f(u) and u = g(x), if y changes twice as fast as u and u changes three times as fast

as x, then we expect y to change six times as fast as x.

y = 9x4 + 6x2 + 1 = (3x2 + 1)2

is the composite y = u2 and u = 3x2 + 1. Calculating derivatives. We see that

dy du

. = 2u.6 x = 2 (3x2 + 1). 6x = 36x3 + 12 x

du dx

dy d

and = (9 x 4 + 6 x 2 + 1) = 36 x3 + 12 x

dx dx

dy du dy

Once again, . =

du dx dx

The derivative of the composite function f(g(x)) at x is the derivative of f at g(x) times the derivative of

g at x.

2

Sol. Here y = f(g(x)), where f(u) = u and u = g(x) = x + 1. Since the derivatives of f and g are

1

f ′ (u) = and g′(x) = 2x,

2 u

the Chain Rule gives

dy d 1 1 x

= f (g( x )) = f′ (g(x)).g′(x) = .g′(x) = . (2x) =

dx dx 2 g( x ) 2 x2 + 1 2

x +1

derivative of

outside the outside

d

Ex.48

sin( x 2 + x ) = cos( x 2 + x ).(2x + 1)

dx

Inside Inside derivative

left along of the inside

d 1

Ex.49 (a) (1 – x 2 )1/ 4 = (1 – x 2 ) – 3 / 4 (–2x ) u = 1 – x2 and n = 1/4

dx 4

(Function defined) on [–1, 1]

–x

= (derivative defined only on (–1, 1))

2(1 – x 2 )3 / 4

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 29

d d

(b) sin 2x = cos 2x 2x = cos 2x .2 = 2 cos 2x

dx dx

d d

(c) ( A sin( ωt + φ)) = A cos (ω t + φ) (ω t + φ ) = A cos (ω t + φ). ω = A ω cos (ω t + φ)

dt dt

d n du

* If u = nun –1

dx dx

d 1 d d

Ex.50 = (3 x – 2) –1 = – 1 (3x – 2)–2 (3 x – 2)

dx 3 x – 2 dx dx

3

= – 1 (3x – 2)–2 (3) = –

( 3 x – 2) 2

In part (d) we could also have found the derivation with the Quotient Rule.

d

Ex.51 (a) ( Ax + B)n

dx

du

Sol. Here u = Ax + B, =A

dx

d

∴ ( Ax + B )n = n( Ax + B)n –1.A

dx

d d 1

(b) sin( Ax + B) = cos( Ax + B).A (c) log(Ax + B) = .A

dx dx Ax + B

d d ( Ax +B )

(d) tan (Ax+B) = sec2 (Ax + B).A (e) e = e( Ax +B ) .A

dx dx

Note : These results are important

If f is differentiable function, then its derivative f' is also a function, so f' may have a derivative of its

own, denoted by ( f ' )' = f ' ' . This new function f'' is called the second derivative of because it is the

derivative of the derivative of f. Using Leibniz notation, we write the second derivative of y = f(x) as

d dy d2 y

=

dx dx dx 2

d d

Sol. Using the Product Rule, we have f '(x) = x (cos x) + cos x ( x ) = – x sin x + cos x

dx dx

To find f" (x) we differentiate f'(x) :

d d d d

f"(x) = (– x sin x + cos x ) = – x (sin x ) + sin x (–x) + (cos x)

dx dx dx dx

= – x cos x – sinx – sinx = – x cos x – 2 sin x

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Page # 30 VECTOR & CALCULUS

dy

is rate of change of 'y' with respect to 'x' :

dx

For examples :

dx

(i) v = this means velocity 'v' is rate of change of displacement 'x' with respect to time 't'

dt

dv

(ii) a = this means acceleration 'a' is rate of change of velocity 'v' with respect to time 't'.

dt

dp

(iii) F = this means force 'F' is rate of change of monentum 'p' with respect to time 't'.

dt

dL

(iv) τ = this means torque 'τ' is rate of change of angular momentum 'L' with respect to time 't'

dt

dW

(v) Power = this means power 'P' is rate of change of work 'W' with respect to time 't'

dt

π 2

Ex.53 The area A of a circle is related to its diameter by the equation A = D .

4

How fast is the area changing with respect to the diameter when the diameter is 10 m ?

Sol. The (instantaneous) rate of change of the area with respect to the diameter is

dA π πD

= 2D =

dD 4 2

When D =10m, the area is changing at rate (π/2) = 5π m2/m. This mean that a small change ∆D m in the

diameter would result in a changed of about 5p ∆D m2 in the area of the circle.

Physical Example :

Ex.54 Boyle's Law state that when a sample of gas is compressed at a constant temperature, the

product of the pressure and the volume remains constant : PV = C. Find the rate of change of

volume with respect to pressure.

dV C

Sol. =– 2

dP P

Ex.55 (a) Find the average rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius r as r

changed from

(i) 2 to 3 (ii) 2 to 2.5 (iii) 2 to 2.1

(b) Find the instantaneous rate of change when r = 2.

(c) Show that thre rate of change of the area of a circle with respect to its radius (at any r) is

equal to the circumference of the circle. Try to explain geometrically when this is true by drawing

a circle whose radius is increased by an amount ∆r. How can you approximate the resulting

change in area ∆A if ∆r is small ?

Sol. (a) (i) 5π (ii) 4.5 π (iii) 4.1 π

(b) 4 π

(c) ∆A ≈ 2 π r ∆r

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 31

y

Suppose a quantity y depends on another quantity x in a manner shown

in figure. It becomes maximum at x1 and minimum at x2. At these points

the tangent to the curve is parallel to the x-axis and hence its slope is

tan θ = 0. Thus, at a maxima or a minima slope

dy x

⇒ =0 x1 x2

dx

Maxima

Just before the maximum the slope is positive, at the maximum it

dy y

is zero and just after the maximum it is negative. Thus, decrease

dx

dy 3

at a maximum and hence the rate of change of is negative at θ2 2 4θ4

dx

d dy d dy θ11 5 θ5

a maximum i.e., < 0 at maximum. The quantity is slope = m1 = tan θ1

dx dx dx dx

m1 > m 2 >(m3 = 0) > m4 > m5

the rate of change of the slope. It is written x

O For maxima, as x increases

d2 y dy d2 y

as =0 <0 the slope decreases

2 . Conditions for maxima are : (a) dx (b)

dx dx 2

Minima

Similarly, at a minimum the slope changes from negative to

positive, y slope = m1 = tan θ1

m1 < m2 <(m3 = 0) < m 4 < m5

Hence with the increases of x. The slope is increasing

θ1

that means the rate of change of slope with respect to x is θ2 5 θ5

positive. 1 θ4

2 4

d dy 3 θ3 = 0

Hence >0

dx dx

O x

For minima, as x increases

dy d2 y slope increases

(a) =0 (b) >0

dx dx 2

Quite often it is known from the physical situation whether the quantity is a maximum or a minimum.

d2 y

The test on may then be omitted.

dx 2

Ex.56 Find maximum or minimum values of the functions :

(A) y = 25x2 + 5 – 10x (B) y = 9 – (x – 3)2

dy

Sol. (A) For maximum and minimum value, we can put =0

dx

dy 1

or = 50 x – 10 = 0 ∴ x =

dx 5

d2 y

Further, = 50

dx 2

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Page # 32 VECTOR & CALCULUS

d2 y 1 1

or 2 has positive value at x = . Therefore, y has minimum value at x = . Therefore, y has

dx 5 5

1 1

minimum value at x = . Substituting x = in given equation, we get

5 5

2

1 1

ymin = 25 + 5 – 10 = 4

5 5

(B) y = 9 – (x – 3)2 = 9 – x2 – 9 + 6x

or y = 6x – x2

dy

∴ = 6 – 2x

dx

dy

For minimum or maximum value of y we will substitute =0

dx

or 6 – 2x = 0

x= 3

d2 y

To check whether value of y is maximum or minimum at x = 3 we will have to check whether is

dx 2

positive or negative.

d2 y

= –2

dx 2

d2 y

or is negative at x = 3. Hence, value of y is maximum. This maximum value of y is,

dx 2

ymax = 9 – (3 – 3)2 = 9

22. INTEGRATION

Definitions :

A function F(x) is a antiderivative of a function f(x) if

F'(x) = f(x)

for all x in the domain of f. The set of all antiderivatives of f is the indefinite integral of f with respect

to x, denoted by

∫ f ( x) dx

The symbol ∫ is an integral sign. The function f is the integrand of the integral and x is the variable of

integration.

For example f(x) = x3 then f'(x) = 3x2

So the integral of 3x2 is x3

Similarly if f(x) = x3 + 4

there for general integral of 3x2 is x3 + c where c is a constant

One antiderivative F of a function f, the other antiderivatives of f differ from F by a constant. We

indicate this in integral notation in the following way :

∫ f ( x) dx = F( x) + C .....(i)

The constant C is the constant of integration or arbitrary constant, Equation (1) is read, "The indefinite

integral of f with respect to x is F(x) + C." When we find F(x) + C, we say that we have integrated f

and evaluated the integral.

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 33

Ex.57 Evaluate ∫ 2x dx

an antiderivative of 2x

Sol.

∫ 2x dx = x

2

+C

the arbitrary constant

The formula x + C generatres all the antiderivatives of the function 2x. The function x2 + 1, x2 – π, and

2

x2 + 2 are all antiderivatives of the function 2x, as you can check by differentiation.

Many of the indefinite integrals needed in scientific work are found by reversing derivative formulas.

Integral Formulas

Indefinite Integral Reversed derivated formula

x n+1 d x n+1

∫

n n

1. x dx = + C , n ≠ – 1, n rational dx n + 1 = x

n +1

d

∫ dx = ∫ 1dx = x + C (special case)

dx

(x) = 1

cos kx d cos kx

2. ∫ sin kx dx = – k

+C –

dx k

= sin kx

sin kx d sin kx

3. ∫ cos kxdx =

k

+C

dx k

= cos kx

d

∫ sec tan x = sec 2 x

2

4. xdx = tan x + C

dx

d

∫ cosec (– cot x ) = csc 2 x

2

5. xdx = – cot x + C

dx

d

6. ∫ sec x tan xdx = sec x + C dx

sec x = sec x tan x

d

7. ∫ cos ec x cot x dx = – cosec x + C dx

(– csc x ) = csc x cot x

(a) ∫ dx = x + c

x6

(b) ∫ x 5 dx =

6

+C Formula 1 with n = 5

1

∫ ∫

dx = x –1/ 2 dx = 2x1/ 2 + C = 2 x + C 1

(c) Formula 1 with n = –

x 2

– cos 2x

(d) ∫ sin 2x dx = 2

+C Formula 2 with k = 2

x 1 sin(1/ 2)x x 1

(e) ∫ cos 2 dx = ∫ cos 2 xdx = 1/ 2

+C = ∫ 2 sin 2 + C Formula 3 with k =

2

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Page # 34 VECTOR & CALCULUS

Reason : The derivative of the right-hand side is the integrand :

d

Check : ( x sin x + cos x + C) = x cos x + sin x – sin x + 0 = x cos x.

dx

Reason : The derivative of the right-hand side is not the integrand :

d

Check : ( x sin x + C) = x cos x + sin x + 0 ≠ x cos x

dx

• A function is an antiderivative of a constant multiple k of a function f if and only if it is k times an

antiderivative of f.

∫ kf ( x)dx = k ∫ f ( x) dx

5( x )n +1

Ex.60 ∫ ∫

5 x n dx = 5 x n dx =

n+1

+c

A function is an antiderivative of a sum or difference f ± g if and only if it is the sum or difference of an

antiderivative of f an antiderivative of g.

Ex.61 Term-by-term integration

∫ (x

2

Evaluate : − 2x + 5) dx

antideriva

tive

arbitrary constant

3

x

∫ ( x 2 − 2 x + 5 ) dx =

3

− x2 + 5x + C

If we do not recognize the antiderivative right away, we can generate it term by term with the sum

and difference Rule :

∫ (x ∫ ∫ ∫

2

− 2x + 5) dx = x 2 dx − 2xdx + 5dx

x3

= + C1 − x 2 + C 2 + 5 x + C 3

3

This formula is more complicated than it needs to be. If we combine C1, C2 and C3 into a single constant

C = C1 + C2 + C3, the formula simplifies to

x3

− x 2 + 5x + C

3

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 35

and still gives all the antiderivatives there are. For this reason we recommend that you go right to the

final form even if you elect to integrate term by term. Write

x3

∫ ∫

( x 2 − 2x + 5)dx = x 2 dx − 2 xdx + 5dx =∫ ∫ 3

− x 2 + 5x + C

Find the simplest antiderivative you can for each part add the constant at the end.

Ex.62 We can sometimes use trigonometric identities to transform integrals we do not know how to

evaluate into integrals. The inetgral formulas for sin2 x and cos2 x arise frequently in applications.

1 − cos 2x 1 − cos 2x

∫ sin ∫

2

(a) x dx = dx sin 2 x =

2 2

1 1 1

=

2 ∫

(1 − cos 2 x )dx =

2 ∫

dx −

2 ∫

cos 2x dx

x 1 sin 2x x sin 2x

+ − +C = − +C

2 2 2 2 4

1 + cos 2x 1 + cos 2x

∫ cos ∫

2

(b) x dx = dx cos 2 x =

2 2

x sin 2x

= + + C As in part (a), but with a sign change

2 4

ADDED TO EACH OF THESE INTEGRALS.

(ax + b )n +1 1

(a) ∫ (ax + b)n dx =

a(n + 1)

(provided n ≠ –1) + C (b) ∫ x dn = ln x + C

dx 1 1 ax

∫ a + bx = b ln(a + bx) + C ∫e

ax

(c) (d) dx = e +C

a

–1 1

(e) ∫ sin(ax + b) = a

cos(ax + b) + C ∫

(f) cos(ax + b ) =

a

sin(ax + b) + C

( 3 x + 2) 4 ( 3 x + 2) 4 2dx

Ex.63 (a) ∫ (3 x + 2)3 dx =

4×3

+C =

12

+C (b) ∫ x

= 2lnx + C

dx 1 dx 1

(c) ∫ 5 + 2x = 2 ln(5 + 2x) + C (d) ∫ 3 − 5x = − 5 ln(3 − 5x) + C

1

∫e ∫e

3x

(e) dx = e 3 x + C (f)

–x/2

dx = –2 e – x / 2 + C

3

1 1

(g) ∫ sin(3x + 5)dx = – 3 cos(3x + 5) + C (h) ∫ cos(2x − 5)dx = 2 sin(2x − 5) + C

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Page # 36 VECTOR & CALCULUS

b

Integral sign

∫

a

f ( x ) dx

Integral of f from a to b

∫ f ( x) dx = [g(x)]

b

a = g(b) − g(a)

a

4 4

Ex.64 ∫ –1 ∫

3dx = 3 dx = 3[ x ] 4–1 = 3 [4 – (–1)] = (3) (5) = 15

–1

π/2 π

∫ sin x dx = [– cos x] = – cos + cos (0) = – 0 + 1 = 1

π/2

0

0 2

a a 5 5 b b

x3 a3 x2 52 − 32 x5 / 2 2 5/2

∫ ∫ ∫x

2 3/2

Ex.65 (1) x dx = = (2) xdx = = =8 (3) dx = = b

0 3 0 3 3 2 3 2 0 5 / 2 0 5

Calculation Of Area Of A Curve.

f(x)

dx

a x b x

From graph shown in figure if we divide whole area in infinitely small strips of dx width.

b

So, the total area between the curve and x-axis = sum of area of all strips = ∫ f ( x)dx

a

Let f(x) ≥ 0 be continuous on [a,b]. The area of the region between the graph of f and the x-axis is

∫

A = f ( x )dx

a

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VECTOR & CALCULUS Page # 37

Evaluate xdx ∫

a

0 < a < b. y

b

Sol. We sketch the region under the curve y = x, a ≤ x ≤ b (figure) and y=x

see that it is a trapezoid with height (b – a) and bases a and b.

The value

b

of the integral is the area of this trapezoid : a b

a+b b2 a2

Thus

a

∫

xdx = (b – a ) •

2 =

2

–

2

a

0 a b x

5 2 2 a-b

( 5) (1)

∫

1

xdx =

2

–

2

=2 The region in Example

and so on.

and summation.

dp

dF =

dt

so imples = ∫ F.dt

Ex.67 If F = kt then find impulse at t = 3 sec.

f

so impulse will be area under f - t curve

3 3

t2

∫

I = kt dt = K

0 2 0

t

9k

⇒ I=

2

∫

w = f .dx

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